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SET A

Analogies 101 Plus


Set A
The examples below will introduce you to analogies. Each analogy consists of two pairs of words. Your job is to
make the second pair express a relationship between its two words that is as similar as possible to the
relationship between the words in the first pair. For instance, in the analogy

NIGHTTIME : MOON :: DAYTIME : ___________________________

the best word to place in the blank would be SUN, because the daytime sky is lit by the sun just as the nighttime
sky is lit by the moon.

Now fill the blanks in the analogies below with the most suitable word or pair of words from those that are listed
as choices.

1. MOTHER : SON :: FATHER : _____________________ 7. FOOT : SOCK :: HAND : ___________________________

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

child
parent
daughter
grandson
baby

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

shake
ring
mitten
shoe
fingers



2. ATTIC : BASEMENT :: MOUNTAIN : _______________ 8. SHORT : HEIGHT :: LIGHT : _______________________
a. hill
a. dark
b. ocean
b. weight
c. ski slope
c. heavy
d. valley
d. little
e. river
e. bright

3. COUNTRY : PRESIDENT :: SCHOOL : _____________ 9. GRASS : MOWER :: HAIR : _______________________
a. students
a. ribbons
b. teacher
b. comb
c. desk
c. brush
d. principal
d. shampoo
e. rules
e. scissors


4. BLACK : GRAY :: BROWN : _____________________ 10. BLUE JAY : BIRD :: ALLIGATOR : __________________
a. white
a. reptile
b. yellow
b. crocodile
c. pink
c. river
d. dark
d. animal
e. tan
e. dinosaur

5. PAST : FUTURE :: YESTERDAY : _________________ 11. MOVIE : TICKET :: PARTY : ________________________
a. now
a. balloons
b. tomorrow
b. guest
c. the day before
c. cake
d. after
d. invitation
e. New Year's Day
e. present


6. CARPENTER : HAMMER :: GARDENER : __________ 12. BIG : ENORMOUS :: HOT: _________________________
a. seeds
a. cold
b. soil
b. freezing
c. shovel
c. warm
d. garden
d. small
e.
flowers
e. sweltering




SET A




13. SUMMER : SUNBURN :: WINTER : ________________ 22. CASTLE : SHACK :: CROWN : ________________________
a. sledding
a. furry hood
b. snowstorm
b. torn shirt
c. skating
c. throne
d. frostbite
d. tattered cap
e. snowman
e. dirty socks


14. PLUMP : FAT :: PRETTY : ______________________ 23. HERD : COWS :: _________________________________
a. ugly
a. orchestra : musicians
b. thin
b. pupils : class
c. gorgeous
c. birthday party : children
d. diet
d. parking lot : cars
e. blond
e. theater : audience


15. MARSHMALLOW : ROAST :: EGG : _______________ 24. COLD : COOL :: _________________________________
a. dye
a. tall : short
b. fry
b. often : occasionally
c. scramble
c. warm : hot
d. eat
d. smart : brilliant
e. beat
e. neat : messy


16. SEW : CLOTH :: PAINT: _________________________ 25. CAR : GARAGE :: _______________________________
a. brush
a. lamp : lampshade
b. easel
b. bowl : cabinet
c. paper
c. bus : bus stop
d. painter
d. bookcase : book
e. watercolors
e. flower : garden


17. SEW : THREAD :: PAINT : _______________________ 26. SHEPHERD : SHEEP :: ____________________________
a. brush
a. hunter : deer
b. easel
b. lion : tamer
c. paper
c. zoo : zookeeper
d. painter
d. rancher : cattle
e. watercolors
e. fisherman : fish


18. SEW : NEEDLE :: PAINT : ______________________ 27. MAPLE : TREE :: _________________________________
a. brush
a. breakfast : meal
b. easel
b. flower : rose
c. paper
c. milk : lunch
d. painter
d. door : house
e. watercolors
e. branch : leaf


19. NORTH : UP :: WEST : __________________________ 28. CARRIAGE : AUTOMOBILE :: ______________________
a. down
a. horse : cart
b. left
b. candle : electric lamp
c. right
c. scissors : saw
d. east
d. comb : brush
e. compass
e. fork : hoe


