Strength of Materials
Contents
Chapter 1: Stress and Strain
Chapter  2 : Principal Stress and Strain
Chapter  3 : Moment of Inertia and Centroid
Chapter  4 : Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram
Chapter  5 : Deflection of Beam
Chapter  6 : Bending Stress in Beam
Chapter  7 : Shear Stress in Beam
Chapter  8 : Fixed and Continuous Beam
Chapter  9 : Torsion
Chapter10 : Thin Cylinder
Chapter11 : Thick Cylinder
Chapter12 : Spring
Chapter13 : Theories of Column
Chapter14 : Strain Energy Method
Chapter15 : Theories of Failure
Chapter16 : Riveted and Welded Joint
S K Mondal
IES Officer (Railway), GATE topper, NTPC ET2003 batch,
12 years teaching experienced, Author of Hydro Power
Familiarization (NTPC Ltd)
Page 1 of 431
Note
Asked Objective Questions is the total collection of questions from:21 yrs IES (20121992) [Engineering Service Examination]
21 yrs. GATE (20121992)
and 14 yrs. IAS (Prelim.) [Civil Service Preliminary]
Every effort has been made to see that there are no errors (typographical or otherwise) in the
material presented. However, it is still possible that there are a few errors (serious or
otherwise). I would be thankful to the readers if they are brought to my attention at the
following email address: swapan_mondal_01@yahoo.co.in
S K Mondal
Page 2 of 431
1.
It uses original cross section area of the specimen and also known as engineering stress or
conventional stress.
Therefore, T
P
A
P is expressed in Newton (N) and A, original area, in square meters (m2), the stress will be
expresses in N/ m2. This unit is called Pascal (Pa).
106
Pa =
106 N/
m2
N/mm2
Tt
P
10 kN
10q103 N
100N/mm2 100MPa
2
A 10 mm q10 mm
100 mm
The resultant of the internal forces for an axially loaded member is
normal to a section cut perpendicular to the member axis.
The force intensity on the shown section is defined as the normal stress.
%F
P
T lim
and Tavg
%Al 0 %A
A
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Shear stress ( U )
When forces are transmitted from one part of a body to other, the stresses
developed in a plane parallel to the applied force are the shear stress. Shear
stress acts parallel to plane of interest. Forces P is applied
transversely to the member AB as shown. The corresponding
internal forces act in the plane of section C and are called shearing
forces. The corresponding average shear stress U
P
Area
1.2 Strain ()
The displacement per unit length (dimensionless) is
known as strain.
Tensile strain ( F t)
Ft
Compressive strain ( F c)
If the applied force is compressive then the reduction of length per unit length is known
as compressive strain. It is negative. Then c = (L)/ Lo
Let us take an example: A rod 100 mm in original length. When we apply an axial compressive
load 10 kN the final length of the rod after application of the load is 99 mm. So in this rod a
compressive strain is developed and is given by
Page 4 of 431
Chapter1
Fc
S K Mondals
%L L Lo 99 mm 100 mm 1mm
0.01 (Dimensionless)compressive
100 mm
100 mm
Lo
Lo
Shear Strain ( H ): When a
force P is applied tangentially to
the element shown. Its edge
displaced to dotted line. Where
E is
(H )
E
L
Let us take an example: A block 100 mm 100 mm base and 10 mm height. When we apply a
tangential force 10 kN to the upper edge it is displaced 1 mm relative to lower face.
Then the direct shear stress in the element
(U )
10 kN
10q103 N
1 N/mm2 1 MPa
100 mmq100 mm 100 mmq100 mm
1mm
0.1 Dimensionless
10 mm
TT
load
Instantaneous area
Where
and
T 1 F
True strain
L
FT
Lo
L
A
d
dl
ln ln 1 F
ln o 2ln o
Lo
A
d
l
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In true stressstrain curve, the stress however increases after necking since the crosssectional area of the specimen decreases rapidly after necking.
The flow curve of many metals in the region of uniform plastic deformation can be
expressed by the simple power law.
T = K(T)n
Relation between the ultimate tensile strength and true stress at maximum
load
The ultimate tensile strength Tu
Pmax
Ao
Pmax
A
Ao
or
Ao
e FT
A
Pmax Pmax Ao
q
Tu e FT
A
Ao
A
or not?
Page 6 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
125
dl
ln
0.223
100
l
FT
Lo
Ao
50
ln 0.223
40
A
FT
ln
or not?
be
fracture also.)
used
for
the
Ao
50
ln 0.357
35
A
FT
ln
L
But not FT
Lo
140
dl
ln
0.336 (it is wrong)
100
l
A relationship similar to that for length changes holds for threedimensional (volume) change. For
volumetric strain, Fv
, the relationship is Fv
= (VV0)/V0 or Fv
= V/V0
P
K
Where V is the final volume, V0 is the original volume, and V is the volume change.
Volumetric strain is a ratio of values with the same units, so it also is a dimensionless
quantity.
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S K Mondals
p
Where p is pressure.
K
PL
=
A
W
PL
1.7 Modulus of rigidity or Shear modulus of elasticity (G) = =
J
AG
'p
'v
v
'p
'R
R
2G 1 P
3K 1 2P
9KG
3K G
[VIMP]
For a linearly elastic, isotropic and homogeneous material, the number of elastic
constants required to relate stress and strain is two. i.e. any two of the four must be
known.
If the material is nonisotropic (i.e. anisotropic), then the elastic modulii will vary with
additional stresses appearing since there is a coupling between shear stresses and
normal stresses for an anisotropic material.
Let us take an example: The modulus of elasticity and rigidity of a material are 200 GPa and 80
GPa, respectively. Find all other elastic modulus.
2G 1 P 3K 1 2 P
9KG
we may find all other elastic modulus
3K G
easily
Poissons Ratio ( P ) :
Bulk Modulus (K) :
1 P
3K
E
2G
E
1 2P
E
200
1
1 0.25
2G
2 u 80
E
3 1 2 P
200
133.33GPa
3 1 2 u 0.25
x
x
The theory of isotropic elasticity allows Poisson's ratios in the range from 1 to 1/2.
Poisson's ratio in various materials
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S K Mondals
Material
Poisson's ratio
Material
Poisson's ratio
Steel
0.25 0.33
Rubber
0.48 0.5
C.I
0.23 0.27
Cork
Nearly zero
Concrete
0.2
Novel foam
negative
We use cork in a bottle as the cork easily inserted and removed, yet it also withstand the
pressure from within the bottle. Cork with a Poisson's ratio of nearly zero, is ideal in this
application.
Lo Original length
L f Final length
Initial thickness(t o )
e1 u e2
1.13 Elongation
PL
AE
Let us take an example: A Mild Steel wire 5 mm in diameter and 1 m long. If the wire is subjected
to an axial tensile load 10 kN find its extension of the rod. (E = 200 GPa)
PL
AE
10 u 1000N
Sd2
S u 0.005
Modulous of Elasticity (E )
Therefore Elongation(G )
1.963 u 105 m2
m2
10 u 1000 u 1
2.55 u 103 m
2.55 mm
Elongation of a bar of varying cross section A1, A2,,An of lengths l1, l2,ln respectively.
l
P l1 l2 l3
n
E A1 A2 A3
An
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Let us take an example: A composite rod is 1000 mm long, its two ends are 40 mm2 and 30 mm2 in
area and length are 300 mm and 200 mm respectively. The middle portion of the rod is 20 mm2 in
area and 500 mm long. If the rod is subjected to an axial tensile load of 1000 N, find its total
elongation. (E = 200 GPa).
Answer: Consider the following figure
P l1 l 2 l 3
E A1 A2 A3
300 mm 500 mm 200 mm
1000 N
u
3
2
200 u 10 N / mm 40 mm 2 20 mm 2 30 mm 2
0.196mm
4PL
S Ed1 d 2
PL
S
E d1 d 2
4
i.e.
PL
EA eq
Let us take an example: A round bar, of length L, tapers uniformly from small diameter d1 at one
end to bigger diameter d2 at the other end. Show that the extension produced by a tensile axial load
P is =
4PL
.
S d1 d 2 E
If d2 = 2d1, compare this extension with that of a uniform cylindrical bar having a diameter equal to
the mean diameter of the tapered bar.
Answer: Consider the figure below d1 be the radius at the smaller end. Then at a X cross section XX
located at a distance from the smaller end, the value of diameter dx is equal to
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dx
2
d1 x d 2 d1
2 L 2 2
x
or d x d1 d 2 d1
L
d1 1 kx
d 2 d1 1
u
L
d1
Where k
We now taking a small strip of diameter 'd x 'and length 'd x 'at section XX .
Elongation of this section 'd x ' length
d G
PL
AE
P .dx
S d x2
uE
4
4P .dx
2
S .^d1 1 kx ` E
d G
4P dx
S Ed 1 kx
2
1
x 0
4PL
S E d1d 2
Comparison: CaseI: Where d2 = 2d1
Elongation G I
4PL
S Ed1 u 2d1
2PL
S Ed12
dm
d1 d 2
2
d1 2d1
2
3
d1
2
2
16
9
Page 11 of 431
PL
AE
9
8
P .L
S 3
d1 .E
42
16PL
9S Ed12
Chapter1
S K Mondals
WL
=
2AE
The deformation of a bar under its own weight as compared to that when subjected to
a direct axial load equal to its own weight will be half.
(ii) Total extension produced in rod of length L due to its own weight X per with
length.
Z L2
2EA
1.14
U gL2
WL
2 Amax E
6E
Structural members or machines must be designed such that the working stresses are less
Working stress V w
Vy
n
V ult
n1
n=1.5 to 2
factor of safety
n1 2 to 3
Vp
n
Vp
Proof stress
V y or V p or V ult
Vw
If the elongation or contraction is not restricted, i. e. free then the material does not
experience any stress despite the fact that it undergoes a strain.
The strain due to temperature change is called thermal strain and is expressed as,
H
x
D 'T
The free expansion or contraction of materials, when restrained induces stress in the
material and it is referred to as thermal stress.
Page 12 of 431
Chapter1
D E 'T
Vt
x
S K Mondals
Thermal stress produces the same effect in the material similar to that of mechanical
stress. A compressive stress will produce in the material with increase in temperature
and the stress developed is tensile stress with decrease in temperature.
Let us take an example: A rod consists of two parts that are made of steel and copper as shown in
figure below. The elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion for steel are 200 GPa and
11.7 106 per C respectively and for copper 70 GPa and 21.6 106 per C respectively. If the
temperature of the rod is raised by 50C, determine the forces and stresses acting on the rod.
D 'T L
GT
6
1.1025 mm Compressive
But according to diagram only free expansion is 0.4 mm.
Therefore restrained deflection of rod =1.1025 mm 0.4 mm = 0.7025 mm
Let us assume the force required to make their elongation vanish be P which is the reaction force at
the ends.
PL
AE Steel
PL
AE Cu
P u 500
P u 750
2
2
S
S
9
9
u 0.075 u 200 u 10 u 0.050 u 70 u 10
4
4
or P 116.6 kN
or 0.7025
V Steel
P
ASteel
116.6 u 103
S
4
u 0.075
N/m2
26.39 MPa
V Cu
P
ACu
116.6 u 103
S
4
u 0.050
N/m2
59.38 MPa
Page 13 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Assumption:
Compatibility Equation:
G st G sf
1. L = Ls
G Bt G Bf
2. D b ! D s
Equilibrium Equation:
V s As
LB
3. Steel Tension
Brass Compression
V B AB
G sf = Expansion of the steel tube due to internal force developed by the unequal expansion.
= BD in the above figure.
G Bf = Compression of the brass rod due to internal force developed by the unequal expansion.
= BD in the above figure.
And in the equilibrium equation
Tensile force in the steel tube = Compressive force in the brass rod
Where, V s = Tensile stress developed in the steel tube.
Let us take an example: See the Conventional Question Answer section of this chapter and the
question is Conventional Question IES2008 and its answer.
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
Page 14 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
(i) V max
(ii) V max
UZ 2L2
2
and G L
and G L
UZ 2L3
12E
UZ 2L3
3E
1.18 Creep
When a member is subjected to a constant load over a long period of time it undergoes a slow
permanent deformation and this is termed as creep. This is dependent on temperature. Usually at
elevated temperatures creep is high.
The materials have its own different melting point; each will creep when the homologous
temperature > 0.5. Homologous temp =
Testing temperature
> 0.5
Melting temperature
c2
Creep strain at any time = zero time strain intercept + creep rate Time
c1 V c2 u t
= 0
Where,
c1 , c2 are constants V
stress
1.19 If a load P is applied suddenly to a bar then the stress & strain induced will be double
than those obtained by an equal load applied gradually.
Page 15 of 431
Chapter1
Vd
V 1 1
S K Mondals
2h
,
L
being stress & strain produced by static load P & L=length of bar.
A
2 AEh
1 1
P
PL
1.21 Loads shared by the materials of a compound bar made of bars x & y due to load W,
Px
W.
Py
W.
Ax Ex
Ax Ex Ay E y
Ay E y
Ax Ex Ay E y
PL
Ax Ex Ay E y
i)
True elastic limit: based on microstrain measurement at strains on order of 2 106. Very low
value and is related to the motion of a few hundred dislocations.
ii) Proportional limit: the highest stress at which stress is directly proportional to strain.
iii) Elastic limit: is the greatest stress the material can withstand without any measurable
permanent strain after unloading. Elastic limit > proportional limit.
iv) Yield strength is the stress required to produce a small specific amount of
deformation. The offset yield strength can be determined by the stress
corresponding to the intersection of the stressstrain curve and a line
parallel to the elastic line offset by a strain of 0.2 or 0.1%. ( H = 0.002 or
0.001).
Page 16 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
The offset yield stress is referred to proof stress either at 0.1 or 0.5% strain used for design
and specification purposes to avoid the practical difficulties of measuring the elastic limit or
proportional limit.
v) Tensile strength or ultimate tensile strength (UTS) V u is the maximum load Pmax divided
by the original crosssectional area Ao of the specimen.
vi) % Elongation,
Lf Lo
, is chiefly influenced by uniform elongation, which is dependent on the
Lo
Ao Af
Ao
Reduction of area is more a measure of the deformation required to produce failure and
its chief contribution results from the necking process.
Because of the complicated state of stress state in the neck, values of reduction of area
are dependent on specimen geometry, and deformation behaviour, and they should not be
taken as true material properties.
Page 17 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Let us take an example: A 10 mm diameter tensile specimen has a 50 mm gauge length. The load
corresponding to the 0.2% offset is 55 kN and the maximum load is 70 kN. Fracture occurs at 60 kN.
The diameter after fracture is 8 mm and the gauge length at fracture is 65 mm. Calculate the
following properties of the material from the tension test.
(i)
% Elongation
(ii)
Fracture strength
S
4
u 0.010 m2
2
u 0.008 m2
7.854 u 105 m2
5.027 u 105 m2
(i) % Elongation
L L0
u 100%
L0
65 50
u 100 30%
50
A0 Af
u 100%
A0
7.854 5.027
u 100%
7.854
Py
Ao
55 u 103
N/m2
5
7.854 u 10
PFracture
Ao
70 u 103
N/m2
5
7.854 u 10
700 MPa
60 u 103
N/m2
5
7.854 u 10
Pmax
Ao
36%
764MPa
Pmax / Ao
E
Page 18 of 431
891u 106
200 u 109
0.0045
891 MPa
Chapter1
(vii) Plastic strain H P H total H E
1.25 Elasticity
This is the property of a material to regain its original shape
after deformation when the external forces are removed. When
the material is in elastic region the strain disappears
completely after removal of the load, The stressstrain
relationship in elastic region need not be linear and can be
nonlinear (example rubber). The maximum stress value below
which the strain is fully recoverable is called the elastic limit.
It is represented by point A in figure. All materials are elastic
to some extent but the degree varies, for example, both mild
steel and rubber are elastic materials but steel is more elastic
than rubber.
1.26 Plasticity
When the stress in the material exceeds the elastic limit, the
material enters into plastic phase where the strain can no
longer be completely removed. Under plastic conditions
materials ideally deform without any increase in stress. A
typical stress strain diagram for an elasticperfectly plastic
material is shown in the figure. MisesHenky criterion gives a
good starting point for plasticity analysis.
Page 19 of 431
S K Mondals
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Page 20 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Two identical circular rods of same diameter and same length are subjected to same magnitude
of axial tensile force. One of the rods is made out of mild steel having the modulus of elasticity
of 206 GPa. The other rod is made out of cast iron having the modulus of elasticity of 100 GPa.
Assume both the materials to be homogeneous and isotropic and the axial force causes the same
amount of uniform stress in both the rods. The stresses developed are within the proportional
limit of the respective materials. Which of the following observations is correct?[GATE2003]
(a) Both rods elongate by the same amount
(b) Mild steel rod elongates more than the cast iron rod
(c)
Cast iron rod elongates more than the mild steel rod
(d) As the stresses are equal strains are also equal in both the rods
GATE2.
The ultimate tensile strength of a material is 400 MPa and the elongation up to maximum load
is 35%. If the material obeys power law of hardening, then the true stresstrue strain relation
(stress in MPa) in the plastic deformation range is:
[GATE2006]
(a) 540 0.30
(b) 775 0.30
(c) 540 0.35
(d) 775 0.35
An axial residual compressive stress due to a manufacturing process is present on the outer
surface of a rotating shaft subjected to bending. Under a given bending load, the fatigue life of
the shaft in the presence of the residual compressive stress is:
[GATE2008]
(a) Decreased
(b) Increased or decreased, depending on the external bending load
(c) Neither decreased nor increased
(d) Increased
GATE5.
A static load is mounted at the centre of a shaft rotating at uniform angular velocity. This shaft
will be designed for
[GATE2002]
(a) The maximum compressive stress (static)
(b) The maximum tensile stress (static)
(c) The maximum bending moment (static)
(d) Fatigue loading
GATE6.
Fatigue strength of a rod subjected to cyclic axial force is less than that of a rotating beam of
the same dimensions subjected to steady lateral force because
(a) Axial stiffness is less than bending stiffness
[GATE1992]
(b) Of absence of centrifugal effects in the rod
(c)
The number of discontinuities vulnerable to fatigue are more in the rod
(d) At a particular time the rod has only one type of stress whereas the beam has both the
tensile and compressive stresses.
Page 21 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
A rod of length L and diameter D is subjected to a tensile load P. Which of the following is
sufficient to calculate the resulting change in diameter?
(a) Young's modulus
(b) Shear modulus
[GATE2008]
(c) Poisson's ratio
(d) Both Young's modulus and shear modulus
GATE8.
In terms of Poisson's ratio () the ratio of Young's Modulus (E) to Shear Modulus (G) of elastic
materials is
[GATE2004]
(a) 2(1 )
GATE9.
1
(c) (1 )
2
(b) 2(1 )
(d )
1
(1 )
2
The relationship between Young's modulus (E), Bulk modulus (K) and Poisson's ratio () is
given by:
[GATE2002]
(a) E 3 K 1 2
(b) K 3 E 1 2
(c)
E 3 K 1
(d)
K 3 E 1
Assume Esteel = 200 GPa. The total change in length of the rod due to loading is:
(a) 1 m
(b) 10 m
(c) 16 m
(d) 20 m
GATE12. A bar having a crosssectional area of 700mm2 is subjected to axial loads at the positions
indicated. The value of stress in the segment QR is:
[GATE2006]
P
(a) 40 MPa
F.B.D
Q
(b) 50 MPa
R
(c) 70 MPa
Page 22 of 431
S
(d) 120 MPa
Chapter1
S K Mondals
[GATE2004]
GATE15. A uniform, slender cylindrical rod is made of a homogeneous and isotropic material. The rod
rests on a frictionless surface. The rod is heated uniformly. If the radial and longitudinal
thermal stresses are represented by r and z, respectively, then
[GATE2005]
(a) r 0, z 0
(b) r 0, z 0
(c) r 0, z 0
( d ) r 0, z 0
Thermal Effect
GATE15(i).
A solid steel cube constrained on all six faces is heated so that the temperature
rises uniformly by T. If the thermal coefficient of the material is , Youngs
modulus is E and the Poissons ratio is , the thermal stress developed in the cube
due to heating is
T E
2 T E
3 T E
T E
(a)
(b)
(c )
(d )
[GATE2012]
1
3 1 2
Tensile Test
GATE16. A test specimen is stressed slightly beyond the yield point and then unloaded. Its yield strength
will
[GATE1995]
(a) Decrease
(b) Increase
(c) Remains same
(d) Becomes equal to ultimate tensile strength
Page 23 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
[GATE1999]
A solid uniform metal bar of diameter D and length L is hanging vertically from its upper end.
The elongation of the bar due to self weight is:
[IES2005]
(a) Proportional to L and inversely proportional to D2
(b) Proportional to L2 and inversely proportional to D2
(c)
Proportional of L but independent of D
(d) Proportional of U but independent of D
IES2.
The deformation of a bar under its own weight as compared to that when subjected to a direct
axial load equal to its own weight will be:
[IES1998]
(a) The same
(b) Onefourth
(c) Half
(d) Double
IES3.
A rigid beam of negligible weight is supported in a horizontal position by two rods of steel and
aluminum, 2 m and 1 m long having values of cross  sectional areas 1 cm2 and 2 cm2 and E of
200 GPa and 100 GPa respectively. A load P is applied as shown in the figure [IES2002]
Page 24 of 431
[IES 2007]
Chapter1
S K Mondals
IES5.
IES6.
IES7.
[IES2003]
Two tapering bars of the same material are subjected to a tensile load P. The lengths of both the
bars are the same. The larger diameter of each of the bars is D. The diameter of the bar A at its
smaller end is D/2 and that of the bar B is D/3. What is the ratio of elongation of the bar A to
that of the bar B?
[IES2006]
(a) 3 : 2
(b) 2: 3
(c) 4 : 9
(d) 1: 3
IES9.
A bar of length L tapers uniformly from diameter 1.1 D at one end to 0.9 D at the other end. The
elongation due to axial pull is computed using mean diameter D. What is the approximate error
in computed elongation?
[IES2004]
(a) 10%
(b) 5%
(c) 1%
(d) 0.5%
IES10.
The stretch in a steel rod of circular section, having a length 'l' subjected to a tensile load' P' and
tapering uniformly from a diameter d 1 at one end to a diameter d2 at the other end, is given
[IES1995]
Pl
4 Ed1d 2
(a)
IES11.
(b)
pl.
Ed1d 2
(c)
pl.
4 Ed1d 2
(d)
4 pl
Ed1d 2
A tapering bar (diameters of end sections being d 1 and d2 a bar of uniform crosssection d have
the same length and are subjected the same axial pull. Both the bars will have the same
extension ifd is equal to
[IES1998]
d1 d 2
2
d1d 2
d1d 2
2
d1 d 2
2
IES11(i). A rod of length l tapers uniformly from a diameter D at one end to a diameter d at the other.
The Youngs modulus of the material is E. The extension caused by an axial load P is
[IES2012]
( )
( )
)
Page 25 of 431
( )
( )
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Poissons ratio
IES12.
In the case of an engineering material under unidirectional stress in the xdirection, the
Poisson's ratio is equal to (symbols have the usual meanings)
[IAS 1994, IES2000]
(a)
y
x
(b)
y
x
(c)
y
x
(d)
y
x
IES13.
Which one of the following is correct in respect of Poisson's ratio (v) limits for an isotropic elastic
solid?
[IES2004]
(a)
(b) 1/ 4 1/ 3
(c) 1 1/ 2
(d) 1/ 2 1/ 2
IES14.
Match ListI (Elastic properties of an isotropic elastic material) with ListII (Nature of strain
produced) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: [IES1997]
ListI
ListII
A. Young's modulus
1. Shear strain
B. Modulus of rigidity
2. Normal strain
C. Bulk modulus
3. Transverse strain
D. Poisson's ratio
4. Volumetric strain
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 1
2
3
4
(b)
2
1
3
4
(c)
2
1
4
3
(d)
1
2
4
3
IES15.
[IES1994]
IES16.
[IES1992]
IES16a.
1 1
(d)
If a piece of material neither expands nor contracts in volume when subjected to stress, then the
Poissons ratio must be
(a) Zero
(b) 0.25
(c) 0.33
(d) 0.5
[IES2011]
If the area of crosssection of a wire is circular and if the radius of this circle decreases to half
its original value due to the stretch of the wire by a load, then the modulus of elasticity of the
wire be:
[IES1993]
(a) Onefourth of its original value
(b) Halved
(c) Doubled
(d) Unaffected
IES18.
The relationship between the Lames constant , Youngs modulus E and the Poissons ratio
[IES1997]
a
IES19.
E
1 1 2
(b )
E
1 2 1
E
1
Page 26 of 431
E
1
[IES1994]
(d) 1, 3 and 4
Chapter1
S K Mondals
IES19a
Match List I with List  II and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists:
[IES2011]
List I
List II
A. Elasticity
1. Deform nonelastically without fracture
B. Malleability 2. Undergo plastic deformation under tensile load
C. Ductility
3. Undergo plastic deformation under compressive load
D. Plasticity
4. Return to its original shape on unloading
Codes A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a)
1
2
3
4
(b)
4
2
3
1
(c)
1
3
2
4
(d)
4
3
2
1
IES19b.
Assertion (A): Plastic deformation is a function of applied stress, temperature and strain rate.
[IES2010]
Reason (R): Plastic deformation is accompanied by change in both the internal and external
state of the material.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
What is the phenomenon of progressive extension of the material i.e., strain increasing with the
time at a constant load, called?
[IES 2007]
(a) Plasticity
(b) Yielding
(b) Creeping
(d) Breaking
IES21.
The correct sequence of creep deformation in a creep curve in order of their elongation is:[IES2001]
(a) Steady state, transient, accelerated
(b) Transient, steady state, accelerated
(c) Transient, accelerated, steady state
(d) Accelerated, steady state, transient
IES22.
The highest stress that a material can withstand for a specified length of time without excessive
deformation is called
[IES1997]
(a) Fatigue strength
(b) Endurance strength
(c) Creep strength
(d) Creep rupture strength
IES23.
Which one of the following features improves the fatigue strength of a metallic material?[IES2000]
(a) Increasing the temperature
(b) Scratching the surface
(c) Overstressing
(d) Under stressing
IES24.
[IES1993]
For a linearly elastic, isotropic and homogeneous material, the number of elastic constants
required to relate stress and strain is:
[IAS 1994; IES1998]
(a) Two
(b) Three
(c) Four
(d) Six
IES26.
E, G, K and represent the elastic modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio
respectively of a linearly elastic, isotropic and homogeneous material. To express the stressstrain relations completely for this material, at least
[IES2006]
(a) E, G and must be known
(b) E, K and must be known
(c) Any two of the four must be known
(d) All the four must be known
Page 27 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
IES27.
The number of elastic constants for a completely anisotropic elastic material which follows
Hooke's law is:
[IES1999]
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 21
(d) 25
IES28.
What are the materials which show direction dependent properties, called?
(a) Homogeneous materials
(b) Viscoelastic materials [IES 2007, IES2011]
(c) Isotropic materials
(d) Anisotropic materials
IES29.
IES30.
with ListII (Units) and select the correct answer using the codes
[IES2001]
List II
1. Pa
2. m2/s
3. Ns/m2
4. N/m
C
D
A
B
C
D
4
1
(b)
5
2
4
3
2
3
(d)
5
4
2
1
IES31.
Young's modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of a material are 1.25 105 MPa and 0.34
respectively. The modulus of rigidity of the material is:
[IAS 1994, IES1995, 2001, 2002, 2007]
(a) 0.4025 105 Mpa
(b) 0.4664 105 Mpa
(c) 0.8375 105 MPa
(d) 0.9469 105 MPa
IES32.
G 3K
9 KG
(b)
3G K
9 KG
(c)
9 KG
G 3K
(d)
9 KG
K 3G
IES33.
What is the relationship between the linear elastic properties Young's modulus (E), rigidity
modulus (G) and bulk modulus (K)?
[IES2008]
1 9 3
3 9 1
9 3 1
9 1 3
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
E K G
E K G
E K G
E K G
IES34.
What is the relationship between the liner elastic properties Youngs modulus (E), rigidity
modulus (G) and bulk modulus (K)?
[IES2009]
(a)
KG
9K G
(b)
9KG
K G
(c)
9 KG
K 3G
(d)
9 KG
3K G
IES35.
If E, G and K denote Young's modulus, Modulus of rigidity and Bulk Modulus, respectively, for
an elastic material, then which one of the following can be possibly true?
[IES2005]
(a) G = 2K
(b) G = E
(c) K = E
(d) G = K = E
IES36.
If a material had a modulus of elasticity of 2.1 106 kgf/cm2 and a modulus of rigidity of 0.8
106 kgf/cm2 then the approximate value of the Poisson's ratio of the material would be:[IES1993]
(a) 0.26
(b) 0.31
(c) 0.47
(d) 0.5
The modulus of elasticity for a material is 200 GN/m2 and Poisson's ratio is 0.25.
What is the modulus of rigidity?
[IES2004]
(a) 80 GN/m2
(b) 125 GN/m2
(c) 250 GN/m2
(d) 320 GN/m2
IES37.
IES38.
[IES2009]
Page 28 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Twodimensional stresses applied to a thin plate in its own plane represent the plane
stress condition.
2.
Under plane stress condition, the strain in the direction perpendicular to the plane is
zero.
3.
Normal and shear stresses may occur simultaneously on a plane.
Which of the above statements is /are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1 and 3
Eight bolts are to be selected for fixing the cover plate of a cylinder subjected to a maximum
load of 980175 kN. If the design stress for the bolt material is 315 N/mm 2, what is the diameter
of each bolt?
[IES2008]
(a) 10 mm
(b) 22 mm
(c) 30 mm
(d) 36 mm
IES40.
For a composite consisting of a bar enclosed inside a tube of another material when compressed
under a load 'w' as a whole through rigid collars at the end of the bar. The equation of
compatibility is given by (suffixes 1 and 2) refer to bar and tube respectively [IES1998]
(a) W1 W2 W
(b) W1 W2 Const.
(c )
W1
W
2
A1 E1 A2 E2
(d )
W1
W
2
A1 E2 A2 E1
IES41.
When a composite unit consisting of a steel rod surrounded by a cast iron tube is subjected to an
axial load.
[IES2000]
Assertion (A): The ratio of normal stresses induced in both the materials is equal to the ratio of
Young's moduli of respective materials.
Reason (R): The composite unit of these two materials is firmly fastened together at the ends to
ensure equal deformation in both the materials.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES42.
The figure below shows a steel rod of 25 mm 2 cross sectional area. It is loaded at four points, K,
L, M and N.
[GATE2004, IES 1995, 1997, 1998]
Assume Esteel = 200 GPa. The total change in length of the rod due to loading is
(a) 1 m (b) 10 m
(c) 16 m
(d) 20 m
IES43.
IES44.
Page 29 of 431
Chapter1
IES45.
S K Mondals
Which of the following stresses are associated with the tightening of nut on a bolt?[IES1998]
1.
Tensile stress due to the stretching of bolt
2.
Bending stress due to the bending of bolt
3.
Crushing and shear stresses in threads
4.
Torsional shear stress due to frictional resistance between the nut and the bolt.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below
Codes:
(a) 1, 2 and 4
(b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4
Thermal effect
IES46.
A 100 mm 5 mm 5 mm steel bar free to expand is heated from 15C to 40C. What shall be
developed?
[IES2008]
(a) Tensile stress
(b) Compressive stress
(c) Shear stress
(d) No stress
IES47.
IES48.
A cube having each side of length a, is constrained in all directions and is heated uniformly so
that the temperature is raised to TC. If is the thermal coefficient of expansion of the cube
material and E the modulus of elasticity, the stress developed in the cube is: [IES2003]
(a)
IES49.
TE
(b)
TE
1 2
(c)
TE
2
(d)
TE
1 2
[IES2002]
(d) 2 alone
IES50.
A steel rod 10 mm in diameter and 1m long is heated from 20C to 120C, E = 200 GPa and =
12 106 per C. If the rod is not free to expand, the thermal stress developed is:[IAS2003, IES1997, 2000, 2006]
(a) 120 MPa (tensile)
(b) 240 MPa (tensile)
(c) 120 MPa (compressive)
(d) 240 MPa (compressive)
IES51.
A cube with a side length of 1 cm is heated uniformly 1 C above the room temperature and all
the sides are free to expand. What will be the increase in volume of the cube? (Given coefficient
of thermal expansion is per C)
(a) 3 cm3
(b) 2 cm3
(c) cm3
(d) zero
[IES2004]
IES52.
IES53.
=12.5106 / o C, E = 200 GPa If the rod fitted strongly between the supports as shown in the
figure, is heated, the stress induced in it due to 20oC rise in temperature will be:[IES1999]
(a) 0.07945 MPa
(b) 0.07945 MPa
(c) 0.03972 MPa
(d) 0.03972 MPa
Page 30 of 431
Chapter1
IES54.
S K Mondals
Impact loading
IES55.
Assertion (A): Ductile materials generally absorb more impact loading than a brittle material
[IES2004]
Reason (R): Ductile materials generally have higher ultimate strength than brittle materials
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES56.
Tensile Test
IES57.
IES58.
IES59.
Match ListI (Types of Tests and Materials) with ListII (Types of Fractures) and select the
correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
List I
ListII
[IES2002; IAS2004]
(Types of Tests and Materials)
(Types of Fractures)
A. Tensile test on CI
1. Plain fracture on a transverse plane
B. Torsion test on MS
2. Granular helecoidal fracture
C. Tensile test on MS
3. Plain granular at 45 to the axis
D. Torsion test on CI
4. Cup and Cone
5. Granular fracture on a transverse plane
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
2
3
1
(c)
4
1
3
2
(b) 5
1
4
2
(d)
5
2
4
1
Page 31 of 431
[IES2006]
Chapter1
S K Mondals
IES60.
IES61.
For most brittle materials, the ultimate strength in compression is much large then the
ultimate strength in tension. The is mainly due to
[IES1992]
(a) Presence of flaws and microscopic cracks or cavities
(b) Necking in tension
(c)
Severity of tensile stress as compared to compressive stress
(d) Nonlinearity of stressstrain diagram
IES61(i). A copper rod 400 mm long is pulled in tension to a length of 401.2 mm by applying a tensile load
of 330 MPa. If the deformation is entirely elastic, the Youngs modulus of copper is
[IES2012]
(a) 110 GPA
(b) 110 MPa
(c) 11 GPa
(d) 11 MPa
IES62.
What is the safe static tensile load for a M36 4C bolt of mild steel having yield stress of 280
MPa and a factor of safety 1.5?
[IES2005]
(a) 285 kN
(b) 190 kN
(c) 142.5 kN
(d) 95 kN
IES63.
Which one of the following properties is more sensitive to increase in strain rate?[IES2000]
(a) Yield strength
(b) Proportional limit
(c) Elastic limit
(d) Tensile strength
IES64.
A steel hub of 100 mm internal diameter and uniform thickness of 10 mm was heated to a
temperature of 300oC to shrinkfit it on a shaft. On cooling, a crack developed parallel to the
direction of the length of the hub. Consider the following factors in this regard:[IES1994]
1. Tensile hoop stress
2. Tensile radial stress
3. Compressive hoop stress
4. Compressive radial stress
The cause of failure is attributable to
(a) 1 alone
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 1, 2 and 4
(d) 2, 3 and 4
IES65.
IES66.
2. Elastic limit
(b) 2, 1, 3, 4
3. Yielding
(c) 1, 3, 2, 4
[IES1992]
4. Failure
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4
IES67.
IES68.
Statement (I): Steel reinforcing bars are used in reinforced cement concrete.
Statement (II): Concrete is weak in compression.
[IES2012]
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the
correct explanation of Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true
Page 32 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
A heavy uniform rod of length 'L' and material density '' is hung vertically with its top end
rigidly fixed. How is the total elongation of the bar under its own weight expressed?[IAS2007]
(a)
IAS2.
2 L2 g
E
(b)
L2 g
E
(c)
L2 g
2E
(d)
L2 g
2E
A rod of length 'l' and crosssection area A rotates about an axis passing through one end of the
rod. The extension produced in the rod due to centrifugal forces is (w is the weight of the rod per
unit length and is the angular velocity of rotation of the rod).
[IAS 1994]
(a)
wl 2
gE
(b)
2 wl 3
(c)
3 gE
2 wl 3
(d)
gE
3gE
2 wl 3
A rod of length, " " tapers uniformly from a diameter ''D1' to a diameter ''D2' and carries an
axial tensile load of "P". The extension of the rod is (E represents the modulus of elasticity of the
material of the rod)
[IAS1996]
(a)
4 P1
ED1 D2
(b)
4 PE1
D1 D2
(c)
EP1
4 D1D2
(d)
P1
4 ED1D2
Poissons ratio
IAS4.
In the case of an engineering material under unidirectional stress in the xdirection, the
Poisson's ratio is equal to (symbols have the usual meanings)
[IAS 1994, IES2000]
(a)
y
x
(b)
y
x
(c)
y
x
(d)
y
x
IAS5.
IAS6.
Assertion (A): Poisson's ratio is a measure of the lateral strain in all direction perpendicular to
and in terms of the linear strain.
[IAS1997]
Reason (R): The nature of lateral strain in a uniaxially loaded bar is opposite to that of the
linear strain.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
A weight falls on a plunger fitted in a container filled with oil thereby producing a pressure of
1.5 N/mm2 in the oil. The Bulk Modulus of oil is 2800 N/mm 2. Given this situation, the
volumetric compressive strain produced in the oil will be:
[IAS1997]
(a) 400 106
(b) 800 106
(c) 268 106
(d) 535 106
Page 33 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
For a linearly elastic, isotropic and homogeneous material, the number of elastic constants
required to relate stress and strain is:
[IAS 1994; IES1998]
(a) Two
(b) Three
(c) Four
(d) Six
IAS9.
The independent elastic constants for a homogenous and isotropic material are
(a) E, G, K, v
(b) E, G, K
(c) E, G, v
(d) E, G
[IAS1995]
IAS10.
IAS11.
Young's modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of a material are 1.25 105 MPa and 0.34
respectively. The modulus of rigidity of the material is:
[IAS 1994, IES1995, 2001, 2002, 2007]
(a) 0.4025 105 MPa
(b) 0.4664 105 MPa
(c) 0.8375 105 MPa
(d) 0.9469 105 MPa
IAS12.
The Young's modulus of elasticity of a material is 2.5 times its modulus of rigidity. The Posson's
ratio for the material will be:
[IAS1997]
(a) 0.25
(b) 0.33
(c) 0.50
(d) 0.75
IAS13.
G 3K
9 KG
(b)
3G K
9 KG
(c)
9 KG
G 3K
(d)
9 KG
K 3G
IAS14.
IAS15.
For an isotropic, homogeneous and linearly elastic material, which obeys Hooke's law, the
number of independent elastic constant is:
[IAS2000]
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 6
IAS16.
The moduli of elasticity and rigidity of a material are 200 GPa and 80 GPa, respectively. What
is the value of the Poisson's ratio of the material?
[IAS2007]
(a) 030
(b) 026
(c) 025
(d) 024
The reactions at the rigid supports at A and B for the bar loaded as shown in the figure are
respectively.
[IES2002; IAS2003]
(a) 20/3 kN,10/3 Kn
(b) 10/3 kN, 20/3 kN
(c) 5 kN, 5 kN
(d) 6 kN, 4 kN
Page 34 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Thermal effect
IAS18.
A steel rod 10 mm in diameter and 1m long is heated from 20C to 120C, E = 200 GPa and =
12 106 per C. If the rod is not free to expand, the thermal stress developed is:[IAS2003, IES1997, 2000, 2006]
(a) 120 MPa (tensile)
(b) 240 MPa (tensile)
(c) 120 MPa (compressive)
(d) 240 MPa (compressive)
IAS19.
A. steel rod of diameter 1 cm and 1 m long is heated from 20C to 120C. Its 12 10 / K
and E=200 GN/m2. If the rod is free to expand, the thermal stress developed in it is:[IAS2002]
(a) 12 104 N/m2
(b) 240 kN/m2
(c) zero
(d) infinity
IAS20.
..
E (Tl )
l
Impact loading
IAS21.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
[IAS1995]
List I (Property)
List II (Testing Machine)
A. Tensile strength
1. Rotating Bending Machine
B. Impact strength
2. ThreePoint Loading Machine
C. Bending strength
3. Universal Testing Machine
D. Fatigue strength
4. Izod Testing Machine
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
3
2
1
(b)
3
2
1
4
(c)
2
1
4
3
(d)
3
4
2
1
Tensile Test
IAS22.
A mild steel specimen is tested in tension up to fracture in a Universal Testing Machine. Which
of the following mechanical properties of the material can be evaluated from such a test?[IAS2007]
1. Modulus of elasticity
2. Yield stress
3. Ductility
4. Tensile strength
5. Modulus of rigidity
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1, 3, 5 and 6
(b) 2, 3, 4 and 6
(c) 1, 2, 5 and 6
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
IAS23.
IAS24.
Lueder' lines on steel specimen under simple tension test is a direct indication of yielding of
material due to slip along the plane
[IAS1997]
(a) Of maximum principal stress
(b) Off maximum shear
(c) Of loading
(d) Perpendicular to the direction of loading
IAS25.
The percentage elongation of a material as obtained from static tension test depends upon the
[IAS1998]
(a) Diameter of the test specimen
(b) Gauge length of the specimen
(c) Nature of endgrips of the testing machine
(d) Geometry of the test specimen
IAS26.
Match ListI (Types of Tests and Materials) with ListII (Types of Fractures) and select the
correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
Page 35 of 431
[IAS1998]
(d) Breaking point
Chapter1
S K Mondals
A
4
5
B
2
1
C
3
4
D
1
2
ListII
[IES2002; IAS2004]
(Types of Fractures)
1. Plain fracture on a transverse plane
2. Granular helecoidal fracture
3. Plain granular at 45 to the axis
4. Cup and Cone
5. Granular fracture on a transverse plane
A
B
C
D
(c)
4
1
3
2
(d)
5
2
4
1
IAS27.
Assertion (A): For a ductile material stressstrain curve is a straight line up to the yield point.
[IAS2003]
Reason (R): The material follows Hooke's law up to the point of proportionality.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS28.
Assertion (A): Stressstrain curves for brittle material do not exhibit yield point.[IAS1996]
Reason (R): Brittle materials fail without yielding.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS29.
Match List I (Materials) with List II (StressStrain curves) and select the correct answer using
the codes given below the Lists:
[IAS2001]
Codes:
(a)
(c)
IAS30.
A
3
2
B
1
4
C
4
3
D
1
1
(b)
(d)
A
3
4
B
2
1
C
4
3
D
2
2
Page 36 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
[IAS1998]
IAS31.
[IAS1996]
IAS32.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:
[IAS2002]
List I
List II
A. Ultimate strength
1. Internal structure
B. Natural strain
2. Change of length per unit instantaneous length
C. Conventional strain
3. Change of length per unit gauge length
D. Stress
4. Load per unit area
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 1
2
3
4
(b)
4
3
2
1
(c)
1
3
2
4
(d)
4
2
3
1
IAS33.
IAS34.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given the lists:[IAS1995]
List I
List II
A. RigidPerfectly plastic
B.
ElasticPerfectly plastic
C.
RigidStrain hardening
D.
Linearly elastic
Codes:
D
Page 37 of 431
[IAS2007]
(d) Yielding
Chapter1
(a)
(c)
IAS35.
S K Mondals
1
1
4
2
2
4
(b)
(d)
1
1
3
3
2
4
4
2
[IAS1995]
(d) Glass
IAS36.
Assertion (A): Hooke's law is the constitutive law for a linear elastic material.
Reason (R) Formulation of the theory of elasticity requires the hypothesis that there exists a
unique unstressed state of the body, to which the body returns whenever all the forces are
removed.
[IAS2002]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS37.
IAS38.
IAS39.
A tensile bar is stressed to 250 N/mm 2 which is beyond its elastic limit. At this stage the strain
produced in the bar is observed to be 0.0014. If the modulus of elasticity of the material of the
bar is 205000 N/mm2 then the elastic component of the strain is very close to [IAS1997]
(a) 0.0004
(b) 0.0002
(c) 0.0001
(d) 0.00005
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (c) L
L mild steel
L C.I
PL
AE
or L
ECI 100
EMS 206
1
E
L CI L MS
200 1000 2
PL
m 1.25mm
AE 0.04 0.04 200 109
Page 38 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
A cantileverloaded rotating beam, showing the normal distribution of surface stresses. (i.e.,
tension at the top and compression at the bottom)
Net stress pattern obtained when loading a surface treated beam. The reduced magnitude of the
tensile stresses contributes to increased fatigue life.
GATE5. Ans. (d)
GATE6. Ans. (d)
GATE7. Ans. (d) For longitudinal strain we need Young's modulus and for calculating transverse strain we
need Poisson's ratio. We may calculate Poisson's ratio from E 2G(1 ) for that we need
Shear modulus.
GATE8. Ans. (a)
9KG
GATE9. Ans. (a) Remember
E 2G 1 3K 1 2
3K G
0.004
GATE10. Ans. (c) T F r 2200
Nm 1.4Nm
2
GATE11. Ans. (b) First draw FBD of all parts separately then
PL
AE
Page 39 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
F.B.D
P 28000
MPa 40MPa
A
700
GATE15. Ans. (a) Thermal stress will develop only when you prevent the material to contrast/elongate. As
here it is free no thermal stress will develop.
QR
3
3
DV
p a (1 + a T )  a
=
=
V
K
a3
p
Or
= 3a T
E
3 (1 2u )
Or p
T E
T E
or stress( ) p
i.e. compressive
1 2
1 2
Same question was asked in IES2003 please refer question no. IES48 in this chapter.
GATE16. Ans. (b)
IES
WL
2AE
WL
2
D2
4
L
E
or
l A
lB
d2 B
d2 A
&
1
D2
PL
d1d2E
D / 3 2
D / 2 3
Page 40 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
PL
PL
PL
Calculated elongation of the bar l Cal
D2
E
4
lact lcal
D2
Error %
100
1 100% 1%
lcal
1.1D 0.9D
PL
4 d1d2 E
Page 41 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
1
then
3
E 2G 1
E
200
80GN / m2
2 1 2 1 0.25
IES38. Ans. (d) Under plane stress condition, the strain in the direction perpendicular to the plane is not
zero. It has been found experimentally that when a body is stressed within elastic limit, the
lateral strain bears a constant ratio to the linear strain. [IES2009]
IES39. Ans. (b) Total load P 8
d2
4
or d
P
980175
22.25mm
2
2 315
IES40. Ans. (c) Compatibility equation insists that the change in length of the bar must be compatible with
the boundary conditions. Here (a) is also correct but it is equilibrium equation.
IES41. Ans. (a)
IES42. Ans. (b) First draw FBD of all parts separately then
PL
AE
RA 1 RB 2
AE
AE
And RA + RB = 10
IES44. Ans. (b)
IES45. Ans. (d)
IES46. Ans. (d) If we resist to expand then only stress will develop.
IES47. Ans. (d)
3
3
3
D V s = (p) a (1 + a T )  a
=
=
IES48. Ans. (b)
V
K
a3
p
Or
= 3a T
E
3 (1 2g )
kx L x
AE
0.5 12.5 106 20
50 0.5
2
0.010 200 106
0.125mm
Page 42 of 431
kx L
AE
Chapter1
S K Mondals
kx
50 0.125
0.07945MPa
A
0.0102
Compressive stress =
N 190kN
fos
fos 4
1.5 4
IES63. Ans. (b)
IES64. Ans. (a) A crack parallel to the direction of length of hub means the failure was due to tensile hoop
stress only.
