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1) State three responsibilities and attributes all senior welding inspectors should possess
1) Planning: - He is to plan the work i.e. type of inspection and at what times communication with
supervisor, and other department / disciplines etc.
2) Organizing:- Allocation of duties, specifying area of responsibilities
3) Documentation: - To check if plan and inspectors are functioning correctly and take remedial
steps if not.
1) Job knowledge
2) Honest and sincere to work
3) To delegate the work
4) Understanding of problems
5) Discipline and decisiveness of problems
6) Interpersonal relationship
2) Briefly describe two methods by which the quality control department can control the level of
Quality control department can control the quality of work by implementing the inspection
procedures, during fabrication process at every stage, inspection test plan
Quality control department should engage well trained experienced qualified personal to perform
their duties. Selection of person is very important to perform the assigned duties.
3) A fabricated product is required to be made with increased toughness. Out line the
QA/QC and inspection requirements which must be under taken in order to attain this
To increase the toughness of the fabricated part,
1) The inspection should verify the mechanical and chemical properties of the material from
the laboratory reports, material selection
2) The test result should be compared with the values given, the material specification should
conform that the material to be for fabrication shall meet the quality requirements
3) Use of suitable filler materials with alloying content which shall increase the toughness.
Welding parameters in which higher heat input and travel speed so that there will be certain
increase in the toughness values. The material shall be tested for NDT to ensure the
material is defect free
4) A product being made to a pressure vessel code has a QC requirement that defects should be
limited to 80% of the stated values, but the defects between 80% to 100% values should be
referred to QC for approval. Give your appreciation of the reason for this
5) During an audit no material mill certificate was found. How would you proceed?
If MTC is not available ask the supplier to provide it. If it is not available with supplier then the
material should be sent to lab for verifying its chemical and mechanical properties.
6) Why is it desirable to seal in a lamination which found to break during an edge preparation?
Lamination is to be seal welded prior to welding because these areas will open up during welding
due to the heat produced while welding.
7) Describe two method of producing approval procedures
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1) By using pre qualified procedures