20. LAKE : OCEAN :: ISLAND : ______________________ 29. SHOES : BOOTS :: _______________________________
a. river
a. blazer : parka
b. country
b. socks : skates
c. Hawaii
c. gloves : hat
d. continent
d. summer : winter
e. beach
e. shorts : sweatshirt


21. TREE : BRANCH :: PERSON : ____________________ 30. FOREST : TREE :: ________________________________
a. hair
a. sky : star
b. clothes
b. flock : goose
c. arm
c. children : class
d. feet
d. family : living room
e. story : book
e. skin

ANALOGY FORMATS


Here are some of the kinds of relationships which analogies may express. Make up a second pair to match the
first pair given in each example.

1.
ANTONYMS
expensive : cheap :: _________________________
2.

SYNONYMS

strong : sturdy :: __________________________________________

3.

PART : WHOLE

room : house :: _____________________________

4.

WHOLE : PART

staircase : step :: ____________________________

5.

TOOL : ITS ACTION

saw : cuts :: ________________________________

6.

TOOL USER : TOOL

doctor : stethoscope :: ________________________

7.

TOOL : OBJECT ITS USED WITH

hammer : nail :: ____________________________________________

8.

CATEGORY : EXAMPLE

furniture : table :: __________________________________________

9.

EFFECT : CAUSE

flood : rain :: ________________________________________________

10.

CAUSE : EFFECT

virus : disease :: _____________________________

11.

INCREASING INTENSITY

large : gigantic :: ___________________________________________

12.

DECREASING INTENSITY

wonderful : satisfactory :: _________________________________

13.

ACTION : THING ACTED UPON

kick : ball :: _________________________________________________

14.

ACTION : SUBJECT PERFORMING ACTION

sew : seamstress :: _______________________________________

15.

OBJECT OR PLACE : ITS USER

hotel : traveler :: _____________________________

16.
NOUN : CLOSELY RELATED ADJECTIVE
forest : shady :: ____________________________________________






Here are three important things to remember when you think about analogies:

PARTS OF SPEECH. If the words in the first pair express a noun : adjective or verb : noun or adjective :
adjective relationship (for instance), the second pair should show the same relationship between parts of
speech.

WORD ORDER. If the first pair expresses a tool user : tool relationship (for instance), the second pair must
express the same relationship in the same order (tool user first, tool second).

EXACTNESS. Sometimes two or more of the given choices would make fairly good sense in the blank. When
this happens, you should choose the word or pair of words that most exactly suits the relationship youre
expressing.

ANSWERS TO ANALOGIES 101 PLUS SET A:



1.
daughter
2.

valley

3.

principal

4.

tan

5.

tomorrow

6.

shovel

7.

mitten

8.

weight

9.

scissors

10.

reptile

11.

invitation

12.

sweltering

13.

frostbite

14.

gorgeous

15.

fry

16.

paper

17.

watercolors

18.

brush

19.

left

20.

continent

21.

arm

22.

tattered cap

23.

orchestra : musicians

24.

often : occasionally

25.

bowl : cabinet

26.

rancher : cattle

27.

breakfast : meal

28.

candle : electric lamp

29.

blazer : parka

30.

sky : star

Analogies 101 Plus


Detailed Answer Key
Set A

1.

MOTHER: SON :: FATHER : DAUGHTER


A SON is the child of opposite gender from a MOTHER. A DAUGHTER is the child of opposite gender from a FATHER.

CHILD is not the best answer because a CHILD is not the child of opposite gender from a FATHER.

PARENT is not the best answer because a PARENT is not the child of opposite gender from a FATHER.

GRANDSON is not the best answer because a GRANDSON is not the child of opposite gender from a FATHER.

BABY is not the best answer because a BABY is not the child of opposite gender from a father.

2.

ATTIC : BASEMENT:: MOUNTAIN : VALLEY


An ATTIC is the highest part a house and a BASEMENT is the lowest part of a house. A MOUNTAIN is a high point in the land
and a VALLEY is a low point in the land.

HILL is not the best answer because a HILL is not a low point in the land; a HILL is a smaller version of a
MOUNTAIN.

OCEAN is not the best answer because an OCEAN is not a low point in the land. An OCEAN is made of water.