IES65. Ans. (d)
IES66. Ans. (d)
IAS
IAS1. Ans. (d) Elongation due to self weight =
WL ALg L L2 g
2 AE
2 AE
2E
Pl
4 D1D2 .E
or v
P
1.5
535 106
K 2800
Page 43 of 431
Chapter1
E
2G
S K Mondals
E
2.5
1
1 0.25
2G 2
9 KG
3K G
E
200
IAS16. Ans. (c) E = 2G (1+ ) or =
1
1 0.25
2G
2 80
known.
E 2G 1 3K 1 3
RA 1 RB 2
AE
AE
And RA + RB = 10
Page 44 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
E 2 10 5 N / m m 2
for
Steel
[2 Marks]
Ans.
A luminium w ir e
FA1
FA1
F St
P 60 kN
St eel w ir e
60k N
a A1 300 mm 2 l A1 4 m
a st 200 mm 2 l st 8 m
E A1 0.667 10 5 N / m m 2
Est 2 105 N / mm 2
Force balance along vertical direction
2F A1 Fs t 60 k N
(1)
Elongation will be same in all wires because rod is rigid remain horizontal
F .l
F A1 l A1
st st
a Al .E Al
a s t .E s t
FA1 4
300 0.667 10
FA1 1.0005 Fs t
(2)
Fs t 8
200 2 10 5
(3)
Fs t
60 10 3
19.99 k N o r 20 k N
3.001
Page 45 of 431
after loading
Chapter1
S K Mondals
FA1 20 kN
FA1 20 k N
Answer.
Fst 20 k N
Determine:
Answer:
The diameters of the brass and steel segments of the axially loaded bar shown in figure are 30
mm and 12 mm respectively. The diameter of the hollow section of the brass segment is 20
mm.
(i) The maximum normal stress in the steel and brass (ii) The displacement of the free end ;
Take Es = 210 GN/m2 and Eb = 105 GN/m2
As
12 36 mm2 36 106 m2
2
Ab BC
Ab CD
4
4
10 103
106 MN / m2 88.42MN / m2
36 106
5 103
106 MN / m2 7.07MN / m2
b BC
225 106
5 103
106 MN / m2 12.73MN / m2
b CD
6
125 10
l ls AB lb BC lb CD
88.42 0.15
7.07 0.2
12.73 0.125
9
6
9
6
210 10 10
105 10 10
105 109 10 6
l E
List at least two factors that promote transition from ductile to brittle fracture.
(i)
With the grooved specimens only a small reduction in area took place, and the
appearance of the facture was like that of brittle materials.
Page 46 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
By internal cavities, thermal stresses and residual stresses may combine with the effect
of the stress concentration at the cavity to produce a crack. The resulting fracture will
have the characteristics of a brittle failure without appreciable plastic flow, although
the material may prove ductile in the usual tensile tests.
What different stresses setup in a bolt due to initial tightening, while used as a
fastener? Name all the stresses in detail.
(i)
When the nut is initially tightened there will be some elongation in the bolt so tensile
stress will develop.
(ii) While it is tightening a torque across some shear stress. But when tightening will be
completed there should be no shear stress.
Answer:
c s
+
= t (c s )
Ec Es
d 2 6 2
3 2
Area of copper rod(A c ) =
=
m = 2.8274 10 m
4
4 100
2
2
d 2 8 6 2
3 2
=(1711.5)106 L 50=2.75104L m
A compressive force (P) exerted by the steel tube on the copper rod opposed the extra
expansion of the copper rod and the copper rod exerts an equal tensile force P to pull the steel
Page 47 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
(VL )C =
PL
PL
=
m
A c E c (2.8275 10  3 )(105 10 9 )
49695
P
=
MPa=17.58MPa
2.8275 10 3
Ac
P
49695
Stress in steel tube, s s =
=
MPa = 22.6MPa
As
2.1991 10 3
Stress in copper rod, s c =
Since each of the pin is in double shear, shear stress in pins ( t pin )
=
P
49695
=
= 79 MPa
2 Apin 2 p (0.02)2
4
Mention the relationship between three elastic constants i.e. elastic modulus (E), rigidity
modulus (G), and bulk modulus (K) for any Elastic material. How is the Poisson's ratio ( )
related to these modulli?
Answer: E =
9KG
3K + G
E = 3K (1 2) = 2G(1+ ) =
9KG
3K + G
The elastic and shear moduli of an elastic material are 210 11 Pa and 81010 Pa respectively.
Determine Poisson's ratio of the material.
Answer:
9KG
3K + G
Page 48 of 431
Chapter1
or,1 + =
or =
S K Mondals
E
2G
E
2 1011
1=
1 = 0.25
2G
2 (8 1010 )
ES = 2105 N / mm 2
Answer:
or , Eb.
(l )b
E= =
.Ab = s As
and b =Eb.
(l )b
= (1105 )
(1.5 103 )
MPa = 150MPa (Compressive )
1
So before heating
Stress in brass tube (b ) = 150MPa (compressive )
Stress in steel bolt( s ) = 600MPa (tensile)
Stress due to rise of temperature
'
'
Page 49 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
s +t 1
Free expansion of brass tube = b +t 1
Since b > s free expansion of copper is greater than the free expansion of steel. But they
Free expansion of steel =
are rigidly fixed so final expansion of each members will be same. Let us assume this final
expansion is ' ', The free expansion of brass tube is grater than , while the free expansion of
steel is less than . Hence the steel rod will be subjected to a tensile stress while the brass
tube will be subjected to a compressive stress.
For the equilibrium of the whole system,
Total tension (Pull) in steel =Total compression (Push) in brass tube.
s (+t ).1 +
s'
'
1 = b (+t ) 1 b 1
Eb
Es
or ,(1.2 105 ) 40 1 +
s'
'b
5
(1.9
10
)
40
1
=
(ii )
2 105 106
1105 106
'
or , s = 37.33 MPa (Tensile stress)
or, b' = 9.33MPa (compressive)
Therefore, the final stresses due to tightening and temperature rise
Answer:
A Solid right cone of axial length h is made of a material having density and
elasticity modulus E. It is suspended from its circular base. Determine its
elongation due to its self weight.
See in the figure MNH is a solid right cone of
length 'h' .
Let us assume its wider end of diameterd fixed
rigidly at MN.
Now consider a small strip of thickness dy at a
distance y from the lower end.
Let 'ds' is the diameter of the strip.
1 d 2
Weight of portion UVH= s y g ( i )
3 4
From the similar triangles MNH and UVH,
MN d
A
=
=
UV ds
y
or , ds =
d .y
( ii )
A
Stress at section UV =
force at UV
Weight of UVH
=
ds2
cross sec tion area at UV
Page 50 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
1 d s2
.
.y .g
1
= y g
=3 4 2
ds
3
4
1
y g .dy
3
1
y gdy
gh 2
3
=
E
6E
.A
=
or , d A =
dA
E
A
Which one of the three shafts listed hare has the highest ultimate tensile strength?
Which is the approximate carbon content in each steel?
(i) Mild Steel (ii) cast iron (iii) spring steel
Among three steel given, spring steel has the highest ultimate tensile strength.
Approximate carbon content in
(i)
Mild steel is (0.3% to 0.8%)
(ii) Cost iron (2% to 4%)
(iii) Spring steel (0.4% to 1.1%)
If a rod of brittle material is subjected to pure torsion, show with help of a sketch,
the plane along which it will fail and state the reason for its failure.
Brittle materials fail in tension. In a torsion test the maximum tensile test Occurs at 45 to
the axis of the shaft. So failure will occurs along a 45o to the axis of the shaft. So failure will
occurs along a 45 helix
X
So failures will occurs according to 45 plane.
Answer:
The steel bolt shown in Figure has a thread pitch of 1.6 mm. If the nut is initially
tightened up by hand so as to cause no stress in the copper spacing tube, calculate
the stresses induced in the tube and in the bolt if a spanner is then used to turn the
nut through 90.Take Ec and Es as 100 GPa and 209 GPa respectively.
Given: p = 1.6 mm, Ec= 100 GPa ; Es = 209 CPa.
Page 51 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
10
7.584 105 m2
4 1000
2
2
18 12
5
2
A s
14.14 10 m
4 1000 1000
As
ls lc 1.6
i,e
90
0.4mm 0.4 10 3 m
360
Pl
Pl
0.4 103
A sEs A cEc
or
ls lc l
1
1
100
0.4 103
5
9
5
9
14.14 10 100 10
1000 7.854 10 209 10
P 30386N
P
P
386.88MPa
and
214.89MPa
As
Ac
or
or
Answer:
ls
Pls
A sEs
or 0.75
Pl
AE
P 2 1000
 (i)
2
5
4 3 2.0 10 2000
lb
Plb
A bEb
4.64
or
P 2.5 1000
2
4 2 Eb
P 4.64 22 Eb
2500
4
 (ii)
1
1
or
Eb 0.909 105 N / mm2
A steel bolt and sleeve assembly is shown in figure below. The nut is tightened up on the tube
through the rigid end blocks until the tensile force in the bolt is 40 kN. If an external load 30
Page 52 of 431
Chapter1
S K Mondals
kN is then applied to the end blocks, tending to pull them apart, estimate the resulting force
in the bolt and sleeve.
Answer:
25
4
2
4.908 10 m
1000
2
2
62.5 50
3
2
Area of steel sleeve, A s
1.104 10 m
4 1000 1000
Area of steel bolt, A b
b A b 0.04
or
b 4.908 10 4 0.04
0.04
81.5MN / m2 tensile
4.908 10 4
s A s 0.04
or
s 1.104 10 3 0.04
0.04
36.23MN / m2 compressive
3
1.104 10
(i)
In a compound system with an external tensile load, elongation caused in each will be the
same.
Page 53 of 431
Chapter1
lb
or lb
'b
Eb
'b
and ls
Eb
's
Es
S K Mondals
lb
0.5
0.4
But lb s
'b
Eb
or
0.5
's
Es
0.4
Given,Eb Es
(2)
Page 54 of 431
2.
Triaxial
stress:
three
nonzero
Isotropic
stress:
three
principal
Page 55 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Or
Shape
of
the
body
remains
Fig. (a)
Fig. (b)
Fig. (c)
Area of the YY Plane =
a shear stress
A
; Let us assume the normal stress in the YY plane is
cos T
Vn
and there is
Now resolve the force P in two perpendicular direction one normal to the plane YY = P cos T and
another parallel to the plane YY = Pcos
Page 56 of 431
Chapter2
Vn
and
Wu
A
cos T
P sin T
or
A
cos T
P cos T
Vn
P
cos 2 T
A
Vn
or
P
sin T cos T
A
S K Mondals
or
P
sin 2T
2A
W with
P
and shear stress W
A
0 at T
the variation of T .
0, V n
0.
P
at T
2A
S
4
0 . As T is
But if angle
90o
In ductile material failure in tension is initiated by shear stress i.e. the failure occurs across
1 or T
45o
P
2A
Vn
is
90
T.
P
cos2 (90 T ) and W
A
In
this
case
you
have
to
use
the
above
formula
as
P
sin(180 2T ) where T is the angle between the applied load and the
2A
Let us take an example: A metal block of 100 mm2 cross sectional area carries an axial tensile load
of 10 kN. For a plane inclined at 300 with the direction of applied load, calculate:
(a) Normal stress
(b) Shear stress
(c) Maximum shear stress.
Answer: Here T
90o 30o
60o
Page 57 of 431
Chapter2
10 u 103 N
u sin120o
2
2 u 100 mm
P
sin2T
2A
10 u 103 N
2 u 100 mm 2
P
2A
S K Mondals
43.3MPa
50MPa
Complementary stresses
Now if we consider the stresses on an oblique plane YY which is perpendicular to the previous
plane YY. The stresses on this plane are known as complementary stresses. Complementary
normal stress is
V nc
T 900
V nc
and
by
T 900 in the
Therefore
P
cos 2 90o T
A
V nc
Wc
It is clear
P
sin 2 90o T
2A
V nc V n
P
A
and
P 2
sin T
A
P
sin 2T
2A
W c W
i.e. Complementary shear stresses are always equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.
Page 58 of 431
Chapter2
The shear stress
W on
S K Mondals
clockwise moment with respect to a centre inside the element. If the moment is counterclockwise with respect to a centre inside the element, the shear stress in negative.
Note: The convention is opposite to that of moment of force. Shear stress tending to turn clockwise is
positive and tending to turn counter clockwise is negative.
Let us take an example: A prismatic bar of 500 mm2 cross sectional area is axially loaded with a
tensile force of 50 kN. Determine all the stresses acting on an element which makes 300 inclination
with the vertical plane.
Answer: Take an small element ABCD in 300 plane as shown in figure below,
Given, Area of crosssection, A = 500 mm2, Tensile force (P) = 50 kN
P
50103 N
2
=
cos
=
cos2 30o =75MPa (+ive means tensile).
n
2
A
500 mm
50 u 103 N
u sin 2 u 30o 43.3MPa
2 u 500 mm 2
P
sin2T
2A
90 30 120o
P
cos2 T
A
50 u 103 N
u cos2 120o 25MPa
500 mm 2
(+ ive means tensile)
P
sin2T
2A
50 u 103 N
u sin 2 u 120o
2
2 u 500 mm
43.3MPa
Page 59 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Vx
and
Vy
are normal stresses and may be tensile or compressive. We know that normal stress
W xy
W xy
and
W yx
W xy = W yx
Let
Vn
Normal stress V n
V x V y
2
V x V y
2
cos 2T W xy sin 2T
and
Shear stress W
x y
2
sin 2  W xy cos 2
Above two equations are coming from considering equilibrium. They do not depend on material
properties and are valid for elastic and in elastic behavior.
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
Page 60 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
V n max
Vn
For
wV n
wT
maximum or minimum
or
Vy
2
wW
wT
or
0, where V n
Vy
2
Vy
2
cos 2T W xy sin 2T
u sin 2T u 2 W xy cos 2T u 2
or tan2T p =
2W xy
(V x V y )
W max
maximum or minimum
0, where W
Vx Vy
2
Vx Vy
2
sin 2T W xy cos 2T
cos 2T u 2 W xy sin 2T u 2
W xy
or cot 2T
Vx Vy
Let us take an example: At a point in a crank shaft the stresses on two mutually perpendicular
planes are 30 MPa (tensile) and 15 MPa (tensile). The shear stress across these planes is 10 MPa.
Find the normal and shear stress on a plane making an angle 300 with the plane of first stress. Find
also magnitude and direction of resultant stress on the plane.
25MPa tensile , V y
Answer: Given V x
Shear stress W
V x V y
15MPa tensile , W xy
V x V y
cos 2T W xy sin2T
2
2
30 15 30 15
cos 2 u 30o 10 sin 2 u 30o 34.91 MPa
2
2
V x V y
sin2T W xy cos 2T
2
30 15
sin 2 u 30o 10cos 2 u 30o 1.5MPa
2
Resultant stress V r
34.91
W
Vn
1.52
1.5
I
34.91
34.94MPa
2.460
Page 61 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
on a plane at angle T .
Vx V y
Vn
V x V y
cos 2T
Normal stress ,
Shear/Tangential stress,
Normal stress
V x (T
V x V y
2
sin 2T
T 900
S /2
0) & V y (T
S / 2)
Let us take an example: The principal tensile stresses at a point across two perpendicular planes
are 100 MPa and 50 MPa. Find the normal and tangential stresses and the resultant stress and its
obliquity on a plane at 200 with the major principal plane
Answer: Given V x
Normal stress, V n
Shear stress, W
100MPa tensile , V y
Vx Vy
2
V x V y
2
Resultant stress V r
V x V y
sin2T
942 162
100 50 100 50
cos 2 u 20o
2
2
cos 2T
2
100 50
sin 2 u 200
2
16MPa
95.4MPa
W
16
Therefore angle of obliquity, I tan1 tan1 9.70
94
Vn
200
Page 62 of 431
94MPa
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Vx V y
Vn
and
2
x y
Just put V y
V x V y
2
cos 2T W xy sin 2T
sin 2  W xy cos 2
0 and W xy =0
Therefore,
Vn
Vx 0
2
and W
Vx 0
Vx 0
2
cos 2T
sin 2T
Vx
2
1
V x 1 cos 2T V x cos2 T
2
sin 2T
Vx
V y
Note: V x or V y which one is compressive that is immaterial but one should be tensile and
other
should
be
compressive
and
equal
magnitude.
V x 100MPa then
If
W max
x
rV x
; Vn
0 and V nc
Page 63 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
(a) In a torsion member, as shown below, an element ABCD is in pure shear (only shear
stress is present in this element) in this member at 45o plane an element AcBcC cDc is also
in pure shear where V x
(b) In a biaxial state of stress a member, as shown below, an element ABCD in pure shear
where V x
V y but in this element no shear stress is there and an element AcBcC cDc at
45o plane is also in pure shear (only shear stress is present in this element).
Let us take an example: See the in the Conventional question answer section in this chapter and
the question is Conventional Question IES2007
Stress acts on every surface that passes through the point. We can use three mutually
perpendicular planes to describe the stress state at the point, which we approximate as a cube
each of the three planes has one normal component & two shear components therefore, 9
components necessary to define stress at a point 3 normal and 6 shear stress.
Therefore, we need nine components, to define the state of stress at a point
V x W xy W xz
V y W yx W yz
V z W zx W zy
For cube to be in equilibrium (at rest: not moving, not spinning)
Page 64 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
W xy
W yx
W xz
W yz
W zx
W zy
The nine components (six of which are independent) can be written in matrix form
V ij
V xx
V yx
V
zx
V xy V xz
V yy V yz or W ij
V zy V zz
W xx W xy
W yx W yy
W
zx W zy
W xz
W yz
W zz
V x W xy
W yx V y
W
zx W zy
W xz
W yz
V z
V 11 V 12 V 13
V 21 V 22 V 23
V
31 V 32 V 33
Page 65 of 431
Chapter2
x
S K Mondals
Vx V y
V1
x
Vx V y
2
V x V y
2
W
xy
tan2T p =
x
2
W
xy
V2
x
V x V y
2W xy
(V x V y )
V1 V 2
W max
V x V y
2
W
xy
Let us take an example: In the wall of a cylinder the state of stress is given by,
Vx
85MPa compressive , V y
85MPa,V y
25MPa,W xy
60MPa
Page 66 of 431
Chapter2
Vx Vy
S K Mondals
V x V y
2
W xy
2
85 25
85 25
2
60
2
2
Vx Vy
2
51.4MPa
V x V y
2
W xy
2
85 25
85 25
2
60
2
2
For principalplanes
tan2TP
or TP
2W xy
V x V y
2 u 60
85 25
240 it is for V 1
The direction of one principle plane and the principle stresses acting on this would be V
when is
acting normal to this plane, now the direction of other principal plane would be 900 + T p because the
principal planes are the two mutually perpendicular plane, hence rotate the another plane 900 + T p
in the same direction to get the another plane, now complete the material element as T p is negative
that means we are measuring the angles in the opposite direction to the reference plane BC. The
following figure gives clear idea about negative and positive T p .
Page 67 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
The transformation equations of plane stress can be represented in a graphical form which is
popularly known as Mohr's circle.
Though the transformation equations are sufficient to get the normal and shear stresses on
any plane at a point, with Mohr's circle one can easily visualize their variation with respect
to plane orientation .
Rearranging we get, V n
Vn
x y
2
V x V y
2
x y
cos 2T W xy sin 2T
sin2  xy cos 2
V x V y V x V y
and
Vx V y
A little consideration will show that the above two equations are the equations of a circle with
Vn
Vx V y
V avg
Or
2
2
and R =
V avg W xy2
V x V y
2
W xy
R2
Vx V y
V avg ,0 i.e.
Page 68 of 431
,0
Chapter2
and radius,
V x V y
S K Mondals
2
W xy
V axis; a W xy
V axis.
Tensile stress will be positive and plotted right of the origin O. Compressive stress
will be negative and will be plotted left to the origin O.
An angle
I.
II.
Vy
known)
V x and V y both are tensile or both compressive sign of V x and V y will be same and this state of
stress is known as like stresses if one is tensile and other is compressive sign of
V x and V y will
x Construction of Mohrs circle for like stresses (when V x and V y are same type of stress)
StepI:
StepII: Set up axes for the direct stress (as abscissa) i.e., in xaxis and shear stress (as
ordinate) i.e. in Yaxis
Page 69 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
StepIII: Using sign convention and some suitable scale, plot the stresses on two adjacent faces
e.g. AB and BC on the graph. Let OL and OM equal to
axis O
V.
StepV: At the centre C draw a line CP at an angle 2 , in the same direction as the normal to
the plane makes with the direction of
Page 70 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
OC
Vx Vy
and MC = CL = CP =
Vx Vy
2
PR = V
Vx Vy
n
Vx Vy
PQ = W = CPsin 2T =
cos 2T
Vx Vy
sin 2T
2
[Note: In the examination you only draw final figure (which is in StepV) and follow the
procedure step by step so that no mistakes occur.]
x Construction of Mohrs circle for unlike stresses (when V x and V y are opposite in sign)
Follow the same steps which we followed for construction for like stresses and finally will get
the figure shown below.
Note: For construction of Mohrs circle for principal stresses when ( V 1 and
Page 71 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
II. Construction of Mohrs circle for complex state of stress ( V x , V y and W xy known)
StepI:
StepII: Set up axes for the direct stress (as abscissa) i.e., in xaxis and shear stress (as
ordinate) i.e. in Yaxis
StepIII: Using sign convention and some suitable scale, plot the stresses on two adjacent faces
Page 72 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
StepIV: Join ST and it will cut o axis at C. With C as centre and CS or CT as radius, draw
circle. It is the Mohrs circle.
StepV: At the centre draw a line CP at an angle 2 in the same direction as the normal to the
plane makes with the direction of x .
x +y
2
2
x y
=
Radius CS = ( CL ) + (LS )
+ xy 2 = CT = CP
x + y x y
+
PR = =
cos 2 +
sin 2
n
xy
2
2
x y
PQ = =
sin 2 xy cos 2 .
2
2
[Note: In the examination you only draw final figure (which is in StepV) and follow the
procedure step by step so that no mistakes occur.]
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
Page 73 of 431
Chapter2
oV
S K Mondals
Let us take an example: See the in the Conventional question answer section in this chapter and
the question is Conventional Question IES2000
Vx
P
; Vy
A
W xy
W xy
Tr
; Vx
J
Vy
(1 =  2 and 3 = 0)
Page 74 of 431
Chapter2
Vx
V y
W max
rV x
1 = 2 = 3 = Compressive (Pressure)
v) Thin spherical shell under internal pressure
V1
V2
pr
2t
pD
(tensile)
4t
V1
pD
2t
pr
(tensile) and V 2
t
pd
4t
pr
(tensile)
2t
My
and V 2
I
W xy
Page 75 of 431
S K Mondals
Chapter2
S K Mondals
2.10 Strain
Normal strain
Let us consider an element AB of infinitesimal length x. After deformation of the actual body if
displacement of end A is u, that of end B is u+
is u+
wu
.G x  u
wx
wu
.G x. This gives an increase in length of element AB
wx
wu
G x and therefore the strain in xdirection is H x
wx
wQ
and H z
wx
wu
wx
ww
.
wz
Hx
wu
;
wx
Hy
wQ
;
wy
and
Hz
ww
.
wz
Shear strain
Let us consider an element ABCD in xy plane and let the displaced position of the element be
AcBcCcDc .This gives shear strain in xy plane as J xy v E where v is the angle made by the
displaced live BcCc with the vertical and E is the angle made by the displaced line A cDc with the
wu
.G y
wx
Gy
wQ
.G x
wu
and E = wx
Gx
wy
wQ
wx
J xy
wu wQ
;
wy wx
J yz
wQ ww
and J zx
wz wy
ww wu
wx wz
Therefore the state of strain at a point can be completely described by the six strain components
and the strain components in their turns can be completely defined by the displacement components
u,Q , and w.
Therefore, the complete strain matrix can be written as
Page 76 of 431
Chapter2
0
0
wx
w
0
0
H x
y
w
H
y
w
u
0
H 0
wz
z
X
w
J xy w
0 w
J wx wy
yz
w
w
J zx 0
wy
wz
w
w
0
wz
wx
S K Mondals
Strain Tensor
The three normal strain components are
H x H xx
wu
;
wx
Hy
H yy
wQ
wy
and
Hz
H zz
ww
.
wz
xy
J xy
2
1 wu wQ
;
2 wy wx
yz
J yz
2
1 wQ ww
2 wz wy
and
zx
J zx
2
1 wu ww
2 wz wx
ij
xx xy
yx yy
zx zy
xz
yz
zz
xx
J yx
2
J zx
J xy
2
yy
J zy
2
J xz
2
J yz
zz
Constitutive Equation
The constitutive equations relate stresses and strains and in linear elasticity. We know from the
Hooks law V
E.H
Page 77 of 431
Chapter2
Vx
E
Vx
S K Mondals
in xdirection
in ydirection and
P
Vx
E
in zdirection.
1
1
V y P V z V x and z
V z P V x V y
E
E
It is also known that the shear stress, W GJ , where G is the shear modulus and J is shear strain.
x
1
V x P V y V z ,
W xy
J xy
J yz
W yz
G
and J zx
W zx
G
H x
H y
H
z
J xy
J
yz
J zx
V
K 21 K 22 K 23 K 24 K 25 K 26 y
K 31 K 32 K 33 K 34 K 35 K 36 V z
K 41 K 42 K 43 K 44 K 45 K 46 W xy
K K K K K K
51 52 53 54 55 56 W yz
K 61 K 62 K 63 K 64 K 65 K 66 W
zx
K11 K 22
K 33
K 44
K 55
K 66
K12
K13
K 21
1
E
1
G
K 23
K 31
K 32
P
E
x 1D Strain
Let us take an example: A rod of cross sectional area Ao is
loaded by a tensile force P.
Its stresses
Vx
P
,
Ao
Vy
0,
and V z
V ij
V xx
0
0
0 0
0 0 or W ij
0 0
W xx
0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
V x
0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
Page 78 of 431
Chapter2
Vx
E
; y P
Vx
E
P x ;
P
and z
Vx
E
S K Mondals
P x
Hx
H ij
0
PH x
0
x 2D Strain (V z
(i)
x
y
z
0
PH x
Vx
E
0
P
V
P x
E
0
Vx
E
py
0
qy
0
0
qy
0)
1
V x PV y
E
1
V y PV x
E
P
V x V y
E
(ii)
Vx
E
P y
2 x
1 P
Vy
E
P x
2 y
1 P
x 3D Strain
(i)
x
y
z
(ii)
Vx
1
V x P V y V z
E
1
V y P V z V x
E
1
V z P V x V y
E
E
1 P x P y z
1
P
1
2
P
Page 79 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Vy
E
1 P y P z x
1 P 1 2P
Vz
E
1 P z P x y
1 P 1 2P
Let us take an example: At a point in a loaded member, a state of plane stress exists and the
270 u 10 6 ;
strains are H x
Hy
90 u 106
and H xy
Hx
. Hy
1
^V x PV y `
E
1
^V y PV x `
E
W xy
H xy
This gives V x
and V y
and W xy
E
^H x PH y `
1 P 2
200 u 109
270 u 106 0.25 u 90 u 106 Pa
1 0.252
52.8 MPa (i.e. tensile)
E
H y PH x
1 P 2
200 u 109
90 u 106 0.25 u 270 u 106 Pa 4.8 MPa (i.e.compressive)
1 0.252
H xy .G 360 u 106 u 80 u 109 Pa 28.8MPa
J xy
2
Consider an element as shown in the figure given. The strain component In Xdirection is x , the
strain component in Ydirection is y and the shear strain component is J xy .
Now consider a plane at an angle T with X axis in this plane a normal strain T and a shear
strain J T . Then
JT
2
x y
2
x y
2
x y
2
sin 2T
cos 2T
J xy
2
J xy
2
sin 2T
cos 2T
Page 80 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
We may find principal strain and principal plane for strains in the same process which we
followed for stress analysis.
In the principal plane shear strain is zero.
Therefore principal strains are
x y
1,2
x y J xy
r
2
2
tan 2T p
x
J xy
(x y )
Maximum shearing strain is equal to the difference between the 2 principal strains i.e
(J xy ) max 1 2
Mohr's Circle for circle for Plain Strain
We may draw Mohrs circle for strain following same procedure which we followed for drawing
Mohrs circle in stress. Everything will be same and in the place of
V y write y
and in place of W xy
write
J xy
2
Page 81 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Rectangular block,
'V
V0
x y z
V Vo
V0
'V
V0
L 1 H x u L 1 H y u L 1 H z L3
L3
Before deformation,
x y z
Volume (V)
Volume (Vo) = L3
= L 1 H x u L 1 H y u L 1 H z
Volumetric strain,
dv
v
H 1 2P
L 1 H
After deformation,
A 1 PH
A cLc=AL 1 H 1 PH
Page 82 of 431
Chapter2
'V V cV
V
V
'V
H 1 2P
V
S K Mondals
1=Longitudinal strain =
V1
E
2 =Circumferential strain =
P
V2
E
V2
E
P
V1
E
pr
>1 2P @
2 Et
pr
>2 P @
2Et
'V
pr
[5 4]
1 2 2
2 Et
Vo
1 2
pr
[1 P ]
2 Et
'V
V0
3 pr
[1 P ]
2 Et
Vx
V y
Therefore
Hx
W
E
Hy
Hz
Therefore H v
dv
v
1 P
W
E
1 P
Hx Hy Hz
Strain Gauge
Page 83 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Strain Rosette
The strain rosette is a device used to measure the state of strain at a point in a plane.
It comprises three or more independent strain gauges, each of which is used to read normal strain
at the same point but in a different direction.
The relative orientation between the three gauges is known as D , E and G
The three measurements of normal strain provide sufficient information for the determination of the
complete state of strain at the measured point in 2D.
We have to find out x , y , and J xy form measured value a , b , and c
Page 84 of 431
Chapter2
General arrangement:
S K Mondals
x y
2
x y
2
cos 2T
J xy
2
sin 2T
We get
b
c
x y
2
x y
2
x y
2
x y
2
x y
2
x y
2
cos 2D
J xy
2
sin 2D
cos 2 D E
J xy
2
cos 2 D E G
sin 2 D E
J xy
2
sin 2 D E G
From this three equations and three unknown we may solve x , y , and J xy
0o ; E
45o and G
45o
x a x
x x J xy
2
2
c y
x b
x
(ii)
45
0o ; E
60o and G
60o
60o
x 3 y
3
J xy
4
4
x 3 y
3
J xy
4
4
or
Page 85 of 431
1200
Chapter2
S K Mondals
A block of steel is loaded by a tangential force on its top surface while the bottom surface is held
rigidly. The deformation of the block is due to
[GATE1992]
(a) Shear only
(b) Bending only
(c) Shear and bending
(d) Torsion
GATE2.
A shaft subjected to torsion experiences a pure shear stress on the surface. The maximum
principal stress on the surface which is at 45 to the axis will have a value [GATE2003]
(a) cos 45
(b) 2 cos 45
(c) cos2 45
(d) 2 sin 45 cos 45
GATE3.
The number of components in a stress tensor defining stress at a point in three dimensions is:
[GATE2002]
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 6
(d) 9
A body is subjected to a pure tensile stress of 100 units. What is the maximum shear produced
in the body at some oblique plane due to the above?
[IES2006]
(a) 100 units
(b) 75 units
(c) 50 units
(d) 0 unit
GATE5.
In a strained material one of the principal stresses is twice the other. The maximum shear
stress in the same case is m ax .Then, what is the value of the maximum principle stress?[IES
2007]
(a) m ax
(b) 2 m ax
(c) 4 m ax
(d) 8 m ax
GATE6.
A material element subjected to a plane state of stress such that the maximum shear stress is
equal to the maximum tensile stress, would correspond to
[IAS1998]
GATE7.
A solid circular shaft is subjected to a maximum shearing stress of 140 MPs. The magnitude of
the maximum normal stress developed in the shaft is:
[IAS1995]
(a) 140 MPa
(b) 80 MPa
(c) 70 MPa
(d) 60 MPa
GATE8.
The state of stress at a point in a loaded member is shown in the figure. The magnitude of
maximum shear stress is [1MPa = 10 kg/cm2]
[IAS 1994]
(a) 10 MPa
(b) 30 MPa
(c) 50 MPa
(d) 100MPa
Page 86 of 431
Chapter2
GATE9.
S K Mondals
A solid circular shaft of diameter 100 mm is subjected to an axial stress of 50 MPa. It is further
subjected to a torque of 10 kNm. The maximum principal stress experienced on the shaft is
closest to
[GATE2008]
(a) 41 MPa
(b) 82 MPa
(c) 164 MPa
(d) 204 MPa
GATE10. In a biaxial stress problem, the stresses in x and y directions are ( x = 200 MPa and y =100
MPa. The maximum principal stress in MPa, is:
[GATE2000]
(a) 50
(b) 100
(c) 150
(d) 200
GATE11. The maximum principle stress for the stress
state shown in the figure is
(a)
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 1.5
[GATE2001]
GATE12. The normal stresses at a point are x = 10 MPa and, y = 2 MPa; the shear stress at this point is
4MPa. The maximum principal stress at this point is:
[GATE1998]
(a) 16 MPa
(b) 14 MPa
(c) 11 MPa
(d) 10 MPa
GATE13. In a Mohr's circle, the radius of the circle is taken as:
(a)
2
x y
xy
2
(b)
(c)
2
x y
xy
2
(d)
[IES2006; GATE1993]
y xy
2
xy
Where, x and y are normal stresses along x and y directions respectively and xy is the shear
stress.
GATE14. A two dimensional fluid element rotates like a rigid body. At a point within the element, the
pressure is 1 unit. Radius of the Mohr's circle, characterizing the state of stress at that point, is:
[GATE2008]
(a) 0.5 unit
(b) 0 unit
(c) 1 unit
(d) 2 units
GATE14(i). The state of stress at a point under plane stress condition is
xx = 40 MPa, yy = 100 MPa and xy = 40 MPa.
The radius of the Mohrs circle representing the given state of stress in MPa is
(a) 40
(b) 50
(c) 60
(d) 100
[GATE2012]
Page 87 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
[GATE2005]
Data for Q17Q18 are given below. Solve the problems and choose correct answers.
[GATE2003]
The state of stress at a point "P" in a two dimensional loading is such that the Mohr's circle is a point
located at 175 MPa on the positive normal stress axis.
GATE17. Determine the maximum and minimum principal stresses respectively from the Mohr's circle
(a) + 175 MPa, 175MPa
(b) +175 MPa, +175 MPa
(c) 0, 175 MPa
(d) 0, 0
GATE18. Determine the directions of maximum and minimum principal stresses at the point P from the
Mohr's circle
[GATE2003]
(a) 0, 90
(b) 90, 0
(c) 45, 135
(d) All directions
Principal strains
GATE19. If the two principal strains at a point are 1000 106 and 600 106, then the maximum shear
strain is:
[GATE1996]
(a) 800 106
(b) 500 106
(c) 1600 106
(d) 200 106
If a prismatic bar be subjected to an axial tensile stress , then shear stress induced on a plane
inclined at with the axis will be:
[IES1992]
a
IES2.
sin 2
cos 2
cos 2
sin 2
In the case of biaxial state of normal stresses, the normal stress on 45 plane is equal to[IES1992]
(a) The sum of the normal stresses
(b) Difference of the normal stresses
(c) Half the sum of the normal stresses
(d) Half the difference of the normal stresses
Page 88 of 431
Chapter2
IES2a
S K Mondals
A
(b)
(c) cos2
[IES2010]
IES3.
IES3a.
x 2 y and xy 0
(d)
x 0.5 y and xy 0
IES4.
Which one of the following Mohrs circles represents the state of pure shear?
[IES2000]
IES5.
For the state of stress of pure shear the strain energy stored per unit volume in the elastic,
homogeneous isotropic material having elastic constants E and will be:
[IES1998]
(a)
IES6.
2
E
(b)
2
2E
2 2
(c)
1
E
(d)
2
2E
Assertion (A): If the state at a point is pure shear, then the principal planes through that point
making an angle of 45 with plane of shearing stress carries principal stresses whose magnitude
is equal to that of shearing stress.
Reason (R): Complementary shear stresses are equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction.
[IES1996]
Page 89 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
IES7.
Assertion (A): Circular shafts made of brittle material fail along a helicoidally surface inclined
at 45 to the axis (artery point) when subjected to twisting moment.
[IES1995]
Reason (R): The state of pure shear caused by torsion of the shaft is equivalent to one of tension
at 45 to the shaft axis and equal compression in the perpendicular direction.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES8.
1 0
0 2
(b)
1 0
0 1
(c)
x xy
yx y
[IES1994]
(d) None of the above
IES9.
IES10.
c 3
[IES1998]
d 2
IES10(i). An elastic material of Youngs modulus E and Poissons ratio is subjected to a compressive
stress of 1 in the longitudinal direction. Suitable lateral compressive stress 2 are also applied
along the other two each of the lateral directions to half of the magnitude that would be under
1 acting alone. The magnitude of 2 is
[IES2012]
( )
( )
( )
( )
IES11.
IES11a
If the principal stresses and maximum shearing stresses are of equal numerical value at a point
in a stressed body, the state of stress can be termed as
(a) Isotropic
(b) Uniaxial
[IES2010]
(c) Pure shear
(d) Generalized plane state of stress
A body is subjected to a pure tensile stress of 100 units. What is the maximum shear produced
in the body at some oblique plane due to the above?
[IES2006]
(a) 100 units
(b) 75 units
(c) 50 units
(d) 0 unit
Page 90 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
IES13.
In a strained material one of the principal stresses is twice the other. The maximum shear
stress in the same case is t max . Then, what is the value of the maximum principle stress?
[IES 2007]
(a) m ax
(b) 2 m ax
(c) 4 m ax
(d) 8 m ax
IES14.
In a strained material, normal stresses on two mutually perpendicular planes are x and y
(both alike) accompanied by a shear stress xy One of the principal stresses will be zero, only if
[IES2006]
(a)
IES15.
xy
x y
(b)
xy x y
(c)
xy x y
(d)
xy x2 y2
The principal stresses 1, 2 and 3 at a point respectively are 80 MPa, 30 MPa and 40 MPa.
The maximum shear stress is:
[IES2001]
(a) 25 MPa
(b) 35 MPa
(c) 55 MPa
(d) 60 MPa
IES15(i). A piece of material is subjected, to two perpendicular tensile stresses of 70 MPa and 10 MPa.
The magnitude of the resultant stress on a plane in which the maximum shear stress occurs is
[IES2012]
(a) 70 MPa
(b) 60 MPa
(c) 50 MPa
(d) 10 MPa
IES16.
Plane stress at a point in a body is defined by principal stresses 3 and . The ratio of the
normal stress to the maximum shear stresses on the plane of maximum shear stress is:[IES2000]
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4
IES17.
IES18.
x y 500kg/cm2 .
[IES1993]
(d) 1000 kg/cm2
Normal
and
is
and both are tensile, then which one of the following would be the correct
criterion for failure by yielding, according to the maximum shear stress criterion?[IES1993]
(a)
IES19.
1 2 yp
2
(b)
1
2
yp
2
(c )
2
2
yp
(d ) 1 2 yp
IES20.
Normal stresses of equal magnitude p, but of opposite signs, act at a point of a strained material
in perpendicular direction. What is the magnitude of the resultant normal stress on a plane
inclined at 45 to the applied stresses?
[IES2005]
(a) 2 p
(b) p/2
(c) p/4
(d) Zero
IES21.
Page 91 of 431
x xy 100kgf/cm2
[IES1997]
and
Chapter2
IES22.
a 50
S K Mondals
b 100kgf/cm
3 kgf/cm
c 50
d 150kgf/cm2
5 kgf/cm
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer, using the codes given below the lists:
[IES1995]
List I(State of stress)
List II(Kind of loading)
Codes:
(a)
2
A
1
4
B
2
3
C
3
1
D
4
(d)
(b)
3
A
2
4
B
3
1
C
4
2
D
1
(c)
Mohr's circle
IES22(i).
Statement (I): Mohrs circle of stress can be related to Mohrs circle of strain by some constant
of proportionality.
[IES2012]
Statement (II): The relationship is a function of yield strength of the material.
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the
correct explanation of Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true
IES23.
(b) x y 0, xy 0
(c) x 0, y xy 0
(d) x 0, y xy 0
[IES2008]
IES24.
For a general two dimensional stress system, what are the coordinates of the centre of Mohrs
circle?
[IES 2007]
(a)
IES25.
x y
2
,0
(b) 0,
x y
2
(c)
x y
2
xy
2
2
(a)
(b)
Page 92 of 431
,0(d)
0,
x y
[IES2006; GATE1993]
y
2
xy
Chapter2
S K Mondals
xy
2
2
(c)
(d)
y xy
2
Where, x and y are normal stresses along x and y directions respectively and xy is the shear
stress.
IES26.
IES27.
IES28.
Consider a two dimensional state of stress given for an element as shown in the diagram given
below:
[IES2004]
(d) (50, 0)
IES29.
IES30.
Assertion (A): Mohr's circle of stress can be related to Mohr's circle of strain by some constant of
proportionality.
[IES2002]
Reason (R): The relationship is a function of yield stress of the material.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES31.
When two mutually perpendicular principal stresses are unequal but like, the maximum shear
stress is represented by
[IES1994]
(a) The diameter of the Mohr's circle
(b) Half the diameter of the Mohr's circle
(c)
Onethird the diameter of the Mohr's circle
(d) Onefourth the diameter of the Mohr's circle
IES32.
State of stress in a plane element is shown in figure I. Which one of the following figuresII is
the correct sketch of Mohr's circle of the state of stress?
[IES1993, 1996]
Page 93 of 431
Chapter2
FigureI
S K Mondals
FigureII
Strain
IES33.
A point in a two dimensional state of strain is subjected to pure shearing strain of magnitude
xy radians. Which one of the following is the maximum principal strain?
[IES2008]
(a) xy
(b) xy / 2
(c) xy /2
(d) 2 xy
IES34.
Assertion (A): A plane state of stress does not necessarily result into a plane state of strain as
well.
[IES1996]
Reason (R): Normal stresses acting along X and Y directions will also result into normal strain
along the Zdirection.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES34a
Assertion (A): A plane state of stress always results in a plane state of strain.
Reason (R): A uniaxial state of stress results in a threedimensional state of strain.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
[IES2010]
(d) A is false but R is true
IES34b
Assertion (A): A state of plane strain always results in plane stress conditions.
Reason (R): A thin sheet of metal stretched in its own plane results in plane strain conditions.
[IES2010]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Principal strains
IES35.
Principal strains at a point are 100 10 6 and 200 10 6 . What is the maximum shear strain
at the point?
[IES2006]
(a) 300 106
(b) 200 106
(c) 150 106
(d) 100 106
IES36.
The principal strains at a point in a body, under biaxial state of stress, are 1000106 and 600
106. What is the maximum shear strain at that point?
[IES2009]
(a) 200 106
(b) 800 106
(c) 1000 106
(d) 1600 106
IES37.
The number of strain readings (using strain gauges) needed on a plane surface to determine the
principal strains and their directions is:
[IES1994]
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4
Page 94 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
The principal stresses at a point in two dimensional stress system are 1 and 2 and
corresponding principal strains are 1 and 2 . If E and denote Young's modulus and Poisson's
ratio, respectively, then which one of the following is correct?
[IES2008]
E
(a) 1 E1
(b) 1
1 2
1 2
E
(c) 1
(d) 1 E 1 2
1 2
1 2
IES39.
Assertion (A): Mohr's construction is possible for stresses, strains and area moment of
inertia.
[IES2009]
Reason (R): Mohr's circle represents the transformation of secondorder tensor.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
(c)
A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.
IES40.
800106 and600106
[IES2011]
On a plane, resultant stress is inclined at an angle of 45 o to the plane. If the normal stress is
100 N /mm2, the shear stress on the plane is:
[IAS2003]
(a) 71.5 N/mm2
(b) 100 N/mm2
(c) 86.6 N/mm2
(d) 120.8 N/mm2
IAS2.
Page 95 of 431
[IAS1999]
Chapter2
IAS3.
S K Mondals
IAS4.
A uniform bar lying in the xdirection is subjected to pure bending. Which one of the following
tensors represents the strain variations when bending moment is about the zaxis (p, q and r
constants)?
[IAS2001]
py 0 0
(a) 0 qy 0
0 0 ry
0
py 0
(c) 0
py 0
0
0 py
IAS5.
py 0 0
(b) 0
qy 0
0
0 0
py 0 0
(d) 0
qy 0
0
0 qy
Assuming E = 160 GPa and G = 100 GPa for a material, a strain tensor is given as:[IAS2001]
0
0.004 0.003
0.006
0
0
xy is:
(b) 500 MPa
A material element subjected to a plane state of stress such that the maximum shear stress is
equal to the maximum tensile stress, would correspond to
[IAS1998]
IAS7.
A solid circular shaft is subjected to a maximum shearing stress of 140 MPs. The magnitude of
the maximum normal stress developed in the shaft is:
[IAS1995]
(a) 140 MPa
(b) 80 MPa
(c) 70 MPa
(d) 60 MPa
IAS8.
The state of stress at a point in a loaded member is shown in the figure. The magnitude of
maximum shear stress is [1MPa = 10 kg/cm2]
[IAS 1994]
(a) 10 MPa
(b) 30 MPa
(c) 50 MPa
(d) 100MPa
Page 96 of 431
Chapter2
IAS9.
S K Mondals
A horizontal beam under bending has a maximum bending stress of 100 MPa and a maximum
shear stress of 20 MPa. What is the maximum principal stress in the beam? [IAS2004]
(a) 20
(b) 50
(c) 50 +
2900
(d) 100
IAS10.
When the two principal stresses are equal and like: the resultant stress on any plane is:[IAS2002]
(a) Equal to the principal stress
(b) Zero
(c) One half the principal stress
(d) One third of the principal stress
IAS11.
Assertion (A): When an isotropic, linearly elastic material is loaded biaxially, the directions of
principal stressed are different from those of principal strains.
Reason (R): For an isotropic, linearly elastic material the Hooke's law gives only two
independent material properties.
[IAS2001]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS12.
Principal stress at a point in a stressed solid are 400 MPa and 300 MPa respectively. The
normal stresses on planes inclined at 45 to the principal planes will be:
[IAS2000]
(a) 200 MPa and 500 MPa
(b) 350 MPa on both planes
(c) 100MPaand6ooMPa
(d) 150 MPa and 550 MPa
IAS13.
The principal stresses at a point in an elastic material are 60N/mm 2 tensile, 20 N/mm2 tensile
and 50 N/mm2 compressive. If the material properties are: = 0.35 and E = 105 Nmm2, then the
volumetric strain of the material is:
[IAS1997]
(a) 9 105
(b) 3 104
(c) 10.5 105
(d) 21 105
Mohr's circle
IAS14.
Match ListI (Mohr's Circles of stress) with ListII (Types of Loading) and select the correct
answer using the codes given below the lists:
[IAS2004]
ListI
ListII
(Mohr's Circles of Stress)
(Types of Loading)
1.
