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Marys College of Catbalogan

Catbalogan City

Manuel L. Quezons Presidency

An Advantage or Disadvantage
to the Country?
A Term Paper in IT 3

Submitted by
ABANTAO, Joseph V.
BALANI, Keilsey D.
DOSAL, Kylie P.
LACBANES, Khasmer A.
ZOSA, Ricky Jake G.

Submitted to

August 8, 2016

Manuel L. Quezon served as president of the Commonwealth of the
Philippines from 1935 to 1944. Quezon was the first ever president to have
been elected through a national election and the first incumbent to secure a
re-election. He is also known as the Father of the National Language.
This term paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages or pros
and cons that were brought about by the presidency of Manuel L. Quezon in
the Republic of the Philippines.

Manuel Quezon was the first Filipino president of the Commonwealth of
the Philippines under American rule. He was president of the Philippines from
1935 to 1944. For advocating Filipino-language amendments to the 1935
Constitution, he is known as the Father of the National Language.
Resident Commissioner of the Philippine Islands who later became president
of the islands in 1935, a position he held until his death in exile in 1944.
He was educated in public schools. He studied law at the University of
Santo Tomas and served in the Philippine Army. After military service, he
turned to politics. Elected as a Resident Commissioner to the 61st Congress
(19091911), Quezon lobbied Congress for immediate independence for the
Philippines. He also advocated greater participation of Filipinos in the colonial


To find out more facts about our former President Manuel L. Quezon,
particularly his contribution to our country, we resort to legitimate online
sources such as the government web sites for the Presidential Museum and
We have listed all significant contribution and other facts that former
President Manuel L. Quezon has contributed to the Philippines.
There are movements to recognize Quezon as the real first President
of the Philippines since he was the first ever to have been elected by the
people through a national election.

Achievements and Significant Contributions to the Philippines


He approved Tagalog/Filipino as the national language of the Philippines
He approved laws favoring the farmers
Buenavista estate was acquired by the Commonwealth Government

because of a law he approved

A province, a city, a bridge and a university in Manila are named after him
He tried to secure a neutrality pact with the Japanese.
He was a bureaucrats worst nightmare.
He implemented Rice Share Tenancy Act.
He established the National Land Settlement Administration (NLSA)

was the first Senate president elected as President of the Philippines

was the first president elected through a national election
was the first president under the Commonwealth
created National Council of Education
initiated womens suffrage in the Philippines during the

Known Issues and Problems During His Incumbency (Disadvantages)

He was well-known to be an incorrigible playboy.

There was news that he paid MacArthur $500,000 for the freedom of the

By the early 1940s, thousands of tenants in Central Luzon were ejected
from their farmlands.

Other than the national heroes, perhaps no other figure in Philippine
history receives as much reverence as Manuel Quezon. Loved by his
supporters, criticized yet begrudgingly admired by his rivals, Quezon
undoubtedly stands as a Filipino leader of the highest caliber.
In 1907, he was elected to the first Philippine Assembly later became
the House of Representatives where he served as majority floor leader and
chairman of the committee on appropriations. From 1909 to 1916, he served
as one of the Philippines two resident commissioners to the U.S. House of
Representatives, lobbying for the passage of the Philippine Autonomy Act or
Jones Law.
Quezn returned to Manila in 1916 to be elected into the Philippine
Senate and later became Senate President, serving continuously until 1935
(19 years). He headed the first Independent Mission to the U.S.
Congress in 1919 and secured the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie
Independence Law in 1934. In 1922, Quezn became the leader of the
Nacionalista Party Alliance.