SKI SLOPE is not the best answer because a SKI SLOPE is not a low point in the land. It is a trail from a high point to
a lower one.

RIVER is not the best answer because a RIVER is not a low point in the land. A RIVER is made of water.

3.

COUNTRY : PRESIDENT :: SCHOOL : PRINCIPAL


The PRESIDENT is the leader of a COUNTRY. The PRINCIPAL is the leader of a SCHOOL.

STUDENTS is not the best answer because STUDENTS are not the leader of a SCHOOL.

TEACHER is not the best answer because a TEACHER is not the leader of a SCHOOL. A TEACHER is the leader
of a class.

DESK is not the best answer because a DESK is not the leader of a SCHOOL.

RULES is not the best answer because RULES are not the leader of a SCHOOL.

4.

BLACK : GRAY :: BROWN : TAN


GRAY is a lighter shade of BLACK. TAN is a lighter shade of BROWN.

WHITE is not the best answer because WHITE is not a lighter shade of BROWN.

YELLOW is not the best answer because YELLOW is not a lighter shade of BROWN.

PINK is not the best answer because PINK is not a lighter shade of BROWN.

DARK is not the best answer because DARK is not a lighter shade of BROWN.

5.

PAST : FUTURE :: YESTERDAY : TOMORROW


This is an antonym analogy. The PAST happened before today; the FUTURE will happen after today. YESTERDAY happened
before today; TOMORROW will happen after today.

NOW is not the best answer because NOW will not happen after today.

THE DAY BEFORE is not the best answer because THE DAY BEFORE today and YESTERDAY are synonyms, not
antonyms.

AFTER is not the best answer because while AFTER may happen after today, it is not the opposite of YESTERDAY.
Also, PAST, FUTURE, YESTERDAY and TOMORROW are all nouns, while AFTER is an adverb.

NEW YEARS DAY is not the best answer because it is a specific day, while YESTERDAY is not a specific day.

6.

CARPENTER : HAMMER :: GARDENER : SHOVEL


This is a user : tool analogy. A HAMMER is a tool a CARPENTER uses. A SHOVEL is a tool a GARDENER uses.

SEEDS is not the best answer because SEEDS are not a tool a GARDENER uses.

SOIL is not the best answer because SOIL is not a tool a GARDENER uses.

GARDEN is not the best answer because GARDEN is not a tool a GARDENER uses.

FLOWERS is not the best answer because FLOWERS are not a tool a GARDENER uses.

7.

FOOT: SOCK :: HAND : MITTEN


A SOCK is an article of clothing worn on a FOOT. A MITTEN is an article of clothing worn on a HAND.

SHAKE is not the best answer because SHAKE is not an article of clothing.

RING is not the best answer because a RING is not an article of clothing.

SHOE is not the best answer because a SHOE is an article of clothing worn on a FOOT, not a HAND.

FINGER is not the best answer because a FINGER is not an article of clothing.

8.

SHORT: HEIGHT :: LIGHT : WEIGHT


This analogy is based on measurements. Someone or something that is SHORT has relatively little HEIGHT. Someone or
something that is LIGHT has relatively little WEIGHT. Also, each pair has the form adjective : noun.

DARK is not the best answer because the stem pair is related to measurement, not color or brightness.

HEAVY is not the best answer because someone or something that is LIGHT does not have relatively little HEAVY.
HEAVY is also an adjective, not a noun.

LITTLE is not the best answer because someone or something that is LIGHT does not have relatively little LITTLE.
LITTLE is also an adjective, not a noun.

BRIGHT is not the best answer because someone or something that is LIGHT does not have relatively little BRIGHT.
Bright is also an adjective, not a noun. In addition, BRIGHT is not related to measurement.

9.

GRASS : MOWER :: HAIR : SCISSORS


This is a reverse example of a tool : object its used on analogy. A MOWER is a tool used to cut GRASS. SCISSORS are a
tool used to cut HAIR.

RIBBONS is not the best answer because RIBBONS are not a tool used to cut hair.

COMB is not the best answer because a comb is not a tool used to cut hair.

BRUSH is not the best answer because a BRUSH is not a tool used to cut hair.

SHAMPOO is not the best answer because SHAMPOO is not a tool used to cut hair.

10.

