M. J. Lee, E. D. Courant,
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Upton, New York
C. Pellegrini,
Laboratori Nszionali di Frascati
Frascati, Rome, Italy
A. M. Sessler
Lawrence Radiation Laboratory
Berkeley, California
1
model and for the case of the VI + v2 = 1 resonance.
S1(x, +l,z, $,, 0) = + vlx2 tan 9, + X,(e)
[
Theory
“2
* +  J2 cos e2 sin $,+ vlJl+ v2J2
Work supported by the U.S. Atomic Energy v2
Commission.
(7)
176
with the new variables defined by
cos 8 cos +1 cos +,  v1
Jl=+(v~x2+P~), $I=tan‘$,
(8) de2
x=e y cog e cos qll cos +2  v2
d
J2=$(v;Z2+P;), ‘I;=t‘$.
dJ2 dG, aJ, Figure 6 shows the final values and maximum
(11) values of JI and J2 as functions of the damping constant,
dB =qyap, 6. The growth of J2max is affected more by the values
and of p than that of Jlmax. In particular, for p = 0.005,
dq2 hG2 a’+, after 100 revolutions, Jlmax increases by a factor of 2,
(12) but J2max returns to its initial value.
a =aJ,%q
summary
Combining Eqs. (7), (9). (11) and (12), the equations of
motion for particles crossing a sum resonance in the We have shown that in a oneparticle model, and
presence of vertical damping are found to be: for a linear sum resonance it is possible to obtain a
small growth of vertical beam dimensions relative to
that of the horizontal dimensions by having sufficient
&Tl
= 2~ J”162J1J2 cos e sin $I cos e2 vertical damping. Whether the oneparticle model of
de this paper is an adequate approximation to the nbody
problem of a beam,subject to a clearing electrode, has
not been studied. However, the interesting results
dJ2 obtained here, strongly motivate further study of this
=  2t 4i cos e cos ql sin $, point, especially as the calculation suggests the possi
de
bility of generally controlling resonant beam growth by
means of damping electrodes.
+ v2 J2 cos2 w
+2 
v2
177
References Zero Gradient Synchrotron, ” in Proc. 6th Interna
tional Conference on High Energy Accelerators,
1. See, for example, G. K. Green and E. D. Courant, Cambridge, Mass. (1967); p. 423.
Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 44 (SpringerVerlag,
Berlin, Germany, 1959); p. 312. 3. R. W. Hamming, Numerical Methods for Scientists
and Engineers, (McGrawHill and Co., New York,
2. J. H. Martin, “Radial Beam Instabilities in the 1962); p. 212.
I 1212/\3
FIG. lParticle coordinates (J1, $!Q) after 25, 50, 68
and 100 revolutions for mitral coordinate values FIG. 3Particle coordinates after 25, 50, 68
represented in Fig. 2; VI = 0.3 and v 2 varies initial coordinate values
and 100 revolutions for(J2,G2)
linearly from 0.6 to 0.8 in 100 turns. represented in Fig. 4; v = 0.3 and v2 varies
linearly from 0.6 to 0.8 In 100 turns.
1222A2
FIG. 2Initial values of particle coordinates FIG, 4Initial values of particle coordinates
(Jl, d’1,J2, ‘&I. (J1, $1, J2s$‘2,
178

E q 0.04
E = 0.04
.
‘\
J I max (max) 3  ‘.
.A
J
I max (final)
2
DAMPING CONSTANT p
FIG. 5Growth of beam dimensions in crossing a linear iE%
sum resonance at v0 = 0.7 as characterized by
the values of JI m& and J2 max for the case of FIG. 6Effects of damping upon the beam dimensions.
p = 0.004.
179
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