In 1935, Quezn won the Philippines first national presidential election

under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. He obtained nearly 68% of the
vote against his two main rivals, Emilio Aguinaldo and Gregorio Aglipay.
Quezn was inaugurated in November 1935. He is recognized as the second
President of the Philippines. However, in January 2008, House Representative
Rodolfo Valencia of Oriental Mindoro filed a bill seeking instead to declare
General Miguel Malvar as the second Philippine President, having directly
succeeded Aguinaldo in 1901.
Pledged to improve the lot of the Philippine working class and seeking
the inspiration from the social doctrines of Leo XIII and Pius XI, aside from the
authoritative treatises of the worlds leading sociologists, President Quezon
started a vigorous program of social justice, which he traduced into reality
through appropriate executive measures and legislation obtained from the
National Assembly. Thus, a court of Industrial Relations was established by
law to take cognizance disputes, under certain conditions, minimizing in this
wise the inconveniences of the strikes and lockouts. A minimum wage law
was enacted, as well as a law providing for a maximum of eight hours
daily work and a tenancy law for the Filipino farmers.
Another effective measure was the creation of the position of










Commonwealth Act No. 20 authorized Quezon to institute expropriation

proceedings and/or acquire large landed estates to re-sell them at nominal
cost and under easy terms to tenants thereon, thus enabling them to
possess a lot and a home of their own. It was by virtue of this law that the
Buenavista estate was acquired by the Commonwealth Government.
Quezon also launched a cooperative system of agriculture among the owners
of the subdivided estates in order to alleviate their situation and to provide
them greater earnings. In all these, Quezon showed an earnest desire to
follow the constitutional mandate on the promotion of social justice.

Upon the advent of the Commonwealth, the economic condition of our

nation was fortunately stable and promising. With foreign trade reaching a
peak of four hundred million pesos, the upward trend in business was
accentuated and assumed the aspect of a boom. Exports crops were
generally good and, with the exemption of tobacco, they were all in
excellent demand in foreign trade markets. Indeed, the value of the
Philippine exports reached an all high of 320,896,000 pesos, the highest
since 1929.
On the other hand, government revenues amounted to 76,675,000
pesos in 1936, as compared with the 1935 revenue of 65,000,000 pesos.
Even the government companies, with the exemption of the Manila Railroad,
managed to earn profits. Gold production increased about 37% and iron









Notwithstanding this prosperous situation, the government had to meet

certain economic problems besetting the country and which, if attended to,
might jeopardize the very prosperity then being enjoyed. For this purpose,
the National Economic Council was created by law. This body advised the
government in economic and financial questions, including promotion of
industries, diversification of crops and enterprises, tariffs, taxation, and
formulation of an economic program in the contemplation of the future
independent Republic of the Philippines.
Again, a law reorganized the National Development Company; the
National Rice and Corn Company (NARIC) was created by law and was given
a capital of four million pesos. Upon the recommendation of the National
Economic Council, agricultural colonies were established in the country,
especially in Koronadal, Malig, and other appropriate sites in Mindanao. The
government, moreover, offered facilities of every sort to encourage migration
and settlement in those places. The Agricultural and Industrial Bank was

established to aid small farmers with convenient loans on easy terms.

Attention was also devoted to soil survey, as well as to the proper disposition
of lands of the public domain. These steps and measures held much promise
for our economic welfare.
When the Commonwealth Government was established, President
Quezn implemented the Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933. The purpose of
this act was to regulate the share-tenancy contracts by establishing
minimum standards. Primarily, the Act provided for better tenant-landlord
relationship, a 5050 sharing of the crop, regulation of interest to 10% per
agricultural year, and a safeguard against arbitrary dismissal by the landlord.
However, because of one major flaw of this law, no petition for the Rice
Share Tenancy Act was ever presented. The major flaw of this law was that it
could be used only when the majority of municipal councils in a province
petitioned for it. Since landowners usually controlled such councils, no
province ever asked that the law be applied. Therefore, Quezn ordered that
the act be mandatory in all Central Luzon provinces. However, contracts
were good for only one year.
By simply refusing to renew their contract, landlords were able to eject
tenants. As a result, peasant organizations clamored in vain for a law that
would make the contract automatically renewable for as long as the tenants
fulfilled their obligations. In 1936, this Act was amended to get rid of its
loophole, but the landlords made its application relative and not absolute.
Consequently, it was never carried out in spite of its good intentions. In fact,
by 1939, thousands of peasants in Central Luzon were being threatened with
wholesale eviction. The desire of Quezn to placate both landlords and
tenants pleased either.
By the early 1940s, thousands of tenants in Central Luzon were ejected
from their farmlands and the rural conflict was more acute than ever. Indeed,