Page 97 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Codes:
(a)
(c)
A
5
4
B
4
3
C
3
2
D
2
5
2.
3.
4.
5.
(b)
(d)
B
4
3
C
1
1
D
3
5
IAS15.
The resultant stress on a certain plane makes an angle of 20 with the normal to the plane. On
the plane perpendicular to the above plane, the resultant stress makes an angle of with the
normal. The value of can be:
[IAS2001]
(a) 0 or 20
(b) Any value other than 0 or 90
(c) Any value between 0 and 20
(d) 20 only
IAS16.
The correct Mohr's stresscircle drawn for a point in a solid shaft compressed by a shrunk fit
hub is as (OOrigin and CCentre of circle; OA = 1 and OB = 2)
[IAS2001]
IAS17.
f x and f y in two
[IAS2000]
f x is equal to
f x is equal to
fx f y
2
fx f y
x =2
2
N/mm2,
x =0
Page 98 of 431
Chapter2
IAS19.
S K Mondals
For which one of the following twodimensional states of stress will the Mohr's stress circle
degenerate into a point?
[IAS1996]
Principal strains
IAS20.
In an axisymmetric plane strain problem, let u be the radial displacement at r. Then the strain
components r , , e are given by
[IAS1995]
u
u
2u
, r
r
r
r
u
u
, r 0
(c) r ,
r
r
(a)
r ,
u
u
, , r o
r
r
u
u
2u
,
, r
(d) r
r
r
(b)
IAS21.
IAS22.
Assertion (A): A plane state of stress will, in general, not result in a plane state of strain.[IAS2002]
Reason (R): A thin plane lamina stretched in its own plane will result in a state of plane strain.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Page 99 of 431
Chapter2
S K Mondals
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (a) It is the definition of shear stress. The force is applied tangentially it is not a point load so
you cannot compare it with a cantilever with a point load at its free end.
x y x y
GATE2. Ans. (d) n
cos2 xy sin2
2
2
Here x 2 0, xy , 45o
GATE3. Ans. (d) It is well known that,
xy yx, xz zx and yz zy
so that the state of stress at a point is given by six components x , y , z and xy , yz , zx
1 2
1 2
max
1 2
1 2
2
100 0
50 units.
2
1 2 2
1 ( 1 )
2
or
max
2
2
or
2 2 m ax or 1 2 2 = 4 m ax
2
x y
40 40
2
xy 2 =
GATE8. Ans. (c) max
30 = 50 MPa
2
2
16T 16 10000
Pa 50 .93 MPa
GATE9. Ans. (b) Shear Stress ( )=
d 3 (0.1)3
b 2 =82 MPa
Maximum principal Stress =
2
2
GATE10. Ans. (d) 1
x y
x y
2
xy
2
if xy 0
x y
x
2
2
GATE11. Ans. (b) x , y , xy
x y
1 max
x y
x y
2
x y
2
xy
2
2
x y
2
xy
2
2 2
2
10 2
10 2
2
4 11.66 MPa
2
2
Chapter2
40 50 MPa
2
2 100 MPa
1 2
2
2
y 10 (100) 90MPa
or 1 2 y
x y
2
100 20
2
60
1 2 x y 175 MPa
GATE18. Ans. (d) From the Mohrs circle it will give all directions.
GATE19. Ans. (c) Shear strain emax emin 1000 600 10 6 1600 10 6
IES
IES1. Ans. (a)
IES2. Ans. (c) n
x y
2
x y
2
cos2 xy sin2
At 45o and xy 0; n
IES2a Ans. (a)
x y
Shear stress
2
x y
sin2  xy cos2
2
Here x , y and xy 0
S K Mondals
Chapter2
S K Mondals
2E
E
x y
2
1 2
x y
2
2
x y
1 2 2
or
max
2
2
or
2 2 m ax or 1 2 2 = 4 m ax
x y
2
xy
2
x y
cos2 xy sin2
100 0
50 units.
2
1 2
max
if 2 0
x y
2
xy
2
x y
x y
2
or
xy or xy x y
2
2
1 2
2
80 ( 40)
60 MPa
2
max
2 xy
x y
1 2
2
3
2
2
IES17. Ans. (b) When stresses are alike, then normal stress n on plane inclined at angle 45 is
2
1
1
1 1
2
x
500 2 2 500 kg/cm
2
2
n y cos 2 x sin 2 y
IES18. Ans. (a)
IES19. Ans. (d) 1,2
x y
2
x y
2
xy
2
1,2
50 ( 10) 50 10
2
40
2
2
x y
x y
cos2
2
2
P P P P
n
cos 2 45 0
2
2
Chapter2
S K Mondals
1,2
x 0
2
0
2
x
xy 50 50 5
2
1 2
2
50 5
2
x y
xy
2
x y
x
2
x y
t
2
x y
max
2
xy
x y
2
xy
x y
2
x y
2
1 2
r
2
2
xy
2
xy
x y
2
max
xy
2
Chapter2
S K Mondals
100 40 2
y
xy 2 / 10
402 / 10 50 / 10 5cm
x y 200 100
,0
,0 50,0
IES28. Ans. (d) Centre of Mohrs circle is
2
2
IES29. Ans. (d)
IES30. Ans. (c)
IES31. Ans. (b)
IES32. Ans. (c)
IES33. Ans. (c)
IES34. Ans. (a)
IES34a. Ans. (d)
IES34b. Ans. (d)
IES35. Ans. (a) max 1 2 100 200 106 300 106
don' t confuse withMaximumShear stress max
xy
in strain
x y
2
1 2
2
xy
and max
1 2
2
1 2
2
IES37. Ans. (c) Three strain gauges are needed on a plane surface to determine the principal strains and
their directions.
IES38. Ans. (b) e1 =
IES39. Ans. (a)
IES40.
Ans. (a)
s1
s
 m 2
E
E
and
s2
s
 m 1 From these two equation eliminate s 2 .
E
E
e2 =
IAS
2
IAS1. Ans. (b) Weknow n cos
IAS3. Ans. (b) It is a case of pure shear so principal planes will be along the diagonal.
IAS4. Ans. (d) Stress in x direction = x
Therefore
x
E
x
E
x
E
Chapter2
S K Mondals
xx xy xz
xy
yx yy yz and xy
2
zx zy zz
3
xy G xy 100 10 0.004 2 MPa 800MPa
IAS6. Ans. (d) max
IAS7. Ans. (a) max
1 2
1 ( 1 )
1 2
x y
xy 2 =
IAS8. Ans. (c) max
2
2
40 40
2
30 = 50 MPa
2
=20 mPa
b 2
2
2
2
100
100
2
1,2 b 2
20 50 2900 MPa
2
2
2
2
x y x y
cos 2
IAS10. Ans. (a) n
2
2
[We may consider this as xy 0 ] x y ( say )
So n for any plane
2
x y
2
x y
y
y
y z
z x and z z x
, y
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
v x y z
x y z
E
x y z
1 2
2
x y z
E
60 20 50
5
1 2 0.35 9 10
5
10
fx f y
2
x y 2 0
,0
,0 1, 0
IAS18. Ans. (d) Centre
2
2
2
x y
20
2
radius
x
0 1
2
2
x y
2
xy
2
xy 0 and x y
Chapter2
S K Mondals
The Mohrs circle for a plane stress is a circle of radius R with its origin at + 2R on
( xy )max for
this
[2 Marks]
Here max = 3R
min = R
3R + R
= 2R
2
min 3R R
and xy = max
=
=R
2
2
v =
(2R,0)
3R
Answer:
Direct tensile stresses of 120 MPa and 70 MPa act on a body on mutually
perpendicular planes. What is the magnitude of shearing stress that can be applied
so that the major principal stress at the point does not exceed 135 MPa? Determine
the value of minor principal stress and the maximum shear stress.
120 70
120 + 70
2
+
2
2
Major principal stress is
2
1,2 =
1 =
120 + 70
+
2
120 70
2
2
2
= 135(Given) or , = 31.2MPa.
Chapter2
S K Mondals
max
120 70
120 70
2
31.2 55 MPa
2
2
1 2 135 55
40 MPa
2
2
The state of stress at a point in a loaded machine member is given by the principle stresses.
2 Marks]
1 600 MP a , 2 0 and 3 600 MP a .
(i)
(ii)
Ans.
1 3 600 600
2
2
600 MP a
= 45 max. shear stress occurs with 1 plane. Since 1 and 3 are principle stress
does not contains shear stress. Hence max. shear stress is at 45 with principle plane.
(ii) At
Answer:
A prismatic bar in compression has a cross sectional area A = 900 mm2 and carries an axial
load P = 90 kN. What are the stresses acts on
(i) A plane transverse to the loading axis;
(ii) A plane at = 60o to the loading axis?
(i) From figure it is clear A plane
transverse to loading axis, =0o
P
90000
\ s n = cos2 =
N / mm 2
A
900
= 100 N / mm 2
and t =
P
90000
Sin 2=
sin=0
2A
2900
(iii)
A tension member with a crosssectional area of 30 mm2 resists a load of 80 kN, Calculate the
normal and shear stresses on the plane of maximum shear stress.
Answer:
n =
P
cos2
A
t =
P
sin2
2A
Chapter2
S K Mondals
(n ) =
80 103
80 103
P
cos2 45 = 1333MPa and t max =
=
= 1333MPa
30
2A
30 2
Answer:
At a point in a loaded structure, a pure shear stress state t = 400 MPa prevails on two
given planes at right angles.
(i) What would be the state of stress across the planes of an element taken at +45 to the
given planes?
(ii) What are the magnitudes of these stresses?
(i) For pure shear
x =  y ;
A Solid phosphor bronze shaft 60 mm in diameter is rotating at 800 rpm and transmitting
power. It is subjected torsion only. An electrical resistance strain gauge mounted on the
surface of the shaft with its axis at 45 to the shaft axis, gives the strain reading as 3.98 10
Chapter2
S K Mondals
the strain reading as 3.98 104. If the modulus of elasticity for bronze is 105 GN/m2
and Poisson's ratio is 0.3, find the power being transmitted by the shaft. Bending
effect may be neglected.
Answer:
1
4 2 =  (compressive)
2
1
Principal stress along, LU =
4 2 = (tensile)
2
Thus magntude of the compressive strain along VM is
Principal stress along, VM = 
= (1 + ) = 3.98 104
E
3.98 104 (105 109 )
or =
= 32.15 MPa
(1 + 0.3)
Torque being transmitted (T) =
= (32.15 106 )
d 3
16
0.063 =1363.5 Nm
16
2N
2800
=1363.5
Power being transmitted, P =T. =T.
W = 114.23 kW
60
60
Chapter2
Answer:
S K Mondals
80Mpa
Jxy
Principal stresses
1,2 =
x y
+ xy2
2
x + y
2
60Mpa
60Mpa
Jxy
Jxy
60 80
2
+ xy
60 + 80
or , 1,2 =
Jxy
60 80
60 + 80
2
or , 1,2 =
+ xy
2
2
To make principal stress 100 MPa we have to consider '+' .
80Mpa
60 80
2
+ (56.57)
i.e. 80 MPa(compressive)
Conventional Question IES2001
Question: A steel tube of inner diameter 100 mm and wall thickness 5 mm is subjected to a
torsional moment of 1000 Nm. Calculate the principal stresses and orientations of
the principal planes on the outer surface of the tube.
Answer:
4
4
(0.110) (0.100) = 4.56 106 m 4
32
5mm
Now
T
T .R 1000 (0.055)
= or J =
=
4.56 106
J R
J
= 12.07MPa
Now,tan 2 p =
2 xy
=,
x y
gives p = 45 or 135
0
50mm
At a point in a two dimensional stress system the normal stresses on two mutually
perpendicular planes are x and y and the shear stress is xy. At what value of
x + y
2
x  y
+ xy2
2
Chapter2
Question:
Answer:
S K Mondals
A solid shaft of diameter 30 mm is fixed at one end. It is subject to a tensile force of 10 kN and
a torque of 60 Nm. At a point on the surface of the shaft, determine the principle stresses and
the maximum shear stress.
Given: D = 30 mm = 0.03 m; P = 10 kN; T= 60 Nm
10 103
0.03
14.15 10 6 N / m2 or 14.15 MN / m2
J R
TR
TR
60 0.015
11.32 106 N / m2
4
4
J
D
0.03
32
32
Shear stress,
or 11.32 MN / m2
The principal stresses are calculated by u sin g the relations :
y
1,2 x
2
Here
x y 2
2
xy
2
x 14.15MN / m2 , y 0; xy 11.32
MN / m2
14.15
2
14.15
1,2
11.32
2
2
7.07 13.35 20.425 MN / m2 , 6.275MN / m2 .
1 2
2
24.425 6.275
2
13.35mm / m2
Two planes AB and BC which are at right angles are acted upon by tensile stress of 140
N/mm2 and a compressive stress of 70 N/mm 2 respectively and also by stress 35 N/mm 2.
Determine the principal stresses and principal planes. Find also the maximum shear stress
and planes on which they act.
Sketch the Mohr circle and mark the relevant data.
Answer:
Given
70N/mm
2
x =140MPa(tensile)
y =70MPa(compressive)
35Nmm
t xy = 35MPa
140N/mm
Principal stresses; 1, 2 ;
Chapter2
Answer:
S K Mondals
2
70N /mm
x =140MPa (tensile)
y = 70MPa (compressive)
35Nmm
xy = 35MPa
140N/mm2
Principal stresses; 1, 2 ;
A
x + y
2
x y
2
+ xy
2
140 70
=
140 + 70
2
+ 35 = 35 110.7
2 xy
x y
2 35
= 0.3333
140 + 70
1  2 145 + 75.7
=
= 110.7MPa
2
2
Y
Mohr cirle:
OL= x = 140MPa
OM = y = 70MPa
SM = LT = xy = 35MPa
2p =198.4
L
O
2=
78.4
= 140
OV = 2 = 75.7MPa
The data obtained from a rectangular strain gauge rosette attached to a stressed
steel member are
0
0 = 220 106 , 45
= 120 1006 , and 90 =220 106 . Given
5
Ans.
that the value of E = 2 10 N / mm and Poissons Ratio = 0.3 , calculate the values
of principal stresses acting at the point and their directions.
[10 Marks]
A rectangular strain gauge rosette strain
0 = 220 106
E = 2 1011 N / m2
450
ea + eb
2
2
ea eb ) + ( eb ec )
(
2
220 106 + 120 106
1
) + ( (120 220) 10 )
2
Chapter2
S K Mondals
240
0.55
440
2 p 28.81
E 1 2
1
2 1011 2 0.3 3 10 4
1 0.3
241.78 10 N / m
5
527.47 10 5 N / m 2
When using straingauge system for stress/force/displacement measurements how are inbuilt
magnification and temperature compensation achieved?
Inbuilt magnification and temperature compensation are achieved by
(a) Through use of adjacent arm balancing of Wheatstone bridge.
(b) By means of self temperature compensation by selected meltgauge and dual elementgauge.
A cylinder (500 mm internal diameter and 20 mm wall thickness) with closed ends is
subjected simultaneously to an internal pressure of 060 MPa, bending moment 64000 Nm
and torque 16000 Nm. Determine the maximum tensile stress and shearing stress in the wall.
Given: d = 500 mm = 05 m; t = 20 mm = 002 m; p = 060 MPa = 0.6 MN/m2;
M = 64000 Nm = 0064 MNm; T= 16000 Nm = 0016 MNm.
Maximum tensile stress:
First let us determine the principle stresses 1 and 2 assuming this as a thin cylinder.
pd 0.6 0.5
7.5MN / m2
2t 2 0.02
pd 0.6 0.5
2
3.75MN / m2
4t 4 0.02
We know,
and
Next consider effect of combined bending moment and torque on the walls of the cylinder.
Then the principal stresses '1 and '2 are given by
16
M M2 T 2
16
'2 3 M M2 T 2
d
16
0.064 0.0642 0.016 2 5.29MN / m2
'1
3
0.5
'1
and
and
'2
d3
16
0.5
I II
2
max
12.79 3.67
4.56MN / m2
2
3.
About any point the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between them is
known as moment of a force or first moment of force.
This first moment is again multiplied by the perpendicular distance between them to obtain
second moment of force.
In the same way if we consider the area of the figure it is called second moment of area or
area moment of inertia and if we consider the mass of a body it is called second moment of
mass or mass moment of Inertia.
Mass moment of inertia is the measure of resistance of the body to rotation and forms the
basis of dynamics of rigid bodies.
Area moment of Inertia is the measure of resistance to bending and forms the basis of
strength of materials.
m r
2
i i
Notice that the moment of inertia I depends on the distribution of mass in the system.
The furthest the mass is from the rotation axis, the bigger the moment of inertia.
For a given object, the moment of inertia depends on where we choose the rotation axis.
In rotational dynamics, the moment of inertia I appears in the same way that mass m does
in linear dynamics.
Chapter3
x
Solid disc or cylinder of mass M and radius R, about perpendicular axis through its
1
MR2
2
centre, I
Solid sphere of mass M and radius R, about an axis through its centre, I = 2/5 M R2
I
x
1
ML2
12
Thin rod of mass M and length L, about a perpendicular axis through its
end.
1
ML2
3
dIxx = y2dA
Ixx = y2 dA
dIyy = x2dA
Iyy = x2 dA
Chapter3
I xx I yy
To find the moment of inertia of the differential area about the pole (point of origin) or zaxis,
(r) is used. (r) is the perpendicular distance from the pole to dA for the entire area
J = r2 dA = (x2 + y2 )dA = Ixx + Iyy (since r2 = x2 + y2 )
Where, J = polar moment of inertia
?Total
b.y 2 .dy
moment of Inertia)
h
I xx
h
by dy
2
2 by 2 dy
0
bh3
12
bh
12
I xx
Similarly, we may find, I yy
hb3
12
bh3 hb3
12
12
Chapter3
u (distance) 2
bh3
h
buhu
12
2
bh3
3
I xx
a4
12
a4
12
I xx
CaseIII:
rectangular hole
Moment of inertia of the area = moment of inertia of BIG
rectangle moment of inertia of SMALL rectangle
I xx
BH 3 bh3
12
12
Chapter3
Moment of Inertia and Centroid
(ii) MOI of a Circular area
The moment of inertia about axis XX this passes through
the centroid. It is very easy to find polar moment of inertia
about point O. Take an element of width dr at a distance
r from centre. Therefore, the moment of inertia of this
element about polar axis
or d(J)
S R4
2S r dr
S D4
2
32
0
Due to summetry I xx
I yy
Therefore, I xx
I xx
J
2
I yy
64
S D4
I yy
CaseI:
S D4
64
and J
Ixx = Iyy =
S D4
64
S
64
CaseII:
S d4
64
( D4 d4 )
and J
32
( D4 d4 )
circular area.
I NN
1
of the momemt of total circular lamina
2
1 S D4 S D4
u
2 64 128
We
know
4r
3S
2D
3S
that
distance
of
CG
from
base
is
h say
S D4
32
Chapter3
I NN
or
or
S D4
1 S D2
2
I xx
u h
2 4
1 S D 2 2D
I xx u
u
2 4 3S
128
S D4
128
0.11R 4
I xx
or
1
u 0.11R4
2
I XX
I XX
0.055 R4
0.055 R 4
INN = one half of the moment of Inertia of the Semicircular area about NN.
? I NN
1 S D4
u
2 64
S D4
128
I XX
bh3
36
I NN
bh3
12
Chapter3
Moment of Inertia and Centroid
(iv) Moment of inertia of a thin circular ring:
Polar moment of Inertia
I XX
IYY
J
2
S R 3t
I XX
S ab3
4
Let us take an example: An Isection beam of 100 mm wide, 150 mm depth flange and web of
thickness 20 mm is used in a structure of length 5 m. Determine the Moment of Inertia (of area) of
crosssection of the beam.
Answer: Carefully observe the figure below. It has sections with symmetry about the neutral axis.
We may use standard value for a rectangle about an axis passes through centroid. i.e. I
bh3
.
12
The section can thus be divided into convenient rectangles for each of which the neutral axis passes
I Beam
the centroid.
m
2 u
12
12
1.183 u 104 m4
Chapter3
kxx
2
kxx
A or
I xx
I xx
A
Similarly
I yy
2
kyy
A or
ko2 A or
ko2
I yy
kyy
ko
J
A
2
2
kxx
kyy
Let us take an example: Find radius of gyration for a circular area of diameter d about central
axis.
Answer:
We know that, I xx
2
K xx
A
Chapter3
or K XX
I XX
A
64
S d2
4
d
4
Chapter3
The second moment of a circular area about the diameter is given by (D is the diameter)[GATE2003]
(a)
GATE2.
D4
(b)
D4
(c)
16
D4
(d)
32
D4
64
The area moment of inertia of a square of size 1 unit about its diagonal is:
[GATE2001]
(a)
1
3
(b)
1
4
(c)
1
12
(d)
1
6
Radius of Gyration
Data for Q3Q4 are given below. Solve the problems and choose correct answers.
A reel of mass m and radius of gyration k is rolling down smoothly from rest with one end of the thread
wound on it held in the ceiling as depicted in the figure. Consider the thickness of the thread and its mass
negligible in comparison with the radius r of the hub and the reel mass m. Symbol g represents the
acceleration due to gravity.
GATE3.
GATE4.
[GATE2003]
(c)
(c)
grk
2
k2
m gk 2
m gr 2
(d)
(d)
k2
mg
k2
Chapter3
Assertion (A): Inertia force always acts through the centroid of the body and is directed opposite
to the acceleration of the centroid.
[IES2001]
Reason (R): It has always a tendency to retard the motion.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Radius of Gyration
IES2.
3 b
2 a
[IES2003]
IES3. Force required to accelerate a cylindrical body which rolls without slipping on a horizontal plane
(mass of cylindrical body is m, radius of the cylindrical surface in contact with plane is r, radius
of gyration of body is k and acceleration of the body is a) is:
[IES2001]
(a) m k 2 / r 2 1 .a
(b) m k 2 / r 2 .a
(c) m k 2 .a
(d) m k 2 / r 1 .a
IES4. A body of mass m and radius of gyration k is to be replaced by two masses m 1 and m2 located at
distances h1 and h2 from the CG of the original body. An equivalent dynamic system will result,
if
[IES2001]
(a) h1 h2
(b) h1 h2 k
2
(c) h1h2 k
(d)
h1h2 k 2
A wheel of centroidal radius of gyration 'k' is rolling on a horizontal surface with constant
velocity. It comes across an obstruction of height 'h' Because of its rolling speed, it just
overcomes the obstruction. To determine v, one should use the principle (s) of conservation of
[IAS 1994]
(a) Energy
(b) Linear momentum
(c) Energy and linear momentum
(d) Energy and angular momentum
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (d)
a 4 1
12
12
Chapter3
gr 2
f
therefore
mg
T
=
mf
gives
f
=
r2
r 2 k 2
f
gr 2
m gk 2
mk2 2 2
2
2
2
r
r r k
r k2
It has always a tendency to oppose the motion not retard. If we want to retard a motion
then it will wand to accelerate.
4.
this
coordinate
system
treats
downward
0 ,
We find that Vx
0 and
P and M x
P . x
Chapter4
S K Mondals
What are the benefits of drawing shear force and bending moment diagram?
The benefits of drawing a variation of shear force and bending moment in a beam as a function of x'
measured from one end of the beam is that it becomes easier to determine the maximum absolute
value of shear force and bending moment. The shear force and bending moment diagram gives a
clear picture in our mind about the variation of SF and BM throughout the entire section of the
beam.
Further, the determination of value of bending moment as a function of x' becomes very important
so as to determine the value of deflection of beam subjected to a given loading where we will use the
formula, EI
d 2y
dx 2
Mx .
Chapter4
downward
S K Mondals
The
direction
shear force.
The
downward
direction
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Sagging
If the bending moment of
XX is clockwise then it is a
section
clockwise then it is a
moment.
XX
is
anti
taken
as
positive
and
Hogging
If the bending moment of
the
anti
section XX is clockwise
left
section
hand
XX
is
of
clockwise then it is a
then
bending moment.
it
is
positive
Remember in the Cantilever beam both Shear force and BM are negative (ive).
4.3 Relation between S.F (Vx), B.M. (Mx) & Load (w)
x
dVx
= w (load) The value of the distributed load at any point in the beam is
dx
equal to the slope of the shear force curve. (Note that the sign of this rule may change
depending on the sign convention used for the external distributed load).
dM x
= Vx The value of the shear force at any point in the beam is equal to the slope
dx
of the bending moment curve.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
4.4 Procedure for drawing shear force and bending moment diagram
Construction of shear force diagram
x
From the loading diagram of the beam constructed shear force diagram.
Then the vertical components of forces and reactions are successively summed from the left
end of the beam to preserve the mathematical sign conventions adopted. The shear at a
section is simply equal to the sum of all the vertical forces to the left of the section.
The shear force curve is continuous unless there is a point force on the beam. The curve then
jumps by the magnitude of the point force (+ for upward force).
When the successive summation process is used, the shear force diagram should end up with
the previously calculated shear (reaction at right end of the beam). No shear force acts
through the beam just beyond the last vertical force or reaction. If the shear force diagram
closes in this fashion, then it gives an important check on mathematical calculations. i.e. The
shear force will be zero at each end of the beam unless a point force is applied at the end.
The bending moment diagram is obtained by proceeding continuously along the length of
beam from the left hand end and summing up the areas of shear force diagrams using proper
sign convention.
The process of obtaining the moment diagram from the shear force diagram by summation is
exactly the same as that for drawing shear force diagram from load diagram.
The bending moment curve is continuous unless there is a point moment on the beam. The
curve then jumps by the magnitude of the point moment (+ for CW moment).
We know that a constant shear force produces a uniform change in the bending moment,
resulting in straight line in the moment diagram. If no shear force exists along a certain
portion of a beam, then it indicates that there is no change in moment takes place. We also
know that dM/dx= Vx therefore, from the fundamental theorem of calculus the maximum or
minimum moment occurs where the shear is zero.
The bending moment will be zero at each free or pinned end of the beam. If the end is built
in, the moment computed by the summation must be equal to the one calculated initially for
the reaction.
4.5 Different types of Loading and their S.F & B.M Diagram
(i) A Cantilever beam with a concentrated load P at its free end.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Shear force:
At a section a distance x from free end consider the forces to
the left, then (Vx) =  P (for all values of x) negative in sign
i.e. the shear force to the left of the xsection are in downward
direction and therefore negative.
Bending Moment:
Taking moments about the section gives (obviously to the left
of the section)
(ii) A Cantilever beam with uniformly distributed load over the whole length
When a cantilever beam is subjected to a uniformly
distributed load whose intensity is given w /unit length.
Shear force:
Consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance of x from
the free end. If we just take the resultant of all the forces on
the left of the Xsection, then
Vx = w.x
At x = 0, Vx = 0
At x = L, Vx = wL (i.e. Maximum at fixed end)
Plotting the equation Vx = w.x, we get a straight line
because it is a equation of a straight line y (Vx) = m( w) .x
Bending Moment:
Bending Moment at XX is obtained by treating the load to the
left of XX as a concentrated load of the same value (w.x)
Mx
w .x .
x
2
w .x 2
2
Mx = 0
and x = L, Mx =
wL2
2
Chapter4
Mmax
wL2
2
S K Mondals
at fixed end
Another way to describe a cantilever beam with uniformly distributed load (UDL) over its whole
length.
(iii) A Cantilever beam loaded as shown below draw its S.F and B.M diagram
Vx = P; and Mx =  P.x
In the region a < x < L
(iv) Let us take an example: Consider a cantilever bean of 5 m length. It carries a uniformly
distributed load 3 KN/m and a concentrated load of 7 kN at the free end and 10 kN at 3 meters from
the fixed end.
Chapter4
Vx = 7 kN
at x = 2 m , Vx = 7  3 u 2 = 13 kN
at point Z
Vx = 7 3 u 210 = 23 kN
x
2
3x 2
7x
2
Mx = 0
at x = 2 m,
Mx = 7 u 2 (3 u 2) u
2
=  20 kNm
2
x
 10 (x  2)
2
3
x 2 17 x 20
2
So, the variation of bending force is parabolic.
at x = 2 m, Mx
3
u 22 17 u 2 20 =  20 kNm
2
at x = 5 m, Mx =  102.5 kNm
S K Mondals
Chapter4
(v)
S K Mondals
A Cantilever beam carrying uniformly varying load from zero at free end and w/unit
length at the fixed end
w
.x
L
L
w x dx
L .xdx =
Shear force Vx
wL
2
1 w
wx 2
. x .x
2 L
2L
? The shear force variation is parabolic.
at x = 0, Vx 0
at x = L, Vx
WL
i.e. Maximum Shear force (Vmax )
2
WL
at fixed end
2
Chapter4
Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram
Bending moment Mx load u distance from centroid of triangle ABC
S K Mondals
wx 2 2x
wx 3
.
2L 3
6L
? The bending moment variation is cubic.
at x= 0, Mx 0
at x = L,
Mx
wL2
i.e. Maximum Bending moment (Mmax )
6
Integration method
d Vx
w
load .x
Alternative way :
We know that
dx
or d(Vx )
w
.x .dx
L
d Vx
0
or Vx
0
w
. x .dx
L
w x2
.
L 2
Vx
dx
or
d Mx
wx 2
2L
wx 2
dx
2L
wL2
at fixed end.
6
Chapter4
Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram
Integrating both side we get at x=0,Mx =0
Mx
d(Mx )
or Mx
0
S K Mondals
wx 2
.dx
2L
w x3
2L 3
wx 3
6L
(vi) A Cantilever beam carrying gradually varying load from zero at fixed end and
w/unit length at the free end
wL2
and Reaction R A
3
wL
2
Shear force Vx
W
.x
L
wL 1 w
wL wx 2
 . .x .x = +
2 2 L
2
2L
? The shear force variation is parabolic.
wL
at x 0, Vx
i.e. Maximum shear force, Vmax
2
at x L, Vx 0
Bending moment Mx =R A .x 
wL
2
wx 2 2x
.
 MA
2L 3
wL
wx 3
wL2
.x 2
6L
3
? The bending moment variation is cubic
=
at x = 0, Mx
at x
L, Mx
wL2
i.e.Maximum B.M. Mmax
3
wL2
.
3
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(viii) A Simply supported beam with a concentrated load P at its mid span.
P
2
Now consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance of x from left end A and section YY at
a distance from left end A, as shown in figure below.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
P
 P =  P/2
2
(it is constant)
P
.x
2
at x = 0, Mx = 0
and at x = L/2 Mx =
PL
i.e. maximum
4
PL
4
Mmax
PL P
P
.x (its variation is linear)
.x P(x  L/2) =
2
2
2
at x = L/2 , Mx =
PL
4
and at x = L,
Mx = 0
(ix) A Simply supported beam with a concentrated load P is not at its mid span.
Pb
Pa
and RB =
L
L
Now consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance x from left end A and another section
YY at a distance x from end A as shown in figure below.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Pb
L
(it is constant)
Pa
L
(it is constant)
Pb
.x
L
at x = 0, Mx = 0
and at x = a, Mx =
Pab
L
(i.e. maximum)
Pb
.x P.x + Pa (Put b = L  a)
L
= Pa (1  Pa 1
at x = a, Mx =
x
)
L
Pab
L
and at x = L, Mx = 0
(x) A Simply supported beam with two concentrated load P from a distance a both end.
The loading is shown below diagram
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Take a section at a distance x from the left support. This section is applicable for any value of x just
to the left of the applied force P. The shear, remains constant and is +P. The bending moment varies
linearly from the support, reaching a maximum of +Pa.
A section applicable anywhere between the two applied forces. Shear force is not necessary to
maintain equilibrium of a segment in this part of the beam. Only a constant bending moment of +Pa
must be resisted by the beam in this zone.
Such a state of bending or flexure is called pure bending.
Shear and bendingmoment diagrams for this loading condition are shown below.
(xi) A Simply supported beam with a uniformly distributed load (UDL) through out its
length
wL
2
Chapter4
Shear force: Vx =
wL
wx
2
at x = 0,
wL
2
at x = L/2, Vx = 0
Vx = 
at x = L,
wL
2
wL
wx 2
.x
2
2
Bending moment: M x
d Mx
dx
or
0 i .e. Vx
wL
wx
2
0 or
d M x
dx
L
2
Mmax
or
d Vx
dx
d Vx
w
wdx
Vx
wL
)
2
wL2
8
at x = L/2
S K Mondals
Chapter4
Vx
S K Mondals
d V
wdx
wL
2
or Vx
or Vx
wL
wx
2
wL
wx
2
Bending moment:
We know that,
d Mx
dx
Vx
d M x Vx dx
or
wL
2 wx dx
d Mx
or M x
wL
wx dx
2
wL
wx 2
.x
2
2
Let us take an example: A loaded beam as shown below. Draw its S.F and B.M diagram.
0 gives
 200 u 4 u 2 3000 u 4 RB u 8
or
RB
1700N
And R A RB
or
RA
200 u 4 3000
2100N
Now consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance 'x' from left end A and
as shown in figure
Chapter4
x
2
= 2100 x 100 x
2
Vx = 2100 N,
Vx = 1300 N,
Mx = 0
Mx = 6800 N.m
Vx = 1700 N,
at x = 8 m,
Vx = 1700 N,
Mx = 6800 Nm
Mx = 0
S K Mondals
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(xii) A Simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at one end and
w/unit length at other span.
R A .L or R A
1
wL acting at a point C at a distance 2L/3 to the left end A.
2
0 gives
wL L
.
2 3
wL
6
Similarly
0 gives RB
wL
3
The free body diagram of section A  XX as shown below, Load at section XX, (wx) =
w
x
L
Chapter4
The resulted of that part of the distributed load which acts on this free body is
applied at a point Z, distance x/3 from XX section.
wx 2
2L
wL wx 2
6
2L
wL
6
at x = 0,
Vx =
at x = L,
Vx = 
wL
3
wL
wx 2 x
.x
.
6
2L 3
wL
wx 3
.x
6
6L
or
wL wx 2
6 2L
and Mmax
i.e.
d Mx
dx
0 or x
i.e. Vx
L
3
wL L w L
u
u
6 3 6L 3
Mmax
d Mx
dx
wL2
9 3
wL2
at x
9 3
L
3
Vx
S K Mondals
1
w
x . x
2
L
wx 2
2L
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(xiii) A Simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at each end and
w/unit length at mid span.
Therefore R A
RB
1 L
2u u u w
2 2
wL
4
The free body diagram of section A XX as shown below, load at section XX (wx)
The resultant of that part of the distributed load which acts on this free body is
applied at a point, distance x/3 from section XX.
wL
2
2w
.x
L
1 2w
.x.
.x
2
L
wx 2
L
Chapter4
Vx
RA
wx 2
L
wL wx 2
4
L
wL
4
at x = 0,
Vx =
at x = L/4,
Vx = 0
wL
1 2wx
.x .x.
. x / 3
4
L
2
Mx
wL wx 3
4
3L
Mx = 0
at x = L/2, Mx =
wL2
12
d Mx
dx
or
wL wx 2
4
L
and Mmax
i.e.
i.e. Vx
d Mx
dx
0 or x
Vx
L
2
wL2
12
Mmax
wL2
12
at x
L
2
S K Mondals
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(xiv) A Simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at mid span and
w/unit length at each end.
Vx 1
Mx 1
wL
wx
2
wL
wx 2
.x
2
2
And (2) a simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at each end and w/unit
length at mind span.
In the range 0 < x < L/2
Vx 2
Mx 2
wL wx 2
4
L
wL
wx 3
.x
4
3L
Chapter4
Vx
S K Mondals
w
2
x  L/2
L
Therefore the variation of shear force is parabolic
at x = 0,
Vx = +
at x = L/2,
Vx = 0
wL
4
wL
wx 2 wL
wx 3
.x
.x
2 4
3L
2
wx 3 wx 2 wL
.x
3L
2
4
at x
0, Mx
at x
L / 2, Mx
wx 2
24
(xv) A simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) w1/unit length at one
end and w2/unit length at other end.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
At first we will treat this problem by considering a UDL of identifying (w1)/unit length over the
whole length and a varying load of zero at one end to (w2 w1)/unit length at the other end. Then
superimpose the two loadings.
Vx 1
Mx 1
w1L
w1x
2
w1L
1
.x w1x 2
2
2
And (ii) simply supported beam with (GVL) zero at one end (w2 w1) at other end gives
Vx 2
w 2 w1 w 2 w1 x 2
6
M x 2 w 2 w 1 .
L
.x
6
2L
w 2 w1 x 3
6L
Shear force Vx
Vx 1 + Vx 2
w1L w 2L
x2
+
w 1x w 2 w1
3
6
2L
0, Vx
at x L,
Vx
Bending moment Mx
w1L w 2L L
2w1 w 2
3
6
6
L
w1 2w 2
6
Mx 1 Mx 2
w1L
wL
1
w w
.x 1 .x w1x 2 2 1 .x 3
3
6
2
6L
at x
0,
Mx
at x
L,
Mx
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(xvi) A Simply supported beam carrying a continuously distributed load. The intensity of
the load at any point is, w x
Sx
w sin
. Where x is the distance from each end of
L
the beam.
Therefore
d Vx
dx
d Vx
dx
d Vx
load
and
d Mx
dx
Vx
Sx
w sin
L
Sx
w sin
dx
L
dV
x
Sx
w sin
dx
L
or
Vx
Sx
w cos
L A
> where, A
constant of Integration@
Sx
cos
A
S
L
wL
Chapter4
Again we know that
d Mx
dx
Vx
or
d Mx
Vx dx
S K Mondals
wL
Sx
cos
A dx
L
S
Sx
sin
S
L Ax + B
wL
Mx
wL2
S2
Sx
sin
Ax + B
L
L
[Where B = constant of Integration]
Now apply boundary conditions
At x = 0,
Mx = 0
and
at x = L,
Mx = 0
Sx
cos
S
L
wL2
Sx
sin
2
S
L
? Shear force Vx
And Mx
Mmax
wL2
S2
wL
and
Vmax
wL
at x
at x = L/2
(xvii) A Simply supported beam with a couple or moment at a distance a from left end.
Chapter4
RB L +M 0 or RB
and
S K Mondals
M
L
0 gives
M
L
R A L +M 0 or R A
Now consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance x from left end A and another section YY
at a distance x from left end A as shown in figure.
M
L
M
.x
L
M
L
M
.x  M
L
Chapter4
S K Mondals
When the beam is subjected to an eccentric load, the eccentric load is to be changed into a couple =
Force u (distance travel by force)
= P.a (in this case) and a force = P
Therefore equivalent load diagram will be
Considering equilibrium
0 gives
P.(L/2) + P.a + RB u L = 0
or RB =
P P.a
2
L
and RA + RB = P gives RA =
P P.a
2
L
Now consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance x from left end A and another section YY
at a distance x from left end A as shown in figure.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
P P.a
2
L
P Pa
.x
2 L
P Pa
P
2 L
=
P Pa
2 L
PL P Pa
.x  Pa
2 2 L
Chapter4
Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram
S K Mondals
Type of Loading & B.M Diagram
Reaction
Bending Moment
R A= R B =
RA = RB =
wL2
M =M = 12
A
RA
Pab 2
L2
RB
Pa 2
(3b a)
L3
MB = 
Pa 2b
L2
5wL
8
RB
+

MA = 
Rc =
wL
2
PL
M =M = 8
Pb 2
(3a b)
L3
R A= R B =
RA
P
2
3wL
16
Chapter4
S K Mondals
4.7 Load and Bending Moment diagram from Shear Force diagram
OR
Load and Shear Force diagram from Bending Moment diagram
If S.F. Diagram for a beam is given, then
(i)
If S.F. diagram consists of rectangle then the load will be point load
(ii)
If S.F diagram consists of inclined line then the load will be UDL on that portion
(iii)
If S.F diagram consists of parabolic curve then the load will be GVL
(iv)
If S.F diagram consists of cubic curve then the load distribute is parabolic.
After finding load diagram we can draw B.M diagram easily.
If B.M diagram consists of inclined line then the load will be free point load
(ii)
If B.M diagram consists of parabolic curve then the load will be U.D.L.
(iii)
If B.M diagram consists of cubic curve then the load will be G.V.L.
(iv)
If B.M diagram consists of fourth degree polynomial then the load distribution is
parabolic.
Let us take an example: Following is the S.F diagram of a beam is given. Find its loading
diagram.
Answer: From AE inclined straight line so load will be UDL and in AB = 2 m length load = 6 kN if
UDL is w N/m then w.x = 6 or w u 2 = 6 or w = 3 kN/m after that S.F is constant so no force is
there. At last a 6 kN for vertical force complete the diagram then the load diagram will be
Chapter4
S K Mondals
In this diagram we noticed that for the beam loaded as in this case, the bending moment diagram is
partly positive and partly negative. In the deflected shape of the beam just below the bending
moment diagram shows that left hand side of the beam is sagging' while the right hand side of the
beam is hogging.
The point C on the beam where the curvature changes from sagging to hogging is a point of
contraflexure.
d4y
EI
dx 2
Z
EI
d3y
dx3
Vx
d2y
EI 2
dx
Mx
Chapter4
dy
= = slope
dx
y= G = Deflection
Flexural rigidity = EI
S K Mondals
Chapter4
S K Mondals
GATE2.
Cantilever
GATE3.
Two identical cantilever beams are supported as shown, with their free ends in contact through
a rigid roller. After the load P is applied, the free ends will have
[GATE2005]
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
GATE4.
PL
(b)
2
(c)
3PL
2
(d) Indeterminate
The shapes of the bending moment diagram for a uniform cantilever beam carrying a uniformly
distributed load over its length is:
[GATE2001]
(a) A straight line
(b) A hyperbola
(c) An ellipse
(d) A parabola
Chapter4
S K Mondals
[GATE2005]
L
from the
3
left support. The bending moment at the point of application of the load is given by[GATE2003]
(a)
GATE8.
PL
3
(b)
2 PL
3
(c )
PL
9
(d )
2 PL
9
[GATE2000]
GATE9.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(d) 225.0
Data for Q11Q12 are given below. Solve the problems and choose correct answers
A steel beam of breadth 120 mm and height
750 mm is loaded as shown in the figure.
Assume Esteel= 200 GPa.
[GATE2004]
GATE11. The beam is subjected to a maximum bending moment of
(a) 3375 kNm
(b) 4750 kNm
(c) 6750 kNm
(d) 63.75 mm
3wl 2
8
(b)
wl 2
12
(c)
wl 2
24
(d)
5 wl 2
12
Chapter4
S K Mondals
IES2.
[IES1998]
IES3.
IES4.
[IES1997]
The bending moment (M) is constant over a length segment (I) of a beam. The shearing force
will also be constant over this length and is given by
[IES1996]
(a) M/l
(b) M/2l
(c) M/4l
(d) None of the above
A rectangular section beam subjected to a bending moment M varying along its length is
required to develop same maximum bending stress at any crosssection. If the depth of the
section is constant, then its width will vary as
[IES1995]
(a) M
IES5.
IES5a
(b)
(c) M2
(d) 1/M
200 N
A
300 N
10 m
25 m
3000 Nm
3000 Nm
A
10 m
1000 Nm
C
10 m
15 m
D
[IES2010]
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Cantilever
IES6.
The given figure shows a beam BC simply supported at C and hinged at B (free end) of a
cantilever AB. The beam and the cantilever carry forces of
[IES1995]
(d) 200 kgm
IES7.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
[IES1993, 2011]
ListI
ListII
(Condition of beam)
(Bending moment diagram)
A.
Subjected to bending moment at the
1. Triangle
end of a cantilever
B.
Cantilever carrying uniformly distributed
2. Cubic parabola
load over the whole length
C.
Cantilever carrying linearly varying load
3. Parabola
from zero at the fixed end to maximum at
the support
D.
A beam having load at the centre and
4. Rectangle
supported at the ends
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
1
2
3
(b)
4
3
2
1
(c)
3
4
2
1
(d)
3
4
1
2
IES8.
If the shear force acting at every section of a beam is of the same magnitude and of the same
direction then it represents a
[IES1996]
(a) Simply supported beam with a concentrated load at the centre.
(b) Overhung beam having equal overhang at both supports and carrying equal concentrated
loads acting in the same direction at the free ends.
(c)
Cantilever subjected to concentrated load at the free end.
(d) Simply supported beam having concentrated loads of equal magnitude and in the same
direction acting at equal distances from the supports.
A uniformly distributed load (in kN/m) is acting over the entire length of a 3 m long
cantilever beam. If the shear force at the midpoint of cantilever is 6 kN, what is the value of ?
[IES2009]
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
IES10.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists:
[IES2009]
Chapter4
Code: A
(a)
(c)
IES11.
S K Mondals
B
1
1
C
5
3
D
2
4
4
5
A
(b)
(d)
B
4
4
C
5
2
D
2
5
3
3
[IES2008]
IES12.
A cantilever beam having 5 m length is so loaded that it develops a shearing force of 20T and a
bending moment of 20 Tm at a section 2m from the free end. Maximum shearing force and
maximum bending moment developed in the beam under this load are respectively 50 T and 125
Tm. The load on the beam is:
[IES1995]
(a) 25 T concentrated load at free end
(b) 20T concentrated load at free end
(c)
5T concentrated load at free end and 2 T/m load over entire length
(d) 10 T/m udl over entire length
Chapter4
S K Mondals
A vertical hanging bar of length L and weighing w N/ unit length carries a load W at the
bottom. The tensile force in the bar at a distance Y from the support will be given by[IES1992]
a W wL
b W w( L y)
c W w y / L
d W
W
( L y)
w
A cantilever beam of 2m length supports a triangularly distributed load over its entire length,
the maximum of which is at the free end. The total load is 37.5 kN.What is the bending moment
at the fixed end?
[IES 2007]
(a) 50 106 N mm
(b) 12.5 106 N mm
(c) 100 106 N mm
(d) 25 106 N mm
Assertion (A): If the bending moment along the length of a beam is constant, then the beam
cross section will not experience any shear stress.
[IES1998]
Reason (R): The shear force acting on the beam will be zero everywhere along the length.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES16.
Assertion (A): If the bending moment diagram is a rectangle, it indicates that the beam is
loaded by a uniformly distributed moment all along the length.
Reason (R): The BMD is a representation of internal forces in the beam and not the moment
applied on the beam.
[IES2002]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES17.
IES18.
IES19.
(b)
WL
2
(c)
WL
4
(d)
WL
8
Chapter4
IES20.
S K Mondals
[IES2000]
IES21.
A simply supported beam has equal overhanging lengths and carries equal concentrated loads
P at ends. Bending moment over the length between the supports
[IES2003]
(a) Is zero
(b) Is a nonzero constant
(c) Varies uniformly from one support to the other
(d) Is maximum at midspan
IES22.
The bending moment diagram for the case shown below will be q as shown in
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
[IES1992]
IES23.
IES24.
[IES1995]
Chapter4
IES25.
S K Mondals
[IES1998]
IES26.
A beam is simply supported at its ends and is loaded by a couple at its midspan as shown in
figure A. Shear force diagram for the beam is given by the figure.
[IES1994]
(a) B
IES27.
(b) C
(c) D
(d) E
A beam AB is hingedsupported at its ends and is loaded by couple P.c. as shown in the given
figure. The magnitude or shearing force at a section x of the beam is:
[IES1993]
(a) 0
(b) P
(c) P/2L
(d) P.c./2L
A freely supported beam at its ends carries a central concentrated load, and maximum bending
moment is M. If the same load be uniformly distributed over the beam length, then what is the
maximum bending moment?