2) By establishing a procedure
3) By doing mock up or by trial and error method.
8) In welder approval test should the procedure be explained to the welder?
No, it is not necessary
9) What is the difference between a welding procedure approval and welder qualification test?
The welding procedure approval test is carried out by a competent welder and the quality of the
weld is assessed using non-destructive and mechanical testing techniques. The intension is to
demonstrate that the proposed welding procedure will produce a welded joint which will satisfy
the specified requirements of weld quality and mechanical properties.
Procedure provides guidelines to the welder in order to produce the sound weld for the given joint
Welder approval test examines a welder skill and ability in producing a satisfactory test weld. The
test may be performed with or with out a qualified procedure, (note, without an approved welding
procedure the welding parameter should be recorded). Welder approval must be done prior to start
the welding on the production site. Welder should be qualified to do the task
10) What dose a procedure consist of?
1) Essential variables
A change in welding parameters which effect the mechanical properties of a weld are called
essential variables. E.g. process, type of material, electrode, flux, shielding gas, preheating,
PWHT, current and voltage etc.,
2) Non essential variables
A change in welding parameters which will not affect the mechanical properties of the weld
metal, are called non essential variables e.g. Groove angle, method of cleaning etc.
3) Supplementary variables.
The welding procedure shall be attached with PQR to show the evidence that the procedure
meets the mechanical properties described by the code specification.
11) Give typical extent of approval for a) thickness b) diameter c) process
a) Thickness when welder is qualified on thickness T he is qualified to weld two
times of the thickness (2T)
b) Diameter when welder is qualified to weld on diameter D he is qualified to weld
the pipe size OD/2 and above
c) Process when qualified in a particular process, he is qualified to weld only on that
particular process using thickness parameters that are qualified
12) State the objective of 1) reduced transverse tensile test 2) radius reduced transverse tensile
1) A reduced transverse tensile test specimen assesses the tensile the joint
2) A radius reduced transverse tensile test specimen assesses the tensile strength of the weld
13) What is the purpose of 1) A all weld tensile test 2) a radius reduce tensile test
1) An all weld tensile test is to measure the tensile strength of electrodes / flux combinations
and quality of the weld metal as deposited.
2) A radius reduced tensile specimen assesses the tensile strength of the weld metal.
14) What feature of steel determines its weld ability?
Carbon content Carbon equivalent
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15) State three factor which contribute to or control the mechanical properties of wrought steel?
Wrought steel gain much refinement during the hot/cold working and many defects are also
removed. This improvement is marked in the rolling direction but it usually results in a loss of
strength through the thickness
16) What is the metallurgical production cause of lamellar tearing?
Due to presence on inclusions of sulphur, phosphor, and higher percent of carbon
17) Dose a wrought plate contain residual stresses due to manufacture?
18) Give the composition of tool steel?
High carbon steel-0.8% C, 0.9% Mn + Residuals
19) If a bend test failure has occurred what would be your course of action?
Set aside the piece, take one more test piece and repeat the test. Assess the failure, whether the
failure is within the weld metal, weld junction or in the HAZ. A retest is very much needed in
cause of failure
20) In an Organization which has departments of production and design, engineering, how may the
function of inspection, quality control and quality assurance be organized?
1) Quality control inspection: - Observe, measure, report, advice and verify.
2) Quality control department: - Give requirements, acceptance levels, codes and procedures
which shall be followed
3) Quality assurance: - Set objects, cost, quality level requirements
21) Calculate the following for a transverse tensile test, a) Yield stress b) % of elongation, if the
maximum load applied at failure is 400 kilonewtons. While extension at the failure was 5mm
on an original length of 20mm, given the specimen size is 100mm X 100mm in cross section.
Yield stress = Load / original area
= 400.000/100*100
= 10kn
% elongation = (Final length Original length) / Original length
= (25 20) / 20
= 25%
22) Can a non approved welder be employed to perform a welding procedure
test? YES.
23) In which steel can it be expected that hydrogen induced cracking is found in the weld metal if
present at all? High Strength Mn steel.
24) State four mechanisms of cracking, which may be found in the weld metal of ferritic steel weld
1) Hydrogen induced cracking
2) Solidification cracking
3) Solidified pipe or void
4) Re heat cracking
25) State Six methods of procedure for avoiding solidification or center line cracking.
1) Add manganese to base metal
2) Increase metal
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Reduce welding speed

Reduce amount of parent metal melting by welder technique and reduce amps
Use 1/3 2/3 joint preparation
Use cooling bar
Reduce restrain
Use soft weld metal
Use clean metal

