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1.

) List the layers of OSI


a. Physical Layer
b. Data Link Layer
c. Network Layer
d. Transport Layer
e. Session Layer
f. Presentation Layer
g. Application Layer

2.) What do you mean by platform independence?


Platform independence means that we can write and compile the java code in one platform
(eg Windows) and can execute the class in any other supported platform eg
(Linux,Solaris,etc).

3) What is virtual memory?


Virtual memory is a memory management technique for letting processes execute outside
of memory. This is very useful especially is an executing program cannot fit in the
physical memory.
4.) Multi threading Vs multi-programming ?
Multithreading means in any single process, multiple threads is allowed and again, can
run simultaneously. Multitasking is sharing of computing resources(CPU, memory,
devices, etc.) among processes, while multithreading is sharing of computing resources
among threads of a single process.

6. What is dead lock?


Deadlock is a situation or condition where the two processes are waiting for each other to
complete so that they can start. This result both the processes to hang.
7.) What are the necessary conditions for deadlock?
Mutual Exclusion: There is s resource that cannot be shared.
Hold and Wait: A process is holding at least one resource and waiting for another
resource which is with some other process.
No Preemption: The operating system is not allowed to take a resource back from a
process until process gives it back.
Circular Wait: A set of processes are waiting for each other in circular form.

8.). What are the difference between hub and switch?


A. Hub is a layer 1 device. It will out the signal from all of its port except the one from where
Its insert. It is unable to detect the collision. It works on single collision and a single broadcast
domain.

Switch is layer 2 device. It maintains a CAM table that store the MAC address of
devices attached to its port. CAM table is used to make the forwarding decision. It works on
per port collision and single broadcast domain.
9.) What

is MAC address?

It is the 48 bit hardware address of LAN card. MAC address is usually stored in
ROM on the network adapter card and it is unique.
A media access control address (MAC address), also called a physical address,
of a computer which is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for
communications on the physical network segment. MAC addresses are used as
a network address for most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet
and WiFi.
10.) What is private IP?
Three ranges of IP addresses have been reserved for private address and they
are not valid for use on the Internet. If you want to access internet with these
address you must have to use proxy server or NAT server (on normal cases the
role of proxy server is played by your ISP.).If you do decide to implement a
private IP address range, you can use IP addresses from any of the following
classes:
Class A 10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255
Class B 172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255
Class C 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255
11.) Say I am accessing google.com from my computer , explain how will
request route from my computer to google.com ?
12.) What is IPv 6 ?
IPv6 is the successor to the first addressinginfrastructure of the Internet,
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). In contrast to IPv4, which defined an
IPaddress as a 32-bit value, IPv6 addresses have a size of 128 bits.
Therefore, IPv6 has a vastly enlargedaddress space compared to IPv4

13.) Networks Classes:


1st Octet
Class Decimal
Range

1st Octet Network/Host


Hosts per
Number
Network
High
ID
Default
of
Order (N=Network, Subnet Mask
(Usable
Networks
Addresses)
Bits
H=Host)
126 (27 16,777,214
2)
(224 2)

1 126*

N.H.H.H

255.0.0.0

128
191

10

N.N.H.H

255.255.0.0

192
223

110

N.N.N.H

255.255.255.0

224
239

1110

16,382
(214 2)

65,534
(216 2)

2,097,150
254 (28 2)
21
(2 2)

Reserved for Multicasting

240
1111
Experimental; used for research
254
Note: Class A addresses 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 cannot be used and is
reserved for loopback and diagnostic functions.
E

Private IP Addresses
Class

Private Networks

Subnet Mask

Address Range

10.0.0.0

255.0.0.0

10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255

B
C

172.16.0.0 - 172.31.0.0 255.240.0.0


192.168.0.0

172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255

255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255