[IES2009]
(a) M
(b)
M
2
(c)
M
3
(d) 2M
Chapter4
IES29.
S K Mondals
A beam having uniform crosssection carries a uniformly distributed load of intensity q per unit
length over its entire span, and its midspan deflection is .
The value of midspan deflection of the same beam when the same load is distributed with
intensity varying from 2q unit length at one end to zero at the other end is:
[IES1995]
(a) 1/3
(b) 1/2
(c) 2/3
(d)
A beam, builtin at both ends, carries a uniformly distributed load over its entire span as shown
in figureI. Which one of the diagrams given below, represents bending moment distribution
along the length of the beam?
[IES1996]
IES33.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:
[IES2000]
ListI ListII
A.
Bending moment is constant
1. Point of contraflexure
B.
Bending moment is maximum or minimum 2. Shear force changes sign
C.
Bending moment is zero
3. Slope of shear force diagram is
zero over the portion of the beam
[IES2005]
Chapter4
Loading is constant
Code: A
(a)
(c)
B
4
4
C
1
2
D
2
1
A
(b)
(d)
3
3
S K Mondals
The bending moment diagram shown in Fig. I correspond to the shear force diagram in[IES1999]
IES35.
IES36.
[IES2001]
Chapter4
IES38.
S K Mondals
IES39.
The figure given below shows a bending moment diagram for the beam CABD:
IES40.
[IES1993]
Chapter4
S K Mondals
T
C
(a)
(b)
B
C
(c)
Steel
(d)
Aliminium
[IES2010]
Assertion (A): A beam subjected only to end moments will be free from shearing force.[IAS2004]
Reason (R): The bending moment variation along the beam length is zero.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS2.
Assertion (A): The change in bending moment between two crosssections of a beam is equal to
the area of the shearing force diagram between the two sections.
[IAS1998]
Reason (R): The change in the shearing force between two crosssections of beam due to
distributed loading is equal to the area of the load intensity diagram between the two sections.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS3.
The ratio of the area under the bending moment diagram to the flexural rigidity between any
two points along a beam gives the change in
[IAS1998]
(a) Deflection
(b) Slope
(c) Shear force
(d) Bending moment
Cantilever
IAS4.
IAS5.
[IAS1995]
A load perpendicular to the plane of the handle is applied at the free end as shown in the given
figure. The values of Shear Forces (S.F.), Bending Moment (B.M.) and torque at the fixed end of
the handle have been determined respectively as 400 N, 340 Nm and 100 by a student. Among
these values, those of
[IAS1999]
Chapter4
S K Mondals
If the SF diagram for a beam is a triangle with length of the beam as its base, the beam is:
[IAS2007]
(a) A cantilever with a concentrated load at its free end
(b) A cantilever with udl over its whole span
(c)
Simply supported with a concentrated load at its midpoint
(d) Simply supported with a udl over its whole span
IAS7.
IAS8.
[IAS1999]
The beam is loaded as shown in Fig. I. Select the correct B.M. diagram
[IAS1999]
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Assertion (A): In a simply supported beam carrying a concentrated load at midspan, both the
shear force and bending moment diagrams are triangular in nature without any change in sign.
[IAS1999]
Reason (R): When the shear force at any section of a beam is either zero or changes sign, the
bending moment at that section is maximum.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS11.
For the shear force to be uniform throughout the span of a simply supported beam, it should
carry which one of the following loadings?
[IAS2007]
(a) A concentrated load at midspan
(b) Udl over the entire span
(c)
A couple anywhere within its span
(d) Two concentrated loads equal in magnitude and placed at equal distance from each
support
IAS12.
Which one of the following figures represents the correct shear force diagram for the loaded
beam shown in the given figure I?
[IAS1998; IAS1995]
For a simply supported beam of length fl' subjected to downward load of uniform intensity w,
match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:
[IAS1997]
ListI ListII
A.
5w 4
1.
384 E I
B.
2. w
C.
Maximum deflection
3.
w 4
8
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Codes:
(a)
(c)
A
1
3
B
2
2
C
3
1
D
4
4
(b)
(d)
4.
A
3
2
w
2
B
1
4
C
2
1
D
4
3
A simply supported beam of length 'l' is subjected to a symmetrical uniformly varying load with
zero intensity at the ends and intensity w (load per unit length) at the mid span. What is the
maximum bending moment?
[IAS2004]
(a)
3wl 2
8
(b)
wl 2
12
(c)
wl 2
24
(d)
5 wl 2
12
A simply supported beam of span l is subjected to a uniformly varying load having zero
intensity at the left support and w N/m at the right support. The reaction at the right support
is:
[IAS2003]
(a)
wl
2
(b)
wl
5
(c)
wl
4
(d)
wl
3
Consider the following statements for a simply supported beam subjected to a couple at its midspan:
[IAS2004]
1.
Bending moment is zero at the ends and maximum at the centre
2.
Bending moment is constant over the entire length of the beam
3.
Shear force is constant over the entire length of the beam
4.
Shear force is zero over the entire length of the beam
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1, 3 and 4
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 2 and 4
IAS17.
Match ListI (Beams) with ListII (Shear force diagrams) and select the correct answer using
the codes given below the Lists:
[IAS2001]
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Codes:
(a)
(c)
A
4
1
B
2
4
C
5
3
D
3
5
(b)
(d)
A
1
4
B
4
2
C
5
3
D
3
5
A point, along the length of a beam subjected to loads, where bending moment changes its sign,
is known as the point of
[IAS1996]
(a) Inflexion
(b) Maximum stress
(c) Zero shear force
(d) Contra flexure
IAS19.
Assertion (A): In a loaded beam, if the shear force diagram is a straight line parallel to the beam
axis, then the bending moment is a straight line inclined to the beam axis.
[IAS 1994]
Reason (R): When shear force at any section of a beam is zero or changes sign, the bending
moment at that section is maximum.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS21.
(d) 8 kNm
[IAS1997]
The bending moment for a loaded beam is shown below:
[IAS2003]
Chapter4
S K Mondals
The loading on the beam is represented by which one of the followings diagrams?
(a)
(b)
(c)
IAS22.
(d)
Which one of the given bending moment diagrams correctly represents that of the loaded beam
shown in figure?
[IAS1997]
IAS23.
Chapter4
IAS24.
S K Mondals
The bending moment diagram for a simply supported beam is a rectangle over a larger portion
of the span except near the supports. What type of load does the beam carry? [IAS2007]
(a) A uniformly distributed symmetrical load over a larger portion of the span except near the
supports
(b) A concentrated load at midspan
(c)
Two identical concentrated loads equidistant from the supports and close to midpoint of
the beam
(d) Two identical concentrated loads equidistant from the midspan and close to supports
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (c)
GATE2. Ans. Zero
GATE3. Ans. (a) As it is rigid roller, deflection must be same, because after deflection they also will be in
contact. But slope unequal.
GATE4. Ans. (b)
GATE5. Ans. (d)
Chapter4
Mx
S K Mondals
wx 2 wx 3
2
6L
l
L
9
3000 N/m
R1
R2
R1 R 2 3000 2 6000N
R1 4 3000 2 1 0
R1 1500,
S.F. eqn . at any section x from end A.
R1 3000 x 2 0
for
x 2m}
x 2.5 m.
GATE10. Ans. (b)
Binding stress will be maximum at the outer surface
So taking 9 = 50 mm
Chapter4
S K Mondals
m 50
3
ld
12
x2
m x 1.5 103[2000 x]
2
6
m2500 3.375 10 N mm
and I
ld
12
&
3.375 106 50 12
67.5 MPa
30 1003
GATE11. Ans. (a) Mmax
kNm 3375kNm
8
8
4.22 103 m4
12
12
5 wl4
5
120 103 154
max
m 93.75mm
384 EI 384 200 109 4.22 103
wl2 1.5 62
GATE13. Ans. (a) Mmax
Pa 162.98MPa
GATE14. Ans. (a)
2
d3
0.075
3
1
WL
L W
2
2
WL Wx 2
WL 1 W
Sx
x. X
4
2 L
4
L
WL
Smax at x 0
4
Total load
IES
IES1. Ans. (a)
IES2. Ans. (b)
PL
in
2
M
const.
I
and
bh3
12
Chapter4
l
6
2
3
6
2
62
4 kN / m
3
M = 37.5
4
KNm = 50 106 Nmm
3
S K Mondals
Chapter4
S K Mondals
or F
Pc
2L
B.MMax
WL
M
4
Pc
2L
Chapter4
S K Mondals
W L
L 8
WL 1 WL M
8
2 4 2
2
1
WL
L W
2
2
WL Wx 2
WL 1 W
Sx
x. X
4
2 L
4
L
WL
Smax at x 0
4
Total load
IAS
IAS1. Ans. (a)
IAS2. Ans. (b)
IAS3. Ans. (b)
IAS4. Ans. (a) Because of hinge support between beam AB and cantilevers, the bending moment can't be
transmitted to cantilever. Thus bending moment at points A and B is zero.
IAS5. Ans. (d)
S.F 400N and BM 400 0.4 0.2 240Nm
Chapter4
x
wx2
2
2
S K Mondals
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Answer:
A simply supported beam of length 10 m carries a uniformly varying load whose intensity
varies from a maximum value of 5 kN/m at both ends to zero at the centre of the beam. It is
desired to replace the beam with another simply supported beam which will be subjected to
the same maximum 'bending moment and shear force' as in the case of the previous one.
Determine the length and rate of loading for the second beam if it is subjected to a uniformly
distributed load over its whole length. Draw the variation of 'SF' and 'BM' in both the cases.
5KN/m
5KN/m
B
X
RA
10m
10
= 25 kN
2
25
= 12.5 kN
2
Take a section XX from B at a distance x.
For 0 x 5 m we get rate of loading
w = a + bx [as lineary varying]
\ RA = RB =
at x=0, w=5 kN / m
and at x = 5, w = 0
These two bounday condition gives a = 5 and b = 1
\ w = 5 x
RB
Chapter4
S K Mondals
dV
We know that shear force(V),
=
dx
or V = dx = (5 x )dx = 5 x +
x2
+ c1
2
dM
=V
dx
For a beam
x2
5x 2 x 3
+ 12.5)dx = +
+ 12.5 x + C2
2
2
6
at x = 0, M = 0 gives C2 = 0
or , M = Vdx = (5 x +
M = 12.5x  2.5x 2 + x 3 / 6
dM
=0
dx
x2
+ 12.5 = 0
2
or , x 2 10 x + 25 = 0
or , x = 5 means at centre.
or5x+
KNm
B
RA
RB
X
WL
2
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Mx = +
5KN/m
5KN/m
3.75kN/m
B
12.5KN/m
12.5KN/m
10m
RA
RB
12.5kN
6.666m
S.F.D
S.F.D
20.83KNm
Cubic parabola
B.M.D
12.5kN
Parabola
20.83kNm
WA
2
WA
Wx 2
x
2
2
dM x
= 0 that gives.
dx
WA
x = 0
+ 2
or x= A i.e. at mid point.
2
A A
A
wA 2
= +
2 2 2
2
8
2
And Mmax=
Calculate the reactions at A and D for the beam shown in figure. Draw the bending
moment and shear force diagrams showing all important values.
Chapter4
Answer:
S K Mondals
Equivalent figure below shows an overhanging beam ABCDF supported by a roller support at
A and a hinged support at D. In the figure, a load of 4 kN is applied through a bracket 0.5 m
away from the point C. Now apply equal and opposite load of 4 kN at C. This will be
equivalent to a anticlockwise couple of the value of (4 x 0.5) = 2 kNm acting at C together with
a vertical downward load of 4 kN at C. Show U.D.L. (1 kN/m) over the port AB, a point load of
2 kN vertically downward at F, and a horizontal load of 2 3 kN as shown.
Chapter4
Obviously
S K Mondals
R A 6 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 2
2
or
R A 3kN
Also R A RDV 1 2 4 2 8
or
Re action at D, RD
R R
2
DV
DH
52 2 3
5
2 3
6.08kN
55.30
S.F.Calculation :
VF 2kN
VD 2 5 3kN
VC 3 4 1kN
VB 1kN
VA 1 1 2 3kN
B.M.Calculation :
MF 0
MD 2 1 2kNm
MC 2 1 2 5 2 2 6kNm
MB 2 1 2 2 5 2 4 2 2 4kNm
2
1
MP 2 1 2 2 5 2 2 1 4 2 1 2 1 1
2
2
2.5kNm
MA 0
Construct the bending moment and shearing force diagrams for the beam shown in the figure.
Answer:
Chapter4
S K Mondals
RE 4.5 20 0.5
or
RE 55kN
Also,
or
0.5
100 50 3 40 5
2
RB RE 20 0.5 50 40
RB 45kN
S.F. Calculation :
RE 55kN
VF 40kN
VE 40 55 15kN
VD 15 50 35kN
B.M.Calculation :
VB 35 45 10kN
MG 0
MF 0
ME 40 0.5 20kNm
MD 40 2 55 1.5 2.5kNm
MC 40 4 55 3.5 50 2 67.5kNm
The bending moment increases from 62.5kNm to 100.
MB 20 0.5
0.5
2.5kNm
2
Two bars AB and BC are connected by a frictionless hinge at B. The assembly is supported
and loaded as shown in figure below. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for
the combined beam AC. clearly labelling the important values. Also indicate your sign
convention.
Chapter4
Answer:
S K Mondals
There shall be a vertical reaction at hinge B and we can split the problem in two parts. Then
the FBD of each part is shown below
Fy 0, and R1 R2 200kN
From
or
R2
0,100 2 100 3 R2 4 0
500
125kN
4
R1 200 125 75kN
Again, R3 R1 75kN
and
M 75 1.5 112.5kNm.
A tube 40 mm outside diameter; 5 mm thick and 1.5 m long simply supported at 125 mm from
each end carries a concentrated load of 1 kN at each extreme end.
Chapter4
Answer:
S K Mondals
(i) Neglecting the weight of the tube, sketch the shearing force and bending moment
diagrams;
(ii) Calculate the radius of curvature and deflection at midspan. Take the modulus of
elasticity of the material as 208 GN/m2
(i) Given, d0 40mm 0.04m; di d0 2t 40 2 5 30mm 0.03m;
Calculation:
(ii) Radius of coordinate R
As per bending equation:
M E
I
y R
EI
i
M
Here,M W a 1 103 0.125 125Nm
or R
64
4
0
d14
4
4
0.04 0.03 8.59 108 m4
64
Substituting the values in equation i , we get
EI
d2 y
Mx Wx W x a Wx Wx Wa Wa
dx 2
Chapter4
0 Wa C1 or C1
2
2
dy
Wal
EI
Wax
dx
2
Integrating again, we get
S K Mondals
x 2 Wal
x C2
2
2
x a, y 0
EIy Wa
When
or
or
At
Wa3 Wa2l
C2
2
2
Wa3 Wa2l
C2
2
2
2
Wax
Walx Wa3 Wa2l
EIy
2
2
2
2
Wa x 2 lx a2 al
y
EI 2 2 2 2
mid span,i,e., x l / 2
0
2
l l / 2 a2 al
Wa l / 2
EI
2
2
2 2
2
2
Wa l
a
al
EI 8 2 2
1.52 0.1252 0.125 1.5
1 1000 0.125
9
8
2
2
208 10 8.59 10 8
0.001366m 1.366mm
It will be in upward direction
What is meant by point of contraflexure or point of inflexion in a beam? Show the same for the
beam given below:
17.5kN/m
4M
Answer:
20kN
4M
D
2m
In a beam if the bending moment changes sign at a point, the point itself having zero bending
moment, the beam changes curvature at this point of zero bending moment and this point is
called the point of contra flexure.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
17.5kN/m
4M
20kN
4M
D
2M
BMD
From the bending moment diagram we have seen that it is between A & C.
[If marks are more we should calculate exact point.]
5.
Deflection of Beam
We know that the axis of a beam deflects from its initial position under action of applied
forces.
In this chapter we will learn how to determine the elastic deflections of a beam.
d 2y
dx 2
Mx .
this
coordinate
system
treats
downward
d 2y
dx 2
M x .
To make sure the structure not deflect severely and to appear safe for its occupants
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Method of superposition
Castiglianos theorem
Work/Energy methods
Methods to find
deflection
Double integration
Geometrical
Moment area
method
Energy Method
Conjugate
beam method
Castiglians
theorem
Virtual
Work
The material is homogenous and isotropic i.e. it has a uniform composition and its
mechanical properties are the same in all directions
Sections which are plane before bending remain plane after bending
NonUniform Bending
x
In the case of nonuniform bending of a beam, where bending moment varies from section to
section, there will be shear force at each cross section which will induce shearing stresses
Also these shearing stresses cause warping (or outof plane distortion) of the cross section so
that plane cross sections do not remain plane even after bending
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
d y
EI 2 =M x
dx
Proof: Consider the following simply supported beam with UDL over its length.
From elementary calculus we know that curvature of a line (at point Q in figure)
1
R
d2 y
dx 2
3/2
dy 2
1
dx
dy
0
dx
1 d2 y

R dx 2
S K Mondals
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
Bending stress of the beam (at point Q)
S K Mondals
Mx .y
Vx
EI
From strain relation we get
H
1
x and H x
R
y
1 Mx
?
R EI
d2 y Mx
Therefore
dx 2 EI
d2 y
or EI
Mx
dx 2
Vx
E
d2y
dx 2
EI
d4y
dx 4
EI
d3y
dx3
Vx
EI
d2y
dx 2
M x Bending moment
dy
= = slope
dx
x
x
y = G = Deflection, Displacement
Flexural rigidity = EI
Shear force
Z dx
Vx =
Mx = Vx dx
EI
d2y
dx 2
Slope
Deflection
Mx
1
M x dx
EI
T dx
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Step 1: Write down boundary conditions (Slope boundary conditions and displacement boundary
conditions), analyze the problem to be solved
d2y
dx 2
Mx
Step 3: Solve governing equations by integration, results in expression with unknown integration
constants
Deflection, y 0
Slope, T 0
Moment , M z 0
Deflection, y z 0
Deflection, y 0
Slope, T z 0 i.e.A finite value
Moment , M
Shear force, V
Flexible support
Figure
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
Moment , M kr
Shear force, V
S K Mondals
dy
dx
k. y
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii) A simply supported beam with triangular distributed load (GVL) gradually varied load.
(viii) A simply supported beam with a moment at mid span.
(ix)
A simply supported beam with a continuously distributed load the intensity of which at
any point x along the beam is
wx
Sx
w sin
? Mx =  P.x
We know that differential equation of elastic line
EI
d2 y
dx 2
Mx
P.x
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
dy
P x dx
dx 2
dy
x2
or EI
P. A
dx
2
EI
.............(i)
P 2 A dx
Px 3
or EIy = ..............(ii)
Ax +B
6
Where A and B is integration constants.
EI dy =
Now apply boundary condition at fixed end which is at a distance x = L from free end and we also
know that at fixed end
at x = L,
y=0
at x = L,
dy
dx
PL3
+ AL +B
6
PL2
+A
2
Therefore,
y=
..........(iii)
..(iv)
PL2
PL3
and B = 2
3
Px 3 PL2 x PL3
6EI 2EI 3EI
The slope as well as the deflection would be maximum at free end hence putting x = 0 we get
ymax = 
PL3
(Negative sign indicates the deflection is downward)
3EI
(Slope)max = T
max
PL2
2EI
G
PL2
2EI
PL
3EI
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
We will now solve this problem by double integration method, for that at first we have to calculate
(Mx).
Consider any section XX at a distance x from free end which is left end as shown in figure.
? Mx
w.x .
x
2
wx 2
2
EI
d2 y
dx 2
wx 2
2
d2 y
wx 2
dx
dx 2
2
dy
wx 3
A ......(i)
or EI
dx
6
EI
6 A dx
wx 4
or EIy = Ax B.......(ii)
24
> where A and B are integration constants@
EI dy
Now apply boundary condition at fixed end which is at a distance x = L from free end and we also
know that at fixed end.
at x = L,
y=0
at x = L,
dy
=0
dx
EI u (0) =
wL3
+wL3
+ A or A =
6
6
EI.y = 
or
B=
wL4
+ A.L + B
24
wL4
8
The slope as well as the deflection would be maximum at the free end hence putting x = 0, we get
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
4
y max
wL
8EI
slope max
S K Mondals
wL3
6EI
Remember: For a cantilever beam with UDL over its whole length,
Maximum slope,
wL
8EI
wL3
6EI
Consider a section XX at a distance x from free end, the bending moment at section XX is
(Mx) = M
We know that differential equation of elastic line
or EI
d2 y
dx 2
M
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
Again integrating both side we get
EI dy =
S K Mondals
M x +A dx
Mx 2
Ax + B ...(ii)
2
Where A and B are integration constants.
or EI y
dy
dx
0 gives A = ML
ML2
2
2
Mx
MLx ML2
Therefore deflection equation is y =
2EI
EI
2EI
Which is the equation of elastic curve.
at x = L, y = 0 gives B =
ML2
ML2
2
ML
G =
2EI
ML
T
EI
(It is downward)
Let us take a funny example: A cantilever beam AB of length L and uniform flexural rigidity EI
has a bracket BA (attached to its free end. A vertical downward force P is applied to free end C of the
bracket. Find the ratio a/L required in order that the deflection of point A is zero.
[ISRO 2008]
We may consider this force P and a moment (P.a) act on free end A of the cantilever beam.
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
3
PL
3EI
ML2
2EI
(P.a)L2
2EI
PL3 (P.a)L2
=
3EI
2EI
a 2
or
L 3
We want to locate the point of maximum deflection on the elastic curve and find its value.
P
.x
2
Mx =
P
x L / 2
2
EI
d2 y
dx 2
P
.x
2
or EI
dx
or EI
dy
dx
2 x dx
P x2
. A (i)
2 2
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
EI dy = x 2 A dx
4
3
Px
or EI y =
Ax + B (ii)
12
> Where A and B are integrating constants@
Now applying boundary conditions to equation (i) and (ii) we get
at x = 0,
at x = L/2,
A=
y=0
dy
dx
PL2
and B = 0
16
Px 3 PL12
x
12 16
PL
G =
48EI
PL2
16EI
(v) A simply supported beam with a point load P NOT at its midpoint.
A simply supported beam AB carries a concentrated load P as shown in the figure.
We have to locate the point of maximum deflection on the elastic curve and find the value of this
deflection.
Taking coordinate axes x and y as shown below
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
Mx
Mx
P.a
L .x
P.a
L  x
L
for 0 d x d a
EI
for a d x d L
dy P.a x 2
. + A1
......(i)
dx
L 2
dy
P.a 2
EI
P.a x x A2
......(ii)
dx
L
P.a x 3
EI y
. +A1x+B1
......(iii)
L 6
x 2 P.a x 3
EI y P.a
. A 2 x + B2 .....(iv)
2
L 6
EI
for o d x d a
for a d x d L
for 0 d x d a
for a d x d L
(a) at x = 0, y = 0
(b) at x = L, y = 0
dy
= Same for equation (i) & (ii)
dx
(c) at x = a,
A1
and B1
Pb 2
L b2 ;
6L
A2
P.a
2L2 a2
6L
0;
B2
Pa3 / 6EI
S K Mondals
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
Pbx 2
L b2 x 2
..... (v)
6L
Pb L
3
EI y =
x  a L2 b2 x  x3 . ...(vi)
6L b
EI y = 
S K Mondals
for 0 d x d a
for a d x d L
For a > b, the maximum deflection will occur in the left portion of the span, to which equation (v)
applies. Setting the derivative of this expression equal to zero gives
x=
a(a+2b)
3
L2 b2
3
(Lb)(L+b)
3
at that point a horizontal tangent and hence the point of maximum deflection substituting this value
of x into equation (v), we find,
y max
P.b(L2 b2 )3/2
9 3. EIL
L2 L/2
L/2
and y max
P. L/2 u L2 L/2
3/2
9 3 EIL
PL3
48EI
Taking coordinate axes x and y as shown, we have for the bending moment at any point x
Mx
wL
x2
.x  w.
2
2
EI
d2 y
dx 2
Mx
wL
x2
.x  w.
2
2
EI
dy
dx
wL x 2 w x 3
. . A
2 2 2 3
.....(i)
Page 209 of 431
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
EI y
wL x 3 w x 4
. . Ax + B
2 6 2 12
.....(ii)
Where A and B are integration constants. To evaluate these constants we have to use boundary
conditions.
at x = 0, y = 0
at x = L/2,
dy
dx
gives
gives
B=0
wL3
24
wL 3
w
wL3
wx
L3 2L.x 2 x 3
.x
.x 4
.x =
12EI
24EI
12EI
24EI
The maximum deflection at the midspan, we have to put x = L/2 in the equation and obtain
5wL
384EI
(It is downward)
wL3
24EI
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
4
EI
dy
dx 4
load
w
.x
L
S K Mondals
.....(i)
EI
d3 y
dx 3
Vx
wx 2
+A
2L
.....(ii)
EI
d2 y
dx 2
Mx
EI
dy
dx
EI y
wx 3
+ Ax +B
6L
.....(iii)
wx 4 Ax 2
+
+Bx + C
24L
2
.....(iv)
wx 5 Ax 3 Bx 2
+
+
+ Cx +D
120L
6
2
.....(v)
A=
at x = 0,
Mx = 0,
at x = L,
Mx = 0, y = 0 gives
y=0
wL
7wL3
, B = 0, C = , D=0
360
6
Therefore y = 
wx
7L4 10L2 x 2 3x 4
360EIL
dy
=0
dx
wL4
EI
M
and RB
L
M
L
Mx
M
.x
L
In the region a d x d L,
Mx
M
xM
L
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
2
dy
dx 2
d2 y
and EI 2
dx
EI
M
.x
L
M
.x M
L
S K Mondals
for 0 d x d a
for a d x d L
M x2
. A1
L 2
M x2
 Mx+ A 2
L
2
M x3
A1x + B1
and EI y = .
L V
M x 3 Mx 2
A 2 x + B2
EI y =
L V
2
dy
dx
dy
EI
dx
EI
....(i)
for 0 d x d a
.....(ii)
for a d x d L
......(iii)
for 0 d x d a
......(iv)
for a d x d L
dy
= same form equation (i) & (ii)
dx
(c) at x = a,
ML Ma2
+
, A2
3
2L
Ma2
B2
2
A1
M.a +
B1
0,
ML Ma2
3
2L
Mx
6aL  3a2 x 2 2L2
6L
? deflection of x = a,
Ma
y=
3aL  2a2 L2
3EIL
y=
for 0 d x d a
At first we have to find out the bending moment at any point x according to the shown coordinate
system.
We know that
Chapter5
d Vx
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Sx
w sin
dx
dV
x
or Vx
Sx
w sin
dx +A
L
wL
Sx
.cos
A
S
L
d Mx
Sx
cos
A
L
wL
Vx
dx
wL
Sx
A dx
cos
L
S
d M
x
wL2
or Mx
Sx
sin
Ax +B
L
Where A and B are integration constants, to find out the values of A and B. We have to use boundary
conditions
and
at x = 0,
Mx = 0
at x = L,
Mx = 0
wL2
Sx
sin
EI
d2 y
dx 2
wL2
Mx
Sx
sin
EI
dy
dx
EI y
wL3
Sx
cos
C
S
L
wL4
Sx
4 sin
Cx D
S
L
.......(i)
.....(ii)
Where C and D are integration constants, to find out C and D we have to use boundary conditions
at x = 0,
y=0
at x = L,
y=0
dy
wL3
Sx
3 cos
dx
S
L
wL4
Sx
4 sin
S EI L
EI
Sx
is maximum
L
Chapter5
Sx
sin
=1
L
Deflection of Beam
or
S K Mondals
x = L/2
WL4
(downward).
S 4EI
When the beam is subjected to point loads (but several loads) this is very convenient method
for determining the deflection of the beam.
In this method we will write single moment equation in such a way that it becomes
continuous for entire length of the beam in spite of the discontinuity of loading.
After integrating this equation we will find the integration constants which are valid for
entire length of the beam. This method is known as method of singularity constant.
Step III: Integrate the moment equation by a typical manner. Integration of (xa) will be
xa
x2
xa so on.
not
ax and integration of (xa)2 will be
3
2
Step IV: After first integration write the first integration constant (A) after first terms and after
second time integration write the second integration constant (B) after A.x . Constant A and B are
valid for all values of x.
Step V: Using Boundary condition find A and B at a point x = p if any term in Macaulays method,
(xa) is negative (ive) the term will be neglected.
(i) Let us take an example: A simply supported beam AB length 6m with a point load of 30 kN is
applied at a distance 4m from left end A. Determine the equations of the elastic curve between each
change of load point and the maximum deflection of the beam.
Answer: We solve this problem using Macaulays method, for that first writes the general
momentum equation for the last portion of beam BC of the loaded beam.
EI
d2 y
dx 2
Mx
....(i)
Chapter5
e.g
Deflection of Beam
x a
x a dx
S K Mondals
We get
EI
dy
dx
5x 2 A 15 x4
and EI y =
..... ii
N.m2
5 3
x Ax + B  5 (x  4)3 N.m3
3
..... iii
Where A and B are two integration constants. To evaluate its value we have to use following
boundary conditions.
at x = 0,
and
y=0
at x = 6m, y = 0
Note: When we put x = 0, x  4 is negativre (ive) and this term will not be considered for x = 0 , so
our equation will be EI y =
5 3
x Ax +B, and at x = 0 , y = 0 gives B = 0
3
But when we put x = 6, x4 is positive (+ive) and this term will be considered for x = 6, y = 0 so our
equation will be EI y =
5 3
x + Ax + 0 5 (x 4)3
3
This gives
5 3
.6 A.6 0 5(6 4)3
3
or A =  53
EI .(0) =
EI
dy
dx
5x 2  53  15 x  4
5 3
3
x  53x + 0  5 x  4
3
and EI y
Now we have two equations for entire section of the beam and we have to understand how we use
these equations. Here if x < 4 then x 4 is negative so this term will be deleted. That so why in the
region o d x d 4m we will neglect (x 4) term and our slope and deflection equation will be
EI
dy
dx
5x 2 53
5 3
x  53x
3
But in the region 4m x d 6m , (x 4) is positive so we include this term and our slope and
and
EI y
EI
dy
dx
EI y
5x 2  53  15 x  4
5 3
3
x  53x  5 x  4
3
Now we have to find out maximum deflection, but we dont know at what value of x it will be
maximum. For this assuming the value of x will be in the region 0 d x d 4m .
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
dy
Deflection (y) will be maximum for that
= 0 or 5x 2  53 = 0 or x = 3.25 m as our calculated x is
dx
in the region 0 d x d 4m ; at x = 3.25 m deflection will be maximum
or
EI ymax =
or
ymax = 
5
u 3.253 53 u 3.25
3
115
EI
But if you have any doubt that Maximum deflection may be in the range of 4 x d 6m , use EIy =
5x2 53x 5 (x 4)3 and find out x. The value of x will be absurd that indicates the maximum
deflection will not occur in the region 4 x d 6m .
Deflection (y) will be maximum for that
dy
=0
dx
or
5x 2  53  15 x  4 = 0
or
or
x = 3.41 m or 8.6 m
Both the value fall outside the region 4 x d 6m and in this region 4 x d 6m and in this region
maximum deflection will not occur.
(ii)
Now take an example where Point load, UDL and Moment applied simultaneously in
a beam:
Let us consider a simply supported beam AB (see Figure) of length 3m is subjected to a point load 10
kN, UDL = 5 kN/m and a bending moment M = 25 kNm. Find the deflection of the beam at point D if
flexural rigidity (EI) = 50 KNm2.
0 gives
10 u 1  25  5 u 1 u 1 1 1/ 2 RB u 3
or RB
15.83kN
R A RB
10 5 u 1 gives R A
0.83 kN
We solve this problem using Macaulays method, for that first writing the general momentum
equation for the last portion of beam, DB of the loaded beam.
d2 y
EI
dx 2
Mx
0.83x
5 x2
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
x a dx
x a
We get
EI
dy
dx
and EIy =
0.83 2
5
2
3
.x A 5 x 1 25 x 2 x 2
2
6
0.83 3
5
25
5
3
2
4
x Ax +B  x 1
x 2 x 2
6
3
2
24
Where A and B are integration constant we have to use following boundary conditions to find out A
& B.
at x = 0,
y=0
at x = 3m, y = 0
Therefore B = 0
0.83
5
5
u 33 A u 3 + 0  u 23 12.5 u 12
u 14
6
3
24
or A = 1.93
and 0 = 
12.5 x 2 0.21 x 2
Deflextion at point D at x = 2m
EIyD
or yD
8.85
EI
8.85
8.85
m ive sign indicates deflection downward
50 u 103
0.177mm downward .
(iii) A simply supported beam with a couple M at a distance a from left end
If a couple acts we have to take the distance in
the bracket and this should be raised to the
power zero. i.e. M(x a)0. Power is zero because
(x a)0 = 1 and unit of M(x a)0 = M but we
introduced the distance which is needed for
Macaulays method.
EI
d2 y
dx 2
M R A. x M xa
dy
dx
EI y
M x2
1
. A  M xa
L 2
M xa
M 3
x Ax + B 6L
2
Where A and B are integration constants, we have to use boundary conditions to find out A & B.
at x = 0, y = 0 gives B = 0
at x = L, y = 0 gives A =
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
M La
2L
ML
6
Page 217 of 431
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
This method is used generally to obtain displacement and rotation at a single point on a
beam.
The moment area method is convenient in case of beams acted upon with point loads in
which case bending moment area consist of triangle and rectangles.
A
Loading
L
Mn
Mc
B.M.diag
MB
Deflection
OA
ymax
AB
AD
tBA
Angle between the tangents drawn at 2 points A&B on the elastic line, AB
AB =
1
u Area of the bending moment diagram between A&B
EI
i.e. slope
T AB
A B.M.
EI
M
diagram between B&A taking about B (or w.r.t. B)
EI
i.e. deflection yBA
A B.M u x
EI
Important Note
If
A1 u A2
EI
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Some typical bending moment diagram and their area (A) and distance of
C.G from one edge
BM Diagram
Area
1. Rectangle
bh
b
2
b
3
b
4
2. Triangle
3. Parabola
4. Parabola
5.Cubic Parabola
6. y = k xn
7. Sine curve
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
1
u L u PL
2
Therefore
PL2
2
Maximum slope T
A
EI
Maximum deflection G
PL2 2
u L
2 3
EI
PL2
2EI
Ax
EI
PL3
3EI
1
u a u Pa
2
Pa2
2
Therefore
Maximum slope T
A
EI
Maximum deflection G
Pa2 a
u L
2 3
EI
Pa2
2EI
Ax
EI
( at free end)
Pa2 a
. L(at free end)
2EI 3
wL2
1
uL u
3
2
wL3
6
Therefore
Maximum slope T
A
EI
Maximum deflection G
wL3 3
u L
6 4
EI
wL3
6EI
Ax
EI
wL4
(at free end)
8EI
S K Mondals
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
1 L PL
u u
2 2 4
PL2
16
Therefore
A
EI
Maximum slope T
Maximum deflection G
PL2 L
u
16 3
EI
PL2
(at each ends)
16EI
Ax
EI
PL3
48EI
(v) A simply supported beam with UDL over its whole length
Area of BM diagram (shaded)
2 L wL2
u
u
3 2 8
wL3
24
Therefore
Maximum slope T
A
EI
Maximum deflection G
wL3 5 L
u u
24 8 2
EI
wL3
24EI
Ax
EI
5 wL4
384 EI
9. Method of superposition
Assumptions:
x
The deflection of the beam should be small such that the effect due to the shaft or rotation of
the line of action of the load is neglected.
Principle of Superposition:
Procedure is facilitated by tables of solutions for common types of loadings and supports.
Example:
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Conjugate
beams
real beams
for
Statically
By the conjugate beam method, the slope and deflection of the actual beam can be found by
using the following two rules:
x
The slope of the actual beam at any cross section is equal to the shearing force at the
corresponding cross section of the conjugate beam.
The deflection of the actual beam at any point is equal to the bending moment of the
conjugate beam at the corresponding point.
Construct the M / EI diagram for the given (real) beam subjected to the specified (real)
loading. If a combination of loading exists, you may use Mdiagram by parts
Apply the M / EI diagram as the load on the conjugate beam as per sign convention
Calculate the reactions at the supports of the conjugate beam by applying equations of
equilibrium and conditions
Determine the shears in the conjugate beam at locations where slopes is desired in the
Determine the bending moments in the conjugate beam at locations where deflections is
desired in the real beam, Mconj = yreal
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
wL2
and Reaction R A
3
wL
2
Shear force Vx
W
.x
L
wL 1 w
wL wx 2
 . .x .x = +
2 2 L
2
2L
? The shear force variation is parabolic.
wL
at x 0, Vx
i.e. Maximum shear force, Vmax
2
at x L, Vx 0
Bending moment Mx = R A .x 
wx 2 2x
.
 MA
2L 3
wL
2
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
3
2
wL
wx
wL
=
.x 2
6L
3
? The bending moment variation is cubic
at x = 0, Mx
at x
L, Mx
wL2
i.e.Maximum B.M. Mmax
3
wL2
.
3
S K Mondals
Chapter5
S K Mondals
Deflection of Beam
(b) 4
(c) 3
(d) 2
[GATE1999]
A simply supported beam carrying a concentrated load W at midspan deflects by 1 under the
load. If the same beam carries the load W such that it is distributed uniformly over entire
length and undergoes a deflection 2 at the mid span. The ratio 1: 2 is:[IES1995; GATE1994]
(a) 2: 1
GATE3.
(b)
2:1
(c) 1: 1
(d) 1: 2
A simply supported laterally loaded beam was found to deflect more than a specified value.
[GATE2003]
Which of the following measures will reduce the deflection?
GATE4.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
A cantilever beam of length L is subjected to a moment M at the free end. The moment of
inertia of the beam cross section about the neutral axis is I and the Youngs modulus is E. The
magnitude of the maximum deflection is
( a)
ML2
2EI
(b)
ML2
EI
(c)
2ML2
EI
(d )
4ML2
EI
[GATE2012]
Chapter5
S K Mondals
Deflection of Beam
the beam
GATE5.
[GATE2011]
The area moment of inertia about the neutral axis of a crosssection at a distance x measure
from the free end is
bxt 3
bxt 3
bxt 3
xt 3
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
61
12
121
241
[GATE2011]
6Pl 3
(d)
Ebt 3
8Pl 3
(c)
Ebt 3
IES2.
IES3.
WL2
2 EI
WL2
4 EI
(c)
WL2
8 EI
a
IES4.
(b)
(d)
WL2
16 EI
[IES2000]
d 2
A cantilever beam of rectangular crosssection is subjected to a load W at its free end. If the
depth of the beam is doubled and the load is halved, the deflection of the free end as compared
to original deflection will be:
[IES1999]
(a) Half
(b) Oneeighth
(c) Onesixteenth
(d) Double
Chapter5
IES5.
A simply supported beam of constant flexural rigidity and length 2L carries a concentrated load
'P' at its midspan and the deflection under the load is . If a cantilever beam of the same
flexural rigidity and length 'L' is subjected to load 'P' at its free end, then the deflection at the
free end will be:
[IES1998]
a
IES6.
S K Mondals
Deflection of Beam
d 4
Figure E
Figure F
[IES1997]
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
IES7.
A cantilever beam carries a load W uniformly distributed over its entire length. If the same load
is placed at the free end of the same cantilever, then the ratio of maximum deflection in the first
case to that in the second case will be:
[IES1996]
(a) 3/8
(b) 8/3
(c) 5/8
(d) 8/5
IES8.
PL ML
(a)
2 EI 3EI
ML PL
(b)
2 EI 3EI
ML PL
(c)
3EI 2 EI
ML
PL3
(d)
2 EI 48EI
IES9.
For a cantilever beam of length 'L', flexural rigidity EI and loaded at its free end by a
concentrated load W, match List I with List II and select the correct answer.
List I List II
A. Maximum bending moment
1. Wl
B. Strain energy
2. Wl2/2EI
C. Maximum slope
3. Wl3/3EI
D. Maximum deflection
4. W2l2/6EI
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 1
4
3
2
(b)
1
4
2
3
(c)
4
2
1
3
(d)
4
3
1
2
IES10.
Maximum deflection of a cantilever beam of length l carrying uniformly distributed load w per
unit length will be:
[IES 2008]
(a) wl4/ (EI)
(b) w l4/ (4 EI)
(c) w l4/ (8 EI)
(d) w l4/ (384 EI)
[Where E = modulus of elasticity of beam material and I = moment of inertia of beam crosssection]
IES11.
A cantilever beam of length l is subjected to a concentrated load P at a distance of l/3 from the
free end. What is the deflection of the free end of the beam? (EI is the flexural rigidity)[IES2004]
(a)
2 Pl 3
81EI
(b)
3Pl 3
81EI
(c)
14 Pl 3
81EI
(d)
15Pl 3
81EI
Chapter5
IES12.
S K Mondals
Deflection of Beam
A 2 m long beam BC carries a single
concentrated load at its midspan and is
simply supported at its ends by two
cantilevers AB = 1 m long and CD = 2 m
long as shown in the figure.
The shear force at end A of the cantilever
AB will be
(a) Zero
(b) 40 kg
(c) 50 kg
(d) 60 kg
[IES1997]
IES13. Assertion (A): In a simply supported beam subjected to a concentrated load P at midspan, the
elastic curve slope becomes zero under the load.
[IES2003]
Reason (R): The deflection of the beam is maximum at midspan.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES14.
At a certain section at a distance 'x' from one of the supports of a simply supported beam, the
intensity of loading, bending moment and shear force arc Wx, Mx and Vx respectively. If the
intensity of loading is varying continuously along the length of the beam, then the invalid
relation is:
[IES2000]
a Slope Qx
IES15.
Mx
Vx
b Vx
dM x
dx
d 2M x
dx 2
d Wx
dVx
dx
The bending moment equation, as a function of distance x measured from the left end, for a
simply supported beam of span L m carrying a uniformly distributed load of intensity w N/m
will be given by
[IES1999]
wL
w
3
Lx  Lx Nm
2
2
wL
2 w
3
c M= Lx  Lx Nm
2
2
a M=
IES16.
c Wx
wL
w
2
x  x Nm
2
2
wL
2 wLx
Nm
d M= x 2
2
b M=
A simply supported beam with width 'b' and depth d carries a central load W and undergoes
deflection at the centre. If the width and depth are interchanged, the deflection at the centre
of the beam would attain the value
[IES1997]
d
a
b
d
b
b
d
c
b
d
d
b
3/2
IES17.
IES18.
A simply supported beam carrying a concentrated load W at midspan deflects by 1 under the
load. If the same beam carries the load W such that it is distributed uniformly over entire
length and undergoes a deflection 2 at the mid span. The ratio 1: 2 is:[IES1995; GATE1994]
(a) 2: 1
(b)
2:1
(c) 1: 1
(d) 1: 2
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:
[IES1997]
ListI
ListII
A. Toughness
1. Moment area method
B. Endurance strength
2. Hardness
Chapter5
S K Mondals
Deflection of Beam
C. Resistance to abrasion
D. Deflection in a beam
Code: A
B
C
(a) 4
3
(c)
3
4
D
1
2
A
(b)
(d)
2
1
Which one of the following is represented by the area of the S.F diagram from one end upto a
given location on the beam?
[IAS2004]
(a) B.M. at the location
(b) Load at the location
(c) Slope at the location
(d) Deflection at the location
dM
0 for its whole length, the beam is a cantilever:
dx
[IAS2007]
In a cantilever beam, if the length is doubled while keeping the crosssection and the
concentrated load acting at the free end the same, the deflection at the free end will increase by
[IAS1996]
(a) 2.66 times
(b) 3 times
(c) 6 times
(d) 8 times
By conjugate beam method, the slope at any section of an actual beam is equal to:[IAS2002]
(a) EI times the S.F. of the conjugate beam (b) EI times the B.M. of the conjugate beam
(c) S.F. of conjugate beam
(d) B.M. of the conjugate beam
IAS5.
[IES2002]
Chapter5
S K Mondals
Deflection of Beam
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (d) EI
d2 y
M . Since it is second order differential equation so we need two boundary
dx2
Wl3
GATE2. Ans. (d) 1
48EI
W
5 l4
5Wl3
l
and 2
Therefore 1: 2 = 5: 8
384EI
384EI
Wl3
48EI
b 3
t
bxt 3
Ix l
12
121
GATE6.
x
l
P 2x 2
6l P 2
6 l P 2 l 2 3l 3 P 2
x
d
x
bxt 3
Ebt 3 0
Ebt 3 2
Ebt 3
0
2E
dx
121
P Ebt 3
IES
IES1. Ans. (b)
2
L
W
2
WL2
IES2. Ans. (c) q =
=
2EI
8EI
3
WL
WL2
5WL3
3EI 2EI
6EI
ymid
W 2Lx 2 x3
5WL3
EI 2
6 at x L
6EI
Wl 3 Wl 3 12 4Wl 3
Chapter5
S K Mondals
Deflection of Beam
W 2L
48EI
4Wl
2 Ea 2h
1 4Wl 3
16 Eah3
WL3
6EI
WL
2
3EI
ML PL / 2 L PL2
EI
EI
2 EI
PL2
When a cantilever is subjected to a single concentrated load at free end, then
2 EI
3
3
Wl Wl
3
l
Area
2 3 3 3 9
A
x
EI
EI
Pl3 2 7 14 Pl3
EI 9 9 81 EI
2
2l
W
Wa2 l a
3 l 2l / 3
Alternatively Ymax
EI 2 6
EI 2
6
Wl3 4 9 2
EI 9
18
14 Wl3
81 EI
IES12. Ans. (c) Reaction force on B and C is same 100/2 = 50 kg. And we know that shear force is same
throughout its length and equal to load at free end.
IES13. Ans. (a)
IES14. Ans. (a)
IES15. Ans. (b)
IES16. Ans. (b) Deflection at center
Wl3
48EI
Wl3
bd3
48E
12
Wl 3
48EI
Wl 3
Wl 3
d2 d2
db3
bd 3 b 2 b 2
48E
48E
12
12
Wl3
IES18. Ans. (d) 1
48EI
IES19. Ans. (c)
W
5 l4
5Wl3
l
and 2
Therefore 1: 2 = 5: 8
384EI
384EI
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
IAS
IAS1. Ans. (a)
IAS2. Ans. (c) udl or point load both vary with x. But
if we apply Bending Moment (M) = const.
and
dM
0
dx
PL3
3EI
2 2 8
1 L1
The deflection at the free end of the actual beam = BM of the at fixed point of conjugate beam
L
1
ML
2L
WL
WL
2L
3WL3
y = L
L
+
+
L
+
=
EI
3 2EI
2
2EI
3
2EI
Or stiffness =
9
 6
W
2EI 2 (200 10 ) (375 10 )
=
=
= 4 1010 N / m
3
y
3L3
3 (0.5)
Consider the signboard mounting shown in figure below. The wind load acting perpendicular
to the plane of the figure is F = 100 N. We wish to limit the deflection, due to bending, at point
A of the hollow cylindrical pole of outer diameter 150 mm to 5 mm. Find the wall thickness for
the pole. [Assume E = 2.0 X 1011 N/m2]
Chapter5
Answer:
S K Mondals
Deflection of Beam
Thickness of pole, t
The system of signboard mounting can be considered as a cantilever loaded at A i.e. W = 100
N and also having anticlockwise moment of M = 100 x 1 = 100 Nm at the free end. Deflection
of cantilever having concentrated load at the free end,
WL3 ML2
3EI
2EI
100 53
100 53
5 103
5.417 10 m
5 103 3 2.0 1011 2 2.0 1011
y
or
But
64
4
0
5.417 106
di4
0.15
64
di4
or
di 0.141m or 141 mm
d0 di 150 141
4.5mm
2
2
Find the slope and deflection at the free end of a cantilever beam of length 6m as loaded
shown in figure below, using method of superposition. Evaluate their numerical value using E
= 200 GPa, I = 1104 m4 and W = 1 kN.
