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NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING

HANDBOOK

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING

Third Edition

HANDBOOK

Nondestructive Testing Overview

Third Edition Volume 10

Volume 10

Nondestructive
Testing Overview
Technical Editor
Gary L. Workman
Editor
Patrick O. Moore

41
D 19
NDE
FOU

American Society for Nondestructive Testing


ISBN 978-1-57117-187-0

41
D 19
NDE
FOU

American Society for Nondestructive Testing

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING

Third Edition

HANDBOOK

Volume 10

Nondestructive
Testing Overview
Technical Editor
Gary L. Workman
Editor
Patrick O. Moore

41

19
NDED

FOU

American Society for Nondestructive Testing

Copyright 2012
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, INCORPORATED
All rights reserved.
ASNT is not responsible for the authenticity or accuracy of information herein. Published opinions and statements do
not necessarily reflect the opinion of ASNT. Products or services that are advertised or mentioned do not carry the
endorsement or recommendation of ASNT.
IRRSP, Level III Study Guide, Materials Evaluation, NDT Handbook, Nondestructive Testing Handbook, The NDT Technician
and www.asnt.org are trademarks of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing. ACCP, ASNT, Research in
Nondestructive Evaluation and RNDE are registered trademarks of The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc.
ASNT exists to create a safer world by promoting the profession and technologies of nondestructive testing.
American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Incorporated
1711 Arlingate Lane
PO Box 28518
Columbus, OH 43228-0518
(614) 274-6003; fax (614) 274-6899
www.asnt.org

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Nondestructive testing overview / technical editor, Gary L. Workman ; editor, Patrick O. Moore. -- 3rd ed.
p.
cm. -- (Nondestructive testing handbook ; v. 10)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-57117-187-0 (alk. paper)
1. Nondestructive testing. 2. Engineering inspection. I. Workman, Gary L. II. Moore, Patrick O. III. American
Society for Nondestructive Testing. IV. Series: Nondestructive testing handbook (3rd ed.) ; v. 10.
TA418.2.N65 2012
620.1'127--dc23
2012017874

Errata
Errata if available for this printing may be obtained from ASNTs Web site, <www.asnt.org>, or as hard copy by mail, free on
request from ASNT at the address above.

first printing 06/12

Published by the American Society for Nondestructive Testing


PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Presidents Foreword

It is often said that the world is changing


at a rapid pace, and this couldnt be truer
than with respect to technology. Our
profession of nondestructive testing and
the means by which the various methods
and techniques are applied has seen
significant change and new applications
in recent years. Even as our team of
subject matter experts compiled the
informative sections of this publication,
new and emerging technologies have
arisen and are being refined for
application in industry. It is refreshing to
know that we as NDT professionals have a
staple resource that we can turn to in
answering the day-to-day questions and
satisfying the needs of industry. The NDT
Handbook has been the marquee of
resource for our industry. The dedication
of unselfish volunteers and professionals
who step forward makes it possible for
publications like this to serve as the
benchmark for NDT.
Our society continues to be a mission
based society. With the rapidity of
technological advance, it is important
that publications such as this one truly
contribute to making the world a safer
place through the advancement of NDT.

The knowledge herein will be shared by


not only the front line technician but also
engineers and researchers, by not only
those interested in the broad profession
but also those in a narrow specialty. I
would like to express my sincere gratitude
to the personnel that served as
contributors, editors and reviewers for
making this edition possible.
As you are all aware, ASNT is a
volunteer society and the effort that is
required to see a result such as this is
often challenging. The volunteers of ASNT
have met this challenge for over a half
century, and the names of those who
have contributed to the development and
continued improvement of the NDT
Handbook are etched into the foundation
of ASNT. The handbooks, their media and
arangement in which the information is
shared with the NDT community,
continue to evolve as fast as the
technology that the books record. It is our
goal to continue to meet the needs of our
members in a timely manner.
Robert Potter
ASNT President, 2011-2012

