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2016 All rights reserved


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ii

ABSTRACT

This post-graduate project aims to the design and the control of an autonomous
irrigation system for growing tomatoes.

The following sections present the crop which we chose to plant, which is the
organic tomato, the water that the crops needs, the water requirements for crop
irrigation, the photovoltaic systems, the calculation of water requirements for
irrigation of the crop as well as an algorithm to calculate the size of the components
of a photovoltaic system which is pumping water, consisting of solar panels, a pump,
a dc-ac inverter and a battery bank. The algorithm aims to ensure the autonomy of
the system, to minimize the unused energy and to fulfill the water demand. Some
algorithm tests seem to show that the approach meets these objectives.

In Greece we have the opportunity to use the sun and the light intensity of the sun,
due to weather conditions during the longest period of time. For this reason, in this
paper we focus on the photovoltaic system for the irrigation of our crop. Will be
analyzed, therefore, what will be needed to carry out a project like this in reality.

Keywords: Tomatoes, irrigation, pumping, sizing, photovoltaic systems

iii

iv

.

,

.
,
,
.

vi

i
Abstract . iii
.. v
. vii

xii
1: . 1
1.1 . 2
1.2 2
1.3 3
1.3.1 .. 3
1.3.2 . 4
1.3.3 . 5
1.3.4 .... 6
1.3.5 ... 7
1.3.6 .

1.3.7 ... 9
1.4 . 9
2: ... 10
2.1 () . 10
2.1.1 ...10
2.1.2 13
2.1.3 Blaney-Criddle ... 18
2.2
(Kc) . 23
2.2.1 . 23
2.2.2 ........ 25
2.2.3 26
2.2.4 .. 32
2.3 ... 33
vii

2.3.1 ... 33
2.3.2 . 34
2.3.3 . 39
2.3.4 42
3: .. 45
3.1 45
3.2 . 46
3.3 48
4: 50
4.1 50
4.2 () 50
4.3 51
4.4 . 53
4.5 . 54
4.5.1 . 54
4.5.2 . 54
4.5.3 ,
58
4.5.4
58
4.5.5 . 61
4.5.6 . 61
5:
64
5.1 .. 75
6: 83
6.1 84
6.2 .. 89
6.3 91
6.4

93
6.5 .. 96
6.6
(KWh/) 100
viii

6.7 101
6.8 . 103
6.9 . 108
6.10
113
6.11
(KWh/) 119
6.12 120
6.13 .. 121
7: . 123
. 125
127
Paper . 127

ix


1: [1] ... 1
2: [3] 3
3: [4] . 4
4: [5] .. 5
5: [3] . 6
6: [3] . 7
7: [3] 8
8:
[10] . 11
9: [10] .. 12
10: 12
11:
[10] 13
12:
[10] . 14
13: [10] 14
13: [10] . 15
14: o
[10] . 16
15:
[10] . 16
16: Blaney Criddle [10] . 19
17: 17: [10] .. 23
18:
[10].. 24
19: [10] 27
20: (ET crop) [10] .. 34
21: [10] 35
22: [10] 36
23: [10] 37
24: [10] 38
25: [10] 39
26:
[10] 44
27: [11] . 46
28: [11] . 49
29: [12] .. 51
30: [12] 52
x

31: [12] . 52
32: [13] 54
33: [12] .. 56
34: COMPACT
[12] . 57
35: ,
[12] .. 59
36:
[12] . 60
37: [12] 62
38: [12] 63
39: (PVGIS) [14] 65
40: TD [14] . 66
41: : [16] . 83
42: MATRA-APD PST-5507P [20] ... 86
43: MATRA-APD PST-5507P [20] 87
44: MATRA-APD PST-5507P [20] ..88
44: H 88
45: ASE-160-GT-FT [21] .. 93
45: ASE-160-GT-FT [12] .. 94
46: ( mk ) [12] .. 97
47: :
[23] 103
48: [12] 104
49: PzS / ECO // SUN
V=2V [12] . 106
50: H 4PzS 320 [24] . 106
51: 4PzS 320. [23] .. 107
52: COMPACT C 2600-24 [26] .. 107
53: Pb/ H2SO4
[22] .. 109
54: ON - OFF
MOSFET [27] . 111
55: 95%. [27] 112
56: ETATRACK active 1000 [28] .. 114
57:
[28] .115
58:
[28] 116
59: : [34] . 123

xi

1: H
[10] 11
2:
p [10] . 20
2: E (mm / ) [10] .. 22
3: [10] 26
4:
[10] .. 30
5: (Kc)
[10] 33
6: Kc [10] . 40
7: Kc [10] 40
8: Kc [10] .. 41
9: Kc ( 35%) [10] .. 42
10:
[10] .. 43
11: P (mm/month) [15] 67
12: (p)
[10] .. 68
13: p 40 . 68
14: ETo .. 69
15: .. 70
16: Kc .. 71
17: Kc ...71
18: ETo . 71
19: , ETo, Kc . 72
20:
ETo
Kc 73
21: ET crop / 73
22: ETcrop ()
Kc 74
23: ET crop mm/month 74
24: ETcrop ( mm/month )
Kc 75
25: ETcrop ( mm/month )
P ( mm/month ) .. 75
xii

