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CNLC Neutron Log GS, Sudan Oct. 2005 CNLC Contents This lecture will cover : 1. Introduction 2. When to Use Neutron Logs 3. Neutron Log measurement principle ; 4. Neutron Porosity ; 5. Effect Factors on Neutron Logs. CNLC 1. Introduction • Neutrons are produced by chemical sources and pulsed sources. Chemical neutron sources use a mixture of americium and beryllium and emit a constant stream of neutrons and gamma rays. • Pulsed sources are relatively harmless when not energized. They contain an electron accelerator and a target. When activated, the accelerator sends a short pulse of electrons into the target, which then emits a burst of neutrons. • The standard dual-spacing neutron tool use chemical sources, and Pulsed neutron sources are used for thermal neutron decay logging and C/O logs. CNLC 2. When to Use Neutron Logs Neutron logs can be used in any borehole, open or cased, fluid-filled or air-filled. The earliest neutron tools had a single detector, but almost all now have 2 detectors to reduce borehole effects. Neutron tools come in several varieties: Dual-Spacing Neutron tool (DSN) Dual-Spacing Epithermal Neutron tool (DSEN) Compensated Neutron tool (CNL) CNLC The standard dualspacing neutron tools detect thermal neutrons, and must have fluid in the borehole to operate correctly. The epithermal neutron tools can be run in both air-filled and fluid-filled boreholes. Both types can be run in open or cased holes. In open hole the DSN is usually run combined with gamma ray and density tools.. Presentations and Scales: CNLC A Neutron log will present φN, the neutron porosity, on a linear scale in tracks 2 and 3. The lithology must be assumed (usually limestone or sandstone) to determine φN. When run in combination with the density, φN is overlaid on ρb or φd and it is important that they be presented in compatible scales. This will facilitate lithology identification and gas detection. The two primary overlays are the compatible sandstone and compatible limestone presentations. A. Compatible Sandstone Scales CNLC Neutron: 60 to 0 Density: 1.65 to 2.65 g/cm3; Neutron: 45 to -15 Density: 1.90 to 2.90 g/cm3) B. Compatible Limestone Scales CNLC Neutron: 30 to -10 Density: 2.00 to 3.00 g/cm3; Neutron: 45 to -15 Density: 1.95 to 2.95 g/cm3) CNLC 3. Neutron Log measurement principle Neutron Log is another kind of radioactive logs . It uses chemical or pulsed sources to produce fast neutrons.These neutrons radiate into formation & collide with nuclei of the atoms they encounter. The process slows down fast neutron to a thermal state,which ultimately captured by a nucleus with induces gamma ray emitted .The thermal neutron count rates and induced gamma rays can be recorded to estimate hydrogen content or matrix lithology . CNLC Neutron classification by its energy Neutron Name Energy high energy > 10 Mev fast 10 Mev~10 Kev intermediate 10 Kev~10 ev epithermal 10 ev ~ 0.1 ev thermal about 0.03ev CNLC Fast neutrons (4 MeV) epithermal neutrons (0.l to 10 eV ) thermal neutrons (0.03eV ) Thermal neutrons are easily absorbed by certain atomic nuclei. CNLC Neutron capture is accomplished when a nucleus "swallows" a neutron, gets "indigestion" and spits out a gamma ray. Neutron energy is related to their velocity, ν, by E= 1 ( m Nυ ) 2 2 where mN = mass of neutron or, E υ = 0.22 0.025 where E is in eV, v is in m/sec. This means that the fast neutrons leave the source at about 2500m/sec, epithermal neutrons travel at about 25km/sec, and “slow” thermal neutrons are moving at about 2.5km/sec. CNLC Chemical Sources • This is how a neutron produced by americium and beryllium chemical sources . 237 241 • Am 95 9 4 He + γ (60Kev) ( α decay ) 2 Np + 93 4 • 4 Be + 2 He 12 1 C + n + γ (5.76Mev) 6 0 • This chemical source is called AmBe source (americium and beryllium),it is commonly used by thermal neutron logging today. The pulsed source is usually a non radioactive Tritium target , which could emit high energy neutron when impacted by high energy electron stream . CNLC Neutron interacts with formation • Right Fig. shows three types of interaction a neutron will interact with mass nucleus . Fast neutrons are slowed down during this process . Thermal neutrons’ count rates are sensitive to hydrogen content for the reason that neutron collide with hydrogen nucleus will lost largest amount of energy . CNLC Neutron slowing down and captured element H C N O Na Al Si Cl Ca σelastic 20.0 4.8 10.0 4.1 3.5 1.5 1.7 10.0 9.5 Number of Collisions to 0.03 ev 18 115 130 150 215 251 261 329 371 Thermal σcapture 0.30 0.00 1.88 0.00 0.51 0.23 0.13 31.6 0.43 Hydrogen is an excellent material for slowing down neutrons, and chlorine is an excellent Material form capturing thermal neutrons. CNLC Thermal Neutron Detector 1 0 3 3 2 1 n + He H + H + γ (0.765Mev) 1 1 CNLC 4. Neutron porosity Dual-spacing Neutron Tool (DSN) has two detectors to eliminate borehole effects . The ratio of near counts / far counts are directly used to estimate porosity.The counts of each detector has approximately logarithmic relation ship as below: logX = C0KN where X is porosity ; N is near or far counts ; K,C is constants related to tool, borehole size and lithology . CNLC Apparent neutron porosity and true porosity 45 The DSN tools are calibrated by pure limestone filled with fresh water . X 40 sandstone limestone 35 30 dolomite 25 XNSS = XNLS + 6% 20 XNLS = XNLS 15 XNDS = XNLS 03% 10 5 0 05 XNLS 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 CNLC 5. Effect factors on XN A. Environmental Corrections DSN corrections for environmental factors are small but many. The largest corrections are for borehole diameter, dh, and borehole temperature, T. Corrections to openhole φNLS may be determined by following Figure. Corrections for cased hole neutron logs use a similar chart that also includes casing and cement thickness. CNLC CNLC B. Shale Effects The response of the neutron log to a mixture of clean matrix, porosity, and shale may be written in the form: φN = φT + Vsh φNsh Here φN is the log reading, φT is the true, clean matrix neutron porosity, and VshφNsh is the bulk volume of shale times the neutron response in the shale. CNLC C. Gas effects on XN At gas-bearing formation the porosity is filled by gas , it lowers the density of pore fluid .But neutron tool will see large amount of gas as smaller volume of fresh water ( sometime 10:1 porosity lost) ,which lead to abnormally lower porosity at gas-bearing formation . This effect is also called “ excavation effect ” . gas oil CNLC Summary In this lecture , we discussed : 1. Neutron Log measurement principle (from neutron production, interaction to detection) ; 2. Neutron Porosity ; 3. Gas effect on neutron porosity . CNLC Question to be answered : 1. Make a classification to neutron according to its energy . Is epithermal neutron log sensitive to formation fluid salinity ? 2. How does gas affect neutron porosity ? How to use CNL ,DEN and SONIC curves to find gas-bearing formation ?