Nondestructive Testing Overview

iii

Foreword

Aims of a Handbook
The volume you are holding in your hand
is the tenth in the third edition of the
Nondestructive Testing Handbook. In the
beginning of each volume, ASNT has
stated the purposes and nature of the
NDT Handbook series.
Handbooks exist in many disciplines of
science and technology, and certain
features set them apart from other
reference works. A handbook should
ideally provide the basic knowledge
necessary for an understanding of the
technology, including both scientific
principles and means of application. The
third edition of the NDT Handbook
provides this knowledge through method
specific volumes.
The typical reader may be assumed to
have completed a few years of college
toward a degree in engineering or science
and has the background of an elementary
physics or mechanics course. Additionally,
this volume allows for computer based
media that enhances all levels of
education and training.
Standards, specifications,
recommended practices and inspection
procedures are discussed for instructional
purposes, but at a level of generalization
that is illustrative rather than
comprehensive. Standards writing bodies
take great pains to ensure that their

iv

Nondestructive Testing Overview

documents are definitive in wording and


technical accuracy. People writing
contracts or procedures should consult
the actual standards when appropriate.
The NDT Handbook is widely used for
inspector training and qualification, yet
its scope serves a broader audience,
academic and industrial. Noninspectors
use it, too. Those who design qualifying
examinations or study material for them
draw on ASNT handbooks as a quick and
convenient way of approximating the
body of knowledge. Committees and
individuals who write or anticipate
questions are selective in what they draw
from any source. The parts of a handbook
that give scientific background, for
instance, may have little bearing on a
practical examination except to provide
the physical foundation to assist handling
of more challenging tasks. Other parts of
a handbook are specific to a certain
industry. The NDT Handbook provides a
collection of perspectives on its subject to
broaden its value and convenience to the
nondestructive testing community.
The present volume is a worthy
addition to the third edition. The editors,
ASNT staff, contributors and reviewers
worked together to bring the project to
completion. For their scholarship and
dedication, I thank them all.
Richard H. Bossi
Handbook Development Director

Preface

ASNTs Nondestructive Testing Handbook


continues to include a broad range of
techniques and applications, as shown in
this final volume of the third edition. The
primary intention in this NDT Overview
volume is to draw on the very extensive
and in-depth information contained in
the entire edition and to bring together
the core information into one volume.
Thus this volume is able to provide key
information to allow scientists and
engineers to make the best choices across
the range of NDT methods.
I was chairman of ASNTs Handbook
Development Committee from 1996
through 2007. Those years saw the
publication of the first seven volumes of
the third edition. Hundreds of experts
contributed, and it was my privilege to
meet the volume coordinators and
editors, the finest minds in our
technology.
Many NDT concepts that were
primarily research topics for the second
edition and some third edition volumes
have now matured into well defined
applications. This volume offers
up-to-date techniques for signal
processing techniques as well as for a
broad range of applications in industries

such as welding, energy, petroleum and


aerospace. The series benefits from
international contributions, providing a
larger knowledge base for nondestructive
testing worldwide.
This NDT Overview reflects changes in
the way inspections are performed
because of advances in computer
technology. These instruments and
techniques have improved data collection
and analysis, both in the laboratory and
in the field. These advances in technology
also provide improved imaging capability
and better verification of measurements
with theory.
This volume represents the work of
many in the field who were able to
contribute their time and effort to provide
latest state-of-the-art information. In
addition, volunteers were able to review
and return comments in short order. We
are indebted to both groups for bringing
this volume to publication. We also wish
to express our gratitude to ASNT staff for
their thoroughness, diligence and
timeliness in preparing this volume for
publication.
Gary L. Workman
Technical Editor

Nondestructive Testing Overview

Editors Preface

The book you are holding is the latest in a


series of attempts to do something almost
impossible: in a single volume to encapsulate
the technology of nondestructive testing
(NDT).