26: ETcrop ( mm/month )


Pe ( mm/month ) 77
27: Vrequirement mm/month
mm/day 79
28: Er Ep
[18] .. 81
29: 82
30: . 89
31: .. 90
32: Ea 91
33: 1 . 91
34: . 93
35: .. 96
36: ( mk ) .. 98
37: 99
38: 101
39: .. 102
40: COMPACT,
108
41: Hmk KWh/m2/day . 113
42: Hmk KWh/m2/month .. 114
43: Ea (KWh/month)
tracker 117
44: F (m2) .. 118
45: . 119
46: . 120
47: 121
48:
124
P

xiii

xiv

xv

1:

1: [1]

: (Solanum lycopersicum
Lycopersicon esculentum)

: (Magnoliophyta)

: (Solanaceae)

1.1
, (. , Solanum
lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum, )
(Solanaceae),
, .
. 3-3 . ,
.
10-25 . , 5-9
8 . .
. 1-2 .,
3-12. [2]
()
( ).
, (
)
. ,
. [2]
2012 Nature
, 80%.
, Tomato Genome Consortium,
2003 Heinz 1760
Solanum pimpinellifolium. 300
14 .
2008 ,
, whole-genome shotgun sequencing.
12 , 31.760 .
5
,
. 92%
. [2]

1.2
, , ,
, .
.
, . 12 ., , 5-10 .

. (tmatl)
. .
1893,
2

. 250 -350
(), (cherry)
( ) 50 - 100
. [2]

1.3
1.3.1

( 2), .

.


.
. ,
, ,
. [3]

2: . [3]

1.3.2
2
15 - 20cm ( 3).

.
,
.
. .
,

. ( 4)

(, , ).

45cm 120cm
.
50cm 2.800
, 35cm,
3.800 . 1,5 2cm,
(
).
,
. [3]

3: . [4]
4

4 : . [5]

1.3.3


. , ,

. ,
, , ,
, .
,

. ,
.
,

(SWP= 30 kPa).
.
,
, .

. , ,
, C
5

,
. [3]

5: [3]

1.3.4

.
, ,
,
. ,
.
,
, .
,
10cm ,
.
,
,
. [3]

6: . [3]

1.3.5
,
(
),
.
.

. 4
30cm 1,60m .
,
,
,
. [3]

7: . [3]

1.3.6


.

. , ,
.
, .
100% .
21 - 22oC. 13oC
24oC . [3]

1.3.7
(
, )
.

. 2-3 ,
.[3] 10
[6]

1.4

6000 [6].
350 [7].
2000 [8] 1800
[9].
,

10 . [6]

2:

( ) (
)
. ,
.

, ,
, , ,
(
).
.
:
:
, .
:
,
.
: ,
, .
2.1
: (). 2.2

:
(Kc).
2.1 ()
2.1.1
( 8),
:
-
-
-
-

.
.
.

10

8:
. [10]
1:
. [10]

()

()

( ) ( )

1: H
. [10]

11

,
, , . ,
, .

().
, .. mm / , mm / , mm / .
. [10]

9 [10]

():
,
, 8-15 ,
,
( 10).

10: .
12

ETo ( 11). :
, ,
, , ..
Blaney-Criddle

11:
. [10]

2.1.2
.

, ,
ETo ( 12).

13

12: .[10]

.
( ) ( 13)
( ) ( 13).

13: [10]
14

13: . [10]

.
(
)

( 24 ). , 7:00
. , , .
24 , ( ) .
(
) .
: ( mm / 24 )
,

: ETo = K () E ()

ETo:
:
:
15

(
), ( 14)
. (
) ( 15)
. [10]

14: o
. [10]

15:
.[10]

16


ETo,
,
.
,
. , ( K
) .
:

:

:
, 0,35 0,85.
= 0,70.
, 0,45
1,10. = 0,80.

K :


K :

.
.


.
.
17

1) :
1 = 150 mm
2 = 144 mm ( 24 )
( 24 ) =
=0,75
: ETo = K () E ()

: = 150 - 144 = 6 /
ETo = 0,75 6 = 4,5 /

2) : .
1 = 411 mm
2 = 409 mm
( 24 ) = 7mm
=0,90
: ETo = K () E ()
: = 411 409+7 = 9 /
ETo = 0,90 9 = 4,5 /

2.1.3 Blaney Criddle

,
,
Blaney - Criddle
ETo.
18

ETo. .

. [10]

Penman.
.
Blaney - Criddle.
Blaney - Criddle ,
( 16).
.
.
Blaney - Criddle : ,
ETo ( 60%), , ,
, ETo ( 40%) .