We have to use superposition
theory.
1st consider
PL3 (3W ) 23 8W
c =
=
=
3EI
3EI
EI
2
2
PL
(3W ).2
6W
c =
=
=
2EI
2EI
EI
Deflection at A due to this load(1 ) = c + qc .(6  2) =
8W 6W
32W
+
4=
EI
EI
EI
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
nd
S K Mondals
consider:
(2W ) 43
128W
=
3EI
3EI
2
(2W ) 4
16W
qB =
=
2EI
EI
Deflection at A due to this load( 2 )
B =
=B + qB (6  4)=
224W
3EI
3rd consider :
W 63 72W
=
3EI
EI
2
W 6
18W
qA =
=
2EI
EI
(3 ) = A =
40 (103 )
6W
16W
18W
40W
+
+
=
=
EI
EI
EI
EI
(200 109 ) 10 4
32W
224W
72W
40W 563W
+
+
=
=
EI
3EI
EI
EI
3EI
3
563(10 )
=
= 8.93 mm
3 (200 109 ) (10 4 )
= 1 + 2 + 3 =
If two cantilever beams of identical dimensions but made of mild steel and grey cast iron are
subjected to same point load at the free end, within elastic limit, which one will deflect more
and why?
Answer:
We know that a cantilever beam of length 'L' end load 'P' will deflect at free end
PL3
(d) =
3EI
1
E
ECast Iron ; 125 GPa and EMild steel ; 200 GPa
\ d
A uniform cantilever beam (EI = constant) of length L is carrying a concentrated load P at its
free end. What would be its slope at the (i) Free end and (ii) Built in end
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
2
Answer:
PL
2EI
(ii) Builtin end, = 0
(i) Free end,
S K Mondals
6.
M
I
y
Where
E
R
V = Bending Stress
M = Bending Moment
I
= Moment of Inertia
E = Modulus of elasticity
R = Radius of curvature
y = Distance of the fibre from NA (Neutral axis)
The material is homogenous and isotropic i.e. it has a uniform composition and its
mechanical properties are the same in all directions
Sections which are plane before bending remain plane after bending
6.3
Chapter6
V max V t
Mc1
I
V min V c
Mc2
I
S K Mondals
I
Z=
y
x
The strength of the beam sections depends mainly on the section modulus
M
Z
Rectangular c/s of width is "b" & depth "h" with sides horizontal, Z =
a3
6
a3
6 2
Sd3
32
bh 2
6
Chapter6
S K Mondals
b( d 2 b 2 )
6
Therefore, Zmax =
bd 3
d
for b =
9
3
M D bh 2
For it
Keeping the width constant throughout the length and varying the depth, (Most widely used)
Keeping the depth constant throughout the length and varying the width
Chapter6
S K Mondals
My
is varying linearly from zero at centre and extremum (minimum
I
If P is compressive then
P My
A I
At top fibre
At mid fibre
At bottom fibre
(compressive)
P
A
V
V
(compressive)
P My
(compressive)
A
I
V max
P P u e y
A
I
V min
P P u e y
A
I
2k 2
d
h
6
d
8
h
of the middle section.
3
D2 d 2
8D
d
4
D2 d 2
.
4D
Chapter6
S K Mondals
GATE2.
[GATE2005]
Two beams, one having square cross section and another circular crosssection, are subjected to
the same amount of bending moment. If the cross sectional area as well as the material of both
the beams are the same then
[GATE2003]
(a) Maximum bending stress developed in both the beams is the same
(b) The circular beam experiences more bending stress than the square one
(c)
The square beam experiences more bending stress than the circular one
(d) As the material is same both the beams will experience same deformation
Section Modulus
GATE3.
[GATE2006]
ColumnII
1. Cam
2. Beam
3. Linkage
4. Gear
(b) P 4, Q 3, R 2, S 1
(d) P 3, Q 4, R 1, S 2
For the component loaded with a force F as shown in the figure, the axial stress at the corner
point P is:
[GATE2008]
Chapter6
(a)
F (3L b)
4b3
(b)
F (3L b)
4b3
(c)
F (3L 4b)
4b3
S K Mondals
(d)
F (3L 2b)
4b3
Beam A is simply supported at its ends and carries udl of intensity w over its entire length. It is
made of steel having Young's modulus E. Beam B is cantilever and carries a udl of intensity w/4
over its entire length. It is made of brass having Young's modulus E/2. The two beams are of
same length and have same crosssectional area. If A and B denote the maximum bending
stresses developed in beams A and B, respectively, then which one of the following is correct?
[IES2005]
(a) A/B
(b) A/B < 1.0
(c) A/B > 1.0
(d) A/B depends on the shape of crosssection
IES2.
If the area of crosssection of a circular section beam is made four times, keeping the loads,
length, support conditions and material of the beam unchanged, then the qualities (ListI) will
change through different factors (ListII). Match the ListI with the ListII and select the correct
answer using the code given below the Lists:
[IES2005]
ListI
ListII
A. Maximum BM
1. 8
B. Deflection
2. 1
C. Bending Stress
3. 1/8
D. Section Modulus
4. 1/16
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 3
1
2
4
(b)
2
4
3
1
(c)
3
4
2
1
(d)
2
1
3
4
IES3.
IES4.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists:
[IES2006]
ListI (State of Stress)
ListII (Kind of Loading)
Chapter6
Codes:
(a)
(c)
IES4a.
S K Mondals
A
2
2
B
1
4
C
3
3
D
4
1
1.
2.
3.
Thin cylinder
pressure
4.
(b)
(d)
A
3
3
B
4
1
subjected
C
2
2
to
internal
D
1
4
A Tsection beam is simply supported and subjected to a uniform distributed load over its whole
span. Maximum longitudinal stress at
[IES2011]
(a) Top fibre of the flange
(b) The junction of web and flange
(c) The midsection of the web
(d) The bottom fibre of the web
Section Modulus
IES5.
Two beams of equal crosssectional area are subjected to equal bending moment. If one beam
has square crosssection and the other has circular section, then
[IES1999]
(a) Both beams will be equally strong
(b) Circular section beam will be stronger
(c)
Square section beam will be stronger
(d) The strength of the beam will depend on the nature of loading
IES6.
IES6(i).
B
2
(d)
B
4
[IES1997]
( )
( )
( )
Chapter6
IES7.
S K Mondals
A horizontal beam with square crosssection is simply supported with sides of the square
horizontal and vertical and carries a distributed loading that produces maximum bending stress
a in the beam. When the beam is placed with one of the diagonals horizontal the maximum
bending stress will be:
[IES1993]
(a)
IES7(i).
(b)
(c)
(d) 2
The ratio of the moments of resistance of a square beam (Z) when square section is placed (i)
with two sides horizontal (Z1) and (ii) with a diagonal horizontal (Z2 ) as shown is
[IES2012]
( )
( )
( )
( )
IES8.
Which one of the following combinations of angles will carry the maximum load as a column?
[IES1994]
IES9.
IES11.
Assertion (A): A column subjected to eccentric load will have its stress at centroid independent
of the eccentricity.
[IES1994]
Reason (R): Eccentric loads in columns produce torsion.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
For the configuration of loading shown in the given figure, the stress in fibre AB is given by:
[IES1995]
Chapter6
(c)
IES12.
(b)
P P.e.5
(Compressive)
A
I
xx
P P.e.5
(Compressive)
A I xx
[IES1999]
IES13.
[IES2001]
S K Mondals
Chapter6
IES14.
Dd
8
(a)
IES15
S K Mondals
A short column of external diameter D and internal diameter d carries an eccentric load W. Toe
greatest eccentricity which the load can have without producing tension on the crosssection of
the column would be:
[IES1999]
(b)
D2 d 2
8d
D2 d 2
8D
(c)
(d)
D2 d 2
8
The ratio of the core of a rectangular section to the area of the rectangular section when used as
a short column is
[IES2010]
(a)
1
9
(b)
1
36
(c)
1
18
(d)
1
24
[IAS2004]
What is the ratio of the maximum compressive to the maximum tensile stress?
(a) 1.0
(b) 2.0
(c) 2.5
(d) 3.0
IAS2.
A 0.2 mm thick tape goes over a frictionless pulley of 25 mm diameter. If E of the material is
100 GPa, then the maximum stress induced in the tape is: [IAS 1994]
(a) 100 MPa
(b) 200 MPa
(c) 400 MPa
(d) 800 MPa
Section Modulus
IAS3.
Chapter6
(a)
65
cm3
64
65
cm3
32
(c)
65
cm3
96
S K Mondals
(d)
65
cm3
128
IAS4.
A Cantilever beam of rectangular crosssection is 1m deep and 0.6 m thick. If the beam were to
be 0.6 m deep and 1m thick, then the beam would.
[IAS1999]
(a) Be weakened 0.5 times
(b) Be weakened 0.6 times
(c)
Be strengthened 0.6 times
(d) Have the same strength as the original beam because the crosssectional area remains the
same
IAS5.
IAS6.
IAS7.
IAS8.
[IAS2001]
Assertion (A): I, T and channel sections are preferred for beams.
[IAS2000]
Reason(R): A beam crosssection should be such that the greatest possible amount of area is as
far away from the neutral axis as possible.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
If the Tbeam crosssection shown in
the given figure has bending stress of
30 MPa in the top fiber, then the
stress in the bottom fiber would be (G
is centroid)
(a) Zero
(b) 30 MPa
(c) 80 MPa
(d) 50 Mpa
[IAS2000]
Assertion (A): A square section is more economical in bending than the circular section of same
area of crosssection.
[IAS1999]
Reason (R): The modulus of the square section is less than of circular section of same area of
crosssection.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Chapter6
S K Mondals
Bimetallic Strip
IAS9.
A straight bimetallic strip of copper and steel is heated. It is free at ends. The strip, will:[IAS2002]
(a) Expand and remain straight
(b) Will not expand but will bend
(c) Will expand and bend also
(d) Twist only
IAS11.
P Phy Pkx
A Ix
Iy
(b)
P Phx Pky
A Iy
Ix
(c)
P Phy Pkx
A Iy
Ix
(d)
P Phx Pky
A Iy
Ix
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (a) Mx P.x
I
y
or
0
At x 1m; 60MPa
And it is linear as x
M E
My
GATE2. Ans. (b)
;
or
;
I
y
I
At x 0;
a
M
6M
2
sq 3 ;
1
a
a.a3
12
sq cir
cir
My 10 x 0.005
60.(x) MPa
4
I
0.01
12
d
M
32M 4 M 22.27M
2
4
d
d3
a3
a3
64
d2
a2
Chapter6
S K Mondals
IES
IES1. Ans. (d)
Bending stress
My
, y and I both depends on the
I
A
depends on the shape of cross sec tion
B
B. deflection ratio
EI1 d
1
EI2 4
16
C. Bending stress
3
2 d
My M d / 2
1
or
Bending
stress
ratio
I
1 D
8
d4
64
3
Z2 I2 y1 D
8
Z1 y1 I1 d
d2
32
a3
;
4
d 2 a 2 or d
b
b 2
b
b
3
2
b
b3
bd
2
,
ZB 2
Bending stress =
M
Z
a3
6 2
a3
6
P
My Pky
(compressive), x
(tensile)
A
Ix
Ix
a3
6
Chapter6
S K Mondals
P 6e 1600 6e
1
1
A
b 1600 20
6e
1600
0.2. Sostress at AB
1 0.2 0.8 N/mm2 (com)
20
1600
or
IES13. Ans. (b)
IES14. Ans. (c)
IES15
1 b h
bh
Ans. (c) A 4
2 6 6
18
IAS
IAS1. Ans. (b)
My
I
compressive, Max
M 2h
at lower end of A.
I 3
M h
at upper end of B
I 3
E
0.2
25
or
100 10 3 0.1 10 3
MPa = 800MPa
12 .5 10 3
34 24
65
I 64
cm3
IAS3. Ans. (c) Section modulus (z)
cm3
3
96
y
2
IAS4. Ans. (b)
z1
I 0.6 13
1.2m3
y
0.5
and z2
I 1 0.63
0.72m3
y
0.3
z2 0.72
0.6 times
z1
1.2
IAS6. Ans. (a) Because it will increase area moment of inertia, i.e. strength of the beam.
IAS7. Ans. (c)
M 1 2
30
or 2 y2 1 110 30 80 MPa
I
y1 y2
y1
30
Chapter6
IAS10. Ans. (a) As direct and bending both the stress is compressive here.
IAS11. Ans. (b) All stress are compressive, direct stress,
P
My Pky
(compressive), x
(compressive)
A
Ix
Ix
Mx Phx
and y
(compressive)
Iy
Iy
S K Mondals
Chapter6
S K Mondals
Answer:
2KN
4kN/M
B
1.5
4m
NA
RA
RB
B=10cm
C/s
RA + RB = 2 + 44.........(i)
RA 4 + 2(41.5) + (44)2=0.......(ii)
or RA = 9.25 kN, RB =18RA = 8.75 kN
if 0 x 2.5 m
( 2) 2(x2.5)
Mx =RB x  4x. x
=8.75x  2x 2  2x + 5 = 6.75x  2x 2 + 5
...(ii)
From (i) & (ii) we find out that bending movment at x = 2.1875 m in(i)
gives maximum bending movement
dM
for both the casses]
dx
= 8.25 2.1875 218752 = 9.57K 7kNm
[Just find
Mmax
Area
max =
movement
of
Inertia
(I)
Therefore maximum tensile stress in the lowest point in the beam is 14.355 MPa and
maximum compressive stress in the topmost fiber of the beam is 14.355 MPa.
A simply supported beam made of rolled steel joist (Isection: 450mm 200mm)
a span of 5 m and it carriers a central concentrated load W. The flanges
strengthened by two 300mm 20mm plates, one riveted to each flange over
entire length of the flanges. The second moment of area of the joist about
principal bending axis is 35060 cm4. Calculate
(i)
The greatest central load the beam will carry if the bending stress in
300mm/20mm plates is not to exceed 125 MPa.
has
are
the
the
the
Chapter6
S K Mondals
The minimum length of the 300 mm plates required to restrict the maximum
bending stress is the flanges of the joist to 125 MPa.
Answer:
M=
(ii) Suppose the cover plates are absent for a distance of xmeters from each support. Then at
these points the bending moment must not exceed moment of resistance of I section alone
i.e
(35060 108 )
.I
6
= (125 10 )
= 178878Nm
y
0.245
Bending moment at x metres from each support
Chapter6
S K Mondals
W
= x = 178878
2
41760
or ,
x = 178878
2
or x = 0.86464 m
Hence leaving 0.86464 m from each support, for the
middle 5  20.86464 = 3.27 m the cover plate should be
provided.
Conventional Question IES2002
Question:
Calculate:
Answer:
RR 1500 = 50 500
or , RR = 16.667 kN
or , RL + RR = 50
RL = 50 16.667=33.333 kN
Take a section from right R,
xx at a distance x.
(I ) =
bh3 0.050(0.100)3 4
m = 4.1667106 m4
=
12
12
or, max =
My
=
I
0.001
2
N / m 2 = 200MPa
6
4.1667 10
(16.67103 )
d2y
= 33.333 x 50 ( x 0.5)
dx 2
Chapter6
S K Mondals
( x 0.5) 2 + c1 x + c2
2
2
2
dx
at x=0, y=0 gives c 2 = 0
EI
or , y =
2.43
m = 2.9167 mm[downward so ive]
(210 10 ) (4.1667 106 )
5
Answer:
d
above or below the neutral axis. Any fibre at a distance y from N.A. is
2
My
subjected to a bending stress, =
, where I denotes the second moment of area of the
I
bd3
rectangular section about the N.A. i.e.
.
12
d
At the outer fibres, y =
, the maximum bending stress there becomes
2
section at a distance
or
d
M
2 = M
max =
bd3
bd2
12
6
2
bd
M = max .
6
(i)
(ii)
For the condition of maximum strength i.e. maximum moment M, the product bd2 must be a
maximum, since max is constant for a given material. To maximize the quantity bd2 we
realise that it must be expressed in terms of one independent variable, say, b, and we may do
this from the right angle triangle relationship.
Chapter6
S K Mondals
To maximize bd2 we take the first derivative of expression with respect to b and set it equal to
zero, as follows:
d
d
bd2
bD2 b3 D2 3b2 b2 d2 3b2 d2 2b2 0
db
db
Solving, we have, depth d 2 b
...(iii)
This is the desired radio in order that the beam will carry a maximum moment M.
It is to be noted that the expression appearing in the denominator of the right side of eqn. (i) i.
e.
bd2
is the section modulus (Z) of a rectangular bar. Thus, it follows; the section modulus is
6
2 x 0075 = 00106 m
bd2
6
max
0.075 0.106
= 0.005618 MNm
6
M
0.005618
40MN / m2
Z 0.075 0.106 2 / 6
7.
vQ
Ib
dM
dx
c1
Q = Statical moment =
ydA
y1
I = Moment of inertia
b = Width of beam c/s.
Q=
ydA = Shaded Area distance of the centroid of the shaded area from the neutral axis of
y1
the c/s.
Diagram
Position
of
W max
W max
Rectangular
N.A
W max =
3V
2A
N.A
W max
4
W mean
3
Chapter7
Triangular
h
from N.A
6
Trapezoidal
Section
S K Mondals
W NA
= 1.33 W mean
h1
2
V 2 h12
h
8I
h
from N.A
6
W max
Diagram
Uni form
In Flange,
ISection
( W max ) W max y
W max y
o
2
In Web
W max y
W m im y
h1
2
v
b(h12 h12 ) th12
8It
vb 2
h h12
8 It
4. Variation of shear stress for some more section [Asked in different examinations]
Non uniform ISection
Lsection
Hollow circle
Tsection
Cross
Chapter7
S K Mondals
5. Rectangular section
W max =
3V
2A
Shear stress at any point in the wall distance "s" from the free edge
A
Shearing occurs here
Vx
W
where Vx
Vx
It
ydA
o
Shear force
q =
Wt
Vx
ydA
I NA o
Chapter7
F=
x
qds
S K Mondals
Chapter7
S K Mondals
GATE2.
[IES1995, GATE2008]
The ratio of average shear stress to the maximum shear stress in a beam with a square crosssection is:
[GATE1994, 1998]
(a) 1
(b)
2
3
(c)
3
2
(d) 2
At a section of a beam, shear force is F with zero BM. The crosssection is square with side a.
Point A lies on neutral axis and point B is mid way between neutral axis and top edge, i.e. at
distance a/4 above the neutral axis. If t A and t B denote shear stresses at points A and B, then
what is the value of t A / t B?
[IES2005]
(a) 0
(b)
(c) 4/3
(d) None of above
IES2.
IES3.
In case of a beam of circular crosssection subjected to transverse loading, the maximum shear
stress developed in the beam is greater than the average shear stress by:[IES2006; 2008]
(a) 50%
(b) 33%
(c) 25%
(d) 10%
(b) Parabolic
(c) Hyperbolic
Chapter7
IES6.
S K Mondals
A beam having rectangular crosssection is subjected to an external loading. The average shear
stress developed due to the external loading at a particular crosssection is t avg . What is the
maximum shear stress developed at the same crosssection due to the same loading?[IES2009]
(a)
IES7.
1
tavg
2
(b) tavg
(c)
3
tavg
2
(d) 2 tavg
IES8.
A cantilever is loaded by a concentrated load P at the free end as shown. The shear stress in the
element LMNOPQRS is under consideration. Which of the following figures represents the
shear stress directions in the cantilever?
[IES2002]
IES9.
In ISection of a beam subjected to transverse shear force, the maximum shear stress is
developed.
[IES 2008]
(a) At the centre of the web
(b) At the top edge of the top flange
(c) At the bottom edge of the top flange
(d) None of the above
Chapter7
IES10.
IES11.
S K Mondals
[IES2001]
Assertion (A): In an ISection beam subjected to concentrated loads, the shearing force at any
section of the beam is resisted mainly by the web portion.
Reason (R): Average value of the shearing stress in the web is equal to the value of shearing
stress in the flange.
[IES1995]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES11(i). Statement (I): If the bending moment along the length of a beam is constant, then the beam
crosssection will not experience any shear stress.
[IES2012]
Statement (II): The shear force acting on the beam will be zero everywhere along its length.
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true and Statement (II) is the correct
explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the
correct explanation of Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true
Chapter7
S K Mondals
(d) 2, 3 and 4
Select the correct shear stress distribution diagram for a square beam with a diagonal in a
vertical position:
[IAS2002]
IAS4.
The distribution of shear stress of a beam is shown in the given figure. The crosssection of the
beam is:
[IAS2000]
IAS5.
A channelsection of the beam shown in the given figure carries a uniformly distributed load.
[IAS2000]
Chapter7
S K Mondals
Assertion (A): The line of action of the load passes through the centroid of the crosssection. The
beam twists besides bending.
Reason (R): Twisting occurs since the line of action of the load does not pass through the web of
the beam.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Chapter7
S K Mondals
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans (d)
3
2
max mean
3
2
max mean
a a2
V
y2
2 4
VAy
3 V a2 4y 2
3 V
.a
4
2 a3
or A
2
B 3 V 2
a 3
. . a 4
2 a3
4
3 F 3 2000
60 kg/cm 2
2 bd 2 10 5
In the case of beams with circular crosssection, the ratio of the maximum shear stress to
average shear stress 4:3
V h2
2
y1 indicating a parabolic distribution of shear stress across the crosssection.
4I 4
Chapter7
max
3F
1.5 (average)
2b. h
S K Mondals
max
4F
4
2 3 (average)
3 d
4
3
2
max mean
Bending stress =
VAy
My
and shear stress ( ) =
both of them does not depends on
Ib
I
material of beam.
IAS2. Ans. (c)
V h2
2
y1 indicating a parabolic distribution of shear stress across the crosssection.
4I 4
Chapter7
S K Mondals
(i)A cantilever of circular solid crosssection is fixed at one end and carries a concentrated load P
at the free end. The diameter at the free end is 200 mm and increases uniformly to 400 mm at
the fixed end over a length of 2 m. At what distance from the free end will the bending stresses
in the cantilever be maximum? Also calculate the value of the maximum bending stress if the
concentrated load P = 30 kN
[15Marks]
Ans.
We have
y
I
.... (i)
M = 30x k N .m = 30x 10 3 N .m
x
200 100
2
100 50x m m
y = 100 +
d 4
64
and I =
400 200 x
200
64
200 100x
64
mm 4
100 50x 10 3
30x 10 3
200 100x 4 10 12
64
960x
200 100x 3 1012 ...... (ii)
960x
d
Fo r m a x ,
0
dx
1012 960
Chapter7
S K Mondals
30k N
200
400
2000mm
(2m)
Hence maximum bending stress occurs at the midway and from equation (ii), maximum bending
stress
960
1 200 100 3 1012
960 1012
300
11.32 MP a
A timber beam 15 cm wide and 20 cm deep carries uniformly distributed load over a span of 4
m and is simply supported.
If the permissible stresses are 30 N/mm 2 longitudinally and 3 N/mm2 transverse shear,
calculate the maximum load which can be carried by the timber beam.
bh 3 0.15 0.20
Moment of inert ia (I)
10 4 m 4
12
12
20
Dist a n ce of n eu t r a l a xis fr om t h e t op su r fa ce y
10 cm 0.1 m
2
M
My
We kn ow t h a t
or
I
y
I
Wh er e m a xim u m ben din g m om en t du e t o u n ifor m ly
3
Answer:
42
8
Chapter7
S K Mondals
. L
2
.4
2
2
66.67
0.15 0.2
8.
Types of Beams
Cantilever beam
Cantilever Beam
Continuous Beam
Fixed Beam
Continuous beam
Continuous beams
Beams placed on more than 2 supports are called continuous beams. Continuous beams are used when
the span of the beam is very large, deflection under each rigid support will be equal zero.
Stability of structure
If the equilibrium and geometry of structure is maintained under the action of forces than the structure
is said to be stable.
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
Chapter8
Page266
External stability of the structure is provided by the reaction at the supports. Internal stability is
provided by proper design and geometry of the member of the structure.
Example:
Beams for which reaction forces and internal forces cannot be found out from static equilibrium
equations alone are called statically indeterminate beam. This type of beam requires deformation
equation in addition to static equilibrium equations to solve for unknown forces.
Example:
RA
RB
Rc
RD
Chapter8
Page267
Fixed beams are stiffer, stronger and more stable than SSB.
In case of fixed beams, fixed end moments will reduce the BM in each section.
Chapter8
Page268
Chapter8
Page269
An overhanging beam ABC is supported at points A and B, as shown in the above figure.
Find the maximum bending moment and the point where it occurs.
[IES2009]
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
IES2.
IES3.
[IES2001]
(d) 1/3
Chapter8
Page270
If the beam shown in the given figure is to have zero bending moment at its middle point,
the overhang x should be:
[IAS2000]
(a)
IAS2.
(b)
wl 2 / 6P
(c)
wl 2 / 8P
(d)
wl 2 /12P
A beam carrying a uniformly distributed load rests on two supports 'b' apart with equal
overhangs 'a' at each end. The ratio b/a for zero bending moment at midspan is:[IAS1997]
(a)
IAS3.
wl 2 / 4P
1
2
(b) 1
(c)
3
2
(d) 2
A beam carries a uniformly distributed load and is supported with two equal overhangs as
shown in figure 'A'. Which one of the following correctly shows the bending moment diagram
of the beam?
[IAS 1994]
Chapter8
Page271
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
IES1. Ans. (a) Taking moment about A
VB 2 = 2 1 6 3
2VB 2 18
VB 10 kN
VA VB 2 6 8kN
VA 8 10 2 kN
They use opposite sign conversions but for correct sign remember S.F & B.M of cantilever is
() ive.
IES3. Ans. (c)
IAS1. Ans. (c)
Rc RD P
wl
2
wl l
l
l
wl 2
RD P x 0 gives x
Bending moment at mid point (M) =
2 4
2
2
8P
(i)
(ii)
By formula M
b2
2
a 0 gives a = b/2
24
Chapter8
Page272
What are statically determinate and in determinate beams? Illustrate each case through
examples.
Beams for which reaction forces and internal forces can be found out from static
equilibrium equations alone are called statically determinate beam.
Example:
X i = 0, Yi = 0 and
Mi = 0 is sufficient
RA
RB
Rc
RD
9.
Torsion
In machinery, the general term shaft refers to a member, usually of circular crosssection, which supports gears, sprockets, wheels, rotors, etc., and which is subjected to
torsion and to transverse or axial loads acting singly or in combination.
A spindle is a short shaft. Terms such as lineshaft, headshaft, stub shaft, transmission
shaft, countershaft, and flexible shaft are names associated with special usage.
T G
=
J
L
Torsion Equation
Assumptions
The section under consideration is remote from the point of application of the load and from
a change in diameter.
Adjacent cross sections originally plane and parallel remain plane and parallel after
twisting, and any radial line remains straight.
Crosssections rotate as if rigid, i.e. every diameter rotates through the same angle
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
2 r 3 dr
J = 2
LM r OP
N4Q
=
0
2 R 4 D4
=
4
32
(6)
2 r dr =
3
Lr O
2 M P
N4Q
4
=
r
( R4 r 4 ) =
32
cD
d4
(7)
d4
Solid shaft J =
32
32
(do 4 di 4 )
Then, max = T / Zp
If design shears stress, d is known, required polar section modulus can be calculated from:
Zp = T / d
P (in Watt ) =
2 NT
60
Page 280 of 431
Chapter9
Torsion
2 NT
=
4500
P (in hp)
S K Mondals
(1 hp = 75 Kgm/sec).
[Where N = rpm; T = Torque in Nm.]
Stiffness consideration
T G
=
J
L
T
=
J R
We take higher value of diameter of both cases above for overall safety if other parameters are given.
6. In twisting
max
16T
d3
Solid shaft,
Hollow shaft,
max
16Td o
(d o 4 di 4 )
d = 4.9
TL
G
A Hollow shaft will transmit a greater torque than a solid shaft of the same weight & same
material because the average shear stress in the hollow shaft is smaller than the average
shear stress in the solid shaft
=
( max ) solid shaft
15
Th
n2 + 1
=
Ts n n 2 1
Where, n=
[ONGC2005]
n 2 1 n 2/3
Wh
=
2/3
Ws
n4 1
Hollow shaft, d o = D, di = D
2
Where, n=
Uh n 2 + 1
1
= 1+ 2
=
2
Us
n
n
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
[WBPSC2003]
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
8. Shaft in series
= 1 + 2
Torque (T) is same in all section
Electrical analogy gives torque(T) = Current (I)
9. Shaft in parallel
1 = 2
and T = T1 + T2
In most practical transmission situations shafts which carry torque are also subjected to
bending, if only by virtue of the selfweight of the gears they carry. Many other practical
applications occur where bending and torsion arise simultaneously so that this type of
loading represents one of the major sources of complex stress situations.
In the case of shafts, bending gives rise to tensile stress on one surface and compressive
stress on the opposite surface while torsion gives rise to pure shear throughout the shaft.
For shafts subjected to the simultaneous application of a bending moment M and torque T
the principal stresses set up in the shaft can be shown to be equal to those produced by an
equivalent bending moment, of a certain value Me acting alone.
Figure
32 M P
+
d3 A
16T
xy = 3
d
x =
Chapter9
Torsion
1,2
max =
max
x + xy2
2
2
1 2
2
= x + ( xy ) 2
2
16
M + M 2 +T2
d3
16
M 2 +T2
3
d
max
S K Mondals
1
T
tan 1
2
M
M + M 2 +T2
Me =
2
Te = M 2 + T 2
Important Note
o
Uses of the formulas are limited to cases in which both M & T are known. Under any
other condition Mohrs circle is used.
in tension , d =
in shear , d=
32M e
16Te
Figure
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
Fn = [ BC sin + AC cos ]
Ft = [ BC cos  AC sin ]
Normal stress ( n ) & Tangential stress (shear stress) ( t ) on inclined plane AB.
sin 2
cos 2
( n )max
45
90
135
max
Important Note
1,2 = sin2
Principal strains
1 =
(1 + ); 2 =
(1 + ); 3 = 0
Volumetric strain,
v =1 + 2 + 3 = 0
No change in volume for a shaft subjected to pure torque.
There are some applications in machinery for noncircular crosssection members and shafts
where a regular polygonal crosssection is useful in transmitting torque to a gear or pulley
that can have an axial change in position. Because no key or keyway is needed, the
possibility of a lost key is avoided.
Saint Venant (1855) showed that max in a rectangular b c section bar occurs in the middle
of the longest side b and is of magnitude formula
max =
T
T
1.8
=
3+
2
2
b / c
bc
bc
Where b is the longer side and factor that is function of the ratio b/c.
The angle of twist is given by
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
Tl
bc3G
Rectangular c/s
Elliptical c/s
Triangular c/s
Angle of twist,
T
2 A0t
sL
2 AO G
[Where S = length of mean centre line, AO = Area enclosed by mean centre line]
Special Cases
o
J = 2 r 3t ;
Ao = r 2 ;
S = 2 r
=
o
T
T .r
T
=
=
2
2 r t
2 Aot
J
TL
L
TL
=
=
GJ Ao JG 2 r 3tG
A0 = b 2
S =4b
o
A0 = ab
3
S (a + b) ab
2
Chapter9
S K Mondals
Torsion
A solid circular shaft of 60 mm diameter transmits a torque of 1600 N.m. The value of
maximum shear stress developed is:
[GATE2004]
(a) 37.72 MPa
(b) 47.72 MPa
(c) 57.72 MPa
(d) 67.72 MPa
GATE2.
Maximum shear stress developed on the surface of a solid circular shaft under pure
torsion is 240 MPa. If the shaft diameter is doubled then the maximum shear stress
developed corresponding to the same torque will be:
[GATE2003]
(a) 120 MPa
(b) 60 MPa
(c) 30 MPa
(d) 15 MPa
GATE3.
A steel shaft 'A' of diameter 'd' and length 'l' is subjected to a torque T Another shaft 'B'
made of aluminium of the same diameter 'd' and length 0.5 l is also subjected to the same
torque 'T'. The shear modulus of steel is 2.5 times the shear modulus of aluminium. The
shear stress in the steel shaft is 100 MPa. The shear stress in the aluminium shaft, in
MPa, is:
[GATE2000]
(a) 40
(b) 50
(c) 100
(d) 250
GATE4.
For a circular shaft of diameter d subjected to torque T, the maximum value of the shear
stress is:
[GATE2006]
(a)
64T
d3
(b)
32T
d3
(c)
32 T L 4
(a)
16T
d3
(d)
8T
d3
L/2
T
2d
[GATE2011]
1
18 T L 4
(b)
16 T L 4
(c)
2 T L 4
(d)
The diameter of shaft A is twice the diameter or shaft B and both are made of the same
material. Assuming both the shafts to rotate at the same speed, the maximum power
transmitted by B is:
[IES2001; GATE1994]
(a) The same as that of A (b) Half of A
(c) 1/8th of A
(d) 1/4th of A
A solid shaft can resist a bending moment of 3.0 kNm and a twisting moment of 4.0 kNm
together, then the maximum torque that can be applied is:
[GATE1996]
Chapter9
S K Mondals
Torsion
(a) 7.0 kNm
(c)4.5 kNm
The outside diameter of a hollow shaft is twice its inside diameter. The ratio of its torque
carrying capacity to that of a solid shaft of the same material and the same outside
diameter is:
[GATE1993; IES2001]
(a)
15
16
(b)
3
4
(c)
1
2
(d)
1
16
Shafts in Series
GATE8.
Shafts in Parallel
GATE9.
[GATE2005]
(d) TA=16 TC
(c) TC =16 TA
IES2.
A solid shaft transmits a torque T. The allowable shearing stress is . What is the
diameter of the shaft?
[IES2008]
16T
32T
16T
T
(a) 3
(b) 3
(c) 3
(d) 3
IES2(i).
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
IES3.
Maximum shear stress developed on the surface of a solid circular shaft under pure
torsion is 240 MPa. If the shaft diameter is doubled, then what is the maximum shear
stress developed corresponding to the same torque?
[IES2009]
(a) 120 MPa
(b) 60 MPa
(c) 30 MPa
(d) 15 MPa
IES4.
IES5.
IES5(i).
The boring bar of a boring machine is 25 mm in diameter. During operation, the bar gets
twisted though 0.01 radians and is subjected to a shear stress of 42 N/mm 2. The length of
the bar is (Taking G = 0.84 105 N/mm2)
[IES2012]
(a) 500 mm
(b) 250 mm
(c) 625 mm
(d) 375 mm
IES5(ii).
IES6.
[IES2000]
IES6a
IES7.
A solid circular shaft is subjected to pure torsion. The ratio of maximum shear to
maximum normal stress at any point would be:
[IES1999]
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 1: 2
(c) 2: 1
(d) 2: 3
IES8.
Assertion (A): In a composite shaft having two concentric shafts of different materials,
the torque shared by each shaft is directly proportional to its polar moment of inertia.[IES1999]
Reason (R): In a composite shaft having concentric shafts of different materials, the
angle of twist for each shaft depends upon its polar moment of inertia.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES9.
[IES2002]
Which of the following figures represents the shear stress on the element LMNOPQRS ?
Chapter9
IES10.
S K Mondals
Torsion
[IES1997]
Onehalf length of 50 mm diameter steel rod is solid while the remaining half is hollow
having a bore of 25 mm. The rod is subjected to equal and opposite torque at its ends. If
the maximum shear stress in solid portion is or, the maximum shear stress in the
hollow portion is:
[IES2003]
(a)
15
16
(b)
(c)
(d)
16
15
In power transmission shafts, if the polar moment of inertia of a shaft is doubled, then
what is the torque required to produce the same angle of twist?
[IES2006]
(a) 1/4 of the original value
(b) 1/2 of the original value
(c) Same as the original value
(d) Double the original value
IES13.
While transmitting the same power by a shaft, if its speed is doubled, what should be its
new diameter if the maximum shear stress induced in the shaft remains same?[IES2006]
(a)
(c)
IES14.
1
of the original diameter
2
(b)
(d)
1
of the original diameter
2
1
2 3
1
P
(a)
N
1/2
P
(b)
N
P
(c)
N
2/3
(d)
Chapter9
S K Mondals
Torsion
IES15.
A shaft can safely transmit 90 kW while rotating at a given speed. If this shaft is
replaced by a shaft of diameter double of the previous one and rotated at half the speed
of the previous, the power that can be transmitted by the new shaft is:
[IES2002]
(a) 90 kW
(b) 180 kW
(c) 360 kW
(d) 720 kW
IES16.
The diameter of shaft A is twice the diameter or shaft B and both are made of the same
material. Assuming both the shafts to rotate at the same speed, the maximum power
transmitted by B is:
[IES2001; GATE1994]
(a) The same as that of A
(b) Half of A
(c) 1/8th of A
(d) 1/4th of A
IES17.
[IES1997]
IES19.
The equivalent bending moment under combined action of bending moment M and
torque T is:
[IES1996; 2008; IAS1996]
(a)
M2 T2
(c)
1
M T
2
1
M M 2 T 2
2
1
2
2
(d) M T
4
(b)
A solid circular shaft is subjected to a bending moment M and twisting moment T. What
is the equivalent twisting moment Te which will produce the same maximum shear
stress as the above combination?
[IES1992; 2007]
(a) M2 + T2
(b) M + T
(c)
M 2 T 2
(d) M T
IES20.
A shaft is subjected to fluctuating loads for which the normal torque (T) and bending
moment (M) are 1000 Nm and 500 Nm respectively. If the combined shock and fatigue
factor for bending is 1.5 and combined shock and fatigue factor for torsion is 2, then the
equivalent twisting moment for the shaft is:
[IES1994]
(a) 2000Nm
(b) 2050Nm
(c) 2100Nm
(d) 2136 Nm
IES21.
A member is subjected to the combined action of bending moment 400 Nm and torque
300 Nm. What respectively are the equivalent bending moment and equivalent torque?[IES1994; 20
(a) 450 Nm and 500 Nm
(b) 900 Nm and 350 Nm
(c) 900 Nm and 500 Nm
(d) 400 Nm and 500 Nm
IES22.
A shaft was initially subjected to bending moment and then was subjected to torsion. If
the magnitude of bending moment is found to be the same as that of the torque, then the
ratio of maximum bending stress to shear stress would be:
[IES1993]
(a) 0.25
(b) 0.50
(c) 2.0
(d) 4.0
IES23.
Chapter9
S K Mondals
Torsion
(c)
(d)
Every point on the surface of the shaft is subjected to maximum shear stress only
Axial longitudinal fibre of the shaft is subjected to compressive stress only
(b) Wl T
(a) T
2 2
2
wL
(c) Wl
2
2
wL2
2
(d) Wl
IES25.
Bending moment M and torque is applied on a solid circular shaft. If the maximum
bending stress equals to maximum shear stress developed, them M is equal to: [IES1992]
(a)
IES26.
[IES1999]
T
2
(b) T
(c) 2T
(d) 4T
A circular shaft is subjected to the combined action of bending, twisting and direct axial
loading. The maximum bending stress , maximum shearing force
3 and a uniform
axial stress (compressive) are produced. The maximum compressive normal stress
produced in the shaft will be:
[IES1998]
(a) 3
(b) 2
(c)
(d) Zero
IES27.
Which one of the following statements is correct? Shafts used in heavy duty speed
reducers are generally subjected to:
[IES2004]
(a) Bending stress only
(b) Shearing stress only
(c)
Combined bending and shearing stresses
(d) Bending, shearing and axial thrust simultaneously
The ratio of torque carrying capacity of a solid shaft to that of a hollow shaft is given by:[IES2008]
(a) 1 K 4
(b) 1 K 4
(c)K 4
(d)1/ K 4
Di
; Di = Inside diameter of hollow shaft and D o = Outside diameter of hollow
Do
shaft. Shaft material is the same.
Where K =
IES29.
(a) 30 mm
(b) 35 mm
(c) 10 (60) mm
(d) 10 (20)1/3 mm
IES30.
The diameter of a solid shaft is D. The inside and outside diameters of a hollow shaft of
same material and length are
D
2D
and
respectively. What is the ratio of the weight
3
3
[IES 2007]
Chapter9
(a) 1:1
IES31.
S K Mondals
Torsion
(b) 1: 3
(c) 1:2
(d) 1:3
What is the maximum torque transmitted by a hollow shaft of external radius R and
internal radius r?
[IES2006]
(a)
16
(b)
2R
(c)
8R
(d)
R4 r 4
32
fs
A hollow shaft of the same crosssectional area and material as that of a solid shaft
transmits:
[IES2005]
(a) Same torque
(b) Lesser torque
(c) More torque
(d) Cannot be predicted without more data
IES33.
The outside diameter of a hollow shaft is twice its inside diameter. The ratio of its torque
carrying capacity to that of a solid shaft of the same material and the same outside
diameter is:
[GATE1993; IES2001]
(a)
IES34.
15
16
(b)
3
4
1
2
(d)
1
16
Two hollow shafts of the same material have the same length and outside diameter.
Shaft 1 has internal diameter equal to onethird of the outer diameter and shaft 2 has
internal diameter equal to half of the outer diameter. If both the shafts are subjected to
the same torque, the ratio of their twists
(a) 16/81
IES35.
(c)
(b) 8/27
[IES1998]
(d) 243/256
Maximum shear stress in a solid shaft of diameter D and length L twisted through an
angle is . A hollow shaft of same material and length having outside and inside
diameters of D and D/2 respectively is also twisted through the same angle of twist .
The value of maximum shear stress in the hollow shaft will be:
[IES1994; 1997]
16
15
4
c
3
IES36.
A solid shaft of diameter 'D' carries a twisting moment that develops maximum shear
stress . If the shaft is replaced by a hollow one of outside diameter 'D' and inside
diameter D/2, then the maximum shear stress will be:
[IES1994]
(a) 1.067
(b) 1.143
(c) 1.333
(d) 2
IES37.
A solid shaft of diameter 100 mm, length 1000 mm is subjected to a twisting moment 'T
The maximum shear stress developed in the shaft is 60 N/mm 2. A hole of 50 mm
diameter is now drilled throughout the length of the shaft. To develop a maximum shear
stress of 60 N/mm2 in the hollow shaft, the torque 'T must be reduced by:[IES1998, 2012]
(a) T/4
(b) T/8
(c) T/12
(d)T/16
IES38.
Assertion (A): A hollow shaft will transmit a greater torque than a solid shaft of the
same weight and same material.
[IES1994]
Reason (R): The average shear stress in the hollow shaft is smaller than the average
shear stress in the solid shaft.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES39.
A hollow shaft is subjected to torsion. The shear stress variation in the shaft along the
radius is given by:
[IES1996]
Chapter9
S K Mondals
Torsion
Shafts in Series
IES40.
16Tl
Gd 4
64Tl
(c)
Gd 4
(a)
38Tl
Gd 4
66Tl
(d)
Gd 4
(b)
[IES2005]
Shafts in Parallel
IES41.
IES42.
For the two shafts connected in parallel, find which statement is true?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
[IES1992, 2011]
IES43.
TL
3GJ
(b)
TL
2GJ
(c)
TL
GJ
(d)
2TL
GJ
A solid circular rod AB of diameter D and length L is fixed at both ends. A torque T is
applied at a section X such that AX = L/4 and BX = 3L/4. What is the maximum shear
stress developed in the rod?
(a)
IES44.
16T
D3
(b)
[IES2004]
12T
D3
(c)
8T
D3
(d)
4T
D3
[IES1998]
Page 293 of 431
Chapter9
S K Mondals
Torsion
same
Assertion (A): In theory of torsion, shearing strains increase radically away from the
longitudinal axis of the bar.
[IAS2001]
Reason (R): Plane transverse sections before loading remain plane after the torque is
applied.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS2.
IAS3.
If two shafts of the same length, one of which is hollow, transmit equal torque and have
equal maximum stress, then they should have equal.
[IAS1994]
(a) Polar moment of inertia
(b) Polar modulus of section
(c) Polar moment of inertia
(d) Angle of twist
A hollow circular shaft having outside diameter 'D' and inside diameter d subjected to a
constant twisting moment 'T' along its length. If the maximum shear stress produced in
the shaft is s s then the twisting moment 'T' is given by:
[IAS1999]
(a)
D4 d 4
D4
(b)
16
D4 d 4
D4
(c)
32
D4 d 4
D4
(d)
64
D4 d 4
D4
Torsional Rigidity
IAS5.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given below the
lists:
[IAS1996]
ListI (Mechanical Properties)
ListII ( Characteristics)
A. Torsional rigidity
1. Product of young's modulus and second
moment of area about the plane of
bending
B. Modulus of resilience
2. Strain energy per unit volume
C. Bauschinger effect
3. Torque unit angle of twist
D. Flexural rigidity
4. Loss of mechanical energy due to local
yielding
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 1
3
4
2
(b)
3
2
4
1
(c)
2
4
1
3
(d)
3
1
4
2
IAS6.
Assertion (A): Angle of twist per unit length of a uniform diameter shaft depends upon
its torsional rigidity.
[IAS2004]
Reason (R): The shafts are subjected to torque only.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
Chapter9
S K Mondals
Torsion
(b)
(c)
(d)
Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
A is true but R is false
A is false but R is true
A shaft is subjected to a bending moment M = 400 N.m alld torque T = 300 N.m The
equivalent bending moment is:
[IAS2002]
(a) 900 N.m
(b) 700 N.m
(c) 500 N.m
(d) 450 N.m
IAS9.
2T
3
L
from one end. What is the reaction torque at the other end of the shaft?[IAS2007]
3
T
T
T
(b)
(c)
(d)
2
3
4
A solid shaft of diameter d is replaced by a hollow shaft of the same material and length.
The outside diameter of hollow shaft
2d
d
while the inside diameter is
. What is the
3
3
ratio of the torsional stiffness of the hollow shaft to that of the solid shaft?
2
(a)
3
IAS10.
3
(b)
5
5
(c)
3
[IAS2007]
(d) 2
Two steel shafts, one solid of diameter D and the other hollow of outside diameter D and
inside diameter D/2, are twisted to the same angle of twist per unit length. The ratio of
maximum shear stress in solid shaft to that in the hollow shaft is:
[IAS1998]
(a)
(b)
(c)
16
15
(d)
Shafts in Series
IAS11.
Two shafts having the same length and material are joined in series. If the ratio of the
diameter of the first shaft to that of the second shaft is 2, then the ratio of the angle of
twist of the first shaft to that of the second shaft is:
[IAS1995; 2003]
(a) 16
(b) 8
(c) 4
(d) 2
IAS12.
A circular shaft fixed at A has diameter D for half of its length and diameter D/2 over the
other half. What is the rotation of C relative of B if the rotation of B relative to A is 0.1
radian?
