You are on page 1of 54

High Definition

Induction Log (HDIL)

General Information

Specification - 1515EA

Specification - 1515MA

Specification
„ Logging speed.
Recommended .
Maximum . . .. .

. . . . . . 30 ft/min
. . . . .. 60 ft/min at 4 samples per foot
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 ft/min at 2 samples per foot

„ Data presented
Focussed conductivities:
Depths of investigation . . . .

10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120in.

„ Apparent vertical resolution . .
. true or matched to 1, 2 or 4ft.
„ Measurement Range: .. . . . . . .
0.1 to 2000 ohm-m
„ Measurement Accuracy (homogenous formations) |
60, 90, 120in. depth of investigation . . . .
30in. depth of investigation . . . . .. .
20in. depth of investigation . . . . . . .. . .
10in. depth of investigation . . . . . . .. .

±1 mS/m, ±2% of reading |
±2 mS/m, ±2% of reading |
±4 mS/m, ±2% of reading |
±10 mS/m, ±2% of reading |

. 4. . hole) . . . . . .... . 400EF (200EC) for > 1 hr. . 7600 lbf. . Rt/Rm < 7000 | . 6500 lbf (in 14-in. .. (in 8-in. . . . . . 20. . . . .. . .. „ Maximum Pressure .. . ... . .000 lbf... . ... Rt/Rm < 2000 . ... hole) „ Bending Strength of Mandrel ... . 6600 ft-lbf.. .Specification (cont. . 50.. .. 350EF (175EC) for > 4 hr.. . .. . .. . „ Compressive Strength . 12800 lbf. . ... . . ..5 in.000 psi . . hole) . Rt/Rm < 1000 .. ... ... „ Tensile Strength . . . ..) „ Borehole Properties 6 in hole 8 in hole 12 in hole Hole Size ... (in 12 1/4-in... . „ Maximum Temperature . to 20 in. ...

COMPARISON OF HDIL WITH DPIL AND AIT .

Benefits „ Improved Conductivity Determination. in complex environments – – Short spacings: near borehole information and corrections Long spacings: deep investigation. low borehole sensitivity „ Invasion Profile. 2 or 4ft.) – Inversion – Dip Effect Correction . artifact-free logs – Matched-resolution logs (1. even in oil-based mud „ Variety of Processing Techniques – True-resolution.

) „ Full data set – Quality Control – Fault Tolerance – Synthesis of other induction instruments – Future processing and interpretation developments .Benefits (cont.

Block Diagram Receiver Coils Transmitter SP Telemetry Aquis ition and Stacking (8 Channels ) Pre-Amp (7 Channels ) Reference Micro Processor Controlled Transmitter Synchronization .

Features „ Multi-spacing – 7 spacings from 6 in. fully combinable „ Software focusing and inversion generate user products . to 94 in „ Multi-frequency – 8 frequencies from 10 to 150kHz – New skin effect correction – Quality Control „ Fully Digital „ Feedthrough.

Quality Control .

Quality Control „ FOCUSED RESISTIVITIES „ The focused conductivities can be checked for agreement with what is expected in the well. . – Curves should be free of unexplained spikes and artifacts. Spikes can be caused by: „ Borehole rugosity „ Deep conductive invasion near bed boundaries „ Stick and Pull „ High contrast bed boundaries. „ Large relative dip – Invasion profiles should be reasonable in permeable zones. That is: – Curves should agree in impermeable zone.

Instrument Waveforms „ SQUARE WAVE(constant): Tool not balanced (varying with depth): magnetic materials „ SINGLE PULSE Area under pulse is proportional to formation conductivity „ WIDE PULSE Very conductive material. if too large indicates a shielding or wiring problem . e.g. short spacings are reading the tool’s wire tube „ DOUBLE PULSE Electrostatic coupling.

Instrument Waveforms Diagnostic Information Unbalanced or Magnetic Normal Metallic Shielding .

Digitized Waveforms „ Transmitter and Receiver Waveform Monitoring – Real-time quality control „ Diagnostic Capabilities – Magnetic materials in borehole or formation – Metallic materials in borehole – Shielding integrity „ Fourier Analysis for Spectral Data .

Conductivity Spectrum Apparent Conductivity (mS/m) 1500 1000 500 0 0 50 Frequency (kHz) -500 100 150 .

loss of channel or frequency „ Quality Control – Consistency across channels and frequencies .Conductivity Spectrum „ New skin-effect correction – From shape of spectra – Robust – Linearizes response functions – Reduces noise „ Fault tolerance – For example.

Definitions and Correction .

Induction Response Functions .

Depth of Investigation and Vertical Resolution: Definitions „ Depth of Investigation – 50%-point on integrated radial response function „ Vertical Resolution – 90% of vertical response function „ Do not show where information is coming from „ Do not show extent of cave effect „ Measurements are better characterized by 2-D geometric response function .

Resolution ? σ ? Borehole Axis ? Radius Size „ Size of smallest region whose conductivity can be determined accurately. .

invaded beds .General Induction Measurement Resolution Issues „ True Resolution » Depth of Investigation „ If Vertical Resolution < Depth of Investigation. curve contains near-borehole information „ Near borehole sensitivity may cause artifacts – Caves. relative dip „ Induction measurements alone cannot always resolve Rt in thin. conduction invasion.

