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Activities to Improve Gross Motor Skills

General Play- Encourage the child to engage in rough play indoors or outdoors
which involves lots of running, jumping, hopping, skipping, tumbling, rolling, playing
on swings, playing on monkey bars, riding a tricycle or bicycle, etc.
fine motor skills
handling play-dough also develops some important skills. Squeezing and stretching it helps
strengthen finger muscles, and touching it is a valuable sensory experience.
Do some finger painting.
Using finger paint can strengthen your child’s hand-eye coordination
Squeeze out a sponge
Color with broken crayons.
Sewing/Lacing Cards
Importance of using puppet
Puppets add a new and exciting element to children’s impromptu or planned performances.
Through puppets, children feel empowered to speak and behave on behalf of the character they
are portraying. Children can pick up a puppet, begin speaking in a different voice, and quickly
adopt the personality of the character they are portraying. (Often this personality is very
different from his or her own). Children can also take part in performances in which the teacher
acts as narrator, telling the story while pausing for actions and dialogue to be performed by the
child’s puppet. The opportunities for fun and learning through puppets are unlimited.
Puppets are a valuable means for promoting oral language skills and confidence in
public speaking.
the use of puppets invites role play where a teacher or parent can explore with
children issues such as conflict resolution, empathy, how to deal with aggression and
bullying from others, how to be kind and helpful, etc.
Puppet Play for Thinking Skills When children use puppets to tell stories, a number of
cognitive skills come into play. They can retell stories using their memories and
sequencing the events. They can also alter the stories, thinking of different endings,
additional events, and projecting the characters’ lives and events into the future. And
then, there’s the creation of their own stories, further stimulating their creativity and
imagination, developing their problem solving skills and their ability to narrate.

children learn at different rates and with different styles. and tying Newer teaching strategies There are 7 primary learning styles: .How can I tell if my child has a learning disability? During the preschool and kindergarten years. motor skills. or speech. the alphabet. letters. such as dyslexia or dyscalculia – disorders that impair reading and math abilities. problems with reading. or math skills. But if your child has significant trouble with numbers. Sometimes it's clear that a child has one kind of disability. or colors and shapes  Poor concentration  Difficulty following directions  Poor grasp of a crayon or pen  Difficulty with buttoning. But it's also common for children to have a combination of different disorders. Red flags that could indicate a learning disability in children age 5 and under include:  Delayed speech  Pronunciation problems  Difficulty learning new words  Difficulty learning to read  Trouble learning numbers. he may have a learning disability. or memory. days of the week. and a range of other disorders such as problems with coordination. respectively. writing. zipping. Learning disabilities are often grouped into three categories: speech or language disorders.

images. and Kinesthetic is feeling the material. And where there’s desire. .Visual (Spatial) – These individuals learn best through pictures. The ‘About A Topic’ mistake is when you teach ‘About A Topic’. you guessed it.Visual. The Desire Method The reason it’s so hard for teachers to grab their students attention is because most teachers make the classic ‘About A Topic’ mistake. verbal and/or written Physical (Kinesthetic) – These individuals learn best through experience and rely on the sense of touch Logical (Mathematical) – These individuals learn best through logic and reasoning Social (Interpersonal) – These individuals learn best through group interaction Solitary (Intrapersonal) – These individuals learn best through self-study It is important to note that many kids learn well from a blend of learning styles. Audio. A Wild Secret for Effective Teaching:Teach with VAK Here’s something you already know: There are 3 main types of learners . notice which type your students are. the optimal learning environment is NOT to sit passively waiting for a lecture to end. Visual is seeing the material. Audio is hearing the material. and feels the material themselves. you create desire. When you show a benefit. you hold attention. To really master effective teaching. Meaning. hears. and Kinesthetic. The IDEAL learning environment is when the Student sees. 1. and spatial understanding Aural (Auditory) – These individuals learn best through sound and music Verbal (Linguistic) – These individuals learn best through words. Student needs to immediately feel the benefit of the content you are teaching.

pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise Achieves object permanence: realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley) Pre-operational (2-7 years) Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking .2yrs) Pre-operational Stage (2yrs-7yrs) Concrete Operational Stage (7yrs-11yrs) Formal Operations Stage (11yrs-16yrs) Characterised by Differentiates self from objects Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. The following discussion outlines these four stages: Stage Sensori-motor (Birth-2 yrs) Sensory Motor Stage (Birth .Piagets stages of growth and development Piaget concluded that there were four different stages in the cognitive development of children.

and socialization.the viewpoint of others Classifies objects by a single feature: e. 6-12 (sometimes temporarily 6-9 and 9-12). child to child teaching.g. Children are challenged according to their ability and never bored. There is constant interaction. Work centers . developed by Dr. individual pace and according to their own choice of activities from hundreds of possibilities. not just through listening. problem solving. watching. Formal operational (11 years and up) Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systemtically Becomes concerned with the hypothetical. or reading. 12-15.The three-hour work period Multi-age grouping Children are grouped in mixed ages and abilities in three to six year spans: 0-3. 3-6. and weight (age 9) Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size. is a childcentered educational approach Montessori emphasizes learning through all five senses. The schedule . Children in Montessori classes learn at their own. 15-18. and ideological problems Montessorie method of teaching The Montessori Method of education. Maria Montessori. the future. mass (age 7). groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour Concrete operational (7-11 years) Can think logically about objects and events Achieves conservation of number (age 6).

music. Birth to 2 Years  Encourage your baby to make vowel-like and consonant-vowel sounds such as "ma." . There is no limit to how long a child can work with a piece of material. where you are going. reading and singing with them.  Teach your baby to imitate your actions. For example. will be being studied. and playing finger games such as pat-a-cake. and dress your baby. at all levels. responding with speech.  Talk as you bathe. and who and what you will see. raise the pitch of your voice to indicate a question. including clapping you hands. language." "da. what you will do when you arrive. science. not by correcting" Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development We can help build listening and understanding skills by talking with them.  Imitate your baby's laughter and facial expressions.. history. throwing kisses. Teaching method . listening to them.math. Talk about what you are doing.  Count items.  Use gestures such as waving goodbye to help convey meaning.  Identify colors. geography."  Reinforce attempts by maintaining eye contact. etc. art. peek-a-boo. and the itsy-bitsy-spider. At any one time in a day all subjects -. and children are always free to move around the room instead of staying at desks. and imitating vocalizations using different patterns and emphasis."Teach by teaching." and "ba.  Introduce animal sounds to associate a sound with a specific meaning: "The doggie says woof-woof. feed.The environment is arranged according to subject area.

Group them into categories. We will have dinner now. Talk about what is wrong with the picture and ways to "fix" it. "This is my ball. Mama loves you. I can smell flowers. and identify what you do with them. things for dessert. Build and expand on what was said. things to play with. Ask questions such as "Are you a boy?" "Are you Marty?" "Can a pig fly?" Encourage your child to make up questions and try to fool you. "Want juice? I have juice. Do you want apple juice?"  Use baby talk only if needed to convey the message and when accompanied by the adult word. Sometimes "reading" is simply describing the pictures in a book without following the written words. Ask your child. Where is baby? Here is baby."  Make a scrapbook of favorite or familiar things by cutting out pictures. and soap. brownies." . Create silly pictures by mixing and matching pictures.  Expand on single words your baby uses: "Here is Mama. "Do you want an apple or an orange?" "Do you want to wear your red or blue shirt?"  Expand vocabulary. Choose books that are sturdy and have large colorful pictures that are not too detailed. Have your child remove the object and tell you what it is called and how to use it.  Help your child understand and ask questions. "This is my nose."  Read to your child.  Place familiar objects in a container. Name body parts. Glue a picture of a dog behind the wheel of a car. Play the yes-no game. "What's this?" and encourage naming and pointing to familiar objects in the book. things to eat. Acknowledge the attempt to communicate. fruits.  Repeat what your child says indicating that you understand."  Sing simple songs and recite nursery rhymes to show the rhythm and pattern of speech. I play with it. such as things to ride on. I bounce it. Count items pictured in the book. 2 to 4 Years  Use good speech that is clear and simple for your child to model.  Ask questions that require a choice. "It is time for din-din. I have apple juice. popcorn.