16: Blaney Criddle [10]

19

Blaney-Criddle: ETo = (0.46 + 8)


ETo = (mm / )
1 .
T = ( C)
p = .
1: : T
Blaney - Criddle ,
.
28C,
28C.

,
:

2:
: p
p 2.
p
:
. p M
45 . 2
p = 0,28. [10]

20

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June

60

.15 .20 .26 .32

.38

.41

.40

.34 .28 .22 .17

.13

55

.17 .21 .26 .32

.36

.39

.38

.33 .28 .23 .18

.16

50

.19 .23 .27 .31

.34

.36

.35

.32 .28 .24 .20

.18

45

.20 .23 .27 .30

.34

.35

.34

.32 .28 .24 .21

.20

40

.22 .24 .27 .30

.32

.34

.33

.31 .28 .25 .22

.21

35

.23 .25 .27 .29

.31

.32 .32

.30 .28 .25

.23

.22

30

.24 .25 .27 .29

.31

.32 .31

.30 .28 .26

.24

.23

25

.24 .26 .27 .29

.30

.31 .31

.29 .28 .26

.25

.24

20

.25 .26 .27 .28

.29

.30 .30

.29 .28 .26

.25

.25

15

.26 .26 .27 .28

.29

.29 .29

.28 .28 .27

.26

.25

10

.26 .27 .27 .28

.28

.29 .29

.28 .28 .27

.26

.26

.27 .27 .27 .28

.28

.28 .28

.28 .28 .27

.27

.27

.27 .27 .27 .27

.27

.27 .27

.27 .27 .27

.27

.27

2:
p. [10]

3: ETo, : ETo = p (0.46 T + 8)


, p = 0.29 T = 21.5C ETo
:
ETo = 0.29 (0.46 21.5 + 8) = 0.29 (9.89 + 8) = 0.29 17.89 = 5.2 /

21

Blaney - Criddle
:
: 35
T = 29.5C
T = 19.4C

ETo /
Blaney - Criddle

: ETo = p (0.46 T + 8)
1: T:

2: p: : 35
:
2: p = 0.29
3: ETo: ETo = 0.29 (0.46 24.5 + 8) = 5.6 /
ETo =5.6 /
.

ETo. 2
.

/


(
(15-25C)
(
15 C)
25 C)
4-6
7-8
9-10
4-5
6-7
8-9
3-4
5-6
7-8
1-2
3-4
5-6

2: E (mm / ) [10]

22

2.2
(Kc)
2.2.1
2.1
.
ETo.
( 17).

17: . [10]
(2.2)
. ,

. [10]
Kc,
:
ETo Kc = ET
ET =
(mm/day)
Kc =
ETo = (mm/day)
ET ETo :
/ ( ) /.

23

18: [10]
, Kc, :

Kc
,

. Kc, 1.
, ,
: Kc,
1.

Kc

,
.
Kc

.
.

24

, Kc, ,
,
.
Kc
.
1

3 Kc .
3 2.2.2, 2.2.3 2.2.4
. 2.3
. [10]
2.2.2
( )
. :
-

.
3.
3
.

.

25

//


()
100-365
300-365
120-150
75-90
95-110
120-140
100-150
240-365
180-195
105-130
130-140
150-220
150-165
150-170
75-140
80-110
125-180
120-160

Millet


()
105-140
70-95
150-210
130-140
90-100
120-210
105-145
35-45
90-150
120-130
135-150
60-100
95-120
160-230
270-365
125-130
130-160
135-180

3: [10]

2.2.3
,
( ) .
4 ( 19):
1. :
10% .
2. :
(
70-80%).
.

26

3. -:
.
.
4. :
.
.
4
.
( 3)
. [10]

19: [10]

27

25

50

30

15

30

65

40

75

15

25

25

10

90

20

30

30

10

95

15

25

35

20

110

20

30

40

20

120

20

25

60

15

140

25

30

65

20

100

20

30

30

20

150

25

35

70

20

180

30

50

55

45

120

15

150

//

/
195

30

50

65

50

105

20

30

40

15

130

25

35

50

20

130

30

40

40

20

140

30

40

45

25

150

20

30

60

40

165

25

35

65

40

150

20

30

60

40

170

25

35

70

40

75

20

30

15

10

140

35

50

45

10

80

20

25

25

10

110

20

30

50

10

125

20

35

40

30

28

180

30

50

60

40

120

25

35

40

20

160

30

45

65

20

105

15

25

40

25

140

20

30

55

35

70

25

30

10

95

25

40

20

10

150

15

25

70

40

210

20

35

110

45

130

25

35

45

25

140

30

40

45

25

90

15

25

35

15

100

20

30

35

15

120

25

35

40

20

Millet

210

30

40

110

30

105

25

30

30

20

145

30

35

50

30

35

10

15

40

10

10

15

120

20

30

40

30

130

20

35

45

30

135

20

30

60

25

150

20

30

70

30

60

20

20

15

100

20

30

40

10

95

20

30

30

15

120

25

35

35

25

160

25

35

60

40

230

45

65

80

40

Sugarbeet

29

125

20

35

45

25

130

25

35

45

25

135

30

40

40

25

180

35

45

70

30

4:
. [10]

: 100 .
:
: 20
:30
-: 30
: 20
100
150
:
: 25
:35
-: 70
: 20
150
, ,
120 ,
:
: 25
:35
-: 40
: 20
120

4, :
1. .
,
. :
30

: 180 .
: 35
: ( ') 15 .
(180-20) = 160 .