26) State three methods of procedures for avoiding solidification pipe in weld metal.
1) Correct depth to width ratio (open V groove)
2) Correct bead shape
3) Correct surface chilling effect due to
a) No slag cover process
b) Gas not heated
c) Flow rate too high
27) Explain the quality of the parent plate may affect the incidence of weld metal cracking?
28) State the four factors which give the hydrogen cracking and suggest how control can be
1) Stress, 2) Hardness, 3) Temperature thickness
1) Minimise stress by 1) Presetting 2) Back stitch welding 3) Stringer bead, Joint design
(Double side joint), reduce restraining (J preparation lower induced angle)
2) Minimise hardness by Lower C>E. Limit heat input to 1.7kg /m / ml (avoid grain
enlargement), use BS5135 for preheat
3) Minimise hydrogen presence in three ways
1) Removal by a combination of preheats Heat input (inter pass temp.) and PWHT (electric
not flame).
2) Prevent entry by selection of process, consumable control, surface cleanliness, Welding
techniques (short arc)
3) Making hydrogen acceptable by control of formation of microstructure. Use an austenitic
or nickel weld metal
29) Why are austenitic SS electrode sometimes specified for the welding of steel which might be
subject to hydrogen cracking
Austenitic stainless steel weld can absorb more hydrogen than carbon steel
30) In what ways does the thickness of the metal influence hydrogen cracking?
Increase the rate of cooling, large volume of hydrogen, greater stress.
31) In what steel group is PWHT almost always used?
Group 4 High carbon steel.
32) Of the high carbon no alloy, the carbon content is critical; State the % carbon above which
the welding becomes very difficult.
Carbon content in excess of .45
33) State two results, which may be expected from stress relief of welder products.
1) Will reduce internal stress
2) Hydrogen is diffused
3) Grain refinement
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34) What would be the result of using temperature of 1300deg C in heat treatment?
Steels which are overheated i.e. above 1200deg C may suffer a permanent loss of toughness
and also form large quantities of mill scale on their surface
35) State two types of cracking which can result from heat treatment?
1) Stress relief or reheat cracking in steel containing chromium
2) Thermal cracking
36) What is the main advantage of using austenitic electrodes?
The advantage of using austenitic stainless steel electrodes for repair is that hydrogen entering
the weld metal during welding is held in the weld metal and so will not diffuse in to the
hardened HAZ; hence hydrogen induced cracking in the HAZ is unlikely to happen.
37) What is the main problem of weld ability when using 18/8 type austenitic electrode to repair
ferritic steels?
1) Solidification cracking
2) Weld decay
3) Reduce the corrosion resistance of weld metal
38) What is the main advantage of using 29/10 type austenitic electrode to repair ferritic steel?
The defects of dilution will be to lower the alloy content of the weld metal during cooling so it
is advisable to use it
39) Why is it recommended that 29/10 is used for buttering and 18/8 is used to fill when using
austenitic electrode for repair?
To avoid cracking it is desirable (at least in joint with high restraint) to butter with an electrode
with high dilution tolerance and to make the closing weld with low strength electrode.
40) Explain why the depth to width ratio is important?
To take care of residual stresses in weld which develop?
1) Longitudinal along the weld
2) Across the weld
3) Through the weld
41) Out line the metallurgical feature of weld decay?
Weld decay steels with high carbide forming characteristic such as these will react if the
temperature is allowed to dwell about 550degC. If this occurs then the chromium is no longer
available for combination with oxygen for reformation of the protective oxide film and
corrosion may result.
Weld decay depletion of chromium carbide in stainless steel.
42) State three method of avoiding weld decay?
1) Reduce carbon content i.e. 308L
2) Heat treatment 1100deg C and quench
3) To stabilize the steel by added Ti or Nb (to form carbide in preference to Cr carbides)
43) Why backing gases are often specified when welding stainless steel?
1) To avoid contamination.
2) To prevent formation of porosity
3) To avoid formation of oxides

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44) Why is carbon di-oxide not normally used as shielding gas when welding mild steel?
Low carbon
45) When stainless steel is welded to mild steel buttering is recommended why?
1) Seals carbon in
2) To stop dilution
46) When welding SS to a large root gap (3mm) are often used? Why?
To avoid distortion
47) What is the essential feature of a stainless steel?
Chromium content. About 11% Cr is the minimum for the formation of SS.
48) What is the principal reason for the development of residual stresses in weld
Metals contact during solidification and subsequent cooling, but if this contraction is prevented
or inhibited residual stresses will develop
49) Name three directions of residual stresses in weld joint.
Normal welds develop residual stresses.
1) Along the weld longitudinal residual stresses
2) Across the weld transverse residual stresses
3) Through the weld short transverse residual stresses
50) What causes distortion in welded products?
The action of the residual stresses in welded joints is to cause distortion
MMA (SMAW) defects
51) Give four consequences of using excessive current
1) Excess spatter, 2) Excess metal profile, 3) Centerline cracking, 4) under cuts.
52) If excessive arc length
1) UN stable arc, 2) lack of penetration, 3) uneven profile bead.
53) State the defects which occur when the tack weld is not correctly incorporated into the weld?
Lack of penetration or fusion
54) Give three consequence of in correct electrode angle?
1) Undercut, 2) spatter, 3) lack of penetration or fusion.
55) Give one consequence of
1) Too fast a travel speed lack of penetration or fusion
2) Too slow a travel speed slag inclusion
56) What defect I associated with excessively large size electrodes?
Lack of penetration
57) What defect is caused by inadequate cleaning between runs?
Slag inclusion
SAW Defects
58) What defect can be caused by use of high welding speeds?
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1) lack of penetration or fusion 2) Undercut