 Work on forming and explaining categories. encourage."  Help your child follow two. This gives your child a chance to continue the conversation. Talk about the characters. it is not round.  Make sure that you have your child's attention before you speak. and retell what happened or make up a new story. or use it in a context that is easily understood.  The television also can serve as a valuable tool.  Pause after speaking.  Continue to build vocabulary. Talk about the different rooms and furnishings in the house. middle. and have your child identify what you are describing: "We use it to sweep the floor" (a broom). with your pretending to be the child."  Talk about spatial relationships (first. I like strawberry" (ice cream). Identify the thing that does not belong in a group of similar objects: "A shoe does not belong with an apple and an orange because you can't eat it. "It is cold.  Play games with your child such as "house. and praise all attempts to speak.and three-step directions: "Go to your room. sweet. 4 to 6 Years  When your child starts a conversation. "I think I will drive the vehicle to the store. if appropriate. give your full attention whenever possible. and last. on and off). Use photographs of familiar people and places. and bring me your book. it is not a fruit. Have him or her guess what might happen next. Follow his or her directions as he or she explains how to build a tower of blocks. humorous manner. Show that you understand the word or phrase by fulfilling the request.  Offer a description or clues. Introduce a new word and offer its definition. right and left) and opposites (up and down.  Acknowledge."  Encourage your child to give directions. Talk about what the child is watching. I am too tired to walk. Are they happy or sad? Ask your child to tell you what has ." Exchange roles in the family. and good for dessert. This may be done in an exaggerated.

and what you will make. in your lap. their color. or under the spoon. Read It Again and Again and Again! Reading books multiple times 8. and weight (heavy or light) of the packages." "It is Daddy's." "It is John's. Where does the food come from? Which foods do you like? Which do you dislike? Who will clean up? Emphasize the use of prepositions by asking him or her to put the napkin on the table. Read Interactively Using books to engage children’s participation 7. Sign It Using gestures or simple signs with words Reggio melia approach . Act out a scene together. Mix It Up Using different types of words and grammar 4. and make up a different ending.happened in the story. Get Chatty Engaging in conversations with children 2. how many you need. Label It Providing children with the names of objects or actions 5."  While shopping for groceries. Practice Description 1. shape (long. Tune In Engaging in activities or objects that interest children 6. Be a Commentator Giving descriptions of objects. Please! Introducing objects that spark conversations 9.  Take advantage of daily activities. square). while in the kitchen. activities or events 3. For example. Identify who the napkin belongs to: "It is my napkin. Discuss the foods on the menu. Make Music Engaging in musical activities 10. encourage your child to name the utensils needed. and taste. texture. round. Props. Discuss the size (large or small). discuss what you will buy.

underpinned by several fundamental. and researcher. guide. guiding principles. ask questions. collaborator.  Children learn best working with others: with other children. orderly space where everything has a purpose and can help children learn."  The Parent as Partner  Documentation as communication PRINCIPLES OF REGGIO EMILIA:  Children are strong. and explore the children’s ideas.  Teachers provide experiences that “provoke” children’s thinking and learning. nurturer.  The environment as the "third teacher. play music and more  Children learn from the spaces they are in – they need beautiful.  The child as protagonist. and communicator  The teacher as partner. sing.The Reggio Approach is based on a comprehensive philosophy. build.  Children are capable of long-term. draw. family. teachers. act. . which make them active partners in the children’s learning.  Children have “the hundred languages” through which show us what they know in many ways – they move. capable and curious.  Teachers listen to and observe the children closely. interested. sustained learning when the topic is of interest to them. do collages. paint. and the community.  Parents provide ideas and skills.  Cooperation as the foundation of the educational system.  Teachers document the children’s work so that they can talk to each other and the children and better understand the children’s thinking and education in general. sculpt.