35

45

70

30

45

70

15

30

2.

.
, , ( 4).
10 20 .
3.

.
.
.


, ,
.
.

31

: ( )
.
4. [10]

2.2.4
, 4 :
4 . 5
Kc 4
.

//

0.35

0.75

1.15

0.45

0.35

0.70

1.10

0.90

0.35

0.70

1.10

0.30

0.45

0.75

1.05

0.90

0.45

0.75

1.15

0.75

0.45

0.70

0.90

0.75

0.45

0.75

1.15

0.80

0.35

0.75

1.10

0.65

0.45

0.75

1.10

0.50

0.45

0.60

1.00

0.90

0.40

0.80

1.15

1.00

0.40

0.80

1.15

0.70

0.45

0.75

1.00

0.75

Millet

0.35

0.70

1.10

0.65

0.50

0.70

1.00

1.00

0.50

0.75

1.05

0.85

32

0.45

0.75

1.05

0.70

0.45

0.80

1.15

1.05

0.35

0.70

1.05

0.90

0.45

0.75

1.15

0.85

0.45

0.60

0.90

0.90

0.35

0.75

1.10

0.65

0.35

0.75

1.10

0.60

Sugarbeet

0.45

0.80

1.15

0.80

0.35

0.75

1.15

0.55

0.35

0.75

1.10

0.90

5: (Kc)
[10].
Kc
. Kc

. 0.05
(RH > 80%) (u < 2
m/sec), Kc = 1.15 Kc = 1.10.
0.05 (RH < 50%)
(u > 5 m/sec), Kc = 1.05 Kc = 1.10. [10]

2.3
2.3.1
2.1
ETo, 2.2
Kc . (2.3)
ET ( 20) ,
:
ET crop = ETo Kc.

33

20: (ET crop) [10]


,
,
.
2.3.2

[10]:

ETo (/) 4.0

5.0 5.8

6.3 6.8 7.1 6.5

(60%)

(3 m/sec)

( ): 150
: 1 ( )

34

[10]
1: ,
4.

()

150

35

40

50

25

2: , , ETo
.
: ,
30 . (ETo,
2.1), ,
31 , 28 29 , .

21 [10]

, 35

1 -5

, 40 6 -15
, 50

16 -5

, 25

6 -30

30

35

3: Kc 4 ,
5
.
Kc, =

0,45

Kc, =

0,75

Kc, =

1,15

Kc, =

0,8

Kc :

22 [10]


. ETo Kc .
ET (= ETo Kc) .
, :
( )
: Kc, = 0.45
: 5 : Kc = 0.45
25 : Kc = 0.75

36

: Kc 0.05 0.00.
Kc, = 0.70
: 15 : Kc = 0.75
15 : Kc = 1.15

Kc, = 0.95
: Kc, = 1.15
: 5 : Kc = 1.15

25 : Kc = 0.80

Kc, =0.85
:

23 [10]
37

4: , , ,
:
ET crop = ETo Kc (/)
:crop=5,0x0,45=2,3mm/day
: crop=5,8x0,70=4,1mm/day
: crop=6,3x0,95=6,0mm/day
: crop=6,8x1,15=7,8mm/day
: crop=7,1x0,85=6,0mm/day

24 [10]
5:
.
: 30 .
: ET crop = 30x2,3=69mm/month
:

ET crop = 30x4,1=123mm/month

ET crop = 30x6,0=180mm/month

ET crop = 30x7,8=234mm/month

ET crop = 30x6,0=180mm/month
38


786 mm.
:

25 [10]

2.3.3


: ET =
Kc*ETo. ,
. Kc
.
. Kc,
( 2.3.1 2.3.2)
. [10]

:
-
-
-
-
-
- , ,
-
-

39


6
. ,
,
.
Kc 6
6. 6 Kc : Kc = 1,1.

Kc
0,7

0,75

0,8

0,75

0,9

1,0

1,1

6: Kc [10].

, 7.

()
0-60


30

1,1
1,1
1,2
1,0

1,05
1,0

1,1
1,1
1,35
1,0

1,3
1,0

7: Kc [10].

:
150 .
0 60

Kc=1,1

60 120 Kc=1,3
120 150 Kc=1,0

40



.
.
, 8.


