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M. J. Lee, E. D. Courant,
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Upton, New York

C. Pellegrini,
Laboratori Nszionali di Frascati
Frascati, Rome, Italy

A. M. Sessler
Lawrence Radiation Laboratory
Berkeley, California

Introduction where en is a coupling constant and r/; is a polynomial

of nth degree in the variables (x, Px, z, Pz) with coeffi-
A small coupling perturbation in a synchrotron can cients which are functions of 8.
cause instability of the particle motionslas a beam is
being accelerated through a resonance. Such a reso- In this analysis, we treat the case of quadrupole
nance may occur whenever nlv 1 + n2v2 = n3, where “1, coupling so that
n2 and n3 are integers and vl and v2 are the ratios of
the frequencies of horizontal and vertical betatron oscil- 3en = 0, n# 2;
lations to the frequency of revolution. Recently, large (2)
growth of beam dimensions in the horizontal direction .YF2(x,z, B) = v1v2 xz cos e.
relative to the vertical direction has been observed2 in
the ZGS for some acceleration routes in which several
resonances were crossed. The experimental observa- The value of v1 is taken to be a constant, v2 is assumed
tion suggests that the damper used for the vertical beam to be a function of 8. As 0 increases from zero to its
instability may be responsible for this effect. maximum value emax, the resonance condition is satis-
fied for 0 =80, i.e.,
A study has been conducted to investigate theoreti-
cally the effects of vertical damping on the betatron vl+ v2( e,) = 1 . (3)
oscillations for particles passing through a resonance.
This report describes a calculation for a single-particle Consider a generating function

model and for the case of the VI + v2 = 1 resonance.
S1(x, +l,z, $,, 0) = + vlx2 tan 9, + X,(e)

The coordinates of the system are taken to be:

= horizontal (vertical) displacement from

[ 1
+ ; v2z2 tan e2 + X2(@) (4)

x(z) which effects the transformation between the sets of

the equilibrium orbit;
variablea (x,Px,z,Pz) and (Jl, Cpl, J2,+2). If we
choose %I(@) = - vi and x2(e) = - v2 then the trans-
Px(Pz) = canonically conjugate momentum of x(z).
formed Hamiltonian is of the form:
The equilibrium orbit is assumed to be in a horizontal
plane and the independent variable is chosen to be G+J1s 4, J2sqd, T
e=;, = 2~ Jm; cos (4” x1) c~~t+2+x2) cos e
where R is the average radius of the equilibrium orbit
and s is the particle position measured along the equi- + “2 J2 COS($~+ X2) sin((++2) . (5)
libr ium orbit. v2

In general, the Hamiltonian is of the form’ A second generating function

122 2
x(x,Px,z,Pz, “)=z
vlx +Px
S2(Jl, $1, J2s+,A3 =J1(‘i”,-~,)+ J2(‘k2-X2) (‘3)
transforms Gl into the form
+A v2z2+P2 + (1)
2 ( 2 z )C 5% ’
n=2 G2(JI, +,, J2, $,, 0) = 2~ Jm CO9 $Cos +2Cos 0

* + - J2 cos e2 sin $,+ vlJl+ v2J2
Work supported by the U.S. Atomic Energy v2

with the new variables defined by
cos 8 cos +1 cos +, - v1
Jl=+-(v~x2+P~), $I=tan-‘$,

(8) de2
x=-e y cog e cos qll cos +2 - v2
J2=$-(v;Z2+P;), ‘I;=t--‘$.

The equations of motion, as in all Hamiltonian systems, _- v2 + p cos 6, sin JJ (13)