drawing . and curiosities of the children (the “image of the child”)  Encourage. collage (“the hundred languages”)  Listen to and implement children’s ideas for projects on which to work (“negotiated curriculum”)  Display the children’s creations and photographs. clay construction. showing the children at work in the classroom (“documentation”) . support. so that children are free to spend more time on projects that interest them and are often able to move between activities at their own pace (“the environment as the third teacher”)  Offer a wide variety of basic art media. competencies. including paints.THE REGGIO EMILIA APPROACH TO EARLY LEARNING IS BASED ON:  Child-centered learning  Creativity and aesthetics  Collaboration  Environments  Documentation  Working in partnership with parents TEACHERS INCORPORATING ASPECTS OF THIS APPROACH INTO THEIR PROGRAM WILL:  Build on the strengths. but carefully planned spaces and well-organized materials. and develop collaborative learning  Have less structured rooms.

predictable. controlled movement. the walls of the environment are used as a tool of reflection and revisiting by the children. sequential. thousand languages. feminine. ordered. cooperative. wire and the verbal arts of music. flexible. expected. methodical. the emphasis is of a vertical nature. dance. parents and teachers. conversations and visual expressions. hypotheses are adult established. predetermined. an internal process. in a co-learning context with the ideas flowing between children and teachers. problem solving and hypotheses developed within the triangle of child-teacher-parent interaction. The REGGIO EMILIA energy is group-centered. drama are not a priority in the MONTESSORI classroom. an expressive process. giving children a vehicle for expression and development. social. independent.  MONTESSORI has a pre-determined curriculum and materials set up by the teacher. freely expressive. serendipitous. linear. In REGGIO.  The visual arts of clay. structured. the emphasis is horizontal.  MONTESSORI classroom walls are traditionally bare and visually quiet to focus the children’s attention on the learning materials on the shelves. with the information flowing from the teacher to the children. Build a portfolio of children’s work at school (“documentation”)  Make a great effort to communicate with parents and to help parents feel involved in their child’s project work (“parents as partners”)  The MONTESSORI energy is individual. an expressive approach. REGGIO-inspired learning is determined by the children and teachers in collaboration. open-ended. rigid. spiral. movement. drawing. collage. fluid. Assistant Director. Center for Teaching . masculine. historical. these models of expression are seen as languages of the child – a hundred. new age. Bloom’s Taxonomy by Patricia Armstrong. open movement. REGGIO EMILIA classroom walls are filled with documents of the children’s explorations and experiences-photos. spontaneous. paint.

How can a parent help to foster healthy self-esteem in a child? These tips can make a big difference:  Be careful what you say. Kids can be sensitive to parents' and others' words.Background Information | The Original Taxonomy | The Revised Taxonomy | Why Use Bloom’s Taxonomy? | Further Information How Parents Can Help  Talk about the positive aspects of your child’s personality and help them to understand that it isn’t always about the way a person looks. Remember to praise your child not only for a job well done. it’s the person inside that really counts. but I'm really proud of the effort you put into it. "Well. criticise or blame your child which will give them negative messages which can stick and can have a detrimental impact on their emotional wellbeing later on in life." Instead. have made an effort and look good which will help to improve self esteem in children. try "Well. but also for effort. next time you'll work harder and make it. . For example. But be truthful. if your child doesn't make the soccer team. avoid saying something like.  Positive parenting is also vital as it is important that your child knows that you do recognise when they have done well." Reward effort and completion instead of outcome.  Try not to label. you didn't make the team.