()
0-2
2-4
4-6
6-12
12-17
17-18

0,4
0,8
1,1
1,25
0,95
0,7

0,5
0,8
1,0
1,05
0,8
0,6

0,5
0,8
1,2
1,3
1,05
0,75

0,6
0,85
1,1
1,15
0,85
0,65

8: Kc . [10]

, ,
, , Kc :
-

, : Kc = 0,95
: c = 1.1

Kc :
-

: Kc = 0,4
: Kc = 0,7

5
, Kc 9

.
41

Kc

0,25

0,45

0,65

0,75

0,75

0,7

0,55

0,45

0,35

9: Kc ( 35%) [10].

2.3.4
10
.



.
10
.
,
( 3)
.

.
, 10
.
,
.
,
. [10]

42

(/
)

800-1600

1200-2200

//

450-650

300-500

350-500

900-1200

700-1300

500-800

400-600

350-550

500-700

350-500

600-900

500-700

()

450-700

/Millet

450-650

450-700

Sugarbeet

550-750

1500-2500

600-1000

400-800

10:
[10].

43

26:
[10].

44

3:

3.1
2
(ETcrop).
:
-

,
.
.

,
(IN Vrequirement) : IN = 0.

, .
(IN Vrequirement)
(ET crop): IN = ET crop.
, ,

. (IN
Vrequirement)
(ET crop)
(Pe). : IN = ET crop - Pe.

45

IN = 0
IN = ET crop
IN = ET crop Pe

3.2 ,
3.3
. [11]

3.2
((1) ( 27) ,
(2), (3),
(4).
,
(3), (5),
(6). ((2) (6)),
(7),
(8).

27: (8)=(2)+(6)-(7)=(1) - (4) -(5) - (7)

46

[11]

, (8) (1)
(4) (5)
(7).
(8) ,
.


. [11]

.
4-5%:
Pe = 0.8 * P - 25 P > 75 /
Pe = 0.6 * P - 10 P < 75 /
P = (/)
Pe = (/)
: Pe .
.
:
: P =35, 90,116, 5, 260, 75 mm

P (/)

Pe (/)

35

Pe = 0.6 P - 10

11

90

Pe = 0.8 P - 25

47

116

Pe = 0.8 P - 25

68

Pe = 0.6 P - 10

260

Pe = 0.8 P - 25

183

75

Pe = 0.8 P - 25 0.6 P - 10

35

[11]
47

3.3 .
,
,
2.3.2:

ET crop (/)

69 123 180 234 180


[11]

, :
P (/): 20,38,40,80,16
1:
: Pe = 0.8 * P - 25 P > 75 /
Pe = 0.6 * P - 10 P < 75 /

P (/)
Pe (/)

20
2

38
13

40
14

80
39

16
0

2: /
/, : Vrequirement (IN) = ET crop Pe.
: IN = 69 - 2 = 67 / .

ET crop (mm/)

69

123

180

234

180

Pe (mm/)

13

14

39

IN (mm/)

67

110

166

195

180

IN (mm/)

2,2

3,7

5,5

6,5

6,0

[11]

48

28 : . [11]

49

4:

4.1


.

, ,
,

.
,
,
,
.

4.2 ()
( )
.
,
( Solar Cells),

(.. ).
.
,
( , ).
, ,
, .

.


. ,
, ,
50

(
, ) . [12]

4.3

( 29)

29: . [12]

(15% ).
.

51

( 30)

30: . [12]
(12% ).
.
,
.
-

( 31)

31: . [12]
52

(10% ).
.
(
-films). [12]

,
.

4.4 .


.
,
, .

. 1,6eV 3,3eV
.

0,72eV ( Ge ) 1,12 eV
( Si ) .
,
. ,

, .

.

,
. , ,
32. [13]

53

32: [13]

4.5
4.5.1
,
(, ,
,
).
().
:
- .
- -
.
- .
- inverter
.
- ,
.
4.5.2

.

54

, , ,
.
( 33) :
-
.
- Mpp
.
.
- DC-DC
.
- -

.
- (inverter)
230V/50Hz.
.
-

.
.
-
( 230V/50Hz).
.
-
24 48V.

55

33: . [12]

56

COMPACT
( 34) Mpp,
DC/DC , DC/AC , - .

34: COMPACT
. [12]
57

4.5.3 ,
( 35).

10kWp , .
, . ,
,
(
). ,
, ,
(
).
.
:
-
.
- , , (230V,50Hz)
(3x400V, 50Hz).
-
.
- .
- .
4.5.4
( 36)
50KWp
.
:
- .
- (3x400V)
- (3x20KV).


.

58

:
- ()
50KWp .
.
-
.
-
.

35: ,
. [12]
59

36:
. [12]

60

4.5.5 ( 37).

( ).

.

.
:
.
- .
.
- .
.
- .

.
- .
.
- .

4.5.6 ( 38).