BLUE JAY: BIRD :: ALLIGATOR : REPTILE


This is a category : type analogy. A BLUE JAY is a type of BIRD. An ALLIGATOR is a type of REPTILE.

CROCODILE is not the best answer because an ALLIGATOR is not a type of CROCODILE. They are both types of
reptiles.

RIVER is not the best answer because an ALLIGATOR is not a type of RIVER.

ANIMAL is not the best answer because ANIMAL is a category that is too broad; it includes both BIRD and REPTILE.

DINOSAUR is not the best answer because an ALLIGATOR is not a type of DINOSAUR.

11.

MOVIE : TICKET :: PARTY : INVITATION


A TICKET is an item that gives you permission to attend a MOVIE. An INVITATION is an item that gives you permission to
attend a party.

BALLOONS is not the best answer because BALLOONS do not give you permission to attend a PARTY.

GUEST is not the best answer because a GUEST does not give you permission to attend a PARTY.

CAKE is not the best answer because a CAKE does not give you permission to attend a PARTY.

PRESENT is not the best answer because a PRESENT does not give you permission to attend a PARTY.

12.

BIG : ENORMOUS :: HOT : SWELTERING


This analogy is based on increasing intensity. ENORMOUS means very BIG. SWELTERING means very HOT.

COLD is not the best answer because COLD does not mean very HOT. HOT and COLD are antonyms.

FREEZING is not the best answer because FREEZING does not mean very HOT. HOT and FREEZING are
antonyms.

WARM is not the best answer because WARM does not mean very HOT. WARM has less intensity than HOT.

SMALL is not the best answer because SMALL does not mean very hot.

13.

SUMMER : SUNBURN :: WINTER : FROSTBITE


If your skin is exposed for too long in the SUMMER, you can get a SUNBURN. If your skin is exposed for too long in the
WINTER, you can get FROSTBITE.

SLEDDING is not the best answer because SLEDDING is an activity, not something that happens to skin.

SNOWSTORM is not the best answer because a SNOWSTORM is winter weather, not something that happens to
skin.

SKATING is not the best answer because skating is an activity, not something that happens to skin.

SNOWMAN is not the best answer because a SNOWMAN is built with snow, not something that happens to skin.

14.

PLUMP : FAT :: PRETTY : GORGEOUS


This analogy is based on increasing intensity. FAT means very PLUMP. GORGEOUS means very PRETTY.

UGLY is not the best answer because UGLY does not mean very PRETTY. UGLY and PRETTY are antonyms.

THIN is not the best answer because THIN does not mean very PRETTY.

DIET is not the best answer because DIET does not mean very PRETTY.

BLOND is not the best answer because BLOND does not mean very PRETTY.

15.

MARSHMALLOW: ROAST :: EGG : FRY


When a MARSHMALLOW is ROASTED, it is cooked whole over a fire. When an EGG is FRIED, it is cooked whole over a fire.

DYE is not the best answer because when an EGG is DYED, it is not cooked whole over a fire.

SCRAMBLE is not the best answer because when an EGG is SCRAMBLED, it is beaten (not whole) before being
cooked.

EAT is not the best answer because the stem pair relationship is about cooking, not eating.

BEAT is not the best answer because when you BEAT an EGG, it is no longer whole and is not part of cooking.

16.

SEW : CLOTH :: PAINT : PAPER


This is an action: thing acted upon analogy. You SEW on CLOTH; you PAINT on PAPER. Also, CLOTH and PAPER are
consumable (i.e., single use) materials.

BRUSH is not the best answer because a BRUSH is a tool you use to PAINT and is reusable.

EASEL is not the best answer because an EASEL is a tool that holds the PAPER you paint on.

PAINTER is not the best answer because PAINT: PAINTER is a tool : user relationship.

WATERCOLORS is not the best answer because WATERCOLORS are a type of PAINT. In this analogy, PAINT is
used as a verb, not a noun.

17.

SEW : THREAD :: PAINT : WATERCOLORS


THREAD is a material used when you SEW. WATERCOLORS are a material used to when you PAINT.

BRUSH is not the best answer because a BRUSH is a tool used when you paint, not a material.

EASEL is not the best answer because an EASEL is a tool used when you paint, not a material.