59) What defect can be caused by the use of excessive gaps?
Excess penetration or burn through
60) What is the likely cause of slag in the weld metal?
Slag inclusion: Insufficient Inter run cleaning, poor bead profile (convex shape)
61) What is the adjustment must be made in submerged arc welding to reduce the bead width?
1) Lower the voltage
2) Increase the travel speed (if still within the parameter)
62) What defect can be caused by a plate having poorly cut joint preparation?
Lack of penetration or fusion
63) A weld is to be made on a close square butt joint with excessively high current. What defect
would occur?
Excess weld metal
64) What is the likely defect to be caused by an excessive flux burden?
65) What is the critical level of hydrogen in a weld; can it be measured at any time or after stress
1) 5ml per 100gm of weld metal
2) All weld metal hydrogen diffusion test possible but not for the actual weld metal
66) Describe how and why hydrogen increases the incidence of hydrogen cracking?
Hydrogen in the weld / HAZ builds up internal pressure which could be higher that weld point
of metal. Low hydrogen = less stress.
67) Describe a heat treatment designed to remove hydrogen When must the heat
68) Why must basic hydrogen controlled electrodes been kept at 10 deg C?
Prevent reabsorbing of hydrogen
69) What is the cause of lamellar tearing?
Lamellar tearing is a defect in the parent metal of a weld metal due to high through thickness
residual stresses and a low through thickness strength and ductility arising from the bands
within the steel
70) Where the lamellar tearing is are found in a weld metal?
The crack is stepped. The crack is parallel to the surface of the plate
71) How do bands (segregation) within steel influence the incidence of lamellar tearing?
72) Can susceptibililty to lamellar tearing be assessed by Ultrasonic NDE? NO.
73) Can lamellar tear be detected by NDE? NO
74) Three methods to avoid lamellar tearing?

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1) Reduce the residual stress by low restraints i.e. by pre setting rather than clamping use of
2) Buttering
3) Change in joint design
75) Name three types of stainless steels?
1) Martensitic, 2) Austenitic, 3) Feritic.
76) State the main weldability problem of the Fe 11% chromium steels?
Hydrogen cracking
77) Why are ferritic SS not generally suitable for welding?
They suffer grain growth with heating and the loss of strength and toughness on welding,
severly limits the use of this alloy.
78) Why are some SS stabilized? Which elements are used?
To avoid depletion of chromium
Titanium and niobium elements are used as stabilizer
79) Name two methods of avoiding hydrogen cracking in martensitic stainless steel?
1) Control by hydrogen limitation i.e. the use of TIG welding process
2) Control by hardness, normal pre-heat and heat inputs, so select a very low carbon grade.
80) State the following materials are magnetic.
FeO - 0.1% C
- Yes
FeO - 0.8% C
Fe - 11% Cr
Fe - 10% Ni
Fe - 18% Cr, 8% Ni
- No
Cu - 10% Ni
- No
- No
81) Why do micro alloyed steels suffer hydrogen cracking in the weld metal?
The hydrogen is held in the weld and so hydrogen tends to be located there also
82) What are the factors which give rise to hydrogen cracking in alloyed steels?
In the HAZ the tensile residual stresses are across the weld, so the hydrogen cracks are along the
length of the weld. In weld metal the tensile residual stresses are along the weld, so the hydrogen
cracks are across the weld.
83) What are the two types of SAW flux?
1) Fused, 2) Agglomerated.
84) Why are hydrogen cracks in the weld metal positioned across the width of the weld?
Hydrogen cracking is typically formed at right angles to the stress and is positively identified
by its Trans granular appearance when viewed at X 100 magnifications. In ferritic steels
hydrogen which enters the weld metal during welding moves into the HAZ and due to gas
forming characteristics and the residual stress, cracking may result.
85) Three items which may contribute to excessive hardness in a weldmetal?
Grain size, Quenching, C.E, carbon and alloys.
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86) Two elements cause center-line cracking?