[IAS1994]
(a) 0.4 radian
(b) 0.8 radian
(c) 1.6 radian
(d) 3.2 radian
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
Shafts in Parallel
IAS13.
A stepped solid circular shaft shown in the given figure is builtin at its ends and is
subjected to a torque To at the shoulder section. The ratio of reactive torque T1 and T2 at
the ends is (J1 and J2 are polar moments of inertia):
J 2 l2
J1 l1
J l
(c) 1 2
J 2 l1
J 2 l1
J 1 l2
J l
(d) 1 1
J 2 l2
(a)
IAS14.
IAS15.
(b)
[IAS2001]
Steel shaft and brass shaft of same length and diameter are connected by a flange
coupling. The assembly is rigidity held at its ends and is twisted by a torque through the
coupling. Modulus of rigidity of steel is twice that of brass. If torque of the steel shaft is
500 Nm, then the value of the torque in brass shaft will be:
[IAS2001]
(a) 250 Nm
(b) 354 Nm
(c) 500 Nm
(d) 708 Nm
A steel shaft with bultin ends is subjected to the action of a torque Mt applied at an
intermediate crosssection 'mn' as shown in the given figure.
[IAS1997]
Assertion (A): The magnitude of the twisting moment to which the portion BC is
subjected is
M ta
ab
Reason(R): For geometric compatibility, angle of twist at 'mn' is the same for the portions
AB and BC.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS16.
A steel shaft of outside diameter 100 mm is solid over one half of its length and hollow
over the other half. Inside diameter of hollow portion is 50 mm. The shaft if held rigidly
at two ends and a pulley is mounted at its midsection i.e., at the junction of solid and
hollow portions. The shaft is twisted by applying torque on the pulley. If the torque
carried by the solid portion of the shaft is 16000kgm, then the torque carried by the
hollow portion of the shaft will be:
[IAS1997]
(a) 16000 kgm
(b) 15000 kgm
(c) 14000 kgm
(d) 12000 kgm
Chapter9
S K Mondals
Torsion
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
16T
d3
16T
16T
16T
240
, 240
if diameter doubled d 2d, then
30MPa
GATE2. Ans. (c)
3
3
3
8
d
d
2d
GATE1. Ans. (a)
16T
as T & d both are same is same
d3
T L
L/2
T
L
T
2
2d
(2 d )4 G
( d )4
32
32
2T L
16T L 18T L
4
G d
G d 4 G d 4
18T L 4
d
G
GATE5. Ans. (c) Power, P T
or P
d3
16
2 N
60
and
16T
d3
or
T
16
d3
2 N
or P d3
60
T G
J
or T
if is const. T J
J
L
R
R
4
4 D
D
32
2 15
Th
J
h
4
T
J
16
D
32
TL
GATE8. Ans. (b) We know that
or T k. [let k tortional stiffness]
GJ
T
T
T
10 10 10
MN NO OP MN NO OP
1.0 rad
kMN kNO k OP 20 30 60
GATE7. Ans. (a)
or
TL
TAL A
C C
GA JA GC JC
or
TC
TA
4
4
d
2d
32
32
IES
IES1. Ans. (d)
IES2. Ans. (a)
IES2(i). Ans. (d)
T r 16T
J
d3
16T
= 240 MPa =
d3
Page 297 of 431
or TA
TC
16
Chapter9
S K Mondals
Torsion
Maximum shear stress developed when diameter is doubled
16
2d
1 16T 240
30MPa
8 d3 8
8
16T
d3
or
T
T d3
or
T2 d2
60
8
T1 d1
30
16T
32T
and normal stress
3
d
d3
T G
GR
1
or
J R
L
L
L
T
J
or T
J r
r
J J
D
or s h h ; rs rh
rs
rh
2
D4
1
1
Js
16
32
or h
4
4
d
25
Jh
15
D4 d 4
1
32
D
50
or Q
if is const. T J
J
L
R
G.J
IES13. Ans. (d) Power (P) torque T angular speed
T 1
or T T / 2
T 2
16T 16 T / 2
1
d
3
or 3
3
d
d
2
d
if P is const.T
if
2 N
60
and
16T
d3
or
T
16
d3
1/3
d3
2 N
480 P
P
or P
or d3 2
or d
16
60
JN
N
IES15. Ans. (c)
2 N
16T
d3
IES16. Ans. (c) Power, P T
and
or T
3
60
16
d
3
d 2 N
or P
or P d3
16
60
IES17. Ans. (d)
IES18. Ans. (b)
Teq
M2
T2
2136 Nm
Chapter9
S K Mondals
Torsion
2
M M T
400 400 300
450N.m
2
2
0 02 T 2 T
2
2
wL2
2
32 M
16T
and
3
d
d3
IES26. Ans. (a) Maximum normal stress = bending stress + axial stress () = 2
We have to take maximum bending stress is (compressive)
IES25. Ans. (a)
The maximum compressive normal stress =
b xy2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
D
D4 Di4
32 o
32 o
1
Ts
1 k4
Th
Ts
D4
4 o 4
Th Do Di
4
Ts Di
1
Th Do
J
JH
= s or
RH
Rs
64
or, d3 = (10)3 60 or
(404 204 )
40
2
64
d4
d
2
3
d = 10 60 mm
4D2
WH
WS
D2
L g
4 3
3
1
=
2
D L g
4
R4 r 4
T fs
J
2
IES31. Ans. (b)
or T fs
fs
R4 r 4 .fs .
J R
R
R
2R
TH
D
n2 1
IES32. Ans. (c)
,
Where n H
TS n n2 1
dH
T G
J
IES33. Ans. (a)
or T
if is const. T J
J
L
R
R
4
D
4
D
32
2 15
Th
J
h
4
T
J
16
D
32
Chapter9
Torsion
d
d14 1
Q
1
2
1
IES34. Ans. (d) Q
J
Q2
d
d14 1
3
S K Mondals
243
4
256
T G
G.R.
or
if is const. R and outer diameter is same in both
J
L
R
L
the cases.
Note: Required torque will be different.
T G
TR
1
IES36. Ans. (a)
or
if T is const.
J
L
R
J
J
4
h
J
D
16
1.06666
4
Jh
15
D
D4
2
IES35. Ans. (d)
Tr 16T
T 32(d / 2)
4
4
3
J d
d d / 2
1
Reduction
16
or
T 15
T 16
T 2l
Tl
Tl
66Tl
64 2 Gd4
d4 G 2d 4 Gd4
G.
32
32
AB BC
or
TAB
TABL TBC.L
or TAB 2TBC
G.2J
G.J
TBC T or
TBC T / 3
or QB Q AB
T L
TL
.
3 GJ 3GJ
AX XB & TA TB T
3L
TA.L / 4 TB 4
or
GJ
GJ
or TA 3TB or TA
max
16TA
D3
3T
,
4
3
T
12T
4
4
D3
D3
16
IAS
IAS1. Ans. (b)
J R
T
J
IAS3. Ans. (b)
Here T & are same, so
should be same i.e. polar modulus of section will
R
J R
IAS2. Ans. (b)
be same.
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
Chapter9
T G
J
IAS4. Ans. (b)
gives T
J
L
R
R
Torsion
32
d4
S K Mondals
D
2
16
d4
450 Nm
2
2
Me
4
4
2d d
T
IAS9. Ans. (c) Torsional stiffness =
K H 32 3 3 5
GJ
or
4
KS
3
L
.d
32
T G
G R
as outside diameter of both the shaft is D so is
or
J R
L
L
same for both the cases.
1 1
J d4
d 4
T G
1
1
or
or 4 J
32
J
L
J
d
4
d
Here
or 1.6 radian.
0.1 d / 24
1 2
or
T1l1 T2l2
GJ1 GJ 2
or
T1 J1 l2
T2 J 2 l1
1 2 or
Ts ls
Tl
bb
Gs J s Gb J b
or
Ts Tb
Gs Gb
or
Tb Gb 1
Ts Gs 2
or Tb
Ts
250 Nm
2
1004 504
TsL
THL
JH
32
or
or TH TS
16000
15000kgm
GJs GJH
Js
4
100
32
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
A hollow steel rod 200 mm long is to be used as torsional spring. The ratio of inside to
outside diameter is 1 : 2. The required stiffness of this spring is 100 N.m /degree.
Determine the outside diameter of the rod.
Value of G is
Ans.
8 10 4 N/mm 2 .
[10 Marks]
T
G.
=
J
L
Where T = Torque
T
N M
S tiffn e s s
rad
J = polar moment
Stiffness =
T
G.J
=
d 2 2d 1
d 42  d 14
32
J =
16 d 14  d 14
32
J =
J =
d1
1
=
d2
2
d 14 15
32
5729.578 Nm / r a d =
8 10 4 10 6 N / m 2
d 14 15
0.2
32
5729.578 .2 32
= d 14
10
8 10 15
d 1 = 9.93 10 3 m.
d 1 = 9.93 m m.
d 2 = 2 9.93 = 19.86 m m
An s.
Answer:
A component used in the Mars pathfinder can be idealized as a circular bar clamped at
its ends. The bar should withstand a torque of 1000 Nm. The component is assembled
on earth when the temperature is 30C. Temperature on Mars at the site of landing is 70C. The material of the bar has an allowable shear stress of 300 MPa and its young's
modulus is 200 GPa. Design the diameter of the bar taking a factor of safety of 1.5 and
assuming a coefficient of thermal expansion for the material of the bar as 12 106/C.
Given:
Chapter9
Torsion
tE 30 C; t m 700 C;
0
Tmax 1000Nm;
S K Mondals
allowable 300MPa
12 10 4
original length
L
Linear strain
max
16T 2 a 2
3
D 2
allowable
300
200MPa
F.O.S
1.5
Substituting the values, we get
where, max
16 1000
8
4 1016
1.2 10
3
16 1000
or
1.6 108
D3
1/3
16 1000
or D
8
1.6 10
0.03169 m 31.69 mm
Ans.
In a torsion test, the specimen is a hollow shaft with 50 mm external and 30 mm internal
diameter. An applied torque of 1.6 kNm is found to produce an angular twist of 0.4
measured on a length of 0.2 m of the shaft. The Youngs modulus of elasticity obtained
from a tensile test has been found to be 200 GPa. Find the values of
(i)
Modulus of rigidity.
(ii) Poissons ratio.
[10Marks]
We have
T G
J r
L
......... (i)
J =
D4 d4
32
50 4 30 4 10 12
32
5.338 10 7
T 1.6 k N m 1.6 10 3 N m
= 0.4
l = 0.2 m
E = 200 10 9 N/m 2
F ro m e qu a tio n (i)
T G
J
L
Chapter9
S K Mondals
Torsion
1.6 10 3
5.338 10 7
G 0.4
180
0.2
G=
0.4 5.338 10 7
85.92 GP a
We also have
E = 2 G (1 + v )
200 = 2 85.92 1 v
1 + v = 1.164
v = 0.164
Answer:
A solid circular uniformly tapered shaft of length I, with a small angle of taper is
subjected to a torque T. The diameter at the two ends of the shaft are D and 1.2 D.
Determine the error introduced of its angular twist for a given length is determined on
the uniform mean diameter of the shaft.
For shaft of tapering's section, we have
3G
R13R 32
D13D32
3G
2
2
32TL 1.2 1.2 1 1
3
3
3G D4
1.2
32TL
2.1065
3G D4
Now,
Davg
D1 D and D2 1.2D
1.2D D
1.1D
2
2
32TL 3 1.1D 32TL
3
32TL
'
2.049
6
4
4
3G 1.1D 3G 1.2 .D
3G D4
Error
0.0273 or 2.73%
2.1065
A hollow shaft and a solid shaft construction of the same material have the same
length and the same outside radius. The inside radius of the hollow shaft is 0.6 times
of the outside radius. Both the shafts are subjected to the same torque.
(i) What is the ratio of maximum shear stress in the hollow shaft to that of solid
shaft?
(ii) What is the ratio of angle of twist in the hollow shaft to that of solid shaft?
Solution:
Using
T t G
= =
J R L
Inside radius (r)
= 0.6 and Th = Ts = T
Given,
Out side (R)
(i) t =
T .R
T .R
gives ; For hollow shaft (t h ) =
p 4
J
(R  r 4 )
2
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
T .R
and for solid shaft ( s)=
4
.R
2
Therefore
(ii) =
n
R4
= 4
=
s
R r 4
1
1
=
= 1.15
4
1 0.64
r
1
R
TL
T .L
T .L
gives h =
and s =
GJ
G. (R 4 r 4 )
G. .R 4
2
2
Therefore
h
R4
= 4
=
s R r 4
1
1
=
= 1.15
4
1 0.64
r
1
R
Answer:
Two hollow shafts of same diameter are used to transmit same power. One
shaft is rotating at 1000 rpm while the other at 1200 rpm. What will be the
nature and magnitude of the stress on the surfaces of these shafts? Will it be
the same in two cases of different? Justify your answer.
We know power transmitted (P) = Torque (T) rotation speed ( )
And shear stress ( ) =
Therefore
P. D
T .R PR
2
=
=
N
2
J
J
( D 4 d 4 )
60 32
1
as P, D and d are constant.
N
So the shaft rotating at 1000 rpm will experience greater stress then 1200 rpm shaft.
Answer:
max
T + t
2
=
J
4
(d + 2t ) d 4 = d 3 t
32
4
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
d
2 = 2T
=
2
p 3
d t td
4
T
Given
d = 5 cm = 0.05 m
t max = 8 kN / cm 2 =
\ T=
&
t = 1cm = 0.1 m
8000N
= 80MPa = 80 106 N / m 2
 4
2
(10 )m
d 2t t max
0.052 0.01 80 106
=
= 3.142 kNm
2
2
Answer:
The ratio of inside to outside diameter of a hollow shaft is 0.6. If there is a solid shaft
with same torsional strength, what is the ratio of the outside diameter of hollow shaft
to the diameter of the equivalent solid shaft.
Let D = external diameter of hollow shaft
So d = 0.6D internal diameter of hollow shaft
And Ds=diameter of solid shaft
From torsion equation
T
t
=
J
R
tJ
or ,T =
= t
R
{D 4  (0.6D )4 }
32
for hollow shaft
(D / 2)
D4
32 s for solid shaft
Ds
2
D3s
D3
t
{1 (0.6)4 } = t
16
16
tJ
and T=
= J
R
or ,
D
=
Ds
1
= 1.072
1 (0.6)4
Answer:
D3t
4
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
T
TD
T.R TD
2T
2 72
18335
=
=
=
=
=
=
or, =
J R
J
t
2J
D 3 t
D 2t (0.050)2 t
2
4
P 9000
9000
57296
=
=
Direct stress (1 ) = =
A
t
dt
(0.050)t
d
My M 2 Md
=
=
Maximum bending stress ( 2 ) =
[J = 2I ]
I
I
J
1750 0.120 0.050 4 106952
=
=
(0.050)3 t
t
164248
Total longitudinal stress (b ) = 1 + 2 =
t
Maximum principal stress
164248
+
(1) = b + b + 2 =
2
2
2t
2
2
2
276 106
164248 18335
+
=
2t t
4
Answer:
A hollow shaft of diameter ratio 3/8 required to transmit 600 kW at 110 rpm,
the maximum torque being 20% greater than the mean. The shear stress is
not to exceed 63 MPa and the twist in a length of 3 m not to exceed 1.4
degrees. Determine the diameter of the shaft. Assume modulus of rigidity for
the shaft material as 84 GN/m2.
Let d = internal diameter of the hollow shaft
And D = external diameter of the hollow shaft
(given) d = 3/8 D = 0.375D
Power (P)= 600 kW, speed (N) =110 rpm, Shear stress( )= 63 MPa. Angle of twist (
)=1.4, Length ( A ) =3m , modulus of rigidity (G) = 84GPa
2N
60
3
60 P 60 (60010 )
or T=
=
= 52087Nm
2 110
2N
Tmax = 1.2T = 1.252087 =62504 Nm
We know that, (P) = T.
= T.
[T is average torque]
or J =
T
=
J R
T .R T .D
=
2
4
62504 D
4
D
(0.375
D
)
=
2 (63106 )
32
or D = 0.1727 m = 172.7 mm (i )
or
17 1.4
radian
180
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
T G
=
J
A
T G
=
J
A
or D 4 (0.375 D) 4 =
32
or
625043
1.5
(84109 )
180
so D=175.5 mm
Conventional Question ESE1997
Question:
Answer:
D 4 d 4 ) = d 4 (1.54 1)
(
32
32
T G
= =
J R
L
4
G.
d (1.54 1)
GJ
0.4Gd 4
32
=
=
or T =
L
L
L
We know that
The maximum normal stress and the maximum shear stress analysed for a
shaft of 150 mm diameter under combined bending and torsion, were found
to be 120 MN/m2 and 80 MN/m2 respectively. Find the bending moment and
torque to which the shaft is subjected.
If the maximum shear stress be limited to 100 MN/m2, find by how much the
torque can be increased if the bending moment is kept constant.
Answer:
Part 1:
M; T
We know that for combined bending and torsion, we have the following expressions:
16
(i)
M + M2 + T 2
d3
16
max = 3 M2 + T 2
and
( ii )
d
Substituting the given values in the above equations, we have
16
M + M2 + T 2 ( iii )
120 =
3
( 0.15 )
max =
80 =
or
16
( 0.15 )
M +T =
M2 + T 2 ( iv )
80 ( 0.15 )
16
= 0.053 ( v )
Chapter9
Torsion
Substituting this values in equation iii , we get
16
120
0.1503
S K Mondals
M 0.053
M 0.0265MNm
0.0265
or
T 2 0.053
T 0.0459MNm
[ max 100MN / m2 ]
Part II :
Increase in torque :
100 0.15 3
0.004391
or
0.0265
16
T 0.0607 MNm
The increased torque 0.0607 0.0459 0.0148MNm
2
Question: A solid shaft is to transmit 300 kW at 120 rpm. If the shear stress is not to exceed 100
Answer:
MPa, Find the diameter of the shaft, What percent saving in weight would be obtained
if this shaft were replaced by a hollow one whose internal diameter equals 0.6 of the
external diameter, the length, material and maximum allowable shear stress being the
same?
Given P= 300 kW, N = 120 rpm, t =100 MPa, d H = 0.6 DH
Diameter of solid shaft, Ds:
2NT
60 1000
T
t
We know that
=
J R
We know that P =
t .J
or, T=
R
or 300 =
100 106
or, 23873 =
2 120 T
or T=23873 Nm
60 1000
4
Ds
32
Ds
2
TH = Ts
Chapter9
Torsion
J
R
or ,
J
=
R
{D d }
= D s3
DH
4
H
4
H
or ,DH =
A g a in
Ds
3
(1 0 .6 )
4
S K Mondals
or ,
=
D H4 (0 .6 D H ) 4
= D s3
DH
1 0 6 .7
3
1 0 .6 4
= 1 1 1 .8 m m
A L g
A
WH
= H H H = H
As Ls s g
As
WS
(D H2 d H2 ) D H2 (1 0 .6 2 ) 1 1 1 .8 2
AH
4
1 0 .6 )2 = 0 .7 0 2
=
=
=
2
1 0 6 .7 (
2
As
D
s
D
4 s
W
P e rc e n ta g e s a v in g s in w e ig h t = 1  H 1 0 0
W
s
= (1 0 .7 0 2 ) 1 0 0 = 2 9 .8 %
s = qr
s qr
=
A A
Unit stress,
Circumferential strain, c =
qr
AE
w 2 r 2
Hoop's Tension, s =
g
s w 2 r
Radial loading, q = =
r
g
Hoop's stress,
= Angular velocity
s
w 2 2
=
. r
A Ag
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
3. General Formula
1
r1
Where
2
r2
p
t
1 =Meridional stress at A
2 =Circumferential / Hoop's stress
P = Intensity of internal gas pressure/ fluid pressure
t = Thickness of pressure vessel.
4. Some cases:
Cylindrical vessel
1 =
pr pD
=
2t
4t
max =
1 2
2
2 =
=
r1 , r2 = r
pr pD
=
4t
8t
Spherical vessel
pr pD
=
2t
4t
1 = 2 =
pr pD
=
t
2t
[r1 = r2 = r]
Conical vessel
1 =
py tan
[ r1 ]
2t cos
py tan
t cos
2 =
and
Volume
'V'
of
the
spherical
shell,
V=
Di3
1/3
6V
Di =
Notes:
Rectangular block,
1=Longitudinal strain =
1
E
2
E
pr
[1 2 ]
2 Et
pr
[1 2 ]
E
E 2 Et
V
pr
pD
Volumetric Strain,
[5 4] =
[5 4]
=1 +2 2 =
Vo
2 Et
4 Et
2 =Circumferential strain =
Spherical vessels
=1 =2 =
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
pr
[1 ]
2 Et
Page 312 of 431
Chapter10
V
3 pr
[1 ]
= 3 =
V0
2 Et
Thin Cylinder
t2 1
=
t1 2
7. Alternative method
Consider the equilibrium of forces in the zdirection acting on the part
cylinder shown in figure.
Force due to internal pressure p acting on area D2/4 = p. D2/4
Force due to longitudinal stress sL acting on area Dt = 1 Dt
Equating:
or
p. D2/4 = 1 Dt
1 =
pd pr
=
4t
2t
pD pr
=
2t
t
S K Mondals
Chapter10
S K Mondals
Thin Cylinder
GATE2.
GATE3.A thin walled spherical shell is subjected to an internal pressure. If the radius of the shell is
increased by 1% and the thickness is reduced by 1%, with the internal pressure remaining
the same, the percentage change in the circumferential (hoop) stress is
[GATE2012]
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 1.08
(d) 2.02
A thin walled cylindrical vessel of well thickness, t and diameter d is fitted with gas to a
gauge pressure of p. The maximum shear stress on the vessel wall will then be:[GATE1999]
(a)
pd
t
(b)
pd
2t
(c)
pd
4t
(d)
pd
8t
GATE5.
[GATE2008]
The axial and circumferential stress ( a , c ) experienced by the cylinder wall at middepth (1 m as shown) are
(a) (10,10) MPa
(b) (5,10) MPa
GATE6.
(d) (5,5)MPa
If the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the container material are 100 GPa and
0.3, respectively, the axial strain in the cylinder wall at middepth is:
(a) 2 105
(b) 6 105
(c) 7 105
(d) 1.2 105
Chapter10
S K Mondals
Thin Cylinder
[IES2002]
du
dr
(b)
1 du
.
r dr
(c)
u
r
(d)
2u
r
IES3.
A thin cylindrical shell is subjected to internal pressure p. The Poisson's ratio of the
material of the shell is 0.3. Due to internal pressure, the shell is subjected to
circumferential strain and axial strain. The ratio of circumferential strain to axial strain
is:
[IES2001]
(a) 0.425
(b) 2.25
(c) 0.225
(d) 4.25
IES4.
IES5.
m2
2m 1
[IES2004]
(b)
m2
2m 1
(c)
2m 1
m2
(d)
2m 2
m 1
When a thin cylinder of diameter 'd' and thickness 't' is pressurized with an internal
pressure of 'p', (1/m = is the Poisson's ratio and E is the modulus of elasticity), then[IES1998]
pd 1 1
2tE 2 m
(a)
(b)
pd
1
1
2tE 2m
(c)
pd
2t
(d)
m2
2m 1
IES6.
A thin cylinder contains fluid at a pressure of 500 N/m 2, the internal diameter of the
shell is 0.6 m and the tensile stress in the material is to be limited to 9000 N/m 2. The
shell must have a minimum wall thickness of nearly
(a) 9 mm
(b) 11 mm
(c) 17 mm
[IES2000]
(d) 21 mm
Chapter10
IES7.
S K Mondals
Thin Cylinder
IES8.
A thin cylinder with both ends closed is subjected to internal pressure p. The
longitudinal stress at the surface has been calculated as o. Maximum shear stress at the
surface will be equal to:
[IES1999]
a 2 o
b 1.5 o
c o
d 0.5 o
IES9.
IES10.
IES11.
A penstock pipe of 10m diameter carries water under a pressure head of 100 m. If the
wall thickness is 9 mm, what is the tensile stress in the pipe wall in MPa?
[IES2009]
(a) 2725
(b) 5450
(c) 2725
(d) 1090
IES12.
A water main of 1 m diameter contains water at a pressure head of 100 metres. The
permissible tensile stress in the material of the water main is 25 MPa. What is the
2
minimum thickness of the water main? (Take g = 10 m/ s ).
[IES2009]
(a) 10 mm
(b) 20mm
(c) 50 mm
(d) 60 mm
IES12(i). A seamless pipe of diameter d m is to carry fluid under a pressure of p kN/cm 2. The
necessary thickness t of metal in cm, if the maximum stress is not to exceed kN/cm 2, is
[IES2012]
( )
( )
( )
( )
Longitudinal stress
IES13.
Hoop stress and longitudinal stress in a boiler shell under internal pressure are 100
MN/m2 and 50 MN/m2 respectively. Young's modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of
the shell material are 200 GN/m2 and 0.3 respectively. The hoop strain in boiler shell is:[IES1995]
3
3
3
3
(a) 0.425 10
(b) 0.5 10
(c) 0.585 10
(d) 0.75 10
IES14.
In strain gauge dynamometers, the use of how many active gauge makes the
dynamometer more effective?
[IES 2007]
(a) Four
(b) Three
(c) Two
(d) One
Chapter10
S K Mondals
Thin Cylinder
Volumetric strain
IES15.
(a) 1 2 2
IES16.
(b) 1 22
(c) 21 2
(d) 12 2
pd
pd
. 3 2 (b)
. 4 3
2tE
3tE
(c)
pd
. 5 4
4tE
(d)
pd
. 4 5
4tE
Spherical Vessel
IES17.
For the same internal diameter, wall thickness, material and internal pressure, the ratio
of maximum stress, induced in a thin cylindrical and in a thin spherical pressure vessel
will be:
[IES2001]
(a) 2
(b) 1/2
(c) 4
(d) 1/4
IES18.
From design point of view, spherical pressure vessels are preferred over cylindrical
pressure vessels because they
[IES1997]
(a) Are cost effective in fabrication
(b) Have uniform higher circumferential stress
(c)
Uniform lower circumferential stress
(d) Have a larger volume for the same quantity of material used
IAS2.
A thin walled water pipe carries water under a pressure of 2 N/mm 2 and discharges
water into a tank. Diameter of the pipe is 25 mm and thickness is 25 mm. What is the
longitudinal stress induced in the pipe?
[IAS2007]
2
2
(a) 0
(b) 2 N/mm
(c) 5 N/mm
(d) 10 N/mm2
IAS3.
A thin cylindrical shell of mean diameter 750 mm and wall thickness 10 mm has its ends
rigidly closed by flat steel plates. The shell is subjected to internal fluid pressure of 10
N/mm2 and an axial external pressure P1. If the longitudinal stress in the shell is to be
zero, what should be the approximate value of P1?
[IAS2007]
(a) 8 N/mm2
(b) 9 N/mm2
(c) 10 N/mm2
(d) 12 N/mm2
IAS4.
Assertion (A): A thin cylindrical shell is subjected to internal fluid pressure that induces
a 2D stress state in the material along the longitudinal and circumferential directions.[IAS2000]
Reason(R): The circumferential stress in the thin cylindrical shell is two times the
magnitude of longitudinal stress.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
Chapter10
(d)
IAS5.
S K Mondals
Thin Cylinder
A is false but R is true
Match ListI (Terms used in thin cylinder stress analysis) with ListII (Mathematical
expressions) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:[IAS1998]
ListI
ListII
A. Hoop stress
1. pd/4t
B. Maximum shear stress
2. pd/2t
C. Longitudinal stress
3. pd/2
D. Cylinder thickness
4. pd/8t
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 2
3
1
4
(b)
2
3
4
1
(c)
2
4
3
1
(d)
2
4
1
3
Longitudinal stress
IAS6.
Assertion (A): For a thin cylinder under internal pressure, At least three strain gauges
is needed to know the stress state completely at any point on the shell.
Reason (R): If the principal stresses directions are not know, the minimum number of
strain gauges needed is three in a biaxial field.
[IAS2001]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Volumetric strain
IAS8.
(a) 1 2 2
IAS9.
(b)
(c) 21 2
2
1 2
(d) 12 2
pd
pd
. 3 2 (b)
. 4 3
2tE
3tE
pd
. 5 4
4tE
(d)
pd
. 4 5
4tE
A thin cylinder of diameter d and thickness 't' is subjected to an internal pressure 'p' the
change in diameter is (where E is the modulus of elasticity and is the Poisson's ratio)[IAS1998]
(a)
pd 2
(2 )
4tE
(b)
pd 2
(1 )
2tE
(c)
pd 2
(2 )
tE
(d)
pd 2
(2 )
4tE
Chapter10
IAS11.
S K Mondals
Thin Cylinder
The percentage change in volume of a thin cylinder under internal pressure having hoop
stress = 200 MPa, E = 200 GPa and Poisson's ratio = 025 is:
[IAS2002]
(a) 0.40
IAS12.
(b) 030
(c) 025
(d) 020
A round bar of length l, elastic modulus E and Poisson's ratio is subjected to an axial
pull 'P'. What would be the change in volume of the bar?
(a)
IAS13.
Pl
(1 2 ) E
(b)
Pl (1 2 )
E
(c)
[IAS2007]
Pl
E
(d)
Pl
E
cm3
(b) 0.25
cm3
(c) 0.20
cm3
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (b) Inner radius (r) = 500 mm
Thickness (t) = 10 mm
Internal pressure (p) = 5 MPa
pr 5 10 6 500
Hoop stress, c
Pa 250 Mpa
t
10
pr 1 250
GATE2. Ans. (a) Circumferential or Hoop stress c
50MPa
t
5
pr
Longitudinal stress l
25MPa
2t
ec
c
E
50 106
25 106
0.2
2.25 104
9
200 10
200 109
l pd
pd
pd
, l
, Maximum shear stress c
2t
4t
2
8t
GATE5. Ans. (a) Pressure (P) = h g = 1 1000 10 = 10 kPa
GATE4. Ans. (d) c
gRL
1000 10 1 1
10 MPa
t
1 10 3
PR
10 1
Circumferential Stress( c )=
10 MPa
t
1 10 3
or a
a
E
c
E
10
10
0.3
7 105
3
3
100 10
100 10
IES
IES1. Ans. (a)
IES2. Ans. (c)
IES3. Ans. (d) Circumferential strain, ec
c
E
pr
2
2Et
[IAS2000]
(d) 0.75 cm3
Chapter10
S K Mondals
Thin Cylinder
pr
Longitudinal strain, el
c
1 2
E
E 2Et
Pr
2t
Pr
t
1 1
m2
2 m
1
2m 1
1
2m
hoop stress c
l 1 c
E m E
c c 1 l
E mE
1
1
c l 2 l m 2
m
m
=
2m 1
1
1
c l 2 l l
m
m
pr
Circumferential strain, ec c l
2
Longitudinal strain, el
c
E
2Et
pr
1 2
2Et
2 o o o
2
2
pd
10 100
1000
or 200
or t
2.5 cm
2t
2t
400
1
IES10. Ans. (a) Circumferential strain =
1 2
E
Since circumferential stress 1 80 MPa and longitudinal stress 2 40 MPa
IES9. Ans. (d) Hoop stress
Circumferential strain
1
80 0.28 40 106 3.44 x104
5
6
2 10 10
IES11. Ans. (b) Tensile stress in the pipe wall = Circumferential stress in pipe wall =
Where,
P gH 980000N / m2
Pd
2t
980000 10
544.44 106 N / m2 544.44MN / m2 544.44MPa
2 9 103
6
2
IES12. Ans. (b) Pressure in the main gh 1000 10 1000 = 10 N / mm 1000 KPa
Pd
Hoop stress c
2t
106 1
Pd
1
m 20 mm
6
2c
50
2 25 10
Tensile stress
1
1
h l
100 0.3 50 0.425 103
E
200 1000
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
IAS
IAS1. Ans. (c)
IAS2. Ans. (c)
Pr 2 12.5
5 N/mm2
2t 2 2.5
7502
10
IAS3. Ans. (c) Tensile longitudinal stress due to internal fluid pressure ( 1) t =
750 10
tensile. Compressive longitudinal stress due to external pressure p 1 (
l)c =
750
P1
2t
4t
2
8t
IAS8. Ans. (c) Volumetric stream = 2 x circumferential strain + longitudinal strain.
IAS9. Ans. (c) Remember it.
IAS10. Ans. (a)
IAS11. Ans. (d) Hoop stress t
Pr
200 106 Pa
t
Pr
5 4 t 5 4
2 Et
2E
6
200 10
2
5 4 0.25
9
2 200 10
1000
P
,
A
or x
x
E
y 0 and z 0
, y
and z
x
E
x
E
or v x y z
1 2
E
Pl
V v V v . Al 1 2
E
P
1 2
AE
Chapter10
S K Mondals
Thin Cylinder
Volumetric strain( v )
or ( V ) v V
Volume change(V)
Initial volume(V)
1
25 10 5 0.25cm3
5000
Answer:
pd 10 106 0.1
50 106 N / m2 50MN / m2
4t
4 0.005
Circumferential stress, c y
pd 10 106 0.1
100MN / m2
2 0.005
2t
T
, we have
J R
2000 0.05 0.005
TR
T R
xy
24.14MN / m2
J
4
4
4
4
D d
0.11 0.1
32
32
1,2
x y
2
2
x y
xy
2
2
50 100
2
50 100
24.14
2
2
A thin cylindrical pressure vessel of inside radius r and thickness of metal t is subject
to an internal fluid pressure p. What are the values of
(i) Maximum normal stress?
(ii) Maximum shear stress?
Answer:
p.r
t
p.r
2t
max)
sc  sl
p.r
=
2
4t
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
A thin cylindrical vessel of internal diameter d and thickness t is closed at both ends is
subjected to an internal pressure P. How much would be the hoop and longitudinal
stress in the material?
Answer:
Pd
2t
Pd
4t
Therefore c = 2 l
Ans.
pd
2t
Longitudinal stresses, 2
1 2
2
pd
8t
pd
4t
Shear stress =
1.5 10 6 1
3
0.75 10 8
2 10 10
75 MPa
1.5 10 6 1
4 10 10 3
37.5 10 6
37.5 MP a
1 Ho o p s tra in
1
v 2
E 1
Pd
2 v
4tE
1.5 10 6 1
4 10 10 3 200 10 9
37.5 10 6
200 10 9
2 0.3
2 0.3
0.31875 10 3
d
0.3187 10 3
d
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
Chapter10
S K Mondals
Thin Cylinder
c h an ge in diam e te r,
d = 1 0.31875 10 3 m
= 0.31875 m m
Lo g itu d in a l s tra in , 2
2
pd
1 2v
4tE
37.5 10 6
200 10 9
1 2 0.3
7.5 10 5
l
7.5 10 5
l
o r l 7.5 10 5 3
2.25 10 4 m 0.225m m
Change in length = 0.225 mm and maximum shear stress,
p d 1.5 10 6 1
8t
8 10 10 3
18.75 MP a
A thin cylinder with closed ends has an internal diameter of 50 mm and a wall
thickness of 2.5 mm. It is subjected to an axial pull of 10 kN and a torque of 500 Nm
while under an internal pressure of 6 MN/m2
(i) Determine the principal stresses in the tube and the maximum shear stress.
(ii) Represent the stress configuration on a square element taken in the load direction
with direction and magnitude indicated; (schematic).
Answer:
pd
P
6 106 0.05
10 103
pd 6 106 0.05
60 106
3
2t 2 2.5 10
x y
x y
2
xy
2
2
T
Us e Torsional equation,
J R
1,2
where J
D
32
d4
4
4
0.055 0.05 2.848 10 7 m4
32
Chapter10
S K Mondals
Thin Cylinder
500
2.848 10 7 0.055 / 2
or
500 0.055 / 2
2.848 10 7
48.28 106 N / m2
1,2
6
48.28 10
1 2
2
106.08 9.42
48.33MN / m2
2
2. General Expression
of thick cylinders.
4. Strain
du
.
dr
Radial strain, r =
Axial strain,
z =
u
r
r + t
E
E E
Page 326 of 431
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
5. Stress
pi ri 2
Axial stress, z = 2
r0 ri 2
Radial stress,
r = A
B
r2
t = A +
B
r2
[Note: Radial stress always compressive so its magnitude always ive. But in some books they
assume that compressive radial stress is positive and they use,
r =
6. Boundary Conditions
p r2 p r2
7. A = i i 2 2o o
ro ri
and
At
r = ri ,
At
r = ro
r = pi
r = po
ri 2 ro2
B = ( pi po ) 2 2
(ro ri )
pi ri 2
z = 2 2
r0 ri
r =
pi ri 2 r02
1
r02 ri 2 r 2
t = +
pi ri 2
r02 ri 2
i.e. po = 0
r02
2 + 1
r
(i ) r = ri
(ii ) r = pi
pi (ro2 + ri 2 )
(iii ) t = +
ro2 ri 2
(iv) max =
ro2
. pi
ro2 ri 2
B
A]
r2
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
(i ) r = ro
(ii ) r = 0
2pi ri2
(iii ) t = 2 2
ro ri
(c) Radial and circumferential stress distribution within the cylinder wall when only
internal pressure acts.
ri 2
i 2
r
r =
po ro2 ri 2
t = 2 2 i + 2
ro ri r
r = ri
(ii)
r = o
(iii)
t =
2 po ro2
ro2 ri 2
r = ro
(ii)
r = po
(iii)
po (ro2 + ri 2 )
t = 2 2
ro ri
(c) Distribution of radial and circumferential stresses within the cylinder wall when
only external pressure acts
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
When the material of the cylinder is brittle, such as cast iron or cast steel, Lame's Equation is used to
determine the wall thickness. Condition of cylinder ends may open or closed.
It is based on maximum principal stress theory of failure.
There principal stresses at the inner surface of the cylinder are as follows: (i) (ii) & (iii)
(i ) r = pi
(ii ) t = +
pi (r02 + ri 2 )
r02 ri 2
pi ri 2
(iii ) z = + 2 2
ro ri
t >z >r
For ro = ri + t
ro
t + pi
=
ri
t pi
+p
i
1 ( Lame ' s Equation)
t = ri t
t pi
t =
ult
fos
11. Clavarino's Equation [for cylinders with closed end & made of ductile material]
When the material of a cylinder is ductile, such as mild steel or alloy steel, maximum strain theory
of failure is used (St. Venant's theory) is used.
Three principal stresses at the inner surface of the cylinder are as follows (i) (ii) & (iii)
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
(i ) r = pi
(ii ) t = +
pi (ro2 + ri 2 )
(ro2 ri 2 )
(iii ) z = +
pi ri 2
(ro2 ri 2 )
1
t ( r + z )
t =
t =
Or
= t ( r + z ). Where =
yld / fos
E
yld
fos
ro
+ (1 2 ) pi
=
(1 + ) pi
ri
For ro = ri + t
+ (1 2 ) pi
t = ri
1
(1 + ) pi
( Clavarion's Equation )
12. Birne's Equation [for cylinders with open end & made of ductile material]
When the material of a cylinder is ductile, such as mild steel or alloy steel, maximum strain theory
of failure is used (St. Venant's theory) is used.
Three principal stresses at the inner surface of the cylinder are as follows (i) (ii) & (iii)
(i ) r = pi
pi (ro2 + ri 2 )
(ii ) t = +
(ro2 ri 2 )
(iii ) z = 0
= t r
where =
yld
fos
ro
+ (1 ) pi
=
(1 + ) pi
ri
For ro = ri + t
+ (1 ) pi
t = ri
1
(1 + ) pi
(Birnie's Equation)
13. Barlows equation: [for high pressure gas pipe brittle or ductile material]
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
t = ro
Where t =
y
fos
ult
fos
pi
S K Mondals
[GAIL exam 2004]
When two cylindrical parts are assembled by shrinking or pressfitting, a contact pressure is
created between the two parts. If the radii of the inner cylinder are a and c and that of the
outer cylinder are (c ) and b, being the radial interference the contact pressure is given
by:
2
2
2
2
E (b c ) (c a )
P=
The inner diameter of the jacket is slightly smaller than the outer diameter of cylinder
When the jacket is heated, it expands sufficiently to move over the cylinder
As the jacket cools, it tends to contract onto the inner cylinder, which induces residual
compressive stress.
There is a shrinkage pressure 'P' between the cylinder and the jacket.
The pressure 'P' tends to contract the cylinder and expand the jacket
The shrinkage pressure 'P' can be evaluated from the above equation for a given amount of
interference
The resultant stresses in a compound cylinder are found by supervision losing the 2 stresses
Derivation:
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
j = tangential strain
Now j = j c
=
S K Mondals
1
[ t r ] c
E
cP b 2 + c 2
+ ( i )
2
2
E b c
=
t =circumferential stress
p(b2 +c 2 )
+
2
2
b
c
(
)
2
2
t = p(c + a )
(c 2 a2 )
r = p
1
[ t r ]c
E
cP c 2 + a 2
 (ii )
E c 2 a 2
Adding ( i ) & ( ii )
= j + c =
Pc
E
2c 2 ( b 2 a 2 )
2
(b c 2 )(c 2 a 2 )
or P =
E (b 2 c 2 )(c 2 a 2 )
c 2c 2 (b 2 a 2 )
15. Autofrettage
Autofrettage is a process of prestressing the cylinder before using it in operation.
We know that when the cylinder is subjected to internal pressure, the circumferential stress at the
inner surface limits the pressure carrying capacity of the cylinder.
In autofrettage prestressing develops a residual compressive stresses at the inner surface. When
the cylinder is actually loaded in operation, the residual compressive stresses at the inner surface
begin to decrease, become zero and finally become tensile as the pressure is gradually increased.
Thus autofrettage increases the pressure carrying capacity of the cylinder.
R02 Ri2
2
r =
( 3 + ) R0 + Ri 2 r 2
8
r
t =
2
8
( 3 + ) R02 + Ri2 +
R02 Ri2 1 + 3 2
.r
r2
3+
= Angular speed
= Poisson's ratio.
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
Radial stress,
1 2
3+
2 2
t =
Ri
. . R0 +
3
+
4
3+
2
2
2
r =
. R0 Ri
8
S K Mondals
Chapter11
S K Mondals
Thick Cylinder
A thick cylinder is subjected to an internal pressure of 60 MPa. If the hoop stress on the
outer surface is 150 MPa, then the hoop stress on the internal surface is:[GATE1996; IES2001]
(a) 105 MPa
(b) 180 MPa
(c) 210 MPa
(d) 135 MPa
If a thick cylindrical shell is subjected to internal pressure, then hoop stress, radial
stress and longitudinal stress at a point in the thickness will be:
(a) Tensile, compressive and compressive respectively
[IES1999]
(b) All compressive
(c)
All tensile
(d) Tensile, compressive and tensile respectively
IES2.
Where does the maximum hoop stress in a thick cylinder under external pressure occur?[IES2008]
(a) At the outer surface
(b) At the inner surface
(c) At the midthickness
(d) At the 2/3rd outer radius
IES3.
IES4.
Where does the maximum hoop stress in a thick cylinder under external pressure occur?[IES2008]
(a) At the outer surface
(b) At the inner surface
(c) At the midthickness
(d) At the 2/3rd outer radius
IES5.
IES6.
In a thick cylinder, subjected to internal and external pressures, let r 1 and r2 be the
internal and external radii respectively. Let u be the radial displacement of a material
element at radius r, r2 r r1 . Identifying the cylinder axis as z axis, the radial strain
component
rr is:
(a) u/r
[IES1996]
(b)
u /
(c) du/dr
(d) du/d
Lame's theory
IES7.
A thick cylinder is subjected to an internal pressure of 60 MPa. If the hoop stress on the
outer surface is 150 MPa, then the hoop stress on the internal surface is:[GATE1996; IES2001]
(a) 105 MPa
(b) 180 MPa
(c) 210 MPa
(d) 135 MPa
IES8.
[IES2005]
Chapter11
S K Mondals
Thick Cylinder
1.
Radial stress at inner radius is always zero.
2.
Radial stress at outer radius is always zero.
3.
The tangential stress is always higher than other stresses.
4.
The tangential stress is always lower than other stresses.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 3
(b) 1 and 4
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 2 and 4
IES9.
A thick cylinder of internal radius and external radius a and b is subjected to internal
pressure p as well as external pressure p. Which one of the following statements is
correct?
[IES2004]
The magnitude of circumferential stress developed is:
(a) Maximum at radius r = a
(b) Maximum at radius r = b
(c) Maximum at radius r =
ab
(d) Constant
IES11.
IES12.
Consider the following statements at given point in the case of thick cylinder subjected to
fluid pressure:
[IES2006]
1.
Radial stress is compressive
2.
Hoop stress is tensile
3.
Hoop stress is compressive
4.
Longitudinal stress is tensile and it varies along the length
5.
Longitudinal stress is tensile and remains constant along the length of the cylinder
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) Only 1, 2 and 4
(b) Only 3 and 4
(c) Only 1,2 and 5
(d) Only 1,3 and 5
IES13.
(b)
2
p
3
(c)
5
p
3
(d) 2p
IES15.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given below the
Lists:
[IES2004]
Chapter11
S K Mondals
Thick Cylinder
ListI ListII
A. Wire winding
B. Lame's theory
C. Solid sphere subjected to uniform
pressure on the surface
D. Autofrettage
Coeds:
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
2
1
3
(c)
2
4
3
1
1. Hydrostatic stress
2. Strengthening of thin cylindrical shell
3. Strengthening of thick cylindrical shell
4. Thick cylinders
A
B
(b)
4
2
(d)
2
4
C
3
1
D
1
3
IES16.
If the total radial interference between two cylinders forming a compound cylinder is
and Young's modulus of the materials of the cylinders is E, then the interface pressure
developed at the interface between two cylinders of the same material and same length
is:
[IES2005]
(a) Directly proportional of E x
(b) Inversely proportional of E/
(c) Directly proportional of E/
(d) Inversely proportional of E /
IES17.
A compound cylinder with inner radius 5 cm and outer radius 7 cm is made by shrinking
one cylinder on to the other cylinder. The junction radius is 6 cm and the junction
pressure is 11 kgf/cm2. The maximum hoop stress developed in the inner cylinder is:[IES1994]
(a) 36 kgf/cm2 compression
(b) 36 kgf/cm2 tension
(c) 72 kgf/cm2 compression
(d) 72 kgf/cm2 tension.
The hemispherical end of a pressure vessel is fastened to the cylindrical portion of the
pressure vessel with the help of gasket, bolts and lock nuts. The bolts are subjected to:[IES2003]
(a) Tensile stress
(b) Compressive stress
(c) Shear stress
(d) Bearing stress
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (c) If internal pressure = pi; External pressure = zero
Chapter11
S K Mondals
Thick Cylinder
piri2 ro2
1
2 2
r ri r
150 60
ri2
ro2 ri2
2
o
ro2
ri2
120
2
ro2 ri2
ro
or
ri2
150 5
2
2
120 4
ro ri
r
9
or o
5
ri
at r ri
ro2
5 9
2 1 60 1 210 MPa
4 5
r
i
IES1. Ans. (d) Hoop stress tensile, radial stress compressive and longitudinal stress tensile.
c 60
ri2
ro2 ri2
Chapter11
S K Mondals
Thick Cylinder
u r
1
sin ce z 0
r v
r
E
r u r r u r 1 v
r
r
r
E
Representation
of
circumferential strain.
