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Personal Computing: Toward a Conceptual Model of Utilization

Author(s): Ronald L. Thompson, Christopher A. Higgins and Jane M. Howell


Source: MIS Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Mar., 1991), pp. 125-143
Published by: Management Information Systems Research Center, University of Minnesota
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Utilizationof Personal Computers

Personal Computing:
Toward a Conceptual
Model of Utilization1
By: Ronald L. Thompson
School of Business Administration
University of Vermont
Burlington, Vermont 05405
Christopher A. Higgins
School of Business Administration
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
CANADAN6A 3K7
Jane M. Howell
School of Business Administration
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
CANADAN6A 3K7

Abstract
Organizations continue to invest heavily in personal computers for their knowledge workers.
When use is optional, however, having access
to the technology by no means ensures it will be
used or used effectively. To help us gain a better
understanding of factors that influence the use
of personal computers, researchers have recently
adapted the theory of reasoned action proposed
by Fishbein and Azjen (1975). This study uses
a competing theory of behavior proposed by
Triandis (1980). Responses were collected from
212 knowledge workers in nine divisions of a
multi-national firm, and the measures and
research hypotheses were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS). The results show that
social norms and three components of expected
consequences (complexity of use, fit between the
job and PC capabilities, and long-term con'This research has been supported in part by: the Social
Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the
National Centre for Management Research and Development
(Canada), and the School of Business Administration at the
University of Western Ontario. This article was developed in
part from a paper presented at the Administrative Sciences
Association of Canada (ASAC) annual meeting in Montreal
in June 1989.

sequences) have a strong influence on utilization.


These findings confirm the importance of the
expected consequences of using PC technology,
suggesting that training programs and organizational policies could be instituted to enhance or
modify these expectations.
Keywords: Personal computing, information
technology utilization, attitudes,
behavior
ACM Categories: K.0, K.6.0, K.8, K.m

Introduction
Many information systems (IS) researchers have
stressed the need to build IS research on a
cumulative tradition, using referent disciplines
and theoretical arguments as a foundation
(Goodhue, 1988; Keen, 1980; Robey, 1979). The
value of referent disciplines, Keen (1980) argues,
is to keep IS researchers from "falling into the
framework of the month trap" (p.11).
Research investigating the relationship between
attitudes and computer utilization is one area
where many IS researchers have been remiss,
to date, in using existing models or theories,
particularly those from the social psychology
literature (Davis, et al., 1989; Goodhue, 1988;
Robey, 1979). This lack of theoretical justification provides a potential explanation for the mixed
empirical support found for the hypothesis that
attitudes influence computer use (Davis, et al.,
1989; Lucas, 1975; 1978; Pavri, 1988; Robey,
1979; Schewe, 1976; Schultz and Slevin, 1975;
Swanson, 1982).
IS researchers have recently adopted Fishbein
and Azjen's (1975) theory of reasoned action into
the context of information technology use (see
Davis, et al., 1989; Pavri, 1988). This theory,
widely tested in sociological and psychological
research, has been found to be lacking in certain
respects. Triandis (1980) has proposed a theory
that incorporates many of the same concepts and
contructs but also modifies and redefines them.
For example, while Fishbein and Azjen's theory
considers all beliefs that a person has about an
act or behavior, Triandis makes a distinction
between beliefs that link emotions to the act
(occurring at the moment of action) and beliefs
that link the act to future consequences. He
argues that behavioral intentions are determined
by feelings people have toward the behavior

MIS Quarterly/March 1991

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125

Utilization
of PersonalComputers

(affect), what they think they should do (social


factors),and by the expected consequences of
the behavior.Behavior,in turn, is influencedby
what people have usuallydone (habits),by their
behaviorial intentions, and by facilitating
conditions.
Despitethe acceptance of Triandis'(1980)theory
withinthe psychologicalliterature,it has not been
used within the IS context. Accordingly, the
purpose of the study described in this article is
to conduct an intitialtest of a model of personal
computer (PC) utilization using a subset of
Triandis'(1980)theoryof attitudesand behavior.
Thistheoryimpliesthat the utilizationof a PC by
a knowledgeworkerin an optionaluse environment would be influenced by the individual's
feelings (affect)towardusing PCs, social norms
in the work place concerning PC use, habits
associated withcomputerusage, the individual's
expected consequences of using a PC, and
facilitatingconditions in the environmentconducive to PC use.

Conceptual Model and


Research Hypotheses
The theoretical grounding for this research
comes from the work of Triandis(1971; 1980).
In earlier work, Triandis (1971) argued that
behavioris determinedby whatpeoplewouldlike
to do (attitudes),what they thinkthey should do
(social norms), what they have usually done
(habits),and by the expected consequences of
their behavior. He suggested that attitudes involve cognitive, affective, and behavioralcomponents. The cognitive component of attitudes
involves beliefs. In the context of PCs, for example,a person may holda beliefthatPCs make
workmore efficient.The affectivecomponentof
attitudeshas a like/dislikeconnotation.Thus,the
statement "I hate computers"is considered an
indicationof the affectivecomponentof attitudes.
Behavioralintentionsare simplywhatindividuals
intend to do. For example, the assertion "I will
start to learn a software package tomorrow"
representsa behavioralintention.Thus, attitudes
involvewhat people believe (cognitive),feel (affective), and how they would like to behave
(behavioral)towardan attitudeobject.
Later, Triandis(1980) presented a more comprehensivemodelof interpersonalbehavior.The

majorstatement of this model (see Figure 1) is


that social factors, affect, and perceived consequences influence behavioralintentions,which
in turn influence behavior. In addition,Triandis
states that habits are both direct and indirect
determinantsof behavior. He furtheracknowledges that even when intentions are high,
behaviormaynotoccurifthe "geography"of the
situation(i.e., facilitatingconditions)makes the
behaviorimpossible. Thus, if someone intends
to use a PC but does not have easy access to
one, usage is less likelyto occur. The model includes othervariables,not germaneto this study,
such as culture,the social situation,and genetic
biologicalfactors that can influence behavior.
Inthis study,we test a subset of Triandis'(1980)
theory applied to the context of PC use.
Specifically,we examined the direct effects of
social factors, affect, perceived consequences,
and facilitating conditions on behavior.
Behavioralintentions were excluded from the
model becuase it was actual behavior(i.e., PC
utilization)in which we were interested. Habits
were excluded because, in the context of PC
utilization,habits (i.e., previous use) have a
tautological relationshipwith current use. The
relevantconstructsare discussed in moredetail
below, and a furtherdiscussion of the role of
habits is also presented.