( , ,
).

.

.
:
- .
- .
- .
- .
- .

,
.

61

37: . [12]

62

38: . [12]

63

5:


:
Vrequirement (IN) = ET crop Pe

Vrequirement (IN) ()
(/)
ET crop=
(/)
Pe = (/)

ET crop= ETo Kc

ET crop = .
Kc =
ETo =
ET crop Vrequirement (IN) = ETo Kc Pe

ETo

Blaney-Criddle: ETo = (0.46 + 8) mm/day

T = ( C)
p = .

M PVtech PVGIS
(Photovoltaic Geographical Information System),
( ) ( 39)
400 .

64

39 : (PVGIS) [14]

Monthly radiation
Average daytime temperature Calculate
TD (Average daytime
temperature) 40.

65

40: TD [14]

66


meteo.gr ( 11)
2009 2015
(..)
.

P
(mm/month)

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

..

75,2
13
63,8
35,4
62,2
69
6,4
4,6
32,8
82
67,6
91

18,4
90,4
56,2
33,6
53,8
34,4
24,8
1,4
61,8
129,4
62,6
62,2

24,2
29
35,2
15,2
65,8
34,6
12,8
16,8
53
24,6
23
53,2

12,2
57
16,6
81,8
64,9
2,2
5,4
14
36
63,4
76,8
67

63,8
17,4
30,8
36,8
26,2
77,4
24
11,6
38
48
52,8
20,8

9
10
38,4
74,6
54,4
13,6
16,2
24,4
110,6
77,6
70,8
56

39,4
52,2
94,2
29,6
18
45,2
5,4
59,4
116,6
92
41,2
3,3

34,6
38,4
47,88
43,85
49,32
39,48
13,57
24,8
64,1
73,8
56,4
50,5

11: P (mm/month) [15]

p (
). p
12. p
,
( 40 ). p
40 12
0,22 . p
13.

67

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June

60

.15 .20 .26 .32

.38

.41

.40

.34 .28 .22 .17

.13

55

.17 .21 .26 .32

.36

.39

.38

.33 .28 .23 .18

.16

50

.19 .23 .27 .31

.34

.36

.35

.32 .28 .24 .20

.18

45

.20 .23 .27 .30

.34

.35

.34

.32 .28 .24 .21

.20

40

.22 .24 .27 .30

.32

.34

.33

.31 .28 .25 .22

.21

35

.23 .25 .27 .29

.31

.32

.32

.30 .28 .25 .23

.22

30

.24 .25 .27 .29

.31

.32

.31

.30 .28 .26 .24

.23

25

.24 .26 .27 .29

.30

.31

.31

.29 .28 .26 .25

.24

20

.25 .26 .27 .28

.29

.30

.30

.29 .28 .26 .25

.25

15

.26 .26 .27 .28

.29

.29

.29

.28 .28 .27 .26

.25

10

.26 .27 .27 .28

.28

.29

.29

.28 .28 .27 .26

.26

.27 .27 .27 .28

.28

.28

.28

.28 .28 .27 .27

.27

.27 .27 .27 .27

.27

.27

.27

.27 .27 .27 .27

.27

12: (p)
[10]

. . . . . . . . .

0,32
0,34 0,33 0,31 0,28 0,25 0,22 0,21
40 0,22 0,24 0,27 0,3

13: p 40 .

68

p 13 (TD)
40 ETo
Blaney-Criddle: ETo = (0.46 + 8) mm/day ( 14).

ETo = (0.46 + 8)
0,22*(0,46*3,5+8) = 3,37
0,24*(0,46*4,7+8) =4,08
0,27*(0,46*8,8+8) = 6,2
0,30*(0,46*13,1+8) =8,4
0,32*(0,46*18,5+8) = 10,9
0,34*(0,46*22,4+8) =13
0,33*(0,46*25,4+8) = 14,3
0,31*(0,46*25,1+8) =14
0,28*(0,46*20,2+8) = 11,5
0,25*(0,46*15,6+8) =9,17
0,22*(0,46*10,3+8) = 6,5
0,21*(0,46*5,2+8) =4,07

14: ETo

Kc
.
Kc, , ,

. Kc
.
1 .
135-180
( 3 2
). 40
670 , 180
.

69

2
,
( ) .
4 :
1.
2.
3. - ( )
4.
4 ( 2 )
.

. 15


Max (180) .

Min (135)
Max (180)

30
35

40
45

40
70

25
30

15: .

3 Kc
.
, 4 ,
4 .
5 ( 2 ) Kc
4 . 16
Kc .

70

Kc = 0,45

Kc = 0,75

Kc = 1,15


Kc = 0,8

16: Kc .

5 ( 2 ) Kc
.
Kc
.
0.05 (RH> 80%)
(u < 2 m/sec). 0.05
(RH < 50%)
(u > 5 m/sec).
(2 m/sec).

1 ( ).
17.