IES7. Ans. (c) If internal pressure = pi; External pressure = zero
p r2 r2
Circumferential or hoop stress (c) = 2 i i 2 o2 1
ro ri r
150 60
ri2
ro2 ri2
ro2
ri2
120
2
ro2 ri2
ro
or
radial
and
r
9
or o
r
5
i
ri2
150 5
at r ri
c 60
ri2 ro2
5 9
1 60 1 210 MPa
2 2
4 5
r ri ri
2
o
c A
B
r2
c P
A
B
P
ro2 ri2
b2 a2
Pi Po ro2ri2
ro2 ri2
hoop
IES14. Ans. (c)
IES15. Ans. (d)
IES16. Ans. (a)
d
d2
2
2
r r
2 5 p
p 22 12 p
2
r2 r1
3
d
2
d
2
E D32 D22 D22 D12
P E.
Alternatively : if E then P
and if then P so P E
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
Distribution of radial and circumferential stresses within the cylinder wall when only
external pressure acts.
The pressure within the cylinder of a hydraulic press is 9 MPa. The inside diameter of
the cylinder is 25 mm. Determine the thickness of the cylinder wall, if the permissible
tensile stress is 18 N/mm2
Given: P = 9 MPa = 9 N/mm2, Inside radius, r1 = 12.5 mm;
t = 18 N/mm2
Thickness of the cylinder:
r2 r2
Usin g the equation; t p 22 12 , we have
r2 r1
r 2 12.52
18 9 22
2
r2 12.5
or
r2 21.65mm
Thickness of the cylinder r2 r1 21.65 12.5 9.15mm
Chapter11
Q.
S K Mondals
Thick Cylinder
r a
Ans.
2b
b
a n d 0 a 3 .
3
r
r
[10 Marks]
2b
r3
b
Circumference stress = a 3
r
Assume radial stress = r a
30N / m m 2
80N / m m 2
2b
(75)3
b
80 a
(75)3
30 a
..............(i)
.................(ii)
2b
R3
2b 2 110 75 3
R3
713 942.3077
130
a
3
3
R 89.376m m
oa
Answer:
r1 150mm; p r 80MPa 80 10 6 N / m2 ;
1
0.30;
m
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
r2
Where K
r1
K 2 1
We know that, r 2
K 1
K 2 1
6
80 10 6 2
300 10
K 1
K 1.314
or
or
or
K 1.314
i.e.
r2
1.314 or r2 r1 1.314 150 1.314 197.1mm
r1
(ii)
Use y2
2
2 r2 K 4 1 1
or
300 10
1
2
2 80 106
K 4 1 03 1 0.3
0.7
2
What is the difference in the analysis of think tubes compared to that for thin tubes?
State the basic equations describing stress distribution in a thick tube.
The difference in the analysis of stresses in thin and thick cylinder:
(i) In thin cylinder, it is assumed that the tangential stress is uniformly distributed
over the cylinder wall thickness. In thick cylinder, the tangential stress has highest
magnitude at the inner surface of the cylinder and gradually decreases towards the
outer surface.
(ii) The radial stress is neglected in thin cylinders, while it is of significant magnitude
in case of thick cylinders.
Basic equation for describing stress distribution in thick tube is Lame's equation.
sr =
B
B
 A and s t = 2 + A
2
r
r
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
Answer:
Where E is the Young's modulus of the material, Can you outline the steps
involved in developing this important design equation?
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
j = tangential strain
Now j = j c
=
S K Mondals
1
[ t r ] c
E
cP b 2 + c 2
+ ( i )
2
2
E b c
t =circumferential stress
p(b2 +c 2 )
+
2
2
b
c
(
)
2
2
t = p(c + a )
(c 2 a2 )
r = p
1
[ t r ] c
E
cP c 2 + a 2
 (ii ) Here ive signrepresents contraction
E c 2 a 2
Adding (i ) & (ii )
Pc 2c 2 (b 2 a 2 )
= j + c =
E (b 2 c 2 )(c 2 a 2 )
E (b 2 c 2 )(c 2 a 2 )
or P =
Proved.
c 2c 2 (b 2 a 2 )
=
/o C
Answer:
There is a shrinkage pressure P between the steel rod and the bronze casing. The
pressure P tends to contract the steel rod and expand the bronze casing.
(i) Consider Bronze casing, According to Lames theory
t =
B
+A
r2
Where A =
and B =
Piri 2 P0 r02
r02 ri 2
(Pi P0 )r02 ri 2
r02 ri 2
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
Pi = P, P0 = 0 and
A=
Pr02 ri 2
Pri2
2Pri2
,
B=
=
r02 ri 2
r02 ri 2 r02 ri 2
30 =
Pri2
Pri2
2Pri2
B
+
A
=
+
=
ro2
r02 ri 2
r02 ri 2
r02 ri 2
90 2
r 2
30(r02 ri 2 )
0
1 MPa=33.6MPa
or , P=
15
1
15
=
50
r 2
2ri 2
i
Therefore the radial pressure between the rod and the casing is P= 33.6 MPa.
(ii) The shrinkage allowance:
Let j = increase in inert diameter of bronze casing
C= decrease in outer diameter of steel rod
1st consider bronze casing:
B
+A
ri 2
90 2
+ 1
Pr 2
P (r02 + r12 )
Pr 2
50
= 63.6MPa
=
= 2 0 2+ 2 i 2=
33.6
2
r0 ri
r0 ri
(r02 ri 2 )
90 1
50
1
(t ) j (r ) j
E
1
[63.6 + 0.3 33.6] =7.36810 4
1105
j = (t ) j d i = 7.368 104 0.050 = 0.03684 mm
=
Circumferential stress ( t )s = P
and radial stress (r )s = P
c = (t )s d i =
=
1
(t )S (r )s d i
Es
Pd i
33.6 0.050
(1 ) =
[1 0.3 ] = 0.00588mm [reduction]
Es
2 105
Chapter11
S K Mondals
Thick Cylinder
1
0.33
m
b
a
r2
At r 0.1m, 2 p 150MN / m2
r 0.4m, 2 0
Substituting the values in the above equation we have
150
0
0.1
i
ii
0.4
From i and ii , we get
2
a 10 and b 1.6
b
a
r2
1.6
10 170MN / m2 tensile , and
2
0.1
1.6
c min ,at r r2 0.4m 2 10 20MN / m2 tensile .
0.4
Pr incipal stresses are 170 MN / m2 and 20MN / m2
c max ,at r r1 0.1m
c max c min
2
170 20
75MN / m2
2
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
or
0.003
d1
0.1
d1 0.003 0.1 0.003m or 0.3 mm
12. Spring
Theory at a Glance (for IES, GATE, PSU)
1. A spring is a mechanical device which is used for the efficient storage
and release of energy.
2. Helical spring stress equation
Let us a closecoiled helical spring has coil diameter D, wire diameter d and number of turn n. The
spring material has a shearing modulus G. The spring index, C =
D
. If a force P is exerted in both
d
ends as shown.
The work done by the axial
force 'P' is converted into
strain energy and stored in
the spring.
U=(average torque)
(angular displacement)
T
=
2
From the figure we get, =
Torque (T)=
TL
GJ
PD
2
d 4
32
4P 2D 3 n
Gd 4
Therefore =
4 p 2 D3n 8PD3n
U
=
=
Gd 4
P P Gd 4
Axial deflection =
8 PD 3 n
Gd 4
(k ) =
P Gd 4
=
8D3n
Page 347 of 431
Chapter12
Spring
16T 16 ( PD / 2 ) 8PD
The torsional shear stress in the bar, 1 =
=
=
d3
d3
d3
The direct shear stress in the bar, 2 =
4
2
= Ks
Where K s = 1 +
4P
d2
S K Mondals
8PD 0.5d
d 3 D
8PD
0.5d
8PD
1+
= Ks
3
D
d
d3
8PD
d3
0.5d
is correction factor for direct shear stress.
D
8PD
d3
4C 1 0.615
+
is known as Wahls stress correction factor
C
4C 4
Where K =
Here K = KsKc; Where K s is correction factor for direct shear stress and Kc is correction
factor for stress concentration due to curvature.
Note: When the spring is subjected to a static force, the effect of stress concentration is neglected
due to localized yielding. So we will use, = K s
8PD
d3
1
1
1
=
+
K eq K1 K 2
or K eq =
Spring in Parallel ( e = 1 = 2 )
K eq = K1 + K 2
K1 K 2
K1 + K 2
Shaft in Parallel ( eq = 1 = 2 )
Shaft in series ( = 1 + 2 )
Chapter12
1
1
1
=
+
K eq K1 K 2
Spring
or K eq =
S K Mondals
K eq = K1 + K 2
K1 K 2
K1 + K 2
5. Important note
If a spring is cut into n equal lengths then spring constant of each new spring = nk
When a closed coiled spring is subjected to an axial couple M then the rotation,
64 MDnc
Ed 4
3PL3
Central deflection, =
8Enbt 3
3PL
2nbt 2
7. Belleville Springs
Load, P =
4 E
(1 2 ) k f D02
3
(h ) h 2 t + t
Do
= Linear deflection
=Poissons Ratio
kf =factor for Belleville spring
Do = outside diamerer
h = Deflection required to flatten Belleville spring
t = thickness
P
t
Note:
ho
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
If the wire diameter of a closed coil helical spring subjected to compressive load is
increased from 1 cm to 2 cm, other parameters remaining same, then deflection will
decrease by a factor of:
[GATE2002]
(a) 16
(b) 8
(c) 4
(d) 2
GATE2.
GATE3.
Two helical tensile springs of the same material and also having identical mean coil
diameter and weight, have wire diameters d and d/2. The ratio of their stiffness is:[GATE2001]
(a) 1
(b) 4
(c) 64
(d) 128
GATE4.
[GATE2004]
GATE5.
A weighing machine consists of a 2 kg pan resting on spring. In this condition, with the
pan resting on the spring, the length of the spring is 200 mm. When a mass of 20 kg is
placed on the pan, the length of the spring becomes 100 mm. For the spring, the undeformed length lo and the spring constant k (stiffness) are:
[GATE2005]
(a) lo = 220 mm, k = 1862 N/m
(b) lo = 210 mm, k = 1960 N/m
(c) lo = 200 mm, k = 1960 N/m
(d) lo = 200 mm, k = 2156 N/m
Springs in Series
GATE6.
The deflection of a spring with 20 active turns under a load of 1000 N is 10 mm. The
spring is made into two pieces each of 10 active coils and placed in parallel under the
same load. The deflection of this system is:
[GATE1995]
(a) 20 mm
(b) 10 mm
(c) 5 mm
(d) 2.5 mm
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
A helical coil spring with wire diameter d and coil diameter 'D' is subjected to external
load. A constant ratio of d and D has to be maintained, such that the extension of spring
is independent of d and D. What is this ratio?
[IES2008]
4/3
4/3
D
d
(a)D3 / d4
(b)d3 / D4
(c) 3
(d) 3
d
D
IES1(i).
If both the mean coil diameter and wire diameter of a helical compression or tension
spring be doubled, then the deflection of the spring close coiled under same applied load
will
[IES2012]
(a) be doubled
(b) be halved
(c) increase four times
(d) get reduced to one fourth
IES2.
Assertion (A): Concentric cylindrical helical springs are used to have greater spring force
in a limited space.
[IES2006]
Reason (R): Concentric helical springs are wound in opposite directions to prevent
locking of coils under heavy dynamic loading.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES3.
Assertion (A): Two concentric helical springs used to provide greater spring force are
wound in opposite directions.
[IES1995; IAS2004]
Reason (R): The winding in opposite directions in the case of helical springs prevents
buckling.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES4.
IES5.
IES6.
IES7.
A closelycoiled helical spring is acted upon by an axial force. The maximum shear stress
developed in the spring is t . Half of the length of the spring is cut off and the remaining
spring is acted upon by the same axial force. The maximum shear stress in the spring
the new condition will be:
[IES1995]
(a) t
(b) t
(c) 2 t
(d) 4 t
IES8.
The maximum shear stress occurs on the outermost fibers of a circular shaft under
torsion. In a close coiled helical spring, the maximum shear stress occurs on the[IES1999]
(a) Outermost fibres (b) Fibres at mean diameter (c) Innermost fibres (d) End coils
Chapter12
S K Mondals
Spring
IES9.
A helical spring has N turns of coil of diameter D, and a second spring, made of same
wire diameter and of same material, has N/2 turns of coil of diameter 2D. If the stiffness
of the first spring is k, then the stiffness of the second spring will be:
[IES1999]
(a) k/4
(b) k/2
(c) 2k
(d) 4k
IES10.
A closedcoil helical spring is subjected to a torque about its axis. The spring wire would
experience a
[IES1996; 1998]
(a) Bending stress
(b) Direct tensile stress of uniform intensity at its crosssection
(c)
Direct shear stress
(d) Torsional shearing stress
IES11.
Given that:
[IES1996]
d = diameter of spring, R = mean radius of coils, n = number of coils and G = modulus of
rigidity, the stiffness of the closecoiled helical spring subject to an axial load W is equal
to
(a)
Gd 4
64 R 3 n
(b)
Gd 3
64 R 3 n
(c)
Gd 4
32 R 3 n
(d)
Gd 4
64 R 2 n
IES12.
IES13.
Which one of the following expresses the stress factor K used for design of closed coiled
helical spring?
[IES2008]
4C 4
4C 1 0.615
4C 4 0.615
4C 1
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
4C 1
4C 4
C
4C 1
C
4C 4
Where C = spring index
IES14.
In the calculation of induced shear stress in helical springs, the Wahl's correction factor
is used to take care of
[IES1995; 1997]
(a) Combined effect of transverse shear stress and bending stresses in the wire.
(b) Combined effect of bending stress and curvature of the wire.
(c)
Combined effect of transverse shear stress and curvature of the wire.
(d) Combined effect of torsional shear stress and transverse shear stress in the wire.
IES15.
While calculating the stress induced in a closed coil helical spring, Wahl's factor must be
considered to account for
[IES2002]
(a) The curvature and stress concentration effect
(b) Shock loading
(c) Poor service conditions
(d) Fatigue loading
IES16.
Cracks in helical springs used in Railway carriages usually start on the inner side of the
coil because of the fact that
[IES1994]
(a) It is subjected to the higher stress than the outer side.
(b) It is subjected to a higher cyclic loading than the outer side.
(c)
It is more stretched than the outer side during the manufacturing process.
(d) It has a lower curvature than the outer side.
IES17.
Two helical springs of the same material and of equal circular crosssection and length
and number of turns, but having radii 20 mm and 40 mm, kept concentrically (smaller
radius spring within the larger radius spring), are compressed between two parallel
planes with a load P. The inner spring will carry a load equal to
[IES1994]
(a) P/2
(b) 2P/3
(c) P/9
(d) 8P/9
IES18.
A length of 10 mm diameter steel wire is coiled to a close coiled helical spring having 8
coils of 75 mm mean diameter, and the spring has a stiffness K. If the same length of
wire is coiled to 10 coils of 60 mm mean diameter, then the spring stiffness will be:[IES1993]
(a) K
(b) 1.25 K
(c) 1.56 K
(d) 1.95 K
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
IES18a.
Two equal lengths of steel wires of the same diameter are made into two springs S1 and
S2 of mean diameters 75 mm and 60 mm respectively. The stiffness ratio of S1 to S2 is
[IES2011]
2
3
2
3
60
60
75
75
(a)
(b)
(c )
(d )
75
75
60
60
IES19.
A spring with 25 active coils cannot be accommodated within a given space. Hence 5 coils
of the spring are cut. What is the stiffness of the new spring?
(a) Same as the original spring (b) 1.25 times the original spring
[IES2004, 2012]
(c) 0.8 times the original spring (d) 0.5 times the original spring
IES20.
Wire diameter, mean coil diameter and number of turns of a closelycoiled steel spring
are d, D and N respectively and stiffness of the spring is K. A second spring is made of
same steel but with wire diameter, mean coil diameter and number of turns 2d, 2D and
2N respectively. The stiffness of the new spring is:
[IES1998; 2001]
(a) K
(b) 2K
(c) 4K
(d) 8K
IES21.
When two springs of equal lengths are arranged to form cluster springs which of the
following statements are the:
[IES1992]
1. Angle of twist in both the springs will be equal
2. Deflection of both the springs will be equal
3. Load taken by each spring will be half the total load
4. Shear stress in each spring will be equal
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2 and 4 only
IES22.
[IES2009]
IES24.
[IES2003]
When a weight of 100 N falls on a spring of stiffness 1 kN/m from a height of 2 m, the
deflection caused in the first fall is:
[IES2000]
(a) Equal to 0.1 m
(b) Between 0.1 and 0.2 m
(c) Equal to 0.2 m
(d) More than 0.2 m
A closed coil helical spring of mean coil diameter 'D' and made from a wire of diameter 'd'
is subjected to a torque 'T' about the axis of the spring. What is the maximum stress
developed in the spring wire?
[IES2008]
8T
16T
32T
64T
(a) 3
(b) 3
(c) 3
(d) 3
d
d
d
d
Chapter12
S K Mondals
Spring
Springs in Series
IES26.
When a helical compression spring is cut into two equal halves, the stiffness of each of
the result in springs will be:
[IES2002; IAS2002]
(a) Unaltered
(b) Double
(c) Onehalf
(d) Onefourth
IES27.
If a compression coil spring is cut into two equal parts and the parts are then used in
parallel, the ratio of the spring rate to its initial value will be:
[IES1999]
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 4
(d) Indeterminable for want of sufficient data
Springs in Parallel
IES28.
[IES1997; IAS2001]
IES29.
Two coiled springs, each having stiffness K, are placed in parallel. The stiffness of the
combination will be:
[IES2000]
a 4K
b 2K
K
2
K
4
IES30.
A mass is suspended at the bottom of two springs in series having stiffness 10 N/mm and
5 N/mm. The equivalent spring stiffness of the two springs is nearly
[IES2000]
(a) 0.3 N/mm
(b) 3.3 N/mm
(c) 5 N/mm
(d) 15 N/mm
IES31.
Figure given above shows a springmass system where the mass m is fixed
in between two springs of stiffness S1
and S2. What is the equivalent spring
stiffness?
(a) S1 S2
(b) S1+ S2
(c) (S1+ S2)/ S1 S2
S1 S2
[IES2005]
IES32.
Chapter12
S K Mondals
Spring
[IES2001]
2
(a)
F
2K
(b)
F
4K
(c)
F
8K
(d)
F
16 K
[IES1997]
Assertion (A): Concentric cylindrical helical springs which are used to have greater
spring force in a limited space is wound in opposite directions.
Reason (R): Winding in opposite directions prevents locking of the two coils in case of
misalignment or buckling.
[IAS1996]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS2.
An opencoiled helical spring of mean diameter D, number of coils N and wire diameter d
is subjected to an axial force' P. The wire of the spring is subject to:
[IAS1995]
(a) direct shear only
(b) combined shear and bending only
(c) combined shear, bending and twisting
(d) combined shear and twisting only
IAS3.
Assertion (A): Two concentric helical springs used to provide greater spring force are
wound in opposite directions.
[IES1995; IAS2004]
Reason (R): The winding in opposite directions in the case of helical springs prevents
buckling.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS4.
IAS5.
A closed coil helical spring has 15 coils. If five coils of this spring are removed by cutting,
the stiffness of the modified spring will:
[IAS2004]
(a) Increase to 2.5 times
(b) Increase to 1.5 times
(c) Reduce to 0.66 times
(d) Remain unaffected
IAS6.
A closecoiled helical spring has wire diameter 10 mm and spring index 5. If the spring
contains 10 turns, then the length of the spring wire would be:
[IAS2000]
(a) 100 mm
(b) 157 mm
(c) 500 mm
(d) 1570 mm
Chapter12
S K Mondals
Spring
IAS7.
IAS8.
Two closecoiled springs are subjected to the same axial force. If the second spring has
four times the coil diameter, double the wire diameter and double the number of coils of
the first spring, then the ratio of deflection of the second spring to that of the first will
be:
[IAS1998]
1
(a) 8
(b) 2
(c)
(d) 1/16
2
A block of weight 2 N falls from a height of 1m on the top of a spring If the spring gets
compressed by 0.1 m to bring the weight momentarily to rest, then the spring constant
would be:
[IAS2000]
(a) 50 N/m
(b) 100 N/m
(c) 200N/m
(d) 400N/m
IAS9.
IAS10.
The springs of a chest expander are 60 cm long when unstretched. Their stiffness is 10
N/mm. The work done in stretching them to 100 cm is:
[IAS1996]
(a) 600 Nm
(b) 800 Nm
(c) 1000 Nm
(d) 1600 Nm
IAS11.
IAS12.
1 2 1 2
1
k x1 k x2 (b) k ( x1 x2 )2
2
2
2
(c)
1
k ( x1 x2 )2
2
(d)
x x
k 1 2
2
Springs in Series
IAS13.
When a helical compression spring is cut into two equal halves, the stiffness of each of
the result in springs will be:
[IES2002; IAS2002]
(a) Unaltered
(b) Double
(c) Onehalf
(d) Onefourth
IAS14.
The length of the chestexpander spring when it is unstretched, is 0.6 m and its stiffness
is 10 N/mm. The work done in stretching it to 1m will be:
[IAS2001]
(a) 800 J
(b) 1600 J
(c) 3200 J
(d) 6400 J
Springs in Parallel
IAS15.
[IES1997; IAS2001]
Chapter12
IAS16.
S K Mondals
Spring
[IAS1998]
Mach ListI (Type of spring) with ListII (Application) and select the correct answer:[IAS2000]
ListI
ListII
A. Leaf/Helical springs
1. Automobiles/Railways coachers
B. Spiral springs
2. Shearing machines
C. Belleville springs
3. Watches
Codes:
A
B
C
A
B
C
(a) 1
2
3
(b)
1
3
2
(c)
3
1
2
(d)
2
3
1
Semielliptical spring
IAS18.
The ends of the leaves of a semielliptical leaf spring are made triangular in plain in
order to:
[IAS 1994]
(a) Obtain variable I in each leaf
(b) Permit each leaf to act as a overhanging beam
(c)
Have variable bending moment in each leaf
(d) Make Mil constant throughout the length of the leaf.
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (a)
8PD3N
G.d4
G.d 4
8D 3 N
G.d 4
d4
Therefore
k
n
8D 3 N
or K
1
D3
K 2 D1 20
8
K1 D2 10
3
W d k ld l 0 or k
500N / m
2
2l
2
0.3
Chapter12
2 g k lo 0.2
S K Mondals
Spring
2 g 20 g k lo 0.1
IES
IES1. Ans. (a)
8PD3N
Gd4
D
;
2
FD
=
;
2
L DN
T F
1
T
2
TL
GJ
1 FD L 4F2D3N
2 2 GJ
Gd4
U 8FD3N
F
Gd4
IES1(i). Ans. (b)
1 2
kx
2
8PD
IES6. Ans. (c) Use k s
d3
8PD
IES7. Ans. (b) Use k s
it is independent of number of turn
d3
IES5. Ans. (b) mg(h x)
Gd 4
Gd 4
k
;
S
econd
spring,stiffness
(k
)
=
2
3
N 4
3
64 R N
64 2 R
2
7
2
4
4
Gd4 10 N / cm 2 cm
IES12. Ans. (b) Stiffness of sprin k
100N / cm
8D3n
8 203 cm3 25
W
R3 20 1
Wi
W
8
So Wi i P or Wi P
IES17. Ans. (d) o i3
; Wo
Wi Ro 40 8
8
8
9
Chapter12
Gd
Where G and d is same
64 R3n
k
1
1
1
Therefore
3
3
k2 R n 75 8 1.56
60 10
R2 n2
IES18a.
S K Mondals
Spring
4
Ans. (a) But most of the students think answer will be (b). If your calculated answer is
also (b) then read the question again and see Two equal lengths of steel wires is written
n
D 75
that means number of turns are different. And L D1n1 D2 n2 2 1
n1 D2 60
Gd 4
Where G and d issame
64R3 n
Therefore
S1 R2 n2 D2 n2 60 75 60
S 2 R1 n1 D1 n1 75 60 75
Gd4
1
k
n
8D3n
or
k 2 n1 25
1.25
k1 n2 20
Gd4
8D3n
1 2
kx
2
Chapter12
S K Mondals
Spring
1
1 1
2
or Se S
IES28. Ans. (c)
Se 2 S S
3
1
1 1
10
or Se
Se 10 5
3
F
1 2
1
IES32. Ans. (c) The strain energy stored per spring = k .x / 2 keq
/ 2 and here total
k
2
2
eq
IAS
IAS1. Ans. (a)
IAS2. Ans. (d)
IAS3. Ans. (c) It is for preventing locking not for buckling.
Gd4
1
IAS4. Ans. (c) Stiffness of sprin k
so k andn wiil behalf
n
8D3n
IAS5. Ans. (b) K=
IAS6. Ans. (d)
Gd 4
8 D3 N
or K
K
N 15
1
or 2 1 1.5
N
K1 N2 10
l Dn cd n 5 10 10 1570 mm
8PD N
or 2
4
1
Gd
3
D2 N2
D1 N1
d2
d1
43 2
8
24
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
1 2
2Wh 2 2 1
k .x or k 2
N / m 400 N / m
2
x
0.12
1
1 10N
2
2
IAS10. Ans. (b) E kx 2
1 0.6 m 800Nm
2
2 1
m
1000
1
1
IAS11. Ans. (a) Work done by the spring is = k x12 k x 22
2
2
1
1
IAS12. Ans. (d) E k x 22 x12 1000 0.20 2 0.10 2 15Nm
2
2
IAS13. Ans. (b)
IAS14. Ans. (a)
1
1 10N
1
10 N
2
2
k.x 2
0.42 m2 800 J
1 0.6 m 1
2
2 1mm
2
m
1000
1
1 1
2
or Se S
IAS15. Ans. (c)
Se 2 S S
3
Work done =
IAS16. Ans. (b) Effective stiffness = 2K. Due to applied force one spring will be under tension and
another one under compression so total resistance force will double.
IAS17. Ans. (b)
IAS18. Ans. (d) The ends of the leaves of a semielliptical leaf spring are made rectangular in plan
in order to make M/I constant throughout the length of the leaf.
A closecoiled helical spring has coil diameter D, wire diameter d and number of turn
n. The spring material has a shearing modulus G. Derive an expression for the
stiffness k of the spring.
Chapter12
Answer:
Spring
S K Mondals
U=(average torque)
(angular displacement)
T
=
2
From the figure we get, =
Torque (T)=
TL
GJ
PD
2
d 4
32
4P 2D 3 n
Gd 4
Therefore =
4 p 2 D 3n 8PD 3 n
U
=
=
P P Gd 4
Gd 4
So Spring stiffness, (k ) =
P Gd 4
=
8D3n
Ans.
1 = 2 = 3 =
(say)
Spring are made of same material and out of the rods of equal diameter
Chapter12
S K Mondals
Spring
G1 G 2 G 3 G a n d d 1 d 2 d 3 d
Load in spring 1
Gd 4
Gd 4
Gd 4
P1
.....(1)
Load in spring 2
P2
Gd 4
Gd 4
Gd 4
64 R 32 n 2 64 (1.2)3 12R13
1327.10R13
.....(2)
Load in spring 3
P3
Gd 4
Gd 4
Gd 4
.....(3)
640
P1
1327.1
P2 0.482 P1
P2
P2 L P3 2L P.x
0.4823 P1 L 0.2430 P1 2L P.x.
x
0.4823 0.486 P1 L
........(4)
P
t ot a l loa d in t h e r od is
P =P1 +P2 +P3
......(5)
0.9683 L
0.9683 L
0.5613 L
1.725 P1 / P1
1.725
x 0.5613 L
A closecoiled helical spring has coil diameter to wire diameter ratio of 6. The spring
deflects 3 cm under an axial load of 500N and the maximum shear stress is not to
exceed 300 MPa. Find the diameter and the length of the spring wire required.
Shearing modulus of wire material = 80 GPa.
Answer:
Stiffness, K =
Gd 4
P
=
8D3n
9
500 (80 10 ) d
or ,
=
0.03
8 63 n
[given c=
or , d = 3.6 10 4 n    (i )
D
= 6]
d
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
= 1.0833
c
6
8PD
We know that ( ) =k
d3
D
C = = 6
1.0833 8 500 6
d=
= 5.252103 m = 5.252 mm
6
300 10
So D=cd=65.252mm=31.513mm
From, equation (i)
n=14.59 15
Now length of spring wire(L) =Dn = 31.51315 mm =1.485 m
d2 =
8kPC
A coil spring of stiffness 'k' is cut to two halves and these two springs are
assembled in parallel to support a heavy machine. What is the combined
stiffness provided by these two springs in the modified arrangement?
When it cut to two halves stiffness of
each half will be 2k. Springs in parallel.
Total load will be shared so
Total load = W+W
or .K eq = .(2k ) + .(2k )
or K eq = 4k.
Answer:
Gd4
8D 3 N
Here load shared the springs are arranged in parallel
The stiffness of the spring (k) =
d
= A
d
4
3
DB
[As N = N ] = 12 60 = 2.559
A
N
7 90
D
3
x=
Total load
210 N
=
Equivalet stiffness K A + K B
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
210
210
Load shared by spring 'A'(FA ) = K A x =
=151N
=
k B
1
1 + 1 +
k 2.559
A
Load shared by spring 'A'(FB ) = K B x = (210 151) = 59 N
0.5 8PD
For static load: = 1+ 3
C d
8151 0.090
0.5
= 21.362 MPa
( A )max = 1 +
3
90
(0.012)
12
( B )max
3
60 (0.007)
7
Answer:
T =
We know,
16
( where T = P R )
d3
16
(i)
d3
P = k
( ii )
P = 80 103
8PD3n 8P ( 0.075 ) 8
P
=
=
= 33.75 1014 4
4
9
4
Gd
80 10 d
d
3
16
( 0.0128 ) ;
3
P = 2745.2N = 2.7452kN
A long, slender column becomes unstable when its axial compressive load reaches a value
called the critical buckling load.
If a beam element is under a compressive load and its length is an order of magnitude larger
than either of its other dimensions such a beam is called a columns.
Due to its size its axial displacement is going to be very small compared to its lateral
deflection called buckling.
Buckling does not vary linearly with load it occurs suddenly and is therefore dangerous
Slenderness Ratio: The ratio between the length and least radius of gyration.
Euler buckling is only valid for long, slender objects in the elastic region.
At this value the structure is in equilibrium regardless of the magnitude of the angle
(provided it stays small)
Critical load is the only load for which the structure will be in equilibrium in the disturbed
position
At this value, restoring effect of the moment in the spring matches the buckling effect of the
axial load represents the boundary between the stable and unstable conditions.
If the axial load is less than Pcr the effect of the moment in the spring dominates and the
structure returns to the vertical position after a small disturbance stable condition.
If the axial load is larger than Pcr the effect of the axial force predominates and the structure
buckles unstable condition.
Because of the large deflection caused by buckling, the least moment of inertia I can be
expressed as, I = Ak2
Where: A is the cross sectional area and r is the radius of gyration of the cross sectional area,
i.e. kmin =
Imin
A
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
Note that the smallest radius of gyration of the column, i.e. the least moment of inertia I
should be taken in order to find the critical stress. l/ k is called the slenderness ratio, it is a
measure of the column's flexibility.
2 EI
Pcr = 2
le
e=Equivalent
Diagram
Pcr
Equivalent
length(le)
2 EI
2
4 2 EI
2
2 EI
4 2
C
Chapter13
Theorie
es of Colum
mn
S K Mo
ondals
2 EI
wheere I=A k 2minn
2
Le
2 EA
e
kmin
Sleenderness Ratio
R
=
kmin
6 Rankine
6.
es Cripp
pling Load
d
R
Rankine
theoory is applieed to both
Long
g Column (Valid upto SR
R 120)
Slend
derness ratioo
e
2 E
e
( e = critiical stress)=
=
Pcr
A
Cripp
pling Load , P
P=
c A
1+ K ' e
k
c
deepends on material
m
& end conditioons
2 E
Page 368 of 431
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
c = crushing stress
1
for both ends fixed
25000
K =
1
for one end fixed & other hinged
12500
20
100
Gordons formula,
P=
A c
1+ b e
d
P = c A 1 c e
k
Fiddlers formula,
P=
A
( c + e )
C
where, e =
c + e
2c c e
2 E
Secant formula
m ax =
Where
P
A
ey c
e
1 + 2 sec
k
2k
EA
P = load
Chapter13
Theories of Column
A = Area of c/s
y c = Distance of the outermost fiber in compression from the NA
e = Eccentricity of the load
le = Equivalent length
I
A
E = Modulus of elasticity of the material
k = Radius of gyration =
P
M = P.e.Sec e
2k EA
Where M = Moment introduced.
max d
11
d
e
e1 yc
= 2
k
d =
Then,
d =
e1 yc
k2
f + e (1 + )
2
f + e (1 + )
ef
2
PerryRobertson Formula
= 0.003
f + e 1 + 0.003 e
k
d =
2
e
f + e (1 + 0.003 k
e f
2
S K Mondals
Chapter13
Theories of Column
For
=0 to 160
y
Pc =
fos
1 + 0.2sec e
k
fos pc '
4E
le
= Slenderness ratio
k
6
2
E = Modulus of elasticity = 2.045 10 kg / cm for mild steel
For
le
> 160
k
S K Mondals
Chapter13
S K Mondals
Theories of Column
2 EI
L2
2 EI
(b)
(b)
2L2
2 2EI
L2
2 EI
2L2
[GATE2008]
Equivalent Length
GATE2.
The ratio of Euler's buckling loads of columns with the same parameters having (i) both
ends fixed, and (ii) both ends hinged is:
[GATE1998; 2002; IES2001]
(a) 2
(b) 4
(c) 6
(d) 8
A pinended column of length L, modulus of elasticity E and second moment of the crosssectional area I is loaded centrically by a compressive load P. The critical buckling load
(Pcr) is given by:
[GATE2006]
(a) Pcr
GATE4.
EI
2 L2
(b) Pcr
2 EI
3L2
(c) Pcr
EI
L2
(d) Pcr
2 EI
L2
What is the expression for the crippling load for a column of length l with one end fixed
and other end free?
[IES2006; GATE1994]
(a) P
2 2 EI
l2
(b) P
2 EI
4l 2
(c) P
4 2 EI
l2
(d) P
2 EI
l2
GATE4A. The piston rod of diameter 20 mm and length 700 mm in a hydraulic cylinder is
GATE4(i).For a long slender column of uniform cross section, the ratio of critical buckling load for
the case with both ends clamped to the case with both ends hinged is
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 4
(d) 8
[GATE2012]
Chapter13
S K Mondals
Theories of Column
(b) Column
(c) Frame
(d) Strut
IES2.
IES2a
IES3.
IES4.
A
2
1
B
4
2
C
3
4
D
1
3
(b)
(d)
A
2
2
B
3
1
C
1
3
D
4
4
Mach ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given below the
lists:
[IAS1999]
ListI
ListII
A. Polar moment of inertia of section
1. Thin cylindrical shell
B. Buckling
2. Torsion of shafts
C. Neutral axis
3. Columns
D. Hoop stress
4. Bending of beams
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 3
2
1
4
(b)
2
3
4
1
(c)
3
2
4
1
(d)
2
3
1
4
Strength of Column
IES5.
IES6.
Assertion (A): A long column of square cross section has greater buckling stability than a
similar column of circular crosssection of same length, same material and same area of
crosssection with same end conditions.
Reason (R): A circular crosssection has a smaller second moment of area than a square
crosssection of same area.
[IES1999; IES1996]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
[IES2003]
Chapter13
S K Mondals
Theories of Column
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Equivalent Length
IES7.
Four columns of same material and same length are of rectangular crosssection of same
breadth b. The depth of the crosssection and the end conditions are, however different
are given as follows:
[IES2004]
Column
Depth
End conditions
1
0.6 b
FixedFixed
2
0.8 b
Fixedhinged
3
1.0 b
HingedHinged
4
2.6 b
FixedFree
Which of the above columns Euler buckling load maximum?
(a) Column 1
(b) Column 2
(c) Column 3
(d) Column 4
IES8.
Match ListI (End conditions of columns) with ListII (Equivalent length in terms of
length of hingedhinged column) and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the Lists:
[IES2000]
ListI
ListII
A. Both ends hinged
1. L
B. One end fixed and other end free
C. One end fixed and the other pinpointed
D. Both ends fixed
Code: A
B
C
D
A
(a) 1
3
4
2
(b)
(c)
3
1
2
4
(d)
IES9.
2. L/ 2
3. 2L
4. L/2
B
C
1
3
3
1
D
2
4
4
2
The ratio of Euler's buckling loads of columns with the same parameters having (i) both
ends fixed, and (ii) both ends hinged is:
[GATE1998; 2002; IES2001]
(a) 2
(b) 4
(c) 6
(d) 8
What is the expression for the crippling load for a column of length l with one end fixed
and other end free?
[IES2006; GATE1994]
(a) P
2 2 EI
l2
(b) P
2 EI
4l 2
(c) P
4 2 EI
l2
(d) P
2 EI
l2
IES10(i). The buckling load for a column hinged at both ends is 10 kN. If the ends are fixed, the
buckling load changes to
[IES2012]
(a) 40 kN
(b) 2.5 kN
(c) 5 kN
(d) 20 kN
IES10(ii). For the case of a slender column of length L and flexural rigidity EI built in at its base
and free at the top, the Eulers critical buckling load is
[IES2012]
( )
( )
( )
( )
IES11.
IES12.
Euler's formula can be used for obtaining crippling load for a M.S. column with hinged
ends.
Chapter13
S K Mondals
Theories of Column
l
Which one of the following conditions for the slenderness ratio
is to be satisfied?[IES2000]
k
l
l
l
l
(a) 5 8
(b) 9 18
(c) 19 40
(d)
80
k
k
k
k
IES13.
If one end of a hinged column is made fixed and the other free, how much is the critical
load compared to the original value?
[IES2008]
(a)
(b)
(c) Twice
(d) Four times
IES14.
If one end of a hinged column is made fixed and the other free, how much is the critical
load compared to the original value?
[IES2008]
(a)
(b)
(c) Twice
(d) Four times
IES15.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given below the
Lists:
[IES1995; 2007; IAS1997]
ListI (Long Column)
ListII (Critical Load)
A. Both ends hinged
1. 2EI/4l2
B. One end fixed, and other end free
2. 4 2EI/ l2
C. Both ends fixed
3. 2 2EI/ l2
D. One end fixed, and other end hinged
4. 2EI/ l2
Code:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 2
1
4
3
(b) 4
1
2
3
(c)
2
3
4
1
(d) 4
3
2
1
IES16.
The ratio of the compressive critical load for a long column fixed at both the ends and a
column with one end fixed and the other end free is:
[IES1997]
(a) 1 : 2
(b) 1: 4
(c) 1: 8
(d) 1: 16
IES17.
IES18.
IES19.
A long slender bar having uniform rectangular crosssection 'B x H' is acted upon by an
axial compressive force. The sides B and H are parallel to x and yaxes respectively. The
ends of the bar are fixed such that they behave as pinjointed when the bar buckles in a
plane normal to xaxis, and they behave as builtin when the bar buckles in a plane
normal to yaxis. If load capacity in either mode of buckling is same, then the value of
H/B will be:
[IES2000]
(a) 2
(b) 4
(c) 8
(d) 16
IES20.
The Euler's crippling load for a 2m long slender steel rod of uniform crosssection hinged
at both the ends is 1 kN. The Euler's crippling load for 1 m long steel rod of the same
crosssection and hinged at both ends will be:
[IES1998]
(a) 0.25 kN
(b) 0.5 kN
(c) 2 kN
(d) 4 kN
IES21.
If c and E denote the crushing stress and Young's modulus for the material of a column,
then the Euler formula can be applied for determination of cripping load of a column
made of this material only, if its slenderness ratio is:
(a) More than
E / c
E / c
[IES1993]
[IES2005]
Chapter13
IES22.
S K Mondals
Theories of Column
Four vertical columns of same material, height and weight have the same end conditions.
Which crosssection will carry the maximum load?
[IES2009]
(a) Solid circular section
(b) Thin hollow circular section
(c) Solid square section
(d) Isection
[IES1994]
C
1
4
2
3
Mach ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given below the
lists:
[IAS1999]
ListI
ListII
A. Polar moment of inertia of section
1. Thin cylindrical shell
B. Buckling
2. Torsion of shafts
C. Neutral axis
3. Columns
D. Hoop stress
4. Bending of beams
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 3
2
1
4
(b)
2
3
4
1
(c)
3
2
4
1
(d)
2
3
1
4
Strength of Column
IAS2.
Assertion (A): A long column of square crosssection has greater buckling stability than
that of a column of circular crosssection of same length, same material, same end
conditions and same area of crosssection.
[IAS1998]
Reason (R): The second moment of area of a column of circular crosssection is smaller
than that of a column of square cross section having the same area.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS3.
Chapter13
S K Mondals
Theories of Column
:
:
Equivalent Length
IAS4.
A column of length 'I' is fixed at its both ends. The equivalent length of the column is:[IAS1995]
(a) 2 l
(b) 0.5 l
(c) 2 l
(d) l
IAS5.
4 2 EI
?
l2
[IAS1999; 2004]
IAS7.
IAS8.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given below the
Lists:
[IES1995; 2007; IAS1997]
ListI (Long Column)
ListII (Critical Load)
A. Both ends hinged
1. 2EI/4l2
B. One end fixed, and other end free
C. Both ends fixed
D. One end fixed, and other end hinged
Code:
(a)
(c)
A
2
2
B
1
3
C
4
4
D
3
1
2EI/ l 2
3. 2 2EI/ l 2
4. 2EI/ l 2
2. 4
A
(b) 4
(d) 4
B
1
3
C
2
2
D
3
1
Chapter13
S K Mondals
Theories of Column
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (b) Axial component of the force FPQ = F Sin 450
We know for both end fixed column buckling load (P) =
and Fsin450 = P or
F=
2 EI
L2
2p 2EI
L2
IES
IES1. Ans. (d) A machine part subjected to an axial compressive force is called a strut. A strut may
be horizontal, inclined or even vertical. But a vertical strut is known as a column, pillar
or stanchion.
The term column is applied to all such members except those in which failure would be
by simple or pure compression. Columns can be categorized then as:
1.
Long column with central loading
2.
Intermediatelength columns with central loading
3.
Columns with eccentric loading
4.
Struts or short columns with eccentric loading
IES2. Ans. (a) Axle is a nonrotating member used for supporting rotating wheels etc. and do not
transmit any torque. Axle must resist forces applied laterally or transversely to their
axes. Such members are called beams.
IES2a
Ans. (a) Axle is a nonrotating member used for supporting rotating wheels etc. and
do not transmit any torque. Axle must resist forces applied laterally or transversely
to their axes. Such members are called beams.
IES3. Ans. (b)
IES4. Ans. (b)
IES5. Ans. (a)
IES6. Ans. (a)
IES7. Ans. (b)
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
Chapter13
S K Mondals
Theories of Column
2EI/4l2
EI
I2
When one end of hinged column is fixed and other free. New Le = 2L
2EI
2EI
1
Original value
New load =
2
2
4
4L
2L
2 EI
2
4
4
4
p p d d
0.8d
P I or P d or
d 0.59
p
d4
4 2 EI
BH3
HB3
H
P
P
4I
or
or 2
xx
yy
yy
2
2
12
12
B
L
L
2
EI
IES20. Ans. (d) For column with both ends hinged, P =
. If l is halved, P will be 4 times.
l2
2 EI
2EI
le
cA
or
2EAK 2
le
cA
2E
le
or
c
k
or
le
E / c
k
IAS
IAS1. Ans. (b)
IAS2. Ans. (a)
IAS3. Ans. (b) Buckling factor: The ratio of equivalent length of the column to the least radius of
gyration.
IAS4. Ans. (b)
IAS5. Ans. (c) A column with both ends fixed has minimum equivalent effective length (l/2)
IAS6. Ans. (c)
IAS7. Ans. (d) And Critical Load for one end fixed, and other end free = 2EI/4l2
IAS8. Ans. (b)
Chapter13
S K Mondals
Theories of Column
Differentiate between strut and column. What is the general expression used for
determining of their critical load?
Strut: A member of structure which carries an axial compressive load.
If the strut is vertical it is known as column.
For strut failure due to compression or s c =
Compressive force
Area
If s c > s yc it fails.
Euler's formula for column (PC ) =
2 EI
l 2e
Two long columns are made of identical lengths l and flexural rigidities EI. Column 1 is
hinged at both ends whereas for column 2 one end is fixed and the other end is free.
(i)
Write the expression for Eulers buckling load for column 1.
(ii) What is the ratio of Eulers buckling load of column 1 to that column 2?
[ 2 Marks]
Ans.
(i)
2 EI
2 EI
rig h t
L2
4L2
For column l, both end hinged l e L
(ii)
P1
; P2
P1
4
P2
The piston rod of diameter 20 mm and length 700 mm in a hydraulic cylinder is subjected to
a compressive force of 10 kN due to internal pressure. The piston end of the rod is guided
along the cylinder and the other end of the rod is hinged at the crosshead. The modulus of
elasticity for piston rod material is 200 GPa. Estimate the factor of safety taken for the
piston rod design.
[2 Marks]
Ans.
P
PL
;
;
AE
A
; Pe
2 E I
2
e
2 2 200 10 9 0.020 4 / 64
(0.7)
Eu le r 's load
Com pre s s ive load
63.278
F.S =
6.3
10
F.S =
20mm
= 63.278 kN
Chapter13
S K Mondals
Theories of Column
State the limitation of Euler's formula for calculating critical load on columns
Assumptions:
(i) The column is perfectly straight and of uniform crosssection
(ii) The material is homogenous and isotropic
(iii) The material behaves elastically
(iv) The load is perfectly axial and passes through the centroid of the column section.
(v) The weight of the column is neglected.
Answer:
What is the value of Euler's buckling load for an axially loaded pinended (hinged at
both ends) strut of length 'l' and flexural rigidity 'EI'? What would be order of Euler's
buckling load carrying capacity of a similar strut but fixed at both ends in terms of the
load carrying capacity of the earlier one?
From Euler's buckling load formula,
2EI
Critical load (PC ) = 2
le
Equivalent length (l e ) = l for both end hinged = l
2EI
= 2
l
2EI
2
(l 2)
4 2EI
=
l2
Euler's critical load for a column with both ends hinged is found as 40 kN. What would
be the change in the critical load if both ends are fixed?
We know that Euler's critical laod,
2 EI
PEuler=
l 2e
l e = equivalent length ]
For both end hinged ( l e) = l
And For both end fixed ( l e) =
l /2
2EI
\ (PEuler )b.e.h. =
=40kN(Given)
l2
2EI
2EI
and (PEuler )b.e.F . =
=
4
= 4 40 = 160 kN
( l / 2)2
l2
A hollow cast iron column of 300 mm external diameter and 220 mm internal diameter
is used as a column 4 m long with both ends hinged. Determine the safe compressive
load the column can carry without buckling using Euler's formula and Rankine's
formula
E = 0.7105 N/mm2, FOS = 4, Rankine constant (a) = 1/1600
Crushing Stress ( c ) = 567 N/mm2
Answer:
l = 4 m.