Social factors
Triandis(1971)arguedthatbehavioris influenced
by social norms, which depend on messages
receivedfromothersand reflectwhatindividuals
thinkthey should do. In his laterwork,Triandis
(1980) expanded this term and called it social
factors, that is, "the individual'sinternalization
of the reference groups' subjective culture,and
specific interpersonalagreements that the individualhas made withothers, in specific social
situations"(p. 210). Subjectivecultureconsists
to do whatis perceived
of norms(self-instructions
to be correct and appropriateby members of a
culturein certainsituations);roles (whichare also
concerned with behaviors that are considered
correctbut relateto persons holdinga particular
positionin a group,society,or socialsystem);and
values (abstractcategories withstrong affective
components).
Empiricalsupport for the relationshipbetween
social normsand behaviorcan be foundin many

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Utilization
of PersonalComputers

Habit

Facilitating
Conditions

Behavior

Figure 1. Factors Influencing Behavior


(a subset of the model proposed by Triandis, 1980)
studies. Forexample,Tornatskyand Klein(1982),
in a meta-analysisof 75 studies of the relationship betweeen innovationcharacteristics and
adoption,foundthat compatibilityof the innovation withthe normsof the potentialadoptershad
a significantinfluenceon adoption.The relationship is also consistentwiththe theoryof reasoned
action proposed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975),
a theorythat has alreadybeen tested withinthe
IS context(Davis,et al., 1989; Pavri,1988). More
specifically,Pavri(1988) reportsa positive relationshipbetweensocial normsand the utilization
of PCs by managers in optional use environments. AlthoughDavis, et al. (1989) reportno
significantrelationshipbetweensocial normsand
usage, they attributethis unexpected findingto
the weak psychometricpropertiesof theirsocial
norms scale, and the particularIS context (i.e.,
use of a wordprocessing system) in whichtheir
research was conducted. Consistent with
Triandis'(1980)theoryand the evidence supporting this relationship,the hypothesisto be tested
is:

H1: There will be a positive relationship


between social factors concerning PC
use and the utilization of PCs.

Affect
Triandis(1971) defines attitude as "an idea,
charged withaffect, that predisposes a class of
actions to a particularclass of social situations"
(p. 2). He acknowledges that attitudeis an imprecise termthat is more useful for discussions
where precisionis not necessary. For research
involvinga linkbetween attitudesand behavior,
however, Triandis(1980) argues for precision
through the separation of the affective and
cognitive components of attitudes. To do this,
Triandis(1980)uses the termaffect,whichrefers
to "the feelings of joy, elation, or pleasure, or
depression, disgust, displeasure, or hate
associated by an individualwitha particularact"
(p. 211).
Accordingto Goodhue (1988), most IS researchers have not made a distinctionbetween the

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of PersonalComputers
Utilization

affective component of attitudes (which have a


like/dislikeconnotation)and the cognitive component or beliefs (which are the informationa
person holds about an object, issue, or person).
Forexample,a close examinationof Schultzand
Slevin's (1975) operationalizationof user attitudes (a single construct) toward mainframe
systems suggests that many questions tap the
cognitiveas well as the affectivecomponents. If
these are in fact separate components, combining them into a single component makes it
impossible to assess their relative influence.
Similarly,Lucas (1978) also used a mixtureof
cognitiveand afffectingquestionsto measurethe
single construct of attitudes.
Controversy also remains among those researchers who acknowledge the differences
betweenthe affectiveand cognitivecomponents.
Burnkrant
and Page (1982)suggest thatalthough
there may be a theoretical justification for
separatingthe cognitivefromthe affectivecomponent, when it comes to measurement they
should be treated as the same construct.
Goodhue (1988), on the other hand, states that
mixing the measurement of the components
withinthe same constructcould introduceadditional bias or random errorbecause the affect
towardthe object could influencethe responses
to the cognitivequestions. To be consistent with
Triandis'(1980) theory,we have made a distinction between the affective and cognitive components of attitudes, leading to the following
hypothesis:
H2: There will be a positive relationship
between affect toward PC use and
the utilization of PCs.

Perceived consequences
Accordingto Triandis(1971), anotherimportant
factorinfluencingbehavioris the expected consequences of the behavior, later re-named
perceived consequences (Triandis,1980). He
argues that each act is perceived as having
potentialconsequences thathave value,together
thatthe consequence willoccur.
witha probability
The perceived consequences construct is consistent withthe expectancy theoryof motivation
proposedby Vroom(1964)and developedfurther
by Porterand Lawler(1968). The basic premise
of expectancy theoryis that individualsevaluate
the consequences of their behaviorin terms of

potential rewards and base their choice of


behavioron the desirabilityof the rewards.Robey
(1979)suggests thatfutureresearchon attitudes
should be done withinthe context of the expectancy theoryof behaviorand proposed a model
based on this theory.
Inherstudyof the optionaluse of a decisionsupportsystem by senior undergraduatestudents,
DeSanctis(1983)findsweak-to-moderate
support
for-her hypotheses derived from expectancy
theory. Beatty (1986) also uses expectancy
theoryas the basis forher investigationof the use
of computer-aideddesign and manufacturing
systems. She finds a strongerrela(CAD/CAM)
tionship between expectations and actual use.
Based on expectancytheory,ifthe expectedconsequences of using a PC are attractive(such as
the increasedopportunityforpreferredfuturejob
of obtainingthe
assignments),and the probability
consequences are high, then utilizationof a PC
will be greater.
Perceivedconsequences are likelyto have many
dimensions.Forexample,enhancedjob satisfaction and morejob flexibilitymay be two different
constructsthatcould be labelled perceivedconsequences. Triandis(1971) acknowledges that
the perceived consequences construct in his
model is not unidimensional,possibly having
several components.This is consistentwithconceptualargumentsand empiricalfindingsof other
researchers,who suggest thereare multiplecomponents(Fishbeinand Azjen, 1975; Lucas 1978;
Schultz and Slevin, 1975).
Inthis study,three dimensionsof perceivedconsequences are defined. Two of these are nearterm in nature, while the third is more futureoriented.The firstof the near-termconsequences
relatesto perceptionsaboutthe complexityof using a PC.

Complexity
Accordingto Rogersand Shoemaker(1971)complexityis defined as "the degree to whichan innovation is perceived as relativelydifficultto
understand and use" (p. 154). Tornatzkyand
Klein(1982) find that the more complex the innovation, the lower its rate of adoption. If PC
utilizationcan be viewed withinthe contextof innovationadoption,then these results suggest a
negative relationshipbetween complexity and

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Utilization
of PersonalComputers

utilization.Withinthe IS literature,Davis, et al.