but it was nice that you were able to talk about it instead of yelling or hitting. rewards the choice made. A helpful response might be: "You are a good student. For example. or anything else. Give positive. accurate feedback. We'll work on it together." This acknowledges a child's feelings. a child who does very well in school but struggles with math may say. your kids might eventually mirror you.  Inaccurate perceptions of self can take root and become reality to kids. I'm a bad student. Give hugs and tell kids you're proud of them when you can see them putting effort toward something or trying something at which they previously failed. "I can't do math. it's also a belief that can set a child up for failure. As adults. Be a positive role model. You do great in school. Math is a subject that you need to spend more time on.  pessimistic. Nurture your own self-esteem and they'll have a great role model. If you're excessively harsh on yourself. Sometimes." so use warmth and humor to help your kids learn about themselves and to appreciate what makes them unique. Your love will help boost your child's self-esteem. It's important for parents to identify kids' irrational beliefs about themselves. ability. . A better statement is." Be spontaneous and affectionate. Comments like "You always work yourself up into such a frenzy!" will make kids feel like they have no control over their outbursts. Encourage kids to see a situation in a more objective way. Helping kids set more accurate standards and be more realistic in evaluating themselves will help them have a healthy self-concept. Put notes in your child's lunchbox with messages like "I think you're terrific!"  Give praise often and honestly. a child's skill level is just not there — so helping kids overcome disappointments can really help them learn what they're good at and what they're not so good at. but without overdoing it. Having an inflated sense of self can lead kids and teens to put others down or feel that they're better than everyone else. and encourages the child to make the right choice again next time. which can be socially isolating. or unrealistic about your abilities and limitations. whether they're about perfection. it's OK to say "I can't carry a tune" or "I couldn't kick a ball to save my life. "I can see you were very angry with your brother." Not only is this a false generalization. Identify and redirect inaccurate beliefs. attractiveness.

Once children are given the lesson with the material. loving home environment. Montessori materials are designed to be aesthetically pleasing. mentoring programs in which an older child helps a younger one learn to read can do wonders for both kids. the teacher silently demonstrates the use of learning materials to them. and other factors that may affect kids' self-esteem. The child’s work as a purposeful. In order to help children focus. The main materials in the classroom are “didactic. yet sturdy and were developed by Maria Montessori to help children develop organization. A child who is exposed to parents who fight and argue repeatedly may feel they have no control over their environment and become helpless or depressed. problems in school. smelling. Montessori advocated that children learn best by doing. Encourage your kids to talk to you or other trusted adults about solving problems that are too big to solve by themselves.Activities that encourage cooperation rather than competition are especially helpful in fostering self-esteem. often on a mat that designates their space. Most Montessori classrooms have multiple age groups. which is intended to give children more opportunity to learn from each other.Create a safe. and exploring than by just listening. What Are Montessori’s Main Components? Social      The link between family and school is important. tasting.  Also watch for signs of abuse by others. This applies both to exercises for practical life and language. Volunteering and contributing to your local community can have positive effects on self-esteem for everyone involved. Help kids become involved in constructive experiences. they may work on it independently. ordered activity toward a determined end is highly valued.” These are materials that involve sensory experiences and are self-correcting. seeing. Children may then choose to practice on any material they have had a “lesson” about. children learn more by touching. Kids who don't feel safe  or are abused at home are at greatest risk for developing poor selfesteem. For example. . Curriculum    There is a belief in sensory learning. trouble with peers.

. sensory education. such as hand washing. For example. there should be a place for children to practice proper self-help skills.. The environment should be homelike.” (p.g. child-sized chairs that are lightweight). Since Montessori believed beauty helped with concentration. Evans (1971) summarized the preschool curriculum in a Montessori program as consisting “…of three broad phases: exercises for practical life. so child can learn practical life issues. 59) Environmental Set-Up      Montessori believed that the environment should be prepared by matching the child to the corresponding didactic material. The environment should be comfortable for children (e. the setting is aesthetically pleasing. each child is provided a place to keep her own belongings. and language activities (reading and writing). In the setting.