2 *
are: (. “2 )
dJ1 ai;, d’1’I aG,
Numerical Calculation and Results
-3T=zq de=-qp
(9) The effect of vertical damping upon the betatron
dJ2 aG2 W2 aG, oscillations for particles passing through a VI + v2 = 1
-= -_-* coupling resonance has been studied’by integrating,
de q’ dB- aJ, stepwise, 3 Eqs. (13). In the calculation, we assume
v = 0.3, v varies linearly from 0.6 to 0.8 in one hun-
We now suggest that the effect of the damper used &ed revolu 9ions, and E = 0.04. The growths of JI and
for the vertical beam instability may be described by J2 are calculated as functions of 8 for various values of
adding a term proportional to i in the equation of motion p. Figure 1 shows the values of JI after 25, 50, 68 and
for the vertical direction, i.e., we consider a model in 100 revolutions for particles having initial values of JI,
which: J2, 91 and +2 as represented in Fig. 2. It has been
found that, in general, for particles having J (0) <
s?*(O), then JI(8) < Jhmy(ej so that the r;orlzontal
-= w of the beam may e c aracterlzed by the values
d0 -%- - Pi,
of Jlmax. Similar results are obtained for J2, as in-
(10) dicated in Figs. 3 and 4.
=- vi 2 -E v1v2 x cam e - pi,
To illustrate the growth of the beam, the values of
where p is a damping constant. Since Jlmax and J2ma.x as functions of v,(e) are plotted in
Fig. 5 for the case of /3=0.004. At resonance, v2 = 0.7.
dJ2 3J, . dJ, . It may be seen that except in the neighborhood of reso-
nance, J2max decreases with increasing v2(8) or 0 as
de=~z+.;?l’Zpz a consequence of having vertical damping. The values
of Jl msx, however, are relatively unaffected by damp-
and a similar relation holds for $ , we deduce that to ing . In the vicinity of resonance, both JImax and
first order in p the corresponding2changes in the equa- J2 max grow larger and reach their maximum values
tions of motion are given by: after crossing the resonance.

dJ2 dG, aJ, Figure 6 shows the final values and maximum
(11) values of JI and J2 as functions of the damping constant,
dB =qyap, 6. The growth of J2max is affected more by the values
and of p than that of Jlmax. In particular, for p = 0.005,
dq2 hG2 a’+, after 100 revolutions, Jlmax increases by a factor of 2,
(12) but J2max returns to its initial value.
-a =-aJ,-%q
Combining Eqs. (7), (9). (11) and (12), the equations of
motion for particles crossing a sum resonance in the We have shown that in a one-particle model, and
presence of vertical damping are found to be: for a linear sum resonance it is possible to obtain a
small growth of vertical beam dimensions relative to
that of the horizontal dimensions by having sufficient
-=- 2~ J”162J1J2 cos e sin $I cos e2 vertical damping. Whether the one-particle model of
de this paper is an adequate approximation to the n-body
problem of a beam,subject to a clearing electrode, has
not been studied. However, the interesting results
dJ2 obtained here, strongly motivate further study of this
-= - 2t- 4-i cos e cos ql sin $, point, especially as the calculation suggests the possi-
bility of generally controlling resonant beam growth by
means of damping electrodes.
+ -v2 J2 cos2 w
+2 -

References Zero Gradient Synchrotron, ” in Proc. 6th Interna-
tional Conference on High Energy Accelerators,
1. See, for example, G. K. Green and E. D. Courant, Cambridge, Mass. (1967); p. 423.
Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 44 (Springer-Verlag,
Berlin, Germany, 1959); p. 312. 3. R. W. Hamming, Numerical Methods for Scientists
and Engineers, (McGraw-Hill and Co., New York,
2. J. H. Martin, “Radial Beam Instabilities in the 1962); p. 212.

I 1212/\3
FIG. l--Particle coordinates (J1, $!Q) after 25, 50, 68
and 100 revolutions for mitral coordinate values FIG. 3--Particle coordinates after 25, 50, 68
represented in Fig. 2; VI = 0.3 and v 2 varies initial coordinate values
and 100 revolutions for(J2,G2)
linearly from 0.6 to 0.8 in 100 turns. represented in Fig. 4; v = 0.3 and v2 varies
linearly from 0.6 to 0.8 In 100 turns.


FIG. 2--Initial values of particle coordinates FIG, 4--Initial values of particle coordinates
(Jl, d’1,J2, ‘&I. (J1, $1, J2s$‘2,-

E q 0.04
E = 0.04
J I max (max) 3 - ‘.
I max (final)

0.6 0.7 OS 0.25

122285 0
-v*(8) - 00 0.001 0 002 0 003 0.004 0.005

FIG. 5--Growth of beam dimensions in crossing a linear iE%
sum resonance at v0 = 0.7 as characterized by
the values of JI m& and J2 max for the case of FIG. 6--Effects of damping upon the beam dimensions.
p = 0.004.