(1989) propose a technologyacceptance model
thatincludesa constructthattheytermperceived
ease of use. This is defined as the degree to
whichthe user expects the system to be free of
effort.Intheirstudy they find a positive correlation between perceived ease of use and
behavioralintentions.Inthis study,we examined
complexityof PC use, the oppositeof ease of use.
The related hypothesis is therefore:
H3: There will be a negative relationship
between the perceived complexity of
a PC and the utilization of PCs.

Job Fit
The second near-termcomponentrelates to the
capabilitiesof a PC to enhance an individual's
job performance.Morespecifically,this dimension is definedas perceivedjob fitand measures
the extentto whichan individualbelieves thatusing a PC can enhance the performanceof his or
herjob (e.g., obtainingbetterinformation
fordecision making or reducing the time requiredfor
completing importantjob tasks).
The positive relationshipbetween perceivedjob
fit and PC utilizationhas empiricalsupport. In
Tornatskyand Klein's(1982)meta-analysisof innovationadoption,they find that an innovation
is more likelyto be adopted when it is compatible with individuals'job responsibilities.Robey
(1979) finds that the "performancefactor," as
operationalizedby Schultz and Slevin (1975), is
the strongest predictorof utilization.Theirconstruct is similarto Floyd's(1986) "system/work
fit" (i.e., facilitatingaccomplishment of core
tasks, improvingindividualjob productivity,and
improvingqualityof workoutput),whichhe found
to be positivelyrelatedto the use of mainframebased informationsystems. It is also similarto
Davis,et al.'s (1989)"perceivedusefulness"construct(definedas the user's subjectiveprobability
that using a specific applicationsystem will increase his or her job performance),which they
find to be strongly correlated with utilization.
Additionalsupportis offeredby Goodhue(1988),
who suggests thatan importantpredictorof use
is the correspondencebetweenjobtasks and the
capabilitiesof the informationsystem to support
the tasks. Cooper and Zmud(1990), in a study
of the adoptionof MRPsystems, also findtasktechnology compatibilityto be a majorfactorin

explainingadoptionbehaviors.Buildingon these
findings, the hypothesis to be tested is:
H4: There will be a positive relationship
between perceived job fit and the
utilization of PCs.
Long-Term Consequences of Use
The thirdand finalcomponentof perceivedconsequences includedhere is definedas long-term
consequences of use. These are outcomes that
have a pay-offin the future,such as increasing
the flexibilityto change jobs or increasingthe opportunitiesfor more meaningfulwork.Forsome
individuals,the motivationto adoptand use PCs
may relate more to buildingor planningfor the
futurethan to addressing currentneeds.
Empiricalsupportfor this construct is provided
by Beatty(1986),who findsa strongpositiverelationship between perceived long-term consequences of use and actual use of CAD/CAM
systems. Interviewswithadopters revealed that
they believed that use of the system would
enhance theircareer mobility,even thoughthey
were not convinced it wouldassist them greatly
on their current job. Therefore, the next
hypothesis is:
H5: There will be a positive relationship
between perceived long-term consequences of use and the utilization of
PCs.

Facilitatingconditions
Triandis(1980) states that behaviorcannot occur ifobjectiveconditionsin the environmentprevent it. He defines facilitatingconditions as
"objectivefactors,'outthere'in the environment,
thatseveraljudges or observerscan agree make
an act easy to do" (p. 205). Inthe context of PC
use, the provisionof supportforusers of PCs may
be one type of facilitatingconditionthat can influence system utilization.By trainingusers and
assisting them when they encounterdifficulties,
some of the potentialbarriersto use are reduced
or eliminated.Schultzand Slevin(1975)consider
"support/resistance" (the system has top
management, technical, implementation,and
organizational
support,and not undueresistance)
as one factorinfluencingutilization.Robey(1979)
finds a positive correlation between "support/resistance"(as defined and measured by

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Utilization
of PersonalComputers

Schultz and Slevin, 1975) and use of a system.


The next hypothesis is:
H6: There will be a positive relationship
between facilitating conditions for PC
use and the utilization of PCs.

Habits
Althoughhabitsare not specificallytested in this
study,they are clearlyan importantdeterminant
of behaviorand must be acknowledged. According to Triandis (1971), habits are situationbehavior sequences that occur without selfinstruction.The individualis usually not conscious of these sequences.
Priorresearchhas shownthathabitsare a strong
predictorof behavior.Forexample, Sugar (1967)
measuredthe attitudes,norms,and habitsof college students concerningcigarettesmoking.On
a separate occasion, the same students were offered a cigarette.The strongest single predictor
of behaviorwas habit, followed by norms; the
least importantpredictor was attitudes. This
wouldbe expected because frequent,repetitive
past behavior(i.e., a habit)generally would be
highlycorrelatedwithcurrentbehavior.Forthis
study, however, including the habit construct
presents a majordifficulty.
At a conceptuallevel, one could argue that habit
should play a role in the utilizationof a PC; the
PC might be used for certain tasks simply
because it has been used in the past, not
necessarily because it is the most efficientor effective approach. At a measurement level,
however,difficultiesexist. Triandis(1980) notes
that habits can be measured by the frequency
of occurrenceof behavior.This is preciselyidenticalto our measure of utilization,which leads to
a tautology.Forthis reason, we did not include
the habit construct in this study.
To summarize,we have adaptedthe theoryof interpersonalbehaviorproposedby Triandis(1980)
to the context of PC use by knowledgeworkers
in optionaluse environments.This theory suggests thataffect,perceivedconsequences, social
factors,facilitatingconditions,and habitsare the
primarydeterminantsof behavior.Twomodifications to the theorywere made in orderto test the
model withinthe IS context. First,three distinct
cognitive components of perceived consequences (complexity,job fit and long-termcon-

sequences) were identified.Second, the habit


constructwas excluded from the analysis. The
conceptual model illustrating the research
hypotheses is shown in Figure 2.