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
64
64
(D 4 d 4 ) D 2 + d 2
0.32 + 0.222
64
=
=
= 0.093m
2
16
16
2
(D d )
4
I
=
Slenderness ratio(k)=
A
PEuler =
PEuler 12.2
=
= 3.05 MN
fos
4
(ii)Rankine's buckling load, PRankine
Safe load =
PRankine =
(56710 ) 0.03267
6
c .A
A
1 + a. e
k
4
1
1+
1600 0.093
= 8.59 MN
PRankine 8.59
=
= 2.148 MPa
fos
4
Safe load =
Answer:
A both ends hinged cast iron hollow cylindrical column 3 m in length has a
critical buckling load of P kN. When the column is fixed at both the ends, its
critical buckling load raise by 300 kN more. If ratio of external diameter to
internal diameter is 1.25 and E = 100 GPa determine the external diameter of
column.
Pc =
2 EI
I e2
P+300=
2EI
(L 2)
4 2EI
( ii )
L2
D4 d 4 ) = 2
(
64
E
3
2
64 (100 10 ) 3
4
4
= 1.8577 105
orD d =
2
9
100 10
I=
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
D
D
= 1.25 or d =
d
1.255
4
1
= 1.8577 105
or D4 1
1.25
or D=0.0749 m = 74.9 mm
given
formula as
Answer:
1
for hinged ends. The rod may be assumed partially fixed
7500
a=
1
for hinged ends;
7500
P=
cA
l
1+ a e
k
Here le = 0.6l = 0.6 800 = 480 mm [length coefficient = 0.6]
k=
I
=
A
64
d4
d2
d
4
100 d2
4
60 103 =
2
1 480
1+
7500 d / 4
or
d = 33.23mm
Answer:
C
Chapter13
Theorie
es of Colum
mn
Area( A) =
S K Mo
ondals
I
2.898 106
Radius off gyration (k)
=
( =
= 0..032 m
A
2.8274 103
c .A
PRankine =
uivalent len
ngth]
; [ A e = equ
2
A e
1+ a
k
(600 10 )(2.8274 10 )
3
(i)
1 3
1+
1600 0.0
032
; [ A e = l = 3 m for both
h end hinged]
2.61026kN
N
=2
P
26126
Safe load
d (P)= Rankine =
= 87.09 kN
FOS
S
3
(ii) For bo
oth end fixxed, A e = A = 1.5 m
2
6
(600 10 )(2.8274 103 )
PRankinee =
= 714.8 kN
k
2
1.5
1
1+
0
1600 0.032
P
714.8
8
Safe load
d (P)= Rankkine =
= 238.27
7 kN
S
3
FOS
C
Convention
nal Questiion AMIE1997
Q
Question:
A
Answer:
Above figu
ure shows a slender colu
umn of lengtth I. The coolumn is built in at one
e end B
and eccentric load P is applied at the
t free end A.
he deflection
n at any secttion XX disttant x from the fixed en
nd B. Let be the
Let y be th
deflection at
a A.
The bendin
ng moment at
a the section XX is give
en by
Chapter13
S K Mondals
Theories of Column
2
dy
P e y
dx 2
d2 y
EI 2 Py P e
dx
EI
i
d2 y P
P
y e
2
EI
EI
dx
or
P
P
y C1 cos x
C2 sin x
e
EI
EI
Where C1 and C2 are the cons tan ts.
ii
0 C1 cos 0 C2 sin 0 e
C1 e
or
dx
EI
EI
EI
EI
Again,at the fixed end B,
dy
When x 0,
0
dx
0 e
or
C2 0
P
P
0 C2
cos 0
EI
EI
e cos
cos
P
e
EI
P
e
EI e
iii
It is mentioned in the problem that the deflection of the free end does not exceed the
eccentricity. It means that = e
Substituting this value in equation (iii), we have
cos
P
e
1
EI e 2
P
1
cos 1
EI
2 3
EI
3 P
A long strut AB of length ' l ' is of uniform section throughout. A thrust P is applied at
the ends eccentrically on the same side of the centre line with eccentricity at the end B
twice than that at the end A. Show that the maximum bending moment occurs at a
distance x from the end A,
Where, tan(kx)=
2  cos k l
P
and k=
sin k l
EI
C
Chapter13
An
nswer:
Theorie
es of Colum
mn
S K Mo
ondals
d 2y
= P.y
dx 2
d 2y
P
+
o
or
y =0
2
EI
E
dx
EI
o
or
d 2y
+ k 2y = 0
2
dx
k = P giiven
EI
e = A..................(i )
2e e cos k
or B =
sin k
2e e cos k
sin kx
os kx +
y = e co
s k
sin
Where be
ending mom
ment is maximum,
dy
the deflection will be maximum so
s
=0
dx
2e e coss k
dy
cos kx = 0
e sin kx + k .
= ek
sin k
dx
2e = A cos
s k + B sin k
2 cos k
sin k
C
Convention
nal Questiion ESE1996
or tan kx =
Q
Question:
A
Answer:
The link of
o a mecha
anism is su
ubjected to axial com
mpressive fo
orce. It has
s solid
circular crosssectio
c
on with dia
ameter 9 mm
m and len
ngth 200 mm
m. The two
o ends
2
of the link
k are hing
ged. It is made
m
of stee
el having yield
y
strength = 400 N/mm
N
2
and elastic moduluss = 200 kN
N/mm . Calc
culate the critical lo
oad that th
he link
y. Use John
non's equatiion.
can carry
According to
t Johnson'ss equation
y 2
Pcr = y .A 1
2
k
4
n
E
d2
= 63.62
2 mm 2
4
d 4
64 d
I
least radiu
us of gyratio
on (k) =
= = 2.55 mm
=
d 2
4
A
200
400
C
Convention
nal Questiion GATE1995
Q
Question:
Chapter13
Answer:
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
P
= 250MPa = 250MN / m 2 ; E = 200 GPa = 200 1012 N / m 2
A
Length of the column, L :
Yield strength =
bd 3 0.6 0.13
=
= 5 105 m4
12
12
5 105
I
= 8.333 104 m 2
Also,
k2 = =
A 0.6 0.1
[ I = AK 2 ( where A = area of crosssection, k = radius of gyration)]
From Euler's formula for column, we have
Least area moment of Inertia, I =
Crushing load ,
Pcr =
2EI 2EI
= 2
L2e
L
2EAk 2
L2
P 2EI
Yield stress cr = 2
A
L
or
Pcr =
L2 =
2Ek 2
(Pcr / A)
Answer:
Chapter13
Theories of Column
dL = L. .Vt , Where Vt is the temperature rise.
or
Also,
dL
L.
PL
dL =
or
AE
p 2EI
Pcr = 2
Le
Vt =
P=
dL.AE
L
p 2EI dL.A.E
=
[QL e =L For both endhinged]
L
L2
p 2I
or
dL =
LA
dL
p 2I
p 2I
Vt =
=
= 2
L.
LA.L.
L A.
Substituting the values, we get
4
p
p2
(0.040)
64
Temperature rise Vt =
= 49.350 C
2
4
p
 6
(1) (0.040) 20 10
4
or
So the rod will buckle when the temperature rises more than 49.35C.
S K Mondals
U=
2
V o lu m e
2E
or U =
2 E
V o lu m e
2
2. Proof Resilience
Maximum strain energy stored at elastic limit. i.e. the strain energy stored in the body upto
elastic limit.
This is the property of the material that enables it to resist shock and impact by storing
energy. The measure of proof resilience is the strain energy absorbed per unit volume.
2
u=
2E
2 E
or u=
2
4. Application
3
L
P2.
P2 L
P2 L
4
4
U=
+
=
2
d
2 AE 2 (2d ) 2 E
E
2.
4
4
L/4
2d
Strain energy becomes smaller & smaller as the cross sectional area of bar
is increased over more & more of its length i.e. A , U
5. Toughness
This is the property which enables a material to be twisted, bent or stretched under impact
load or high stress before rupture. It may be considered to be the ability of the material to
C
Chapter14
Strain En
nergy Meth
hod
S K Mo
ondals
absorrb energy in
i the plasttic zone. Th
he measure
e of toughneess is the amount of energy
absorrbed after beeing stressed
d upto the point
p
of fractture.
Toug
ghness is an ability to ab
bsorb energy
y in the plasstic range.
The ability
a
to witthstand occa
asional stressses above th
he yield streess without ffracture.
Toug
ghness = streength + ducttility
M
Modulus
off Toughnes
ss
The ability of un
nit volume of materiall
to absorb energy
y in the plasttic range.
the
material
can
withstand
d
withoout failure.
The area
a
under the entire stress strain
n
diagrram is called
d modulus off toughness,
UT = u f
which
h is a meassure of energy that can
n
be absorbed
a
by
y the unit volume off
mateerial due to impact
i
loadiing before itt
fractu
ures.
6 Strain energy
6.
e
in shear an
nd torsion
n
Strain energy
e
per unit
u volumee, (u s )
2
G 2
us =
or, u s =
2
2G
1
U s = T
2
O
1 GJ 2
1 T 2L
U s =
or
2 L
2 GJ
or
Us =
2max 2 L 2
d
2G r 2
Case
es
Sollid shaft , U s =
2max
r2L
4G
4
4
2
2
2max ( D d ) L 2max ( D + d )
Hollow shaft , U s =
Volume
D2
D2
4G
4G
Chapter14
Strain
n Energy Method
M
S K Mondals
sLt
4G
w
where
s = Leength of meean centre linne
T
Thin walledd tube , U s =
GJ d
GJ
dx =
2 dx
2
Conical sppring , US =
P
2GJ
2 n
PR
R
)
.R.d ( R = Radius
GJ
2n
R d
3
(R varries with )
3 P2 L
Cantilever beam
b
with load
l
'p' at ennd, Us =
5 bhG
Helical sprring , U s =
P 2 R 3 n
GJ
( L = 2 Rn )
Sttrain energy
y stored in beam.
L
Ub =
or U
Mx
EI .dxx
M x2
.d x
2E I
L
EI
=
2
d 2y
dx
2
dx
d 2y
M
2
EI
dx
Cases
P 2 L3
6 EI
Simplly supported
d with a load
d P at centre
e, U b =
P 2 L3
96 EI
E
mportant Note
N
Im
o
For pu
ure bending
g
M is consttant along th
he length L
L
ML
EI
U=
EI 2
M 2L
if curvature / L isknown
if Misknow
wn =
2L
2EI
b
For noonuniform bending
8. Castiigliones theorem
U
= n
P
Pn
For 2013 (IES, GATE & PSUs)
Chapter14
U
1
=
p EI
M x
Mx
p
dx
Note:
o
U=
o
1
( x ) 2 2 x y
2E
3 2
2
[1 2] =
2E
2k
S K Mondals
Chapter14
S K Mondals
The strain energy stored in the beam with flexural rigidity EI and loaded as shown in
the figure is:
[GATE2008]
(a)
GATE2.
P 2L3
3EI
(b)
2P 2L3
3EI
(c)
4P 2L3
3EI
(d)
8P 2L3
3EI
PL3
is the deflection under the load P of a cantilever beam [length L, modulus of
3EI
elasticity, E, moment of inertiaI]. The strain energy due to bending is:
[GATE1993]
2 3
(a)
P L
3EI
2 3
(b)
P L
6 EI
2 3
(c )
P L
4 EI
2 3
(d )
P L
48EI
A square bar of side 4 cm and length 100 cm is subjected to an axial load P. The same
bar is then used as a cantilever beam and subjected to all end load P. The ratio of the
strain energies, stored in the bar in the second case to that stored in the first case, is:[GATE1998]
(a) 16
(b) 400
(c) 1000
(d) 2500
Toughness
GATE5.
The total area under the stressstrain curve of a mild steel specimen tested up to failure
under tension is a measure of
[GATE2002]
(a) Ductility
(b) Ultimate strength
(c) Stiffness
(d) Toughness
Chapter14
S K Mondals
E
V
(b)
E2
(c)
V 2
due to gradually
[IES2006]
(d)
2V
2E
A circular bar L m long and d m in diameter is subjected to tensile force of F kN. Then
the strain energy, U will be (where, E is the modulus of elasticity in kN/m2 )
[IES2012]
( )
( )
( )
( )
IES1(ii).
Statement (I): Ductile materials generally absorb more impact energy than the brittle
materials.
Statement (II): Ductile materials generally have higher ultimate strength than brittle
materials.
[IES2012]
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true and Statement (II) is the
correct explanation of Statement (I)
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not
the correct explanation of Statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true
IES2.
A bar having length L and uniform crosssection with area A is subjected to both tensile
force P and torque T. If G is the shear modulus and E is the Young's modulus, the
internal strain energy stored in the bar is:
[IES2003]
(a)
IES3.
T 2 L P2 L
2GJ AE
(b)
T 2 L P2 L
GJ 2 AE
T 2 L P2 L
GJ
AE
(b) sE2/ V
[IES2002]
(d) s2V/2E
(c) sV2/E
PL2
(b)
2EI
PL2
(c)
AE
P2L
(d)
AE
Which one of the following gives the correct expression for strain energy stored in a beam
of length L and of uniform crosssection having moment of inertia I and subjected to
constant bending moment M?
[IES1997]
a
IES6.
(d)
A bar of length L and of uniform crosssectional area A and second moment of area I is
subjected to a pull P. If Young's modulus of elasticity of the bar material is E, the
expression for strain energy stored in the bar will be:
[IES1999]
P2L
(a)
2AE
IES5.
T 2 L P2 L
2GJ 2 AE
IES4.
(c)
ML
EI
ML
2 EI
M 2L
EI
M 2L
2 EI
Chapter14
IES7.
(a)
IES8.
IES8a
S K Mondals
What is the expression for the strain energy due to bending of a cantilever beam (length
L. modulus of elasticity E and moment of inertia I)?
[IES2009]
P 2 L3
3 EI
(b)
P 2 L3
6 EI
(c)
P 2 L3
4 EI
(d)
P 2 L3
48 EI
[IES2011]
IES9.
30 C 8 steel has its yield strength of 400 N/mm 2 and modulus of elasticity of 2 105 MPa.
Assuming the material to obey Hooke's law up to yielding, what is its proof resilience?[IES2006]
(a) 08 N/mm2
(b) 0.4 N/mm2
(c) 06 N/mm2
(d) 07 N/mm2
IES9a
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the code given below the
lists:
[IES2010]
List I
A. Point of inflection
B. Shearing strain
C. Section modulus
D. Modulus of resilience
Code:
A
B
C
(a)
1
3
2
(c)
1
2
3
List II
1. Strain energy
2. Equation of bending
3. Equation of torsion
4. Bending moment diagram
D
A
B
4
(b)
4
3
4
(d)
4
2
C
2
3
D
1
1
Toughness
IES10.
Toughness for mild steel under uniaxial tensile loading is given by the shaded portion of
the stressstrain diagram as shown in
[IES2003]
Total strain energy stored in a simply supported beam of span, 'L' and flexural rigidity
'EI 'subjected to a concentrated load 'W' at the centre is equal to:
[IAS1995]
Chapter14
(a)
S K Mondals
W L
40 EI
2 3
(b)
W L
60 EI
2 3
(c)
W L
96 EI
(d)
W 2 L3
240 EI
IAS2.
IAS3.
The strain energy stored in the beam with flexural rigidity EI and loaded as shown in
the figure is:
[GATE2008]
(a)
IAS4.
P 2L3
3EI
(b)
2P 2L3
3EI
(c)
4P 2L3
3EI
(d)
8P 2L3
3EI
Toughness
IAS5.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given below the
lists:
[IAS1996]
ListI (Mechanical properties)
ListII (Meaning of properties)
A. Ductility
1. Resistance to indentation
B. Hardness
2. Ability to absorb energy during plastic
C. Malleability
deformation
D. Toughness
3. Percentage of elongation
4. Ability to be rolled into flat product
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a)
1
4
3
2
(b)
3
2
4
1
(c)
2
3
4
1
(d)
3
1
4
2
IAS6.
IAS7.
A truck weighing 150 kN and travelling at 2m/sec impacts which a buffer spring which
compresses 1.25cm per 10 kN. The maximum compression of the spring is:
[IAS1995]
(a) 20.00 cm
(b) 22.85 cm
(c) 27.66 cm
(d) 30.00 cm
Chapter14
S K Mondals
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
4L
0
L
= 2
0
L
= 2
0
3L
4L
M 2dx
M 2dx
M 2dx
M 2dx
=
+
+
EI
EI
EI
EI
0
L
3L
L
4L
2
2
By symmetry M dx = M dx
EI
EI
0
3L
3L
M 2dx
M 2dx
+
EI
EI
L
3L
(Px )2 dx
(PL )2 dx
4P 2L3
+
=
EI
EI
3EI
L
3
P 2 L3
P PL
=
6 EI
2 3EI
U
. Then
P
U PL3
PL3
or U = U =
=
P Partially integrating with respect to P we get
P
3EI
3EI
P2L3
U=
6EI
=
GATE3. Ans. (c) Resilience = area under this curve up to 0.004 strain
1
= 0.004 70 106 = 14 10 4 Nm/m3
2
Toughness = area under this curve up to 0.012 strain
1
= 14 10 4 + 70 106 ( 0.012 0.004 ) + ( 0.012 0.004 ) (120 70 ) 106 Nm/m3
2
= 90 104 Nm/m3
2
GATE4.
W
AL W 2L
A
Ans. (d) U1 =
=
2E
2AE
2 3
2 3
W L
W L
2W 2L3
U2 =
=
=
6EI
Ea4
1
6E a 4
12
2
U
4L2
100
or 2 = 2 = 4
= 2500
U1
a
4
GATE5. Ans. (d)
IES
1 2
IES1. Ans. (d) Strain Energy = .
V
2 E
IES1(i). Ans. (c)
IES1(ii). Ans. (c)
Strain energy =
1
1
1 PL 1 TL
P + T = P
+ T
2
2
2 AE 2 GJ
1
1 P P L
PL2
x stress x strain x volume = . ( AL ) =
2
2 A A E
2 AE
Page 397 of 431
Chapter14
S K Mondals
(Px)2 dx P2 x 3
P2L3
=
=
IES7. Ans. (b) Strain Energy Stored =
2E
2EI 3 0
6EI
0
L
1 2 1 ( 400 )
=
= 0.4N / mm2
IES9. Ans. (b) Proof resilience (Rp ) = .
2 E
2 2 105
IES9a
Ans. (b)
IES10. Ans. (d) Toughness of material is the total area under stressstrain curve.
2
IAS
2
M2 dx
M2 dx 1
W 2L3
Wx
= 2
=
dx
=
IAS1. Ans. (c) Strain energy =
2EI
2EI EI 0 2
96EI
0
0
L
L/2
L/2
U
U
=
P W
WL3
for simply supported beam in concentrated load at mid span.
48EI
U
U
WL3
WL3
=
Then =
or U = U =
=
W partially integrating with
P W
48EI
48EI
W 2L3
respect to W we get U =
96EI
We know that =
0
L
= 2
0
L
= 2
0
3L
4L
M 2dx
M 2dx
M 2dx
M 2dx
=
+
+
EI
EI
EI
EI
L
0
3L
3L
M 2dx
M 2dx
+
EI
EI
L
L
4L
2
2
By symmetry M dx = M dx
EI
EI
0
3L
3L
(Px )2 dx
(PL )2 dx
4P 2L3
+
=
EI
EI
3EI
L
1 2
1 (l )
2
= E = 2 E
IAS4. Ans. (a)
2E 2
2 L
150 103 2
2
9.81
1
1 2
mv 2
2
mv = kx or x =
=
= 0.2766 m = 27.66 cm
2
2
k
10 1000
0.0125
Chapter14
S K Mondals
A close coiled helical spring made of wire diameter d has mean coil radius R, number of
turns n and modulus of rigidity G. The spring is subjected to an axial compression W.
(1) Write the expression for the stiffness of the spring.
(2) What is the magnitude of the maximum shear stress induced in the spring wire
neglecting the curvature effect?
[2 Marks]
Ans.
W
Gd 4
X 8n D 3
8 WD
(2) Maximum shear stress,
d 3
A semicircular steel ring of mean radius 300 mm is suspended vertically with the top end
fixed as shown in the above figure and carries a vertical load of 200 N at the lowest
point.
Calculate the vertical deflection of the lower end if the ring is of rectangular crosssection 20 mm thick and 30 mm wide.
Value of Elastic modulus is 2 10 N/mm .
Influence of circumferential and shearing forces may be neglected.
[10 Marks]
5
Ans.
bd 3
I
12
b = 20 m m
d = 30 mm
20 30
12
= 45,000 mm 4
Influence of circumferential and shearing force are neglected strain energy at the section.
Chapter14
S K Mondals
u=
M Rd
R
for
10
2 EI
4
2
M = F R sin
M
= R sin
F
u
=
=
F
F R 2 sin 2
FR2
d
EI
2 EI
0
200 300
F R2
=
=
2 EI
2 2 10 5 45000
2
3.14 10 3 m m.
A simply supported beam is subjected to a single force P at a distance b from one of the
supports. Obtain the expression for the deflection under the load using Castigliano's
theorem. How do you calculate deflection at the midpoint of the beam?
Let load P acts at a distance b from the support B, and L be the total length of the
beam.
Re action at A,
Re action at A,
Pb
, and
L
Pa
RB =
L
RA =
b Pa
P 2b 2 a 3 P 2b 2 a 3
Pb d x
dx
.
x
.
x
L 2 E I 0 L
2E I
6 E IL2
6 E IL2
2
2
P 2b 2 a 2
P 2b 2 a 2 P L b b
a
6 E IL
6 E IL
6 E IL2
a b L )
2
P L b b2
U 2 P L b b
Deflect ion u n der t h e loa d P , y
P
6 E IL
3 E IL
Deflection at the midspan of the beam can be found by Macaulay's method.
By Macaulay's method, deflection at any section is given by
2
Chapter14
L b2 x
6L
6L
6
Wh er e y is deflect ion a t a n y dist a n ce x fr om t h e su ppor t.
L
At
x , i , e. a t m idspa n ,
2
3
L
P a
3
Pb L / 2
Pb 2
L
2
E Iy
L b2
6L
6L
2
6
3
2
2
2
Pb
L
b
P
L
2
a
PbL
or ,
E Iy
48
12
48
P 2
3
y
bL 4b L 2 b 2 L 2a
48 E I
E Iy
S K Mondals
Failure: Every material has certain strength, expressed in terms of stress or strain, beyond
which it fractures or fails to carry the load.
Failure Mode
Yielding: a process of global permanent plastic deformation. Change in the geometry of the
object.
Fracture: a process in which cracks grow to the extent that the component breaks apart.
Buckling: the loss of stable equilibrium. Compressive loading can lead to bucking in
columns.
Failure Modes:
Excessive elastic
deformation
1. Stretch,
twist,
bending
2. Buckling
or
3. Vibration
Yielding
Fracture
Chapter15
Theo
ories of Fa
ailure
S K Mondals
Ra
ankin stated
d max principal stress theory
t
as folllows a matterial fails by
y fracturing
g when the
la
argest princiipal stress exceeds the ultimate
u
strrength u in a simple tension test. That
T
is, at
th
he onset of frracture, 1 = u OR 
3 = u
Crriterion hass good experrimental verrification, even though it assumess ultimate strength is
sa
ame in comp
pression and
d tension
Failu
ure surface according
g to maximu
um princip
pal stress th
heory
Th
his theory of
o yielding has
h very pooor agreemen
nt with experiment. How
wever, the theory
t
has
beeen used succcessfully forr brittle matterials.
Liimitations
o
Doesn
nt distinguissh between tension or co
ompression
Doesn
nt depend on
o orientatiion of princcipal planess so only ap
pplicable to
o isotropic
materrials
3. Maximum She
ear Stress
s or Stres
ss differe
ence theo
ory
(Guests or Tres
scas Theory1868) Ductile
e Material
The Tressca Criterio
on:
C
Chapter15
Theorie
es of Failure
S K Mo
ondals
Failu
ure by slip (yielding)
(
occcurs when the
t
maximu
um shearing
g stress, max exceeds th
he yield
stress f as deterrmined in a uniaxial ten
nsion test.
Failur
re surface according
a
t maximu
to
um shear sttress theory
y
4 Strain Energy
4.
E
Th
heory (Ha
aighs Theory)
T
The
theory associated
d with Haig
gh
T
This
theory is
i based on the assump
ption that sttrains are re
ecoverable up
u to the ela
astic limit, and
a
the
energy absorrbed by the material
m
at failure
f
up too this point is a single valued
v
function indepen
ndent of
th
he stress system causin
ng it. The strrain energy per unit vollume causin
ng failure is equal to the
e strain
energy at thee elastic limiit in simple tension.
y2
1
2
2
2
U=
1 + 2 + 3 2 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 ) =
2E
2E
12 + 22 + 32 2 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 ) = y2
12 + 22 2
1 2 = y2
3 stress
For 3D
5 Shear Strain
5.
S
En
nergy The
eory (Disttortion En
nergy The
eory or M
MisesHen
nky
Theory
y or VonM
Misses Theory)Du
uctile Ma
aterial
V
VonMises
C
Criterion:
Also known as th
he Maximum
m Energy of Distortion criterion
c
Chapter15
Theo
ories of Fa
ailure
S K Mondals
In
n simple term
ms, the von Mises criterrion considerrs the diameeters of all tthree Mohrss circles as
coontributing to
t the characterization of
o yield onse
et in isotropiic materials.
W
When
the critterion is app
plied, its rela
ationship to the uniaxia
al tensile yield strength is:
12 1 2 + 22 = y2
It is often con
nvenient to express
e
this as an equivalent stress, e:
1/2
1
2
2
2
(1 2 ) + (2 3 ) + (3 1 )
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2 1/2
or e =
6 xy
+ yz
+ zx
)
( x y ) + ( y z ) + ( x z ) + 6(
2
e =
In
n formulatin
ng this failurre theory wee used generalized Hooke's law for an isotropicc material
soo the theory
y given is only appliccable to tho
ose materials but it ca
an be generalized to
an
nisotropic materials.
m
Th
he von Misees theory is a little lesss conservativ
ve than the Tresca theoory but in most
m
cases
th
here is little difference in
i their pred
dictions of fa
ailure. Mostt experimenttal results te
end to fall
on
n or between
n these two theories.
t
6. Maximum Prin
ncipal Strrain Theo
ory (St. Ve
enant The
eory)
According
g to this theeory, yieldin
ng will occurr when the maximum principal sttrain just ex
xceeds the
strain at the tensile yield point in either sim
mple tension
n or compreession. If 1 and 2 are maximum
and minim
mum princip
pal strains correspondin
c
ng to 1 and 2, in the lim
miting case
C
Chapter15
Theorie
es of Failure
S K Mo
ondals
H
Higher
shearr stresses arre to the lefft of origin, since most brittle mateerials have higher stren
ngth in
compression
8 Comparison
8.
A comparison
n among thee different failure
f
theorries can be made
m
by sup
perposing th
he yield surfa
faces as
shown in figu
ure
Chapter15
Theo
ories of Fa
ailure
S K Mondals
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
Match 4 correct pairs between list I and List II for the questions
ListI
ListII
(a) Hooke's law
1. Planetary motion
(b) St. Venant's law
2. Conservation Energy
(c) Kepler's laws
3. Elasticity
(d) Tresca's criterion
4. Plasticity
(e) Coulomb's laws
5. Fracture
(f) Griffith's law
6. Inertia
[GATE1994]
GATE2.
Which theory of failure will you use for aluminium components under steady loading?[GATE1999]
(a) Principal stress theory
(b) Principal strain theory
(c) Strain energy theory
(d) Maximum shear stress theory
According to VonMises' distortion energy theory, the distortion energy under three
dimensional stress state is represented by
[GATE2006]
GATE4.
A small element at the critical section of a component is in a biaxial state of stress with
the two principal stresses being 360 MPa and 140 MPa. The maximum working stress
according to Distortion Energy Theory is:
[GATE1997]
(a) 220 MPa
(b) 110 MPa
(c) 314 MPa
(d) 330 MPa
GATE5.
The homogeneous state of stress for a metal part undergoing plastic deformation is
0
10 5
T 5 20 0
0 0 10
where the stress component values are in MPa. Using von Mises yield criterion, the value of
estimated shear yield stress, in MPa is
(a) 9.50
(b) 16.07
(c) 28.52
(d) 49.41
[GATE2012]
GATE6.
Match the following criteria of material failure, under biaxial stresses 1 and 2 and
yield stress y , with their corresponding graphic representations:
[GATE2011]
Chapter15
S K Mondals
Theories of Failure
P. Maximumnormalstress criterion
L.
y
Q. Minimumdistortionenergy criterion
M.
2
y
y
R. Maximum shearstress criterion
N.
2
y
y
(a) P M, Q L, R N
(c) P M, Q N, R L
(b) P N, Q M, R L
(d) P N, Q L, R M
Match ListI (Theory of Failure) with ListII (Predicted Ratio of Shear Stress to Direct
Stress at Yield Condition for Steel Specimen) and select the correct answer using the
code given below the Lists:
[IES2006]
ListI
ListII
A. Maximum shear stress theory
1. 10
B. Maximum distortion energy theory
2. 0577
C. Maximum principal stress theory
3. 062
D. Maximum principal strain theory
4. 050
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a)
1
2
4
3
(b)
4
3
1
2
(c)
1
3
4
2
(d)
4
2
1
3
IES2.
From a tension test, the yield strength of steel is found to be 200 N/mm 2. Using a factor
of safety of 2 and applying maximum principal stress theory of failure, the permissible
stress in the steel shaft subjected to torque will be:
[IES2000]
(a) 50 N/mm2
(b) 57.7 N/mm2
(c) 86.6. N/mm2
(d) 100 N/mm2
IES3.
A circular solid shaft is subjected to a bending moment of 400 kNm and a twisting
moment of 300 kNm. On the basis of the maximum principal stress theory, the direct
stress is and according to the maximum shear stress theory, the shear stress is . The
ratio / is:
[IES2000]
Chapter15
1
a
5
S K Mondals
Theories of Failure
3
b
9
9
c
5
11
d
6
IES4.
A transmission shaft subjected to bending loads must be designed on the basis of[IES1996]
(a) Maximum normal stress theory
(b) Maximum shear stress theory
(c) Maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress theories
(d) Fatigue strength
IES5.
IES5a
Assertion (A): A cast iron specimen shall fail due to shear when subjected to a
compressive load.
[IES2010]
Reason (R): Shear strength of cast iron in compression is more than half its compressive
strength.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Which one of the following figures represents the maximum shear stress theory or
Tresca criterion?
[IES1999]
IES7.
According to the maximum shear stress theory of failure, permissible twisting moment
in a circular shaft is 'T'. The permissible twisting moment will the same shaft as per the
maximum principal stress theory of failure will be:
[IES1998: ISRO2008]
(a) T/2
IES8.
(b) T
(c)
2T
(d) 2T
(b) M
(c)
2M
(d) 2M
IES9.
A rod having crosssectional area 100 x 10 6 m2 is subjected to a tensile load. Based on
the Tresca failure criterion, if the uniaxial yield stress of the material is 200 MPa, the
failure load is:
[IES2001]
(a) 10 kN
(b) 20 kN
(c) 100 kN
(d) 200 kN
IES10.
A cold roller steel shaft is designed on the basis of maximum shear stress theory. The
principal stresses induced at its critical section are 60 MPa and  60 MPa respectively. If
the yield stress for the shaft material is 360 MPa, the factor of safety of the design is:[IES2002]
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 6
IES11.
Chapter15
IES12.
S K Mondals
Theories of Failure
[IES1998]
(b) Maximum distortion energy theory
(d) Maximum principal stress theory
[IES2008]
(d) MisesHenky
IES14.
[IES2008]
(d) MisesHenky
IES15.
The maximum distortion energy theory of failure is suitable to predict the failure of
which one of the following types of materials?
[IES2004]
(a) Brittle materials
(b) Ductile materials
(c) Plastics
(d) Composite materials
IES16.
If y is the yield strength of a particular material, then the distortion energy theory is
expressed as
[IES1994]
(a)
(b)
1 2 2 3 3 1
2
2
1
2 y2
22 32 2 (1 2 2 3 31 ) y2
1 2 2 3 3 1 3 y2
2
2
(d) 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 y
(c)
IES17.
If a shaft made from ductile material is subjected to combined bending and twisting
moments, calculations based on which one of the following failure theories would give the
most conservative value?
[IES1996]
(a) Maximum principal stress theory
(b) Maximum shear stress theory.
(d Maximum strain energy theory
(d) Maximum distortion energy theory.
Match ListI (Failure theories) with ListII (Figures representing boundaries of these
theories) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: [IES1997]
ListI
ListII
A. Maximum principal stress
theory
Chapter15
S K Mondals
Theories of Failure
D. Maximum
shear
energy theory
strain
Code:
(a)
(c)
C
3
3
A
2
4
B
1
2
D
4
1
A
2
2
(b)
(d)
B
4
4
C
3
1
D
1
3
For
1 2
(a) A rectangle
(b) An ellipse
(c) A square
(d) A parabola
IAS3.
IAS4.
[IAS1996]
1 2 3
tension; which one of the following must be satisfied such that the elastic failure does not
occur in accordance with the maximum principal strain theory?
[IAS2004]
(a)
1 2 3
E E
E
E
(b)
1 2 3
E E
E
E
Chapter15
(c)
Theories of Failure
1 2 3
E E
E
E
(d)
1 2 3
E E
E
E
S K Mondals
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (a)  3, (c) 1, (d) 5, (e) 2
St. Venant's law: Maximum principal strain theory
GATE2. Ans. (d) Aluminium is a ductile material so use maximum shear stress theory
GATE3. Ans. (c)
1
2
2
2
Vs
1 2 2 3 3 1 Where E 2G(1 ) simplifyand getresult.
12G
GATE4. Ans. (c) According to distortion energy theory if maximum stress ( t) then
or t2 12 22 1 2
1
2
1
6
10 20 20 10 10 20 6 5 0 0
2
2
xy
2
yz
2
zx
2
27.84 MPa
y
3
e
3
27.84
16
M M2 T2
3
d
Therefore
and
16
d3
16.07 MPa
M2 T2
M M2 T2 4 42 32 9
5
M2 T2
42 32
16T yt
16 2T
d3
16
M M2 T2
3
d
16
M2 T2 put T = 0
3
d
32M
32M
16M yt d3 16M
or yt
and
ThereforeM M
2
2
d3
d3
d3
and
Chapter15
S K Mondals
Theories of Failure
IES9. Ans. (b) Tresca failure criterion is maximum shear stress theory.
Weknow that,
IES10. Ans. (b)
P sin 2
P yt
or P = s yt A
or max
A 2
2A
2
80 0
2
2
30 50 N/mm
2
2
y
2
; F .S .
280
2.8
2 50
Chapter15
S K Mondals
Theories of Failure
IAS
IAS1. Ans. (c) Rankine failure theory or
Maximum principle stress theory.
y
3
0.577 y
e
E
1
E
2
E
3
E
1 60 N / m m 2 & 2 36 N / m m 2
If the allowable stress for the material in simple tension or compression is
100
N/mm2 calculate the value of factor of safety with each of the following
criteria for failure
(i) Max Stress Criteria
(ii) Max Shear Stress Criteria
(iii) Max strain criteria
(iv) Max Distortion energy criteria
[10 Marks]
Ans.
1 60 N / mm 2
(i)
2 36 N / mm 2
Allowable stress for the material in simple tension or compression is 100 N/mm2
Find out factor of safety for
Maximum stress Criteria :  In this failure point occurs when max principal stress reaches
the limiting strength of material.
Therefore. Let F.S factor of safety
a llowa ble
F.S
F.S
(ii)
100 N / m m 2
1.67
60 N / m m 2
An s.
Maximum Shear stress criteria :  According to this failure point occurs at a point in a
member when maximum shear stress reaches to shear at yield point
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
max =
yt
S K Mondals
yt = 100 N / mm2
2 F.S
max =
1 2
2
60 + 36 96
=
= 48 N / mm2
2
2
100
2 F.S
100
100
F.S =
=
= 1.042
2 48 96
F.S = 1.042 Ans.
48 =
(iii)
Maximum Strain Criteria ! In this failure point occurs at a point in a member when
maximum strain in a bi axial stress system reaches the limiting value of strain (i.e
strain at yield point)
+
2 1 2 = allowable
FOS
FOS = 1.27
12
22
( = 0.3assume)
(iv)
12
22
yt
1 2 =
F.S
2
100
602 + ( 36 ) 60 36 =
F.S
F.S = 1.19
Answer:
32M
d 3
16T
d 3
1,2 =
M M 2 + T 2
16
M + M 2 + T 2 = 210 106
3
Chapter15
or
16
(0.050)
Theories of Failure
1500 + 15002 + T 2 = 210 106
S K Mondals
or , 2
16
M 2 + T 2 = 210 106
d3
Illustrate the graphical comparison of following theories of failures for twodimensional stress system:
(i)
(ii)
State the Von Mises's theory. Also give the naturally expression.
According to this theory yielding would occur when total distortion energy absorbed
per unit volume due to applied loads exceeds the distortion energy absorbed per unit
volume at the tensile yield point. The failure criterion is
(1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1) = 2 2y
2
Derive an expression for the distortion energy per unit volume for a body
subjected to a uniform stress state, given by the 1 and 2 with the third
principal stress 3 being zero.
Answer:
According to this theory yielding would occur when total distortion energy absorbed
per unit volume due to applied loads exceeds the distortion energy absorbed per unit
volume at the tensile yield point. Total strain energy ET and strain energy for volume
change EV can be given as
Chapter15
or
16
(0.050)
Theories of Failure
1500 + 15002 + T 2 = 210 106
S K Mondals
or , 2
16
M 2 + T 2 = 210 106
d3
Illustrate the graphical comparison of following theories of failures for twodimensional stress system:
(i)
(ii)
State the Von Mises's theory. Also give the naturally expression.
According to this theory yielding would occur when total distortion energy absorbed
per unit volume due to applied loads exceeds the distortion energy absorbed per unit
volume at the tensile yield point. The failure criterion is
(1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1) = 2 2y
2
Derive an expression for the distortion energy per unit volume for a body
subjected to a uniform stress state, given by the 1 and 2 with the third
principal stress 3 being zero.
Answer:
According to this theory yielding would occur when total distortion energy absorbed
per unit volume due to applied loads exceeds the distortion energy absorbed per unit
volume at the tensile yield point. Total strain energy ET and strain energy for volume
change EV can be given as
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
The failure criterion is thus obtained by equating Ed and Edy , which gives
Answer:
Will the cube yield if the yield strength of the material is 70 MPa? Use VonMises theory.
Yield strength of the material s et = 70 MPa = 70 MN/m2 or 70 N/mm2.
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
(i) Principal stress 1, 2 , 3 :
2000
= 80 N/mm2 ;
55
500
= 20 N/mm2 ;
z =
55
x =
x + y
2
= 60
S K Mondals
1000
= 40 N/mm2
55
800
=
= 32 N/mm2
55
y =
xy
y
80 + 40
2
+ xy
x
=
2
2
80 40
2
+ (32)
2
2
and
(1 2 ) + (2 3 ) + ( 3 1) 2yt2
2
(1 2 ) + (2 3 ) + ( 3 1)
2
Now
(i )
= 11745.8
2yt2 = 2 (70) = 9800
(ii )
and,
when
Answer:
and are respectively the axial and torsional stresses in the tube.
P
2rt
xy =
Tr
Tr
T
=
=
3
J
2r t 2r 3 t
4
(r + t ) r 4 = 2r 3t neglecting t 2 higher power of t.
2
P
T
The state of stress in the tube is, x =
, y = 0, xy =
2rt
2r 3 t
J=
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
= + 12
2
0
2
1
1 =
2 =
2
2
x y 2
2
+ xy
+
x + y
2
x + y
2
In this case,
x y
2
+ xy
2
2
1 =
x
x2
2
, and
+
+ xy
2
4
2 =
x
x2
2
+ xy
2
4
( y = 0)
2
2
2
x2
2
x x + 2 x + x + 2 x x + 2
= x +
+ xy
+
xy
xy
xy
2
2
4
4
4
4
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
x + x + 2 + 2. x . x + 2
= x + x + xy
+ 2. x . x + xy
+
xy
xy
4
4
2
4
4
2
4
4
2 2
2
x x xy
4
2
2
= x + 3 xy
2
2
0
2
0 = x2 + 3 xy
Answer:
Equivalent torque, Te = M 2 + T 2 =
Factor of safety =
150
= 3.085
48.62
300
= 150MN/m2
2
Chapter16
S K Mondals
Chapter16
S K Mondals
Bolts in the flanged end of pressure vessel are usually pretensioned Indicate which of
the following statements is NOT TRUE?
[GATE1999]
(a) Pretensioning helps to seal the pressure vessel
(b) Pretensioning increases the fatigue life of the bolts
(c) Pretensioning reduces the maximum tensile stress in the bolts
(d) Pretensioning helps to reduce the effect of pressure pulsations in the pressure vessel
GATE2.
GATE3.
GATE4.
(C) 20kN,0kN
[GATE2008]
(D) 0kN, 20 kN
[GATE2008]
(D) 195 MPa
A bolted joint is shown below. The maximum shear stress, in MPa, in the bolts at A and
B, respectively are:
[GATE2007]
Chapter16
S K Mondals
A bracket (shown in figure) is rigidly mounted on wall using four rivets. Each rivet is 6
mm in diameter and has an effective length of 12 mm.
[GATE2010]
Direct shear stress (in MPa) in the most heavily loaded rivet is:
(a) 4.4
(b) 8.8
(c) 17.6
(d) 35.2
If the ratio of the diameter of rivet hole to the pitch of rivets is 0.25, then the tearing
efficiency of the joint is:
[GATE1996]
(a) 0.50
(b) 0.75
(c) 0.25
(d) 0.87
GATE7.
A manufacturer of rivets claims that the failure load in shear of his product is 500 25
N. This specification implies that
[GATE1992]
(a) No rivet is weaker than 475 N and stronger than 525 N
(b) The standard deviation of strength of random sample of rivets is 25 N
(c) There is an equal probability of failure strength to be either 475 Nor 525 N
(d) There is approximately twotoone chance that the strength of a rivet lies between
475 N to 525 N
Chapter16
S K Mondals
[IES2002]
IES2.
IES3.
If permissible stress in
plates of joint through a pin
as shown in the given
figure is 200 MPa, then the
width w will be
(a) 15 mm
(b) 18 mm
(c) 20 mm
(d) 25 mm
[IES1999]
IES4.
[IES2000]
Page 426 of 431
Chapter16
S K Mondals
IES5.
Assertion (A): In preloaded bolted joints, there is a tendency for failure to occur in the
gross plate section rather than through holes.
[IES2000]
Reason (R): The effect of preloading is to create sufficient friction between the
assembled parts so that no slippage occurs.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES6.
Two rigid plates are clamped by means of bolt and nut with an initial force N. After
tightening, a separating force P (P < N) is applied to the lower plate, which in turn acts
on nut. The tension in the bolt after this is:
[IES1996]
(a) (N + P)
(b) (N P)
(c) P
(d) N
Which one of the following structural joints with 10 rivets and same size of plate and
material will be the most efficient?
[IES1994]
IES8.
The most efficient riveted joint possible is one which would be as strong in tension, shear
and bearing as the original plates to be joined. But this can never be achieved because:[IES1993]
(a) Rivets cannot be made with the same material
(b) Rivets are weak in compression
(c) There should be at least one hole in the plate reducing its strength
(d) Clearance is present between the plate and the rivet
Assertion (A): In a boiler shell with riveted construction, the longitudinal scam is, jointed
by butt joint.
[IES2001]
Reason (R): A butt joint is stronger than a lap joint in a riveted construction.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Chapter16
S K Mondals
and select the correct answer using the code given below the
[IAS2007]
ListII
(Situation/ Location)
1. Neutral axis of beam
2. Closed coil helical spring under axial load
3. Cylindrical shell subject to fluid pressure
4. Rivets of double strap butt joint
C
D
A
B
C
D
4
2
(b)
4
2
3
1
4
1
(d)
4
1
3
2
OBJECTIVE ANSWERS
GATE1. Ans. (c)
GATE2. Ans. (a) Primary (Direct) Shear load =
4 kN
2k N
2
1000
250 N
4
and
F
250
8.8MPa
A (6)2
4
Chapter16
S K Mondals
IES
IES1. Ans. (b)
IES2. Ans. (d)
P = 2F2 = 2 x 3 = 6 kN
and P.L = F1l F1l = 2 F1l
or 6 L 2 4l 8l
L 8
or
l 6
4 3
2
2 4 3cos
5 kN
Shear stress on rivet,
=
R
5103
=10 N/mm 2
Area
500
Chapter16
S K Mondals
Answer:
The longitudinal joint of a thin cylindrical pressure vessel, 6 m internal diameter and
16 mm plate thickness, is double riveted lap point with no staggering between the
rows. The rivets are of 20 mm nominal (diameter with a pitch of 72 mm. What is the
efficiency of the joint and what would be the safe pressure inside the vessel? Allowable
stresses for the plate and rivet materials are; 145 MN/m 2 in shear and 230 MN/m2 in
bearing. Take rivet hole diameter as 1.5 mm more than the rivet diameter.
Given: Diameter of rivet = 20 mm
Diameter of hole = 20 + 1.5 = 21.5 mm
Diameter the pressure vessel, d = 6 m
Thickness of the plate, t = 16 mm
Type of the joint: Double riveted lap joint
Allowable stresses:
1 145 MN / m 2 ; 120 MN / m 2 ; c 230 MN / m 2
72 2 21.5 16
St r en gt h of pla t e in t ea r in g/pit ch , R t
145
1000
1000
0.06728 MN
20
St r en gt h of r iver t in t ea r in g/pit ch , R s 2
120
4 1000
0.0754 MN
16
20
St r en gt h of pla t e in cr u sh in g/pit ch , R s 2
230
1000
1000
0.1472 MN
From the above three modes of failure it can be seen that the weakest element is the
plate as it will have tear failure at 0.06728 MN/pitch load itself.
Stresses acting on the plate for an inside pressure of pN/m 2 is shown in figure.
pd
p 6
H oop st r ess
187.5 p
2t
2 0.016
pd
p 6
93.75 p
4t
4 0.016
pd
2t
Chapter16
or
S K Mondals
0.06728
187.5 p
145
72 2 21.5
0.016 1000
0.4028 40.28%
p.t . t 0.072 0.016 145
Answer:
Determine the shaft diameter and bolt size for a marine flangecoupling transmitting
3.75 MW at 150 r.p.m. The allowable shear stress in the shaft and bolts may be taken
as 50 MPa. The number of bolts may be taken as 10 and bolt pitch circle diameter as
1.6 times the shaft diameter.
Given, P = 3.75MW; N = 150 r.p.m.;
s b 50 M Pa ;
n 10,
Db 1.6 D
Sh a ft dia m et er , D :
2 N T
P
60
2 150 T
E
3.78 10 6
60
3.75 10 6 60
or
T
238732 Nm
2 150
Also,
T s
or
238732 50 10 6
238732 16
D
0.28 m or 290 m m
6
50 10
16
D3
16
D3
Bolt size, d b :
Bolt pit ch cir cl e dia m et er , Db 1.6 D 1.6 0.29 0.464 m
D
d b2 b b
2
Now,
T n
or
238732 10
or
0.464
d b2 50 10 6
4
2
d b 0.0512 m or 51.2 m m