Geometric Response Functions: Skin-Effect-Corrected Measurements Subarray 0 Subarray 3 Subarray 4 Subarray 6 .

Unfocused Response Functions „ Show – varying depths of investigation and resolutions – significant near-borehole sensitivity – asymmetry .

Focusing Filter & Combine .

Focusing „ Filters combine measurements from all arrays to achieve a more desirable response „ Adaptive – For varying background conductivity „ Goal of true-resolution focusing – Select depths of investigation – Eliminate near-borehole effect on deep measurements – Compact. symmetrical response .

Geometric Response Functions. True Resolution Focused Curves 10in 30in 90in 120in .

„ Eliminate near-borehole sensitivity of deeper curves „ Artifact-free „ Vertical resolution poorer with increasing depth of investigation . 90. 120in.True Resolution Focused Curves „ Depths of investigation – 10. 20. 60. 30.

True-Resolution Log .

True-Resolution Log „ Multiple depths of investigation reveal invasion profile in thick beds „ Curves separate in thin beds – – Due to different curve resolutions May not indicate invasion „ In thin uninvaded beds shallow curves give best estimate of Rt .

Vertical-Resolution-Matched Log .

Vertical-Resolution-Matched Curves „ Goal: same vertical resolution all curves „ Same depths of investigation as true resolution focused curves „ Deep and shallow curves tend to read the same in thin beds „ More convenient for quick interpretation – Combines deep and shallow information .

Resolution Matching 10in 10in Match Resolution 120in 120in .

Resolution-Matched Curves 10in 30in 90in 120in .Geometric Response Functions.

Conductive Invasion .

Conductive Invasion „ Synthetic example – Thick resistive zone – Conductive invasion with varying invasion depth „ True-resolution logs show expected response „ Deep resolution-matched curves show features which could be misinterpreted „ If in doubt: check the true-resolution logs .

HDIL True Resolution and Resolution Matched Curves .

True-Resolution Versus Resolution-Matched Curves „ True-resolution – Artifact free – Best for log quality control – Curves separate in thin beds „ Resolution-matched – Easier interpretation in thin beds – Deep and shallow curves tend to agree in thin beds – Can show artifacts if there is „ Borehole rugosity „ Conductive invasion „ Apparent-dip .

2 0.001 6 14 16 0. 4 6 8 10 12 Hole Diameter (in.0 Geometric Factor Geometric Factor Array 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 4 16 Array 5 Geometric Factor Geometric Factor -0.3 0.5 0.) 0.4 0.000 -0.) Hole Diameter (in.3 0.4 0.1 0 0.) 10 12 14 16 14 16 Array 6 0.001 Centered 1.1 0.O. S.001 6 8 10 12 Hole Diameter (in.5 0.) .000 4 8 Hole Diameter (in.Borehole Geometric Factors Array 1 0.001 0.2 0.5 in.

Borehole Effect „ Significant for shallow curves – Requires very accurate borehole correction „ Very small for deep curves „ We use data from shallow curves to augment conventional borehole correction parameters .

Oil Based Mud Invasion Example No profile in hydrocarbon zone Resistive invasion in water bearing zone Invasion in shales indicates possible drilling damage .

vertical well.Resistivity Processing ‘Oklahoma’ Reference Earth Model theoretical responses of an HDIL array induction logging tool. oil-based-mud .

Uncorrected Data theoretical responses of an HDIL array induction logging tool. oil-based-mud . 70 deg deviated well.Deviated well.

70 deg deviated well. oil-based-mud . Corrected Data corrected responses of an HDIL array induction logging tool.Deviated Well.

Dip Effect and Correction .

Apparent-Dip Effect and Correction „ Two effects – Increased “shoulder-bed effect” on deep curves – Spikes caused by “charge effects” at bed boundaries „ Differences between 90in. and 120in. true-resolution curves may indicate dip effect „ Remove both dip effects in a preparation process before filtering „ Works well up to 70 degrees „ Horizontal wells: different interpretation techniques .

Synthesis of DPIL .

– Correlation. – Equity negotiations.Synthesis of DPIL „ Useful for: – Field studies. „ Demonstrates completeness of data and flexibility of processing. .

Inversion Processing .

e. and Rt „ Allows incorporation of other information. Rxo and invasion geometric parameters . – – – Other logs Known bed boundaries Known impermeable zones „ Delivers Rt.g. invasion parameters.Inversion „ 2-D inversion allows simultaneous solution for layering.

Summary .

Summary „ Deeper investigation „ Improved borehole and near borehole correction „ Invasion profiling „ Flexible processing. – Depth of investigation/ resolution trade-offs – Inversion – Dip correction „ Complete data set allows – Quality Control – Synthesis of other tool responses – Future processing developments . e.g.

– – – Very deep invasion Thin beds Relative dip . curve contains near-borehole information „ Induction measurements alone may not resolve Rt accurately in thin. they both read Rt. true resolution curves read the same. otherwise. invaded beds „ If the 90in. and 120in.Induction Logging “Rules-of-thumb” „ True resolution » depth of investigation „ If vertical resolution < depth of investigation.