PAPER is not the best answer because although you PAINT on PAPER, whereas you SEW with THREAD and PAINT
with WATERCOLORS.

PAINTER is not the best answer because a PAINTER is not a material used when you PAINT.

18.

SEW : NEEDLE :: PAINT : BRUSH


A NEEDLE is a tool used by your hand to SEW. A BRUSH is a tool used by your hand to PAINT.

EASEL is not the best answer because an EASEL is not a tool used by your hand.

PAPER is not the best answer because PAPER is not a tool used by your hand. PAPER is a material.

PAINTER is not the best answer because a PAINTER is not a tool used by your hand.

WATERCOLORS is not the best answer because WATERCOLORS are not a tool used by your hand.
WATERCOLORS are a material.

19.

NORTH : UP :: WEST : LEFT


On a compass, the needle points UP for NORTH and LEFT for WEST.

DOWN is not the best answer because the needle on a compass points DOWN for south, not WEST.

RIGHT is not the best answer because the needle on a compass points RIGHT for east, not WEST.

EAST is not the best answer because EAST is the opposite of WEST on a compass.

COMPASS is not the best answer because it is the tool to determine direction and all the other terms are directions.

20.

LAKE : OCEAN :: ISLAND : CONTINENT


This is an analogy based on increasing size. An OCEAN is a larger body of water than a LAKE. A CONTINENT is a larger
expanse of land than an ISLAND.

RIVER is not the best answer because it is a waterway, not an expanse of land.

COUNTRY is not the best answer because COUNTRY is a political designation, not an expanse of land.

HAWAII is not the best answer because it names a specific ISLAND, but OCEAN does not name a specific LAKE.

BEACH is not the best answer because a BEACH can be part of an ISLAND, not a larger expanse of land.

21.

TREE : BRANCH :: PERSON : ARM


This is a whole : part analogy. A BRANCH is a part of a TREE as an ARM is part of a PERSON. More specifically, a BRANCH
is a TREE limb and an ARM is a PERSONS limb.

HAIR is not the best answer because HAIR is not a limb.

CLOTHES is not the best answer because CLOTHES are not part of a person.

FEET is not the best answer because FEET are not limbs.

SKIN is not the best answer because SKIN is not a limb.

22.

CASTLE : SHACK :: CROWN : TATTERED CAP


This is an analogy based on decreasing intensity. A CASTLE is a mansion where a king might live, whereas a SHACK is a
small, shabby place to live. A CROWN is something a king might wear on his head; a TATTERED CAP is something shabby
you might wear on your head.

FURRY HOOD is not the best answer because it is not something shabby you wear on your head.

TORN SHIRT is not the best answer because it is shabby but not worn on your head.

THRONE is not the best answer because it is neither shabby nor something you wear on your head.

DIRTY SOCKS is not the best answer because they are not worn on your head.

23.

HERD : COWS :: ORCHESTRA : MUSICIANS


This is a whole : part analogy. A HERD is made up of many COWS; in the same way, an ORCHESTRA is made up of many
MUSICIANS.

PUPIL : CLASS is not the best answer because a PUPIL is not made up of a CLASS. Rather, CLASS : PUPIL would
fit the analogy.

BIRTHDAY PARTY : CHILDREN is not the best answer because a BIRTHDAY PARTY is not necessarily made up of
CHILDREN. Children may be at a birthday party, but the party could also include adults.

PARKING LOT : CARS is not the best answer because a PARKING LOT is made up of of parking spaces, not CARS
(e.g., an empty PARKING LOT without CARS is still a PARKING LOT).

THEATRE : AUDIENCE is not the best answer because a THEATRE is not made up of a group of AUDIENCES.
THEATRE does not name a group of anything.

24.

COLD : COOL :: OFTEN : OCCASIONALLY


This is an analogy based on decreasing intensity. COOL is less COLD as OCCASIONALLY is less OFTEN.

TALL : SHORT is not the best answer because TALL and SHORT are antonyms, not decreasing in intensity.

WARM : HOT is not the best answer because HOT is not less WARM. Rather, HOT : WARM would fit the analogy
because WARM is less HOT.

SMART : BRILLIANT is not the best answer because BRILLIANT is not less SMART. Rather, BRILLIANT : SMART
would fit the analogy.

