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Q.1.(a). State the reasons for the freeboard requirement.

(b). Explain the term condition of assignment and explain how these are maintained for a ship.

What is the difference between a Type-A and a Type-B ship?

Ans.(a). Freeboard- The vertical distance measured at the ship's side between the service draught
and the freeboard deck.
The freeboard deck is the uppermost deck exposed to weather and sea,which has permanent
means of closing all openings in the ship's side have watertight closings.
This is required for all the ships as per International convention for load lines,1966 also
called Load Line convention,1966.
It should not be less than 50 mm irrespective of any ship.
Reasons for freeboard requirement 1. To ensure that ship can't be loaded beyond her strength.
2. To provide her with adequate reserve buoyancy,which improves stability of the ship.
3. To keep the decks high enough from the water to enable the crew to navigate and
handle her in all weathers.
Ans.(b).Condition of assignment - It is the condition of assignment of freeboard.
The design and construction of the ship should be such that the stability in all loading
conditions is adequate for the freeboard assigned.
Conditions of assignment are maintained as follows 1.Machinery space openings must be properly framed and constructed.
2.Ventilators must have coamings of a given height,with means of closing.
3.If air pipes must be of certain minimum height and must have efficient means of closing.
4.Openings in ship's side,below the freeboard deck,must have efficient watertight doors.
5.Hatchways closed by weather tight steel covers.
6.All openings in the freeboard deck should be properly protected and closed and provision
should be made to allow the ship to free herself quickly of water which may come in upon
7.The ship must be stable at all loaded conditions and must meet certain requirements for
range and righting lever.
8.Superstructure End bulkheads - The heights of the sills of openings at the ends of
enclosed superstructure should be at least 380 mm above deck.
9.Side scuttles - Below the freeboard deck side scuttles should be fitted with efficient
hinged and watertight.
10.Freeing ports - These must have minimum freeing port area on each side of the ship.
11.Protection of Crew - Efficient guard rails or bulwarks of minimum height 1 m are to be
fitted on all exposed parts of freeboard and superstructure decks.

Ans.(c). Difference between Type-A and Type-B ships Type-A ship - These are the ships which are intended to carry only liquid cargoes in bulk.
These are assigned less freeboard,for vessels of their length,than ships of Type-B.
They have high integrity of exposed deck, together with excellent subdivision of cargo space.
These ships are allowed to load to a comparatively deeper draught.

These ships have low permeability of loaded cargo compartment.

Under any condition of loading,the vessel should remain afloat without excessive heel and
have positive stability.
Any condition of loading indicates the maximum loading according to International load line
convention,1966 and may be the satisfaction of flag administration or recognised
Type-B ship- All ships other than Type-A ship are called Type-B ship.
The basic Type-B ship is assigned a greater freeboard than a Type-A ship of same length
and assumed to be fitted with steel hatch covers.
For these ships it may be based on(i) The penetration of damage is not more than 1/5 of the breadth moulded.
(ii) The vertical extent of damage is equal to the depth of the ship.
(iii) No main transverse bulkhead is damaged.
These ships having steel weathertight covers fitted with gaskets and clamping devices.

Type-B ships are of two type as per their freeboard.

1.Type-B-100 - Type-B ship which adopts Type-A freeboard,called Type-B-100.
It's final calculated freeboard will be almost the same as Type-A ship.
A Type-B 100 ship is any Type-B ship of over 100 mtr. in length which can be reduced up to
100 percent of the difference between the "B" and "A" freeboard tabular values.
It must survive the flooding of any two adjacent forward and aft compartments(excluding
machinery space).If greater than 150m LBP,the machinery space must be considered
as a floodable space.
2.Type-B 60 - A Type-B 60 ship is any Type-B ship of over 100 mtr. in length which,is
assigned with a value of tabular freeboard which can be reduced upto 60 percent of the
difference between the "B"and "A" tabular values for the appropriate ship lengths.
It must survive the flooding of any single compartment(excluding machinery space).
If greater than 150m LBP,the machinery space must be considered as a floodable space.
A typical ship type for a Type-B 60 vessel is a bulk carrier.