during the Commonwealth period, agrarian problems persisted. This

motivated the government to incorporate a cardinal principle on social
justice in the 1935 Constitution. Dictated by the social justice program of the
government, expropriation of landed estates and other landholdings
commenced. Likewise, the National Land Settlement Administration
(NLSA) began an orderly settlement of public agricultural lands. At the
outbreak of the Second World War, major settlement areas containing more
than 65,000 hectares were already established.
Turning his attention to the matter of education in the country,
President Quezn by virtue of Executive Order No. 19, dated February 19,
1936, created the National Council of Education, with Rafael Palma,
former President of the University of the Philippines, as its first chairman.
Funds retained from the early approved Residence Certificate Law were
devoted to the maintenance of the public schools all over the nation and the
opening of many more to meet the needs of the young people. Indeed, by
this time there were already 6,511 primary schools; 1,039 intermediate
schools; 133 secondary and special schools; and five junior colleges. The
total number of pupils enrolled was 1,262,353, who were placed under the
charge of 28,485 schools teachers That years appropriation for public
education amounted to 14,566,850 pesos. The private institutions of
learning, for their part, accommodated more than ninety seven thousand
students, thus considerably aiding the government in solving the annual
school crisis. To implement the pertinent constitutional provision, the Office
of Adult Education was likewise created.[8] Womens suffrage
President Quezn initiated womens suffrage in the Philippines
during the Commonwealth Era. As a result of the prolonged debate between
the proponents of womens suffrage and their opponents, the Constitution
finally provided that the issue be resolved by the women themselves in a
plebiscite. If no less than 300,000 of them were to affirmatively vote in favor

of the grant within two years, it would be deemed granted the countrys
women. Complying with this mandate, the government ordered a plebiscite
to be held for the purpose on April 3, 1937. Quezon broadcasting to his
countrymen in Manila, from Washington, D.C., April 5. For the first 25
minutes on air, Quezon discussedwomens suffrage and urged that the 10year independence program be limited to a shorter period, 4/5/1937.
Following a rather vigorous campaign, on the day of the plebiscite, the
turnout of female voters was impressive. The affirmative votes numbered
447,725, as against 44,307 who opposed the grant.
Another constitutional provision to be implemented by President
Quezns administration dealt with the question of The Philippines national
language. Following a years study, the Institute of the National Language
established on 1936 recommended that Tagalog be adopted as the
basis for the national language. The proposal was well received,
considering that the Director the first to be appointed at the time, Jaime
C. de Veyra, was an ethnic Visayan. On December 1937, Quezn issued a
proclamation approving the constitution made by the Institute and declaring
that the adoption of the national language would take place two years hence.
With the presidential approval, the Institute of National Language started to
work on a grammar and dictionary of the language.
In 1938, President Quezn enlarged the composition of the Council of
State through Executive Order No. 44. This highest of advisory bodies to the
President was henceforth to be composed of the President, Vice-President,
Senate President, House Speaker, Senate President pro tempore, House
Speaker pro tempore, Majority Floor leader of both chambers of Congress,
former Presidents of the Philippines, and some three to five prominent
Way back in his youth, Quezon already had the makings of a Don Juan.
It is said that sometime after he received his college degree in Manila and

went back to his hometown, he had a romance with the mistress of a local
priest with whom he had a quarrel with. During the same period, he also had
a dalliance with the girl with a Spanish civil guard officer whom he
subsequently assaulted, earning him prison time.
Even marriage could not supposedly extinguish his love for the
fairer sex. The late President Diosdado Macapagal recounted that while
working as a staff at Malacaang Palace, he would often hear Aurora
shouting and searching for his husband, not knowing that Quezon was with a
paramour onboard a yacht out to sea.
Quezon also joked that he used to have a moustache but had to shave
it because it tickled the girls too much.
One huge controversy that erupted during World War II involved
Quezon giving American general Douglas MacArthur $500,000. Although the
official statement said that it was in recognition of outstanding service to
the Commonwealth of the Philippines, much has been speculated as to the
real nature of the payment, as well as its significance.
Was it a bribe to allow Quezon to leave US or was it his way of
practicing utang na loob? Did the money influence MacArthur to liberate
the Philippines? Historians have been debating those points up until now.

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