NEAT : MESSY is not the best answer because NEAT and MESSY are antonyms.

25.

CAR : GARAGE :: BOWL : CABINET


A GARAGE is a place used to store a CAR. A CABINET is a place used to store a BOWL.

LAMP : LAMPSHADE is not the best answer because a LAMPSHADE is not a place used to store a LAMP.

BUS : BUS STOP is not the best answer because a BUS STOP is not a place used to store a BUS.

BOOKCASE : BOOK is not the best answer because a BOOK is not a place used to store a BOOKCASE. Rather,
BOOK : BOOKCASE would fit the analogy.

FLOWER : GARDEN is not the best answer because a GARDEN is not a place used to store a FLOWER.

26.

SHEPHERD : SHEEP :: RANCHER : CATTLE


A SHEPHERDS job is to tend (care for) SHEEP as a RANCHERS job is to tend (care for) CATTLE.

HUNTER : DEER is not the best answer because a HUNTERS job is not to tend DEER. A HUNTER hunts DEER.

LION : TAMER is not the best answer because a LIONS job is not to tend aTAMER.

ZOO : ZOOKEEPER is not the best answer because a ZOO does not tend a ZOOKEEPER. Rather, a ZOOKEEPER
tends a ZOO.

FISHERMAN : FISH is not the best answer because a FISHERMANS job is not to tend FISH. A FISHERMANS job is
to catch FISH.

27.

MAPLE : TREE :: BREAKFAST : MEAL


This is a type : category analogy. MAPLE is a type of TREE as BREAKFAST is a type of MEAL.

FLOWER : ROSE is not the best answer because a FLOWER is not a type of ROSE. Rather, ROSE : FLOWER would
fit the analogy.

MILK : LUNCH is not the best answer because MILK is not a type of LUNCH. MILK can be a part of LUNCH.

DOOR : HOUSE is not the best answer because DOOR is not a type of HOUSE. A DOOR is a part of a HOUSE.

BRANCH : LEAF is not the best answer because BRANCH is not a type of leaf. A LEAF could be part of a BRANCH.

28.

CARRIAGE : AUTOMOBILE :: CANDLE : ELECTRIC LAMP


This analogy has to do with time. Long ago, people traveled by CARRIAGE; nowadays, people travel by AUTOMOBILE. Long
ago, people used candles for light; nowadays, people use electric lamps for light. The second word is a mechanized version of
the first word.

HORSE : CART is not the best answer because a CART is not a mechanized version of a HORSE.

SCISSORS : SAW is not the best answer because a SAW is not a mechanized version of SCISSORS.

COMB : BRUSH is not the best answer because a BRUSH is not a mechanized version of a COMB.

FORK : HOE is not the best answer because a HOE is not a mechanized version of a FORK.

29.

SHOES : BOOTS :: BLAZER : PARKA


SHOES and BOOTS are both types of footwear, as BLAZER and PARKA are both types of coats. In each pair, the items are
worn on the same part of the body. Also, BOOTS are footwear you might wear when it is cold, and PARKA is a coat you might
wear when it is cold.

SOCKS : SKATES is not the best answer because SKATES are footwear but SOCKS are clothing.

GLOVES : HAT is not the best answer because HATS and GLOVES are worn on different parts of the body.

SUMMER : WINTER is not the best answer because although they are both seasons (same category), they are not
items worn by a person.

SHORTS : SWEATSHIRT is not the best answer because although SWEATSHIRTS and SHORTS are both types
of clothing, they are worn on different parts of the body.

30.

FOREST : TREE :: SKY : STAR


There are many TREES in a FOREST, as there are many STARS in the SKY. FOREST and SKY are places, and TREE and
STAR are things in those places.

FLOCK : GOOSE is not the best answer because although there are many GEESE in a FLOCK, FLOCK is the name
for a group of GEESE, not a place that has many GEESE.

CHILDREN : CLASSES is not the best answer because the words are in the wrong order; there are many CHILDREN
in CLASSES, but not many CLASSES in CHILDREN.

FAMILY : LIVING ROOM is not the best answer because there are not many LIVING ROOMS in a FAMILY.

STORY : BOOKS is not the best answer because there are not many BOOKS in a STORY.