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# Middle East Technical University

,
Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 402 Fluid Machinery
Prof. Dr. Kahraman Albayrak

ME-402 FLUID MACHINERY
EXPERIMENT-1

AXIAL FLOW FAN PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
1.

Objective and Test Standard

In this experiment, the aerodynamic characteristic of a 50 cm outer diameter axial flow fan is
going to be determined by measuring the static and total pressures in the suction and
discharge sides of the fan for various flow rates. The total efficiency of the fan system will be
predicted by measuring the power consumed by the electric motor. The axial fan is a scaled
down version of a 90 cm outer diameter mine ventilation fan, so a similarity analysis will be
performed to predict the performance characteristics of the prototype mine ventilation fan.
The aerodynamic performance of the axial flow fan will be performed in compliance with
ASHRAE Standard 51-75, AMCA Standard 210-74.

2.

Experiment Set-up and Physical Quantities to be Measured

The type of set-up is “Inlet Duct Setup – Pitot Traverse in Inlet Duct” and the schematic is
given in Figure 1.
Outlet duct

valve

Dd=0.50m

5m
FAN
Pitot traverse and
temperature
measurement

Dduct=0.505 m
4.5 m
2.75 m

Figure 1: Schematic of experiment set-up

Flow Straightener

Air temperature at measurement plane (oC): This is measured to calculate the air density at measurement plane. Motor input power (kW): Motor input power will be recorded to calculate the efficiency of the fan system (fan + electric motor). Dr. Kahraman Albayrak Ambient pressure (mBar): This is used in the calculation of ambient air density. 3. Fan rotational speed (rpm): Fan rotational speed should be recorded.Middle East Technical University. The flow rate is obtained by traversing the pitot tube at predetermined locations on measurement plane. The dynamic pressure values at discrete points on measurement plane (Figure 2) are recorded and flow rate is calculated by performing a calculation procedure as follows: . Static Pressure: Static pressure values at measurement plane will be recorded to calculate static pressure at fan inlet. Mechanical Engineering Department ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. Methodology The performance characteristics of an axial flow fan at a certain rotational speed is obtained by measurement of total pressure rise across the fan at various flowrates. Total pressure: Total pressure values at measurement plane will be recorded to calculate total pressure at fan inlet. Ambient dry bulb temperature (oC): This is used in the calculation of ambient air density. The efficiency of the fan system shall be calculated at each operating point and this is made possible by dividing the fluid power to the motor input power. Reference manometer height (mm of alcohol): Reference manometer height will be recorded to calculate the difference of static and total pressures measured at fan inlet duct from ambient pressure.

Middle East Technical University. Td0 is the ambient dry bulb temperature and Tdm is ‘m’ plane dry bulb temperature in Kelvins. (2) : Average velocity on ‘m’ plane : Air density on ‘m’ plane ⎛ Pt _ m ⎞ ⎛ Td 0 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ P0 ⎠ ⎝ Tdm ⎠ ρm = ρ0 ⎜ Where Pt_m is the absolute total pressure at ‘m’ plane. P0 is ambient pressure. Dr. . Mechanical Engineering Department ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. ⎟ ⎠ (1) where Pv − m : Dynamic pressure at ‘m’ plane Pv − m _ r : Dynamic pressure at a certain point (in other words at a certain radial position) n : Number of measurement points Average velocity on “m” plane can be calculated by using average dynamic pressure on “m” plane: Vm = Vm ρm 2 × Pv − m ρm ……………………………………………………………………. Kahraman Albayrak First orientation Second orientation Figure 2: Pitot tube traverse points Dynamic pressure values at each measurement point are calculated and average dynamic pressure at suction side measurement “m” plane (See Figure 1) is calculated as Pv − m ⎛ ∑ Pv − m _ r =⎜ ⎜ n ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ………………………………………………………………. ρ0 is the density of air at atmospheric conditions.

⎛ρ ⎞ Q = Qm ⎜ m ⎟ ……………………………………………………………………. Dr. Kahraman Albayrak Volumetric flow rate on ‘m’ plane can be calculated as Qm = Vm × Am ………………………………………………………………………. (3) In the equation. total pressure at discharge side Pt − d = Ps − d + Pv − d …………………………………………………………………. Mechanical Engineering Department ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof.. Volumetric flow rate through the fan is then calculated by correcting the volumetric flow rate measured at ‘m’ plane by ratio of air stream density on the measurement plane and that through the fan.Middle East Technical University. Am is the cross sectional area of duct on ‘m’ plane. ⎝ ρ ⎠ (4) ρ is defined as "fan air density" and can be calculated as ⎛ Pt _ m ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ P0 ⎠ ρ = ρ0 ⎜ Total pressure rise of the fan is calculated as: Pt = Pt − d − Pt − s ……………………………………………………………………… (5) where Pt Pt − d Pt − s : Fan total pressure rise : Total pressure at fan discharge side : Total pressure at suction side Total pressure at suction side can be calculated as Pt − s = Ps − s + Pv − s ………………………………………………………………… (6) where Ps − s Pv − s : Static pressure on suction side : Dynamic pressure on suction side Similarly. where Ps − d Pv − d : Static pressure on discharge side : Dynamic pressure on discharge side (7) .