, 35
, 45
, 70
, 30

1
1 5
6 20
21 30
1 30

17:
14
ETo

ETo

3,37

4,08

6,2

8,4

10,9

13

14,3

14

11,5 9,17

18: ETo
71

6,5

4,07

19 ,
ETo mm/ day,
.

ETo

3,37

4,08

6,2

8,4

10,9

13

14,3

14

11,5

9,17

6,5

4,07

Kc


0,45

1,15

0,75

0,8

19: , ETo, Kc.


. ETo Kc .
ET crop = ETo Kc .
, :

Kc =0,45
5 , Kc =0,45
25 , Kc =0,75

K C

5
25
* 0.45 * 0.75 0.07 0.62 0.69 0.70
30
30

: Kc 0.05 0.00.
Kc, = 0.70

K C

20 Kc =0,75
10 Kc =1,15

20
10
* 0.75 *1.15 0.5 0.38 0.88 0.9
30
30

72

Kc = 1,15
Kc = 1,15
Kc = 0,8

ETo

3,37

4,08

6,2

8,4

10,9

13

14,3

14

11,5

9,17

6,5

4,07

Kc

Kc

0,45

0,45

1,15

0,75
0,7

0,9

1,15

0,8
1,15

0,8

20: ETo
Kc .

4: , ,
, : ET crop = ETo Kc (/)

ET crop= 6,2*0,45=2,8
ET crop= 8,4*0,7=5,9
ET crop= 10,9*0,9= 9,8
ET crop= 13*1,15= 14,9
ET crop= 14,3*1,15= 16,4
ET crop= 14*0,8= 11,2

21: ET crop /.

73

ETo (mm/day)

3,37

4,08

6,2

8,4

10,9

13

14,3

14

11,5

9,17

6,5

4,07

Kc

Kc

0,45

0,7

0,9

1,15

1,15

0,8

ETcrop(mm/day)

2,8

5,9

9,8

14,9

16,4

11,2

0,45

1,15

0,75

0,8

22: ETcrop ()
Kc .

5:
. ETcrop (mm/month) = 30 ( ) * ETcrop (mm/day)

: 30 .

ETcrop = 30*2,8= 84 mm/month


ETcrop = 30*5,9= 177 mm/month
ETcrop = 30*9,8= 294 mm/month
ETcrop = 30*14,9= 447 mm/month
ETcrop = 30*16,4= 492mm/month
ETcrop = 30*11,2=336 mm/month

23: ET crop mm/month.

74

ETo (mm/day)

3,37

4,08

6,2

8,4

10,9

13

14,3

14

11,5

9,17

6,5

4,07

Kc

0,45

Kc

0,45

0,7

0,9

1,15

1,15

0,8

ETcrop(mm/day)

2,8

5,9

9,8

14,9

16,4

11,2

ETcrop(mm/month)

84

177

294

447

492

336

0,75

1,15

0,8

24: ETcrop ( mm/month )


Kc .


84+177+294+447+492+336 = 1830 mm
5.1
11 P
mm/month.
.

ETo (mm/day)

3,37

4,08

6,2

8,4

10,9

13

14,3

14

11,5

9,17

6,5

4,07

Kc

0,45

Kc

0,45

0,7

0,9

1,15

1,15

0,8

ETcrop(mm/day)

2,8

5,9

9,8

14,9

16,4

11,2

ETcrop(mm/month)

84

177

294

447

492

336

P (mm/month)

47,88 43,85 49,32

39,48

13,57 24,8

0,75

1,15

0,8

25: ETcrop ( mm/month )


P ( mm/month ).

75

.
1: .

.
Pe=0.8*P - 25 P>75 /
Pe=0.6*P - 10 P<75 /
P = (/)
Pe = (/)

: Pe
. .
:
P=47,88<75 Pe=0,6*47,88-10 = 18,7 mm/month
:
P=43,85<75 Pe=0,6*43,85-10 = 16,31 mm/month
:
P=49,32<75 Pe=0,6*49,32-10 = 19,6 mm/month
:
P=39,48<75 Pe=0,6*39,48-10 = 13,69 mm/month
:
P=13,57<75 Pe=0,6*13,57-10 = -1,86 mm/month
Pe
Pe=0.
:
P=24,8<75 Pe=0,6*24,8-10 = 4,88 mm/month

76

ETo (mm/day)

3,37

4,08

6,2

8,4

10,9

13

14,3

14

11,5

9,17

6,5

4,07

Kc

0,45

Kc

0,45

0,7

0,9

1,15

1,15

0,8

ETcrop(mm/day)

2,8

5,9

9,8

14,9

16,4

11,2

ETcrop(mm/month)

84

177

294

447

492

336

P (mm/month)

47,88 43,85 49,32

39,48

13,57 24,8

Pe (mm/month)

18,7

13,69

0,75

16,31 19,6

1,15

0,8

4,88

26: ETcrop ( mm/month )


Pe ( mm/month ).