Methods
of constructs
Operationalization
To operationalizethe constructs, we referenced
the workof manyresearchers,includingAmoroso
(1986), Beatty (1986), Floyd (1986), Howard
(1985), and Pavri(1988). We were unableto use
exact replicationsof many of the instruments
used in these studies because they were originally designed within the context of mainframebased systems. Instead,we developednineitems
(using the work of other researchers for
guidance), modified 14 items from previous
scales, and used nine items directlyfrom prior
studies. Table 1 lists, in an abbreviatedformat,
all of the measurement scale items that were
ultimatelyselected. The instructionsprovidedto
the respondentand scale anchorsare also shown
for one construct as an example.
Social factors were operationalizedby asking
respondents: (1) the proportion of their coworkerswho regularlyused a PC; (2) the extent
to whichseniormanagementof the business unit
supportedPC use; (3) the extent to whichthe individual'sboss supportedthe use of PCs forthe
job; and (4) the extent to which the organization
supportedthe use of PCs. These questionswere
designed to tap the normsforPC use at the peer,
superior,and organizationallevel. The fouritems
were adopted from Pavri (1988).
The affect construct was operationalizedwith
three items:(1) PCs made workmoreinteresting;
(2) workingwith PCs was fun; and (3) PCs were
all right for some jobs but not the kind of job
wanted(reversescored).The firsttwo itemswere
taken from Howard(1985), while the thirdwas
developedspecificallyforthis study.A five-point,
Likert-typescale was used, with anchors ranging from stronglydisagree to strongly agree.
The complexityscale includedstatements such
as "workingwith PCs is complicated" and "it
takes too long to learn how to use a PC to make
it worththe effort."Respondents were asked to
ratethe degree to whichthey agreedordisagreed
witheach statement, on a scale from1 (strongly

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Utilizationof Personal Computers

Utilization
of PCs
,.

Figure 2. Factors Influencing the Utilization of Personal Computers


(adapted from the model proposed by Triandis, 1980)

disagree)to 5 (stronglyagree).The measurement


scale was developed on the basis of workconducted by Howard (1985) and Pavri (1988).
Neitherof theirinstrumentswere appropriatefor
this study, however, and four items were
therefore modifiedfor our purpose.

Forjob fit, respondents were asked to indicate


the extent to whichthey agreed withstatements
relatingto the potentialapplicationof PCs forjobrelated efficiency, effectiveness, quality, and
overall performance improvement. The six
statements used forthe measures, such as "for

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131

of PersonalComputers
Utilization

Table 1, Operationalization of Constructs


Measure

Construct
Social Factors

SF1.
SF2.
SF3.
SF4.

The proportionof departmentalco-workerswho use a PC.


The senior management of this business unit has been helpful in introducingPCs.
My boss is very supportiveof PC use for my job.
In general, the organizationhas supportedthe introductionof PCs.
Affect

AF1. PCs make work more interesting.


AF2. Workingwith a PC is fun.
AF3. PCs are okay for some jobs but not the kind of job I want (reverse scored).
Near-TermConsequences: Complexity
C01.
C02.
C03.
C04.

Using a PC takes too much time from my normalduties.


Workingwith PCs is so complicated, it is difficultto understandwhat is going on.
Using a PC involves too much time doing mechanical operations (e.g., data input).
It takes too long to learn how to use a PC to make it worththe effort.
Near-TermConsequences: Job Fit*

JF1.
JF2.
JF3.
JF4.
JF5.
JF6.
LT1.
LT2.
LT3.
LT4.
LT5.
LT6.
FC1.
FC2.
FC3.
FC4.
UT1.
UT2.
UT3.

Use of a PC will have no effect on the performanceof my job (reverse scored).


Use of a PC can decrease the time needed for my importantjob responsibilities.
Use of a PC can significantlyincrease the qualityof output of my job.
Use of a PC can increase the effectiveness of performingjob tasks (e.g., analysis).
A PC can increase the quantityof output for same amount of effort.
Consideringall tasks, the general extent to which use of PC could assist on job.
Long-Term Consequences
PC will increase the level of challenge on my job.
PC will increase the opportunityfor preferredfuturejob assignments.
PC will increase the amount of varietyon my job.
PC will increase the opportunityfor more meaningfulworko
PC will increase the flexibilityof changing jobs.
PC will increase the opportunityto gain job security.
Facilitating Conditions
Guidance is available to me in the selection of hardwareand software.
A specific person (or group) is available for assistance with software difficulties.
Specialized instructionconcerning the popularsoftware is available to me.
A specific person (or group) is available for assistance with hardwaredifficulties.
Utilization
The intensityof job-relatedPC use (minutes per day, at work).
The frequency of PC use.
The diversityof software packages used for work(numberof packages).
Use
Use
Use
Use
Use
Use

of a
of a
of a
of a
of a
of a

*The instructionsto the respondents for these items were: "Inthis section we wish to determinehow
useful you believe a personal computercould be for your currentjob responsibilities.Please tell us
how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements (1 = strongly diagree;
2= somewhat disagree; 3= neitheragree nor disagree; 4= somewhat agree; 5= stronglyagree)."
(Note: the instructionsand scale anchors differedfor other constructs.)

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Utilization
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my currentposition,use of a PC could substantially decrease the time needed to performmy


importantjob responsibilities,"were developed
specificallyforthis study, using the workof Floyd
(1986) and Schultzand Slevin (1975)as a guide.
A five-point,Likert-type
scale was employed,with
anchorsrangingfromstronglydisagreeto strongly agree.
The long-termconsequences of PC use were
measuredusing a shortenedversionof the scale
developed by Beatty (1986) for her study investigating the use of CAD/CAMsystems. Six
items relevantto the use of PCs were identified,
and a five-point scale was employed. The
respondentswere asked to indicatewhetherthey
thought that using a PC would decrease or increase each particular
workoutcome,such as the
opportunityforpreferredfuturejob assignments.
The scale anchors were: (1) extreme decrease,
(2) slight decrease, (3) neither increase nor
decrease, (4) slight increase, and (5) extreme
increase.
Facilitatingconditions were operationalizedin
terms of technical supportfor PC use, withfour
questions adapted from Amoroso (1986). The
respondents were asked to give their level of
agreementor disagreementwithfourstatements:
(1) guidanceis availableforthe selectionof hardware and software; (2) a specific person is
availableforassistance withsoftwaredifficulties;
(3) specialized instructionis availableforpopular
software packages; and (4) a specific person is
available for hardwareproblems. A five-point,
Likert-typescale was employed, rangingfrom 1
(stronglydisagree) to 5 (stronglyagree).
The utilizationof PCs scale was takenfromPavri
(1988),who in turnbased his measurementscale
on the work of Cheney (1984) and Raymond
(1985).Threedimensionswere suggested forthe
utilizationof PCs:(1) intensityof use, (2)frequency of use, and (3) diversityof softwarepackages
used. Intensityof use was measured by giving
the respondenta selectionof fivetimecategories
for daily use rangingfromless than 15 minutes
(category1) to morethan 120 minutes(category
5). Frequencyof use was operationalizedwith
fourcategories, rangingfromless than once per
week to several times a day. The diversityof use
was calculated by counting those software
packages forwhichthe responseforextentof use
was "to some extent" or greater (3, 4, or 5 on
a five-pointscale).

Sample
The studywas conductedin a largemultinational
manufacturing
organization.The populationof interest was knowledge workers (defined as
managers or professionals)who used a PC in
their jobs. The study excluded individualswho
were requiredto use a PC. Four hundredand
fifty-five questionnaires were distributed
throughout the organization. A total of 278
questionnaires were returned, for a gross
response rate of 61 percent. Thirty-six
respondents reported that they did not have
access to a PC, nine respondentsdid notanswer
questions concerning PC utilization,and 21 individualsindicatedthatthey were requiredto use
a PC as part of their jobs. These respondents
were removed, leaving a final sample of 212
knowledge workers(a net response rate of 47
percent). The respondents represented a wide
varietyof job classificationsacross the nine divisions of this organization.Ninetypercent of the
respondentswere male, and more than 70 percent held undergraduateor graduate degrees.
The majorityof respondents were between 30
and 50 years of age (60 percent), with the remainder being split roughly between those
youngerthan30 and olderthan50. About43 percent of respondentsclassified theirjob function
as engineer or professional, 32 percent as
managerialor supervisory,20 percent as staff
specialist, and 5 percentas executive. Descriptive statisticsrelatingto the respondents'utilization of PCs are shown in Tables 2 and 3.

Procedure
A contact person within the participating
organization arranged for the distributionof
questionnairesto managers and professionals
who used PCs to some extent. The survey
package contained a cover letter from the
organizationas well as a cover letter from the
researchers. All respondents were guaranteed
confidentialityof individualresponses, and only
summary statistics were returnedto the participatingorganization.One follow-upletterwas
sent to non-respondents.
The datawerecollectedusingthe DISKQmethod
developed by Higgins,et al. (1987).This method
replaces the traditionalpencil-and-papersurvey
withan interactivequestionnairepresentedon a

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Table 2. Intensity and Diversity of Use of Personal Computers by Respondents


Diversity of Use**

Measure

Intensity of Use*

Firstquartile;
Median:
Thirdquartile:

30 - 45 minutes
60 - 90 minutes
> 120 minutes

1 package
2 packages
3 packages

Range:

< 15 min. to > 120 min.

1 to 5 packages

Table 3. Frequency of Use of Personal Computers by Respondents


Measure

Frequency of Use

Percent

4
49
53

2%
23%
25%

106

50%

1. Once or twice per month


2. Once or twice per week
3. About once per day
4.

Several times per day

*Minutesper day, home and office use.


PC. In their research on DISKQ,Higgins, et al.
(1987) demonstrated that it was an efficient
technique that obtained higher response rates
than traditionalmethods. They also showed no
statistical differences in answers to socially
desirable and highly personal questions.
The use of the DISKQmethod could raise the
possibilityof non-response(selection)bias. Ifwe
had includednon-users in the study, then selection bias woulddefinitelybe a concern. Since we
includedonlythose who used PCs, however,we
believe the potentialfor bias was minimized.

Data analysis
To test the research hypotheses, partialleast
squares (PLS) analysis was used. PLS is a
regression-based technique, with roots in path
analysis (Pedhazur, 1982; Wold, 1985). It has
emerged as a powerful approach to studying
causal models involvingmultipleconstructswith
multiplemeasures. Ithas been used in marketing
(Barclay,1986),organizationalbehavior(Higgins
and Duxbury,forthcoming;Howelland Higgins,
1990), and MIS(Grant,1989; Rivardand Huff,
1988).
Fornell(1982; 1984) refersto techniquessuch as
PLS and its close cousin LISREL(Joreskogand
Sorbom,1981)as second generationmultivariate
analysis techniques. These second generation

134

**Numberof differentsoftware packages used.


techniquesare superiorto traditionalregression
and factoranalysis because the items measuring a construct(i.e., the measurementmodel)are
assessed withinthe context of the theoretical
model. Incontrast,computingfactorscores and
importingthem intoa regressionmodelassumes
thatthe scores are portable,an assumptionthat
Fornell(1982) argues is not tenable.
PLSallowsone to do a combinedregressionand
principalcomponents factor analysis withinthe
same statisticaltechnique. The factorstructure
is a resultof the simultaneousassessment of item
intercorrelations within the context of the
hypothesized relationships between the constructs. If the PLS model is run with no
hypothesizedpaths, the factorpatternmatrixis
identicalto that obtained using principalcomponents analysis. The computer programused
forthis analysiswas LVPLS1.6 (LatentVariables
Path Analysis using Partial Least Squares),
developed by Lohmoller(1981). For more informationon PLS, the interested reader can refer
to Fornell(1982; 1984) and Wold (1985).

Test of measures
The internalconsistency of the measurement
model was assessed by computingCronbach's
coefficientsare displayed
alphas.These reliability
for each of the constructsin Table 4. The Cron-

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Table 4. Factor Pattern Matrixof Measurement Scales Using PLS Analysis


Measure

Construct
3
4

Cronbach's
Alpha

C01
C02
C03
C04

.69
.80
.36
.59

.26
.17
.25
.19

.25
.04
.11
.11

.37
.37
.20
.26

.13
.18
.03
.06

.12
.05

.20
.23

.01
-.07

.10
.17

2. Job Fit

JF1
JF2
JF3
JF4
JF5
JF6

.30
.14
.18
.24
.31
.34

.44
.53
.80
.61
.49
.90

.12
.22
.25
.29
.24
.22

.34
.30
.42
.38
.39
.50

.27
.19
.13
.17
.14
.22

.12
.19
.11
.12
.11
.12

.17
.20
.31
.23
.19
.34

.82

3. Long-Term
Consequences

LT1
LT2
LT3
LT4
LT5
LT6

.02
.16
.09
.18
.03
.10

.19
.15
.18
.23
.17
.13

.73
.53
.68
.79
.50
.45

.27
.20
.28
.29
.17
.23

.18
.16
.10
.17
.06
.10

.15
.00
.00
.05
-.08
.02

.18
.13
.17
.20
.12
.11

.76

.61

1. Complexity

4. Affect

5. Social Factors

AF1

.40

.40

.40

.65

.27

.16

.21

AF2

.28

.26

.21

.29

.12

.09

.09

AF3

.43

.48

.32

.95

.24

.09

.30

.60

SF1

.12

.11

.07

.22

.78

.18

.30

SF2

.18

.15

.19

.16

.50

.29

.10

SF3
SF4

.17
.05

.19
.15

.30
.15

.23
.08

.68
.54

.31
.58

.11
.11

6. Facilitating
Conditions

FC1
FC2
FC3
FC4

.03
.06
.12
.04

.14
.12
.13
.09

.01
.10
.09
.12

.07
.10
.12
.12

.31
.39
.37
.37

.76
.88
.78
.90

.07
.06
.07
.14

.86

7. Utilization

UT1
UT2
UT3

.25
.23
.16

.35
.35
.13

.24
.19
.13

.29
.28
.14

.26
.25
.21

.10
.13
- .01

.90
.85
.51

.64

bach's alphavalues rangefrom.60 (forcomplexity)to .86 (forfacilitatingconditions).The lower


reliabilitiesforthe scales can be partlyattributed
to the small number of items in the scales
because the calculationof Cronbach'salpha is
affected by scale length. Given the exploratory

.65

natureof the study,the scales were deemed adequate to continuebut indicatethatfuturestudies


should develop stronger measures.
The primarycriterionfor discriminantvalidityis
that each indicatormust load more highlyon its

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135

Utilizationof Personal Computers

associatedconstructthanon any otherconstruct.


Table 4 provides the factor pattern matrixthat
shows the loadingsof each itemon allconstructs.
Forthose unfamiliarwithPLS,the factorpattern
matrixcan be interpretedin the same manneras
principalcomponents factor analysis. Withone
exception,the conditionsfordiscriminantvalidity
were satisfied, indicating that the measures
distinguishedbetweenconstructs.Thisexception
occurredbetween two constructs,social factors
and facilitatingconditions,where one item(SF4)
loaded slightly higher on facilitatingconditions
(see Table 4).
To providea comparison with more traditional
techniques, the results froman exploratoryfactoranalysis(usingprincipalcomponentsanalysis)
are displayedinTable5. Several differencesare
apparent.First,the analysis extractedeight factors instead of seven. The extra factor (column
6, items LT5,LT6)appears to be a component
of long-term consequences, although an examinationof the questions did not indicate any
substantivereasonforthis result.A moreserious
problem occurred between social factors and
facilitatingconditionswheretwo items(SF2, SF4)
loadedmorehighlyon facilitatingconditionsthan
on social factors.A thirditem, SF3, also loaded
highlyon bothfactors.Thisresultis also apparent
in Table 4, although it was not as serious. The
problemis likelya result of our operationalizationof facilitatingconditionsas technicalsupport.
Itappears that for many respondents, technical
supportmay be indistinguishablefromorganizational support(or norms)for PC utilization.
These results demonstrate some of the differences between PLS and traditionaltechniques. First, PLS performsa restrictedfactor
analysis in the sense that the analysis is limited
to the number of user-defined factors (constructs).This is similarto specifyingthe number
of factors to be extracted using factor analysis
(for example, using the "N=" option on the

FACTORprocedure of SAS). Second, both


techniques identifyweaknesses in discriminant
validitybetweenthe social factorsand facilitating
conditionsconstructs, althoughthe exploratory
factor analysis indicates that the weakness is
moresevere. As a general comment,we believe
that more weight should be given to the results
producedby second generationtechniquessuch
as PLS. Factor analysis is atheoretical in the
sense that the factors are constructed without

136

referenceto the nomologicalnetworkin whichthe


factorsare being used. However,factorsget their
meaning from the empirical data and the
theoretical model in which they are imbedded
(Bagozzi and Phillips,1982). Thus, PLS, by explicitlyconsideringthe measurementand structural models simultaneously, provides a more
inthe
completeanalysisforthe inter-relationships
model (Fornell,1982).
Table 6 presents the intercorrelationsbetween
the constructs obtained fromthe PLS analysis.
This table indicates, as expected, some
multicollinearitybetween social factors and
facilitatingconditionsand between affectand the
three perceived consequences constructs.

Results
Table 7 shows the path coefficients, which are
standardizedregression coefficients, generated
fromthe PLS analysis. Jackknifing(Fornelland
Barclay, 1983) was used to calculate the
statistical significance levels for these coefficients. This is a non-parametrictechnique that
does not requirethe usual assumptions of normalityassociated with regression models.
The tests of hypotheses providemoderatesupport for our model of PC utilizationbased on
Triandis'(1980) theory of behavior.Fourof the
six hypothesizedrelationshipswere statistically
significant(p < .01), and the amountof variance
in utilizationexplained by the model was 24
percent.
Support was found for Hypothesis 1, which
postulatedthat social factorswouldpositivelyinfluence the utilizationof PCs (path = .22; p <
.005). Hypothesis2 was not supported.The path
fromaffect to utilizationwas .02, which was not
statistically significant. For Hypothesis 3, as
predicted,there was a significant,negative relationshipbetween perceptions about complexity
of use and the utilizationof PCs (path = -.14; p
< .01). Similarly,Hypothesis4, whichstated that
jobfitwouldbe a predictorof utilization,was supportedby the results (path = .26; p < .005). For
Hypothesis5, the path coefficientbetween longterm consequences and utilizationwas positive
and statisticallysignificant(path = .10; p < .01),
providingsupportforthe hypothesis.Facilitating
conditions(Hypothesis6) had a small, negative
whichwas notstatistically
influenceon utilization,
significant (path = -.04).

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Table 5. Principal Components Analysis of Measurement Scales


Measure

Factor
4
5

JF5
JF6

.51
.67
.74
.77
.79
.74

.04
.17
.01
.07
.10
- .01

.03
-.02
.15
.22
.10
.03

.23
.11
-.01
.10
.24
.20

-.08
.15
.14
.05
.01
.19

-10
.19
.06
.05
.06
.04

Facilitating
Conditions

FC1
FC2
FC3
FC4

.15
.07
.01
.05

.77
.87
.77
.82

-.21
.04
.07
.12

-.02
-.07
.05
-.02

.04
-.01
.04
.01

Long-Term

LT1
LT2
LT3
LT4
LT5
LT6

.17
- .01
.03

.08
.03
-.05

.61
.61
.70

-.10
.22
-.05

.18
.14

.04
-.12

.76
.47

.11
.01

.15

-.03

.22

Job Fit

Consequences

Complexity

Utilization

Affect

Social Factors

JF1
JF2
JF3
JF4

CO1
C02
C03
C04

.26

-.05
.28

.11

.11

.14

-.03

.01

-.08

.46

-.08

.20
.06

.12
.09

.13

.01

.16

.14

.14
-.06
-.13
-.10

.11
.06
.01
.07

-.04
.04
.06
.01

.04
- .01
.08

.10
.33
.07

.06
.04

.04
02

.15

.08

.10
.08

-.02
'.66'

.05

.741

.08
.03
.12

- .07
-.11
-.06

.26

- .08

.65

.06

.03

-.06

.48

.25

.07

.02

-.03

.61

.05

.01

.03

.73

.03

.01

.05

.04
.04

.01

.01

.20
-.38

.12
.34

.68
.76

.23
-.01

-.12

-.05

.16
-.12

.42
-.02

.05

UT1
UT2

.25
.11

.03
.06

.09
.08

.14
.01

.83
.83

UT3

.07

- .03

.21

.20

.49

AF1
AF2

.27
.12

.13
.10

.28
.15

.08
.21

.10
.05

AF3

.32

.19

.31

.20

-.02

.41

.26

SF1

.17
.05

-.02
- .08

-.11
.07

.17
.07

-.07
.55

.10
.17

.69
.40

.02

.41

SF2
SF3
SF4

-.07

.09
.43

-.02

.10
.14

.05

.34

.32

.17

.03

.12

.03

.72

.01

.02

.01

.38

In this study, a theory proposed by Triandis


(1980)was adoptedas a basis forexaminingthe
strength of differentcomponents of expected
consequences of use on PC utilization,as well

-.09

.20

as the relativeinfluenceof social factors, affect,


and facilitating conditions. Specifically, the
findingsshowed that social factors, complexity,
job fit, and long-termconsequences had significant effects on PC use. There was no evidence

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137

Utilizationof Personal Computers

Table 6. Intercorrelations Between Constructs


Construct

intercorrelations
4
5
3

1.00

1. Complexity
2. Job fit

.28

1.00

3. Long-TermConsequences
4. Affect

.17

.28

1.00

.48

.52

.39

1.00

5. Social Factors

.19

.21

.24

.28

1.00

6. FacilitatingConditions
7. Utilization

.07

.14

.11

.13

.43

1.00

.28

.38

,25

.32

.31

.11

1.00

Table 7. Tests of Hypotheses Based on Path Coefficients


Path Coefficient

Hypothesis
H1. Social Factors to Utilization

.22**

H2. Affect to Utilization

.02
-.14**

H3. Near-TermComplexityto Utilization


H4. Near-TermJob Fit to Utilization

.26**
.10*

H5. Long-TermConsequences to Utilization


H6. FacilitatingConditionsto Utilization

-.04

R2 = .24
*p < .01;*p

p < .005

thataffectand facilitatingconditions(as defined)


influenced PC use.
The modelproposedby Triandis(1980) includes
habits as one factor influencing behavior. As
discussed, we did not include habits withinthis
study because there was not a clear distinction
between the independentvariable(habitsof PC
use) and the dependent variable(PC use). Undoubtedly,the amountof variance explained in
utilizationwouldhave increasedif we could have
operationalizedhabits without introducingproblems of discriminant validity. We can be
reasonably confident, however, that withinthe
context of this study, factors other than habits
have a significantinfluence on PC utilization.
This study was an initialtest of Triandis'theory
withinthe IS context. Several limitationsof the
work are apparent and must be considered in

138

futuretests of this theory. First,the respondents


were from one organization. Hence, the
of these resultsto otherorganizageneralizability
tions remainsto be determined.A second limitation is that utilizationwas operationalizedbased
on the perceptionsof our respondents. A better
approach would have been to obtain precise
usage statisticsthroughan electronicmonitorto
confirm or disconfirm the perceptions of the
respondents.Thisapproachhas been suggested
by many IS researchers (e.g., Robey, 1979).
However, it is currentlydifficultto implement
monitorson PCs, essentially makingit feasible
only with mainframe-basedsystems.
A third limitationrelates to our measurement
model. First,there was the problemof discriminant validity between social factors and
facilitatingconditions.Triandisdefines facilitating
conditions as objective factors that make a

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Utilizationof Personal Computers

behavioreasy to do. Forexample, one important


facilitatingconditionis the ease withwhichan individualcan access a PC. Others include the
ease withwhichsoftwareor hardwareupgrades
can be purchased or the extent to which home
computersare offeredas partof the job package.
In retrospect, it appears that technical support
is only one type of facilitatingcondition;others
shouldhave been included.Infact,technicalsupportprovidedby the organizationappears to be
closely related to social factors. Clearly, if the
organizationhas positive normsconcerning PC
use, it would be predisposed to providing
technical support. Finally,the affect construct
needs to be revisited.Whilewe believe that the
items chosen in this study measure affect, they
do not measure all possible facets of affect
towardPC use. Thisscale needs to be bolstered
by includingother items.
Turningto the results, the relationshipbetween
social factorsand utilizationis positiveand significant. This is consistent withTriandis'theory as
well as the theoryof reasoned action proposed
by Fishbeinand Azjen(1975). However,the nonsignificantrelationshipbetweenaffectand utilization is inconsistent with Triandis'theory. One
possible explanationis that PCs do not evoke
strong emotions, either positive or negative,
among managers or professionals. If PCs are
seen simply as tools, and not as technology to
be liked or disliked,then affect would not have
an impact.This resultis inconsistentwithDavis,
et al. (1989),who finda significant,positiverelationshipbetween affect (attitude)and behavioral
intentions.The differencesmay be a resultof the
varying contexts being studied. Davis, et al.'s
research lookedat affectto a particularsoftware
package,whilewe examinedthe like/dislikecomponent to using PCs in general. Itis more likely,
however, that the observed differences are a
result of the different theoretical structures.
Davis, et al. measured the indirectinfluenceof
affect on usage through intentions, while our
model employs a direct linkfromaffect to use.
Althoughthe affective component of attitudes
was not significantlyrelated to utilization,the
cognitivecomponentsas measuredby perceived
consequences were significantpredictorsof PC
utilization.The negative relationshipbetween
complexityand utilizationis consistentwithmany
previousstudies (Davis, et al., 1989; Tornatzky

and Klein,1982).The strongpositiverelationship


betweenjob fitand utilizationwas also expected
and supports previous research (Davis, et al.,
1989; Robey, 1979). The relationshipbetween
long-termconsequences and utilizationwas also
significantbut weaker than the path fromnearterm consequences to utilization.The weaker
relationshipfor long-termconsequences is consistent with expectancy theory (Porter and
Lawler,1968). A key component of this theory
states that payoffs that occur closer to the
behaviorare moremotivatingthan payoffsin the
future.Thus, near-termconseqeunces wouldbe
more likelyto motivate PC use than long-term
consequences.
Intheirtechnologyacceptance model, Davis, et
al. (1989) find a stronger relationshipbetween
perceived usefulness and utilizationthan between ease of use and utilization.Ourresultsare
similarin that job fit (operationalizedsimilarto
Davis, et al.'s perceived usefulness) was a
strongerpredictorof utilizationthan complexity
(similar to Davis, et al.'s ease of use when
reversed scored). The stronger link between
perceived usefulness and utilizationthan between affectand utilizationfoundby Davis,et al.
is consistent with our results, although, as
discussed previously,affect was not significant
in our research.
The small, negative relationship between
facilitating conditions (operationalized as
technicalsupport)and PC utilizationis inconsistent withmost previousstudies (Amoroso,1986;
Jobber and Watts, 1986; Lucas, 1978). We cannot conclude, however,that there is no relationconditionsand utilization
ship betweenfacilitating
because we only measured one aspect of
facilitatingconditions. As noted earlier, other
measures of facilitatingconditionsshould have
been used, such as ease of access to a PC
and/orease of purchasingsoftwareor hardware
Davis,et al. (1989)do not
upgrades.Interestingly,
find a significant effect of accessibility on
behavior in their study. They reasoned that
accessibilitywas notan issue forthe respondents
in their research. This suggests that the operationalizationof facilitatingconditions must take
context intoaccount. Inotherwords,if everyone
has a PC on his or herdesk, then facilitatingconditionsoperationalizedas access wouldnot have
any variance.

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139

Utilizationof Personal Computers

Managerial Implications

concerning the difficultyof using a PC may


decrease.

It is interestingto speculate whether any of the


variables in this study could be influenced by
managementaction. Inthis respect, Cheney, et
al. (1986) identifyseveral factors that they believed influencethe "success" of end-usercomputing(EUC).These factorswere then classified
as controllable,partiallycontrollable,and uncontrollable.Cheney, et al. suggest thatfocusing on
controllableor partiallycontrollablefactorswould
lead to a stronger potential to influence EUC

In addition to providing implications for


managers, this study has providedpossibilities
forfutureresearch.One such possibilityinvolves
the role of experience with personal computers
and the concept of the relativeinfluence of differentfactorschanging as experience changes.
Triandis(1980)arguesthatexperienceinfluences
expected consequences of behaviors. The influence of experience on expected consequences could be tested by comparingthe paths
in the modelacross samples of experiencedand
inexperiencedPC users. Triandis(1971)also proposes that experience changes the influenceof
other factors, such as social norms. Withinthis
context, it could be hypothesizedthat normsexert a strong influence on utilizationfor inexperienced users but less influenceon utilization
for more experienced users.

success.

One partiallycontrollable factor may be the


beliefs about the level of correspondence between job tasks and the PC environment(i.e., job
fit).Specifically,communicationaimedat increasing the awareness of potentialapplicationsof PC
technologyforcurrentjob positionsmayinfluence
the perception of job fit. Similarly,education
aimed at strengthening the expected consequences of using PCs, such as greater effectiveness and efficiency in performing job
functions, could have a positive influence on
utilization.
Enhancingthe perceived relationshipbetween
job tasks and PC utilizationcould be accomplished throughrole models. Inhis workon social
learningtheory, Bandura(1986) postulates that
role models could positivelyinfluenceinnovation
adoption.Empiricalsupportforthis contentionis
providedby a multitudeof field and case studies
that link the presence of a champion-an individualwho enthusiasticallypromotesan innovation throughcriticalorganizationalstages-and
innovationsuccess (Achilladelis,et al., 1971;
Burgelman,1983; Ettlie,et al., 1984). Thus, encouraginghighlyregarded,visibleorganizational
members to use PCs may be an effective way
of championinguse throughoutthe organization.
Social factorsmayalso be a partiallycontrollable
factor; for example, it may be possible to influence norms by publicizingthe successes of
early adopters of technology.
Another partially controllable factor may be
perceptionsaboutthe complexityof using a PCo
Specifically, training aimed at reducing the
perceived difficultyof using a PC could have a
positive influence on actual use. This is also
relatedto experience levels and learningcurves;
as individualsgain experiencewithdifferentsoftware packages, for example, their perceptions

In conclusion, this research has provided a


numberof contributions,the most significantbeing the testing of Triandis'(1980) theory within
the IS context. The results suggest that future
research on computer utilizationwithinthe IS
context can productivelyuse Triandis'workas
a frame of reference.

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the associate
editor and the anonymous reviewers for their
helpfulcomments on this article.

References
Achilladelis,B., Jervis, P., and Robertson,A. A
Studyof Success and Failurein IndustrialInnovation,Universityof Sussex Press, Sussex,
England, 1971.
Amoroso, D. Effectiveness of End-User
DevelopedApplicationsin Organizations:An
EmpiricalInvestigation,unpublisheddoctoral
dissertation, Universityof Georgia, Athens,
GA, 1986.
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About the Authors


Ronald L. Thompson is assistant professor in
the Universityof Vermont'sSchool of Business
Administration.He completed his Ph.D. in
business administrationat the University of
WesternOntarioand formerlytaught MISat the
Universityof Calgary's Facultyof Managment.
He also has several years' experience in various
managementpositionswithina majorCanadian
bank. He has presented papers at various national and internationalconferences and has
publishedin Informationand Managementand
the Journalof Creative Behaviour. His current
researchinterestsfocus on the adoptionof informationtechnology by individualsand organizations and the measurement of the contribution
of IS to the organization.
Christopher A. Higgins is associate professor
in the management science and information
systems group of the School of Business Administration,the Universityof Western Ontario.
He holds a Ph.D. and master's of mathematics
from the Universityof Waterlooand has published articles in the Communicationsof the
ACM, Administrative Science Quarterly,

142 MIS Quarterly/March1991

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Utilization
of PerrsonalComputers

Dynamics,TheJournalof Applied
Organizational
Psychology, Sloan ManagementReview, ACM
Transactionson OfficeInformation
Systems, and
OfficeTechnologyand People. The primaryfocus
of his researchis the impactof technologyon individualsand organizations.Specificresearchinterests include computerized monitoring,
organizationalchampions,and the impactof personal computers on work and family life.
Jane M. Howell is assistant professor in the
organizationbehavior group of the School of

Business Administrationat the University of


WesternOntario.Followingfouryears of human
resource management experience, she earned
her master'sdegree in psychologyat the University of WesternOntarioand then went on to complete a Ph.D. in business administrationat the
Universityof BritishColumbia.She has published
articles in AdministrativeScience Quarterly,
Dynamics,and Business QuarterOrganizational
ly. Hercurrentresearch focuses on champions
and innovation,transformational
leadership,and
managerialuse of personal computers.

MIS Quarterly/March1991 143

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