Type B-60 definition;

Type B vessel with an approved reduction in tabular freeboard of up to 60% of the difference
between type B and type A vessels

Type B-100 definition;

Type B vessel with an approved reduction in tabular freeboard of between 60 and 100% of the
difference between type B and type A vessels

Requirements for Type B-60 reduction in freeboard;

- Ship must be over 100m in length

- Protection of crew - raised or underdeck walkways
- Freeing arrangements must be adequate (consider railings instead of bulwarks)
- Hatch covers in position 1 and 2 must be of steel and of sufficient strength, sealing and securing

Requirements for Type B-100 reduction in freeboard

- All the requirements of a type B-60 vessel, plus;
- All the special structural conditions of assignment of a Type A vessel

Type A definition;
- Any ship designed to carry liquid cargoes in bulk
- Has a high integrity of exposed deck
- Small access opening to cargo compartments, closed by watertight gasketed covers of steel or
equivalent material
- Low permeability of cargo

Special structural conditions of assignment for type A ships

- Machinery casings shall be protected by an enclosed poop, bridge or deckhouse of standard
height, with if required, access through a series of two suitable weather tight doors.
- An efficiently constructed raised walkway or below decks passageway to allow safe access for
the crew from the superstructure to all areas of work and machinery spaces
- Exposed hatchways on top of exposed decks shall be provided with efficient water tight covers
of steel or equivalent material
- Ships with bulwarks shall have open rails fitted for at least half the length of the exposed parts
of the weather deck, or other effective freeing arrangements.
- The upper edge of the sheer strake shall be kept as low as practicable
- Where superstructures are connected by trunks, open rails shall be fitted for the whole length of
the exposed part of the freeboard deck.

Factors for finding Tabular Freeboard

- Length of vessel
- Type of vessel - A or B; refer to table A or table B for tabular freeboard based on the 'standard

Corrections to Tabular freeeboard to find Basic Freebooard

Block Coefficient correction

Block Coefficient correction;

Standard ship has Cb = 0.68

- If the Cb is greater than 0.68 the freeboard is INCREASED
- The ratio of underwater volume to reserve bouyancy must remain the same
- If Cb is >0.68 the tabular freeboard in inreased by a factor equal to;
- Tabular freeboard x Cb+0.68 / 1.36

Corrections to Basic Freeboard to find Assigned Freeboard

- Length to depth ratio
- Deck line
- Superstructure
- Sheer
- Bow height

Length to depth ratio correction;

- The standard ship has length to depth ratio of 15:1
(most vessels have a L:D ratio less than 15:1)
- If L:D ratio is less than 15:1 freeboard is increased
- If L:D ration is more than 15:1 freeboard can be reduced
- The ratio of underwater volume to reserve bouyancy must remain the same

Deck line correction;

In the instance of there being a curved deck edge, discontinuous deck or deck sheathing the deck
line correction allows for the difference between the deck line and the true height of the deck.

Superstructure correction;
The standard ship is considered to have no superstructure.
If the ship has an effective superstructure the basic freeboard may be reduced by up to 1070mm
depending on the length of the superstructure in relation to the length of the vessel.

Sheer correction;
- The standard ship is assumed to have a 'standard' sheer.
- If the vessel has greater sheer the basic freeboard may be reduced.
- If the vessel has less sheer the basic freeboard will be increased.
- Increased sheer provides greater reserve buoyancy
- The ratio of underwater volume to reserve bouyancy must remain the same

Bow height correction;

- Load line rules specify a calculated minimum bow height based on the ship's length and block
- If the vessel's bow height is less than the required minimum, the freeboard is increased by the

- Bow height provides reserve buoyancy

Bow height can be achieved by;

- Sheer - provided sheer extends at least 0.15L aft from FP
- Forecastle - provided forecastle extends at least 0.07L aft from FP

Assigned freeboard defined;

After corrections the assigned freeboard is the Summer Freeboard in salt water.
- The Summer Freeboard shall not be less than 50mm
- If the ship has hatches in position 1 that are not made of steel then the summer freeboard shall
not be less than 150mm (ignoring correction for position of the deck line)

Type B definition;
Any ship that is not a Type A ship