First Edition, 1959


Three years after its founding, the American
Industrial Radium and X-Ray Societys
president, Maynard Evans, appointed a
Radiographers Handbook Committee,
authorized to prepare an applications manual
for distribution free to members.
In 1951, the proposed handbook on
radiography was folded into plans for an NDT
manual covering radiographic, ultrasonic and
magnetic methods. The change in content
echoed the change of societys name to the
Society for Nondestructive Testing.
In 1955, the Board of Directors agreed to
fund work on the Handbook of NDT. Robert
McMaster was appointed editor. The book was
expected to contain 500 pages, divided into
sections devoted to major fields of
nondestructive testing. Within each section,
separate chapters covering separate methods
were to be written by individual authors.
In 1958, the newly organized Technical
Council was given six primary functions,
including: To conduct a continuing review of
the Handbook of Nondestructive Testing, directed
at the revision of subsequent editions.
The books nearly 2000 pages would not fit
in a single cover, so it was published in two
volumes, in 1959.

Second Edition, 1982-1996


The second edition was published in a series
of volumes appearing from 1982 to 1996. The
capstone was the editions tenth volume, NDT
Overview. NDT Overview was composed almost
entirely of material that had appeared in the
previous volumes. Some references had been
updated; some explanations were abridged;
and a comprehensive, multimethod glossary
was included.
NDT Overview volume soon found its
audience: practitioners and students who
needed a comprehensive treatment of all
methods. These readers would turn to method
volumes for details about specialties.

Third Edition, 1998-2012


The third editions NDT Overview improves
over the second editions in several ways.
1. The introductions treatment of
measurement units is more detailed and
comprehensive.
2. There is a bibliography of NDT history,
15 pages that list publications, an
authoritative place for a technology
historian to start.
3. References are updated since 1996, just as
the third edition has updated the second.
4. The method chapters are updated to reflect
new techniques and technologies in
particular, advances made possible by
digital processing and imaging. This
change is conspicuous in the chapters on
the visual, radiographic, ultrasonic and
strain measurement methods.
5. The glossary in particular is updated and
expanded.
The text in each method chapter is not merely
a revision of the second edition NDT Overview
but has been completely recreated from third
edition files.
Finally, and more than before, the volumes
content is selected and edited with an eye
toward practicality. The book can help a
Level III who specializes in one method and
may be confronted by a new inspection
problem to determine what the other
methods offer. Also, the examinee who studies
for general NDT qualification will find much
of the body of knowledge here, in one book.
(Such learners need other resources, of course,
in materials science and basic physics.)
For these reasons, nearly everyone who
practices NDT needs this book.
It has been an honor to work with Gary
Workman on this volume, and a pleasure to
collaborate again with the various chapter
coordinators. Most of them were contributors
or editors in creating the original method
volumes over the course of 16 years.
It was also a pleasure to receive help and
encouragement from ASNT staff, in particular
Timothy Jones (senior manager, publications)
for administrative support and Hollis
Humphries (technical publications supervisor)
for graphics and editing at every stage of
production.
Patrick O. Moore
NDT Handbook Editor

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Nondestructive Testing Overview

Acknowledgments

This book is made from the preceding


nine volumes of the third edition, and it
is impractical to list the hundreds of
contributors and reviewers.
All chapter coordinators and
contributors are also reviewers but are
listed once, as contributors.

Handbook Development
Committee
Michael W. Allgaier, Mistras Group
Richard H. Bossi, Boeing Research and
Technology
Lisa Brasche, Iowa State University
James R. Cahill, GE Sensing and
Inspection Technologies
Robert E. Cameron
John S. Cargill, Aerospace Structural
Integrity
Nat Y. Faransso, KBR
Gary Heath, All Tech Inspection
Dietmar F. Henning, Level III Service
Eric v.K. Hill, AURA Vector Consulting
James W. Houf, American Society for
Nondestructive Testing
Morteza K. Jafari, Fugro South
Timothy E. Jones, American Society for
Nondestructive Testing
Doron Kishoni, Business Solutions USA
Richard D. Lopez, John Deere Technology
and Innovation
Xavier P.V. Maldague, University Laval
George A. Matzkanin, Texas Research
Institute
Charles H. Mazel, BlueLine NDT
Ronnie K. Miller, Mistras Group
Scott D. Miller
David G. Moore, Sandia National
Laboratories
Patrick O. Moore, American Society for
Nondestructive Testing
Robert F. Plumstead, Municipal Testing
Laboratory
Frank J. Sattler, Sattler Consultants
Todd E. Sellmer, Washington TRU
Solutions
Roderic K. Stanley, NDE Information
Consultants
Kenneth A. Starry, IVC Technologies
Satish S. Udpa, Michigan State University
Mark F.A. Warchol, Texas Research
Institute
Glenn A. Washer, University of Missouri
Columbia
Gary L. Workman, University of Alabama,
Huntsville

Contributors
Michael W. Allgaier, Mistras Group
Richard H. Bossi, Boeing Research and
Technology
John K. Keve, AREVE Federal Services
Timothy E. Kinsella, Dassault Falcon Jet
Doron Kishoni, Business Solutions USA
Richard D. Lopez, John Deere Technology
and Innovation
Xavier P.V. Maldague, University Laval
Ronnie K. Miller, Mistras Group
David G. Moore, Sandia National
Laboratories
John W. Newman, Laser Technology
Eric I. Schwartz, Trilion Quality Systems
Roderic K. Stanley, NDE Information
Consultants
Kenneth A. Starry, IVC Technologies
Marvin W. Trimm, Savannah River
National Laboratory
John Tyson II, Trilion Quality Systems
Lalita Udpa, Michigan State University
Satish S. Udpa, Michigan State University
Gary L. Workman, University of Alabama,
Huntsville

Reviewers
James F. Aldridge, Wright-Patterson Air
Force Base
Michael Burch, Mistras Group
Robert E. Cameron
John C. Duke, Sr., Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University
Charles W. Eick, Horizon NDT Services
Roger W. Engelbart, Boeing Aerospace
Gregory W. Good, Ohio State University
Trey Gordon, Boeing Research and
Technology
Eric v.K. Hill, AURA Vector Consulting
James W. Houf, American Society for
Nondestructive Testing
Doron Kishoni, Business Solutions USA
Ravindran Krishnamurthy, Southern
Inspection Services, Chennai, India
Charles P. Longo, American Society for
Nondestructive Testing
Eugene A. Mechtly, University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign
Steven M. Shepard, Thermal Wave
Imaging
Flynn Spears, Laser Technology

Nondestructive Testing Overview

vii

C
Chapter 1. Introduction to
Nondestructive Testing . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Part 1. Nondestructive Testing . . . . . . . . 2
Part 2. Management of Nondestructive
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Part 3. Measurement Units for
Nondestructive Testing . . . . . . 19
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Chapter 2. Bibliography of Nondestructive
Testing History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Nondestructive Testing in General . . . . 32
Visual Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Liquid Penetrant Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Infrared and Thermal Testing . . . . . . . . 36
Radiographic Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Electromagnetic Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Magnetic Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Ultrasonic Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Acoustic Emission Testing . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Chapter 3. Visual Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 1. Introduction to Visual
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 2. Light and Vision . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 3. Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 4. Direct Visual Testing . . . . . . . . .
Part 5. Indirect Visual Testing . . . . . . . .
Part 6. Visual Testing of Metals . . . . . . .
Part 7. Visual Acceptance Criteria
for Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47
48
49
55
63
69
75
87
94

Chapter 4. Liquid Penetrant


Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Part 1. Elements of Liquid Penetrant
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Part 2. Liquid Penetrant Testing
Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Part 3. Emulsification and Removal
of Excess Surface Liquid
Penetrant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Part 4. Application and Operation of
Developers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Part 5. Interpretation of Liquid
Penetrant Indications . . . . . . 121
Part 6. Field Techniques for Liquid
Penetrant Testing . . . . . . . . . . 127
Part 7. Maintenance of Liquid
Penetrant Test Systems . . . . . 131
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

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Nondestructive Testing Overview

O N T E N T S

Chapter 5. Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Part 1. Management of Leak
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 2. Selection of Leak Test
Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 3. Bubble Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 4. Mass Spectrometer Helium
Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 5. Leak Testing with
Halogen Tracer Gases . . . . . .
Part 6. Other Techniques of Leak
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 7. Leak Testing of
Hermetically Sealed
Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 8. Other Applications of
Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 6. Infrared and Thermal
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 1. Management of Infrared and
Thermal Testing . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 2. Principles of Infrared and
Thermal Testing . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 3. Techniques of Infrared
and Thermal Testing . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 7. Radiographic Testing . . . . . . .
Part 1. Radiographic Principles . . . . . .
Part 2. Radiation Sources . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 3. Radiographic Imaging . . . . . . .
Part 4. Radiographic Techniques . . . . .
Part 5. Computed Tomography . . . . .
Part 6. Neutron Radiography . . . . . . .
Part 7. Radiographic Applications . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

135
136
145
153
156
158
163

167
170
173

175
176
178
187
198
199
200
203
215
221
227
230
232
241

Chapter 8. Electromagnetic Testing . . . . 243


Part 1. Introduction to Electromagnetic
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Part 2. Electromagnetic Techniques
Other than Eddy Current
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Part 3. Eddy Current Testing . . . . . . . . 253
Part 4. Applications of Electromagnetic
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

Chapter 9. Magnetic Particle and Flux


Leakage Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 1. Introduction to Magnetic
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 2. Magnetic Field Theory . . . . . .
Part 3. Magnetic Flux and Flux
Leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 4. Magnetic Flux Leakage
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 5. Electrically Induced
Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 6. Magnetic Particle Test
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 7. Ferromagnetic Material
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 8. Types of Magnetizing
Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 9. Media and Processes in
Magnetic Particle Testing . . .
Part 10. Magnetic Testing
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

273
274
276
279
282
286
288
290
293
296
301
311

Chapter 10. Ultrasonic Testing . . . . . . . . 313


Part 1. Management of Ultrasonic
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Part 2. Ultrasonic Wave
Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Part 3. Scan Data Presentation . . . . . . 326
Part 4. Pulse Echo Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Part 5. Angle Beam Contact Testing . . 341
Part 6. Coupling Media for Contact
Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Part 7. Immersion Coupling . . . . . . . . 349
Part 8. Angle Beam Immersion
Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Part 9. Multiple-Transducer
Ultrasonic Techniques . . . . . . 363
Part 10. Phased Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Part 11. Lamb Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Part 12. Ultrasonic Guided Waves . . . 376
Part 13. Optical Generation and
Detection of Ultrasound . . . . 381
Part 14. Electromagnetic Acoustic
Transduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Part 15. Air Coupled Transducers . . . . 400
Part 16. Special Purpose Ultrasonic
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Part 17. Ultrasonic Testing of
Adhesive Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . 406
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

Chapter 11. Acoustic Emission


Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 1. Introduction to Acoustic
Emission Technology . . . . . . .
Part 2. Noise in Acoustic Emission
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 3. Acoustic Emission Signal
Characterization . . . . . . . . . .
Part 4. Monitoring of Leakage from
Vessels, Tanks and
Pipelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 5. Aerial Personnel Lift
Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 6. Acoustic Emission Testing
of Spheres and Other
Pressure Vessels . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 7. Other Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 8. Acoustic Emission Testing of
Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 12. Vibration Analysis . . . . . . . .
Part 1. Introduction to Vibration
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 2. Theory of Vibration
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 3. Implementation of Vibration
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 13. Laser Testing: Shearography
and Holography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 1. Principles of Optical Laser
Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 2. Test Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 3. Stress Loading Techniques . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

415
416
425
429

432
437

439
447
450
454
457
458
460
464
471
473
474
481
486
490

Chapter 14. Alloy Identification . . . . . . .


Part 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 2. Techniques for Alloy
Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

491
492

Chapter 15. Strain Measurement . . . . . .


Part 1. Resistance Strain Gaging . . . . .
Part 2. Optical Measurement of
Strain and Deformation . . . .
Part 3. Fiber Optic Strain Gages . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

501
502

495
500

507
512
513

Chapter 16. Nondestructive Testing


Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Figure Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . 594

Nondestructive Testing Overview

ix