Sulphur, Phosphorus.
87) What is the cause of centerline cracking or solidification cracking?
Impurities which are melted out of parent plate and mixed into the weld metal separate out
during solidification.
88) Method of minimizing the solidification cracking?
1) Increase the weld metal
2) Reduce the welding speed
3) Increase the manganese content of the weld pool
4) Use of cooling bars
5) Use of 1/3 2/3 joint preparation
6) Use of clean metal
7) Reduce the amount of metal melted out of the parent plate by
a) Skill / technique of the welder
b) Reduce the current
89) A crack observed along the center line of the weld. Give two reasons for its formation
When the weld metal has been deposited and its contracts during solidification it is vital that
the contraction can be fed by the depression of the outer surface
Contraction fed by the weld metal surface
90) Give three reasons why pipe may form in the weld metal?
1) Pre-mature freezing of the surface
2) Excessive depth of bead related to width
3) Bad bead shape
91) Three reasons which contribute to pre- mature freezing of the weld pool surface?
1) No slag covers i.e. the process
2) Gas no heated
3) Flow rate too high
92) Why ferritic material is usually added to austenitic electrodes?
To avoid center line cracking
93) Why are austenitic electrodes used for welding carbon manganese steel?
To control the hydrogen level i.e. making the hydrogen level acceptable to avoid hydrogen
94) When ferrite is added to electrodes what are two possible consequences?
It tends to avoid Solidification cracking, it does induce magnetism and makes the weld metal
anodic so reducing the corrosion resistance
95) Give two advantages of martensitic SS?
1) Magnetic, 2) Abrasion resistant
96) Why are ferritic SS so named?
Micro structure is ferritic.
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97) Give two reasons why the grain growth which occurs on welding makes these materials
unsuited for many welded products i.e. ferritic SS?
As the chromium content is increased, increased quantities of sigma phase is produced which
embrittles the steel. Solidification cracking is a problem. Single phase alloying suffer grain
growth and with heating and the loss of strength and toughness
98) Can the enlarged grain size in the HAZ of ferritic SS be refined? If so how?
Yes by peening
99) Two weldability problems connected with austenitic SS.
1) Cracking, 2) Weld decay
100) Describe the thermal conditions which give rise to weld decay in austenitic SS weld
550degree C for six seconds

Why are smaller stringer beads usually recommended for SS weldmetls?

To reduce the level of heat input and to avoid cracking


State the special mechanical properties of 25%Cr in Fe alloys?

Ferritic SS: weldability poor due to cracking, brittleness and temper embitterment, it is a
single phase alloy which is ferritic at all solid temperatures, so solidification cracking is a


What is specification?
Its a description of what to use in the making of a product i.e. type of
process, type of consumables.


material, type of

What is the extent of approval in a procedure?

Extent of approval is the range over which certain variables may alert with out requiring
new procedure i.e. when there is a limitation in the welding qualification i.e.
The minimum and maximum diameter of the pipe that the test sample covers e.g. two inch
test piece would allow pipe down to 1 and up to 4
The test may only allow welding of consumables in the same grouping, any other
consumables would requires re-test
The sue of set electrical characteristics would not allow change with out retest
The direction of welding, if changed may required re test
Change of material to be tested would require re testing

105) When is procedure to be re established?

1) Change of process, direction, material, shielding gas, Joint design, consumables, welding

State the four factors which must be satisfied for good weld?
Fusion (melting) The metal be melted which requires a high intensity of heat source
The process must remove any oxide and other contaminations from the joint faces
Contamination by the atmosphere must be avoided
The welded joint must possess adequate properties


If you detect arc strike what is the course of action?

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It should be grounded smooth and MPI is to be conducted on the location if it is ferrous

material. For SS, PT is to be conducted

What are planner defects?

Crater cracks


Four mechanical test methods?

Nick break

110) What are the documents required to do a repair?

Approved repair welding procedure, qualified welders, Method of exploration of crack
&removal & repair reports.
111) If visual inspection is not possible how you will ensure the joint is defect
It can be examined by appropriate NDT methods like RT, UT, etc,

What are major defects?

Lack of side wall & Inter- run fusion,
Lack of penetration & incomplete fusion


What are Minor defects?

Mis alignment (linear & angular), slag, Porosity etc.


114) What is the course of action if the weldment has been accepted are rejected?
After inspection the results has to be recorded in a format. If the sample is rejected then the
type of defects and its location has to be incorporated in a sketch and the report has to be given
for further remedial action.

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