Experiment Procedure a) Record atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Record manometer deflections for total and static pressures. c) Operate the fan and read fan rotational speed from fan driver control panel..Middle East Technical University.. Dr. b) Bring the flowrate adjustment valve to a desired position. Note that flow area at discharge measurement location is different than inlet duct area and dynamic pressure at the discharge should be corrected accordingly. Note that the frictional losses between ‘m’ plane and fan inlet are neglected. d) Record the temperature on measurement plane with digital thermometer.1433 m2. Record the wall static pressure at discharge side of the fan. Mechanical Engineering Department ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. Repeat the procedure for the other seven points in this orientation and eight points in the other orientation. f) Adjust pitot tube position to the first measurement point by using the marker tapes which are previously stuck on the pitot tube... Calculate system efficiency as: η= Ρ fluid Ρ motor ……………………………………………………………….. h) Turn off the fan. 4. g) Repeat “f” to obtain operating points at different flow rate values by adjusting flowrate adjustment valve at the end of the duct. e) Record the reference alcohol height from a manometer tube open to atmosphere. Kahraman Albayrak Static pressure on the measurement plane can be calculated by taking the average of static pressures measured at each traverse point on the ‘m’ plane and gage static pressure at the discharge of the fan can be measured from the wall of the outlet duct by averaging pressures from three taps located at circumferentially equal distances.. (8) where Pfluid is power input to fluid and Pmotor is the power input to the electric motor. . The flow area at discharge measurement location is 0.

Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. b) Calculate the flowrate and total pressure rise of the fan at each operating point. c) Calculate the efficiency of the system at each operation point. dynamic and static pressures at discharge and suction sides of the fan for a sample operating point. e) Perform a similarity analysis and estimate the performance of a similar prototype fan of 0. Tabulate your results and plot the performance characteristics of the prototype fan as you did in part “d”. Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Rating. . Mechanical Engineering Department 5. Publication of Air Moving and Conditioning Association.9m in diameter. measurement plane and fan. 6. Use second vertical axis for efficiency curve. show the calculation of fan flowrate. Inc. and American Society of Heating. Q on the same graph. AMCA Standard 210-74. d) Plot Pt vs. Reference ASHRAE Standard 51-75. Dr. ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. Q and η vs. Kahraman Albayrak Calculations a) Show the calculation of air density values for ambient.Middle East Technical University. 1975. Tabulate your results.

orientation 2. orientation 2. Kahraman Albayrak Axial Fan Performance Test Data Sheet Name: Lab Group Date : Ambient Pressure P0 (mbar) Ambient dry bulb temperature Td0 (oC) Temperature at measurement plane Tdm (oC) Diameter of the inlet duct (m) 0.Middle East Technical University.5 Fan diameter (m) 3 832 Density of Alcohol (kg/m ) Reference alcohol height (mmAlcohol) 27 Manometer angle of inclination FAN Rotational speed (rpm) Operating Points Valve position 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P total (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation Pinput(kW) .505 0. orientation 2. Mechanical Engineering Department ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. orientation Pressure at discharge. Ps_d (mmAlcohol): P static (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation Pinput(kW) P static (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation Pressure at discharge. orientation 2. Dr. Ps_d (mmAlcohol): Valve position 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P total (mmAlcohol) 1.

Dr. orientation Pressure at discharge. orientation 2. orientation 2. orientation Pinput(kW) P static (mmAlcohol) 1. Ps_d (mmAlcohol): Valve position 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P total (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation Pressure at discharge. orientation 2. orientation Pinput(kW) P static (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation Pressure at discharge. Kahraman Albayrak Operating Points Valve position 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P total (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. Mechanical Engineering Department ME 402 Fluid Machinery Prof. orientation 2. orientation Pinput(kW) P static (mmAlcohol) 1. Ps_d (mmAlcohol): Valve position 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P total (mmAlcohol) 1. Ps_d (mmAlcohol): P static (mmAlcohol) 1. Ps_d (mmAlcohol): Valve position 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P total (mmAlcohol) 1. orientation 2. orientation 2. orientation Pressure at discharge. orientation 2. orientation Pinput(kW) .Middle East Technical University.