2: /
:
Vrequirement (IN) = ET crop(mm/month) Pe(mm/month).
40
670m ( )
35 ( 17)
6
. 35
(Pe=0) .
:
Vrequirement (IN) = ET crop(mm/month) Pe(mm/month)= 84 - 0= 84mm/month
:
Vrequirement (IN) = ET crop Pe =177 16,31= 160,7 mm/month
77

:
Vrequirement (IN) = ET crop Pe =294 19,6= 274,4 mm/month
:
Vrequirement (IN) = ET crop Pe =447 13,69= 433,31 mm/month
:
Vrequirement (IN) = ET crop Pe =492 0= 492 mm/month
:
Vrequirement (IN) = ET crop Pe =336 4,88= 331,12 mm/month

Vrequirement (IN)= 84+160,7+274,4+433,31+492+331,12= 1775,53 mm

mm/day
:
Vrequirement(mm/day)=

Vrequirement (mm / month)


30

:
Vrequirement (IN) = 84/30= 2,8 mm/day
:
Vrequirement (IN) = 160,7/30=5,3 mm/day
:
Vrequirement (IN) = 274,4/30=9,1 mm/day

78

:
Vrequirement (IN) = 433,31/30=14,4 mm/day
:
Vrequirement (IN) = 492/30=16,4 mm/day
:
Vrequirement (IN) = 331,12/30=11 mm/day

ETo (mm/day)

3,37

4,08

6,2

8,4

10,9

13

14,3

14

11,5

9,17

6,5

4,07

Kc

0,45

Kc

0,45

0,7

0,9

1,15

1,15

0,8

ETcrop(mm/day)

2,8

5,9

9,8

14,9

16,4

11,2

ETcrop(mm/month)

84

177

294

447

492

336

P (mm/month)

47,88 43,85 49,32

39,48

13,57 24,8

Pe (mm/month)

18,7

16,31 19,6

13,69

Vreq (mm/month)

84

160,7 274,4

433,31 492

331,12

Vreq (mm/day)

2,8

5,3

14,4

11

0,75

1,15

9,1

0,8

0
16,4

4,88

27: Vrequirement mm/month


mm/day.

79

[16].
,
.

V Vrequireme nt *

LR

(1 LR )
Eg

ECW
5 * EC e ECW

Eg= Ep * Er

[16]

[16]

[16] [18]

:
Vrequirement : (mm/day).
LR : ,
Eg : ,
Ep :
( ) 90 %.
Er :
( ).
95 %.
ECw : ( dS/ m),
ECe : , (dS/ m).

ECw= 1,7 dS/ m


ECe = 2,5 dS/ m
[17]
LR

ECW
1,7
1,7

0,16
5 * EC e ECW 5 * 2,5 1,7 10 ,8

80

Eg= Ep * Er= 0,9*0,95 = 0,855


Er Ep 28.




()
()

:


()


(Pivot)

Er
0,60 0,75
0,50 0,60
0,35 0,50
0,20 0,35
0,80 0,95
Ep
0,60 0,80
0,60 0,75
0,50 0,75
0,60 0,80
0,55 - 0,75
0,75 0,90
0,75 0,90
0,80 0,95

28: Er Ep
. [18]

V Vrequireme nt *

(1 LR )
(1 0.16 )
Vreq *
Vreq * 1.36
Eg
0.855

V= Vrequirement (mm/day) * 1.36 = 2,8*1,36 = 3,8mm/day=


=3,8m3//day
V= Vrequirement (mm/day) * 1.36 = 5,3*1,36 = 7,2 mm/day
V= Vrequirement (mm/day) * 1.36 = 9,1*1,36 = 12,4 mm/day
V= Vrequirement (mm/day) * 1.36 = 14,4*1,36 = 19,6 mm/day
V= Vrequirement (mm/day) * 1.36 = 16,4*1,36 = 22,3 mm/day
V= Vrequirement (mm/day) * 1.36 = 11*1,36 = 14,9 mm/day

81

ETo (mm/day)

3,37

4,08

6,2

8,4

10,9

13

14,3

14

11,5

9,17

6,5

4,07

Kc

0,45

Kc

0,45

0,7

0,9

1,15

1,15

0,8

ETcrop(mm/day)

2,8

5,9

9,8

14,9

16,4

11,2

ETcrop(mm/month)

84

177

294

447

492

336

P (mm/month)

47,88 43,85 49,32

39,48

13,57 24,8

Pe (mm/month)

18,7

16,31 19,6

13,69

Vreq (mm/month)

84

160,7 274,4

433,31 492

331,12

Vreq (mm/day)

2,8

5,3

9,1

14,4

16,4

11

V (mm/day)

3.8

7.2

12.4

19.6

22.3

14.9

0,75

1,15

0,8

29:

82

4,88

6:

41: [16] MPPT =


, Battery= , Regulator = , DC/AