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Growell India, Pune

Technical Bulletin

Coccidiosis in Broiler Breeders, Broilers & Layers

Coccidiosis is a disease caused by a microscopic animal or protozoa and is characterized by diarrhoea,
unthriftiness and variable levels of mortality. Tissue damage and changes in intestinal tract function
may allow colonization by various harmful bacteria leading to necrotic enteritis. Immunosuppressive
diseases may act in concert with coccidiosis to produce more severe diseases. That is why there is a need
for a product that does not allow tissue damage and changes in intestinal tract function without causing
any negative side effects.

How strategy for Coccidiosis control in Broiler breeders is different from that in Broilers :
it is important to point out that the objectives for managing coccidia in the breeder pullets are
substantially different from the objectives used in rearing broilers. In broilers, primary consideration
must be given to maximizing bird performance, which is the key measurement. With the breeder
pullet, however, the foremost objective must be to develop a sound immune response to the
parasites. This can be done by a vaccine or some other method (feed additive) that can develop
immune response.

Limitations of existing Coccidiostats :

Coccidiostats cannot be used prophylactically in birds kept for breeding or commercial egg production
after they reach laying age, which is around 16 weeks. This is to prevent possible carryover of the drugs
into eggs that might reach consumer markets. To prevent coccidiosis in replacement pullets, several
different strategies have been developed. They include:
(a) Continuous feeding of coccidiostats to 8 to 16 weeks of age in birds destined for cages.
(b) "Step down" programs in which drug inclusion levels are decreased at intervals during rearing and
discontinued by 8 weeks of age in order to allow birds to develop immunity.
(c) Vaccination
(d) No prophylactic treatment. Birds are treated therapeutically if a clinical outbreak of coccidiosis occurs.

What is being done now when Broiler breeders or Layers have an outbreak :
Presently, field people have limited choice in products like Amprolium, roxarsone and sulpha products,
that are shown to exert activity against E. tenella and E. necatrix, but with minimal or no activity against
other coccidial species in chickens (Amprolium). This situation has led to confusion among field
personnel, who frequently consider the compound coccidiostatic (particularly against the upper intestinal
species). Care must be used with their application, because large doses, common in therapeutic
applications, may produce toxicity. Hemorrhages, kidney damage and altered growth are known to occur
in these situations.

Our Suggestion :
Coxynil is the first herbal-mineral Anticoccidial that answers to this problem. Coxynil is a combination
of select herbs which works as coccidiocidal without causing any negative side effects e.g. weight gain
problem or feed intake problem. At the same time, Coxynil is shown to develop immunity levels
significantly upwards (Cell immunity, HI titres against New Castle disease, Cell mediated immune
response (skin thickness), T Cell counts (ANAE) in various trials). Additionally, Coxynil does not
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allow the ingested coccidia to penetrate the linings of the intestine & further, does not allow reproduction
thus saving the tissue damage.

Mode of Action :
Coxynil is an anticoccidial product that acts early in the coccidial life cycle before damage can occur to
the gut lining. Coxynil remains present in small intestine, lower small intestine, duodenal loop and
eliminates sporocysts as it finds them alien to body and further, creates such conditions that the process
of release of sporozoites from sporocysts is checked. Further, sporozoites, since their gravity is reduced
significantly, are unable to enter epithelial cell or intraepithelial lymphocytes and development process is
minimized to insignificant levels.
Sporulation of oocysts is prohibited completely.

Additional Feature :
Coxynil has been tested to inhibit Clostridium perfringens (in vitro).

Dosage & Administration :

Broilers : 500 gms per Ton of Feed (To be administered from day 1 till marketing)
Broiler Breeders / Layers : 0-3 weeks (500 gm/Ton), 4 to 14 weeks (750 gm to1000 gm/Ton to be
adjusted for restricted feeding)
Animals :Cattle / Sheep / Goat / Pigs /Lamb/Creep/Weaner/Other animals : 4 gm/day/per 100 kg of
live weight.
COXYNIL LIQUID : to be given @ 2 litre per 1000 Litres of water for 2 days and thereafter, 1 Litre per
1000 Litres of water for 3 next days for speedy recovery.
Important Note : In case of replacing an existing Anticoccidial half way with Coxynil, Coxynil should be
given at double dosage for one week, followed by normal dosage. In case of an outbreak, double dosage
should be administered for 7 days followed by normal dosage.

References :
Efficacy studies :
1) Coxynils in vitro activity against coccidia oocysts (Nagpur Vet College - 2003)
2) Coxynils in vitro activity against Clostridia perfringens (Bombay Vet College - 2003)
3) Natural Anticoccidial (Coxynil) for Broilers (with or without coccidiosis vaccine) Federal University of
Parana, Biological Sciences Sector, Dept. of Physiology, Brazil 2003
4) Role of Coxynil in Pathology of coccidiosis in Poultry (challenge studies in Broilers & ND Titre studies in
New Castle) Nagpur Vet. College 2000
5) Challenge studies in coccidiosis of Goats Coxynil a case study February 2001
6) Challenge studies in coccidiosis of Sheep Coxynil a case study March 2001
7) Field trial report of Coxynil in Commercial Broilers in Mexico vis a vis Monesin & Nicarbazin 2002
8) Challenge studies on Coxynil in mice coccidiosis Germany 2002
9) Trial of Herbolife (combination of Coxynil & Growell) at DPI, Brisbane, Australia in Broilers for coccidiosis
control and growth promotion 2002
10) Effect of Coxynil vs. Salinomycin in pathology of Coccidiosis in Broilers (Challenge & Control studies,
Immunity parameters like T Cell & ND titres studies ) Bombay Vet. College, India 2003
11) Field trial report of Coxynil in commercial broilers (cobb 500) in Italy vs. a vis. Maxiban-Monensin 2003
12) Field trial report of Coxynil in commercial broilers (Coxynil vs. Salinomycin + Diclazuril) India 2003
13) Field trial report of Coxynil in Commercial broilers in E. Acervulina Turkey - 2004
Safety Studies :

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1) Residues of Animal Drugs (Antibiotic analysis) & Plant protective residues (Pesticide residue analysis)
Poultry Diagnostic and Research Centre of Venkateshwara Hatcheries Ltd., Pune, India
2) LD 50 studies (Acute oral toxicity)
3) Mucous membrane test
4) Skin irritation test
5) Environment safety Coxynils effect on Soil Microorganisms at normal and ten times dosage
Stability studies :
1) Thermal & Accelerated Stability (following OECD guidelines)
Bio-degradability Studies :
1) Bio-degradability studies (following OECD guidelines)
Chemical / Proximate studies :
1) Proximate analysis
2) Chemical analysis
Microbiological Studies :
1) E Coli
2) Salmonella
3) Clostridia
4) Coliforms
For more details, please write to :

Growell India
FAMI QS Member (European feed standards) & ISO 9001:2008 Certified
Shivalik, Plot No. 14, Gangadham
Market Yard, Pune 411037, India
Tel : +91 20 24240170
Fax : +91 20 24247181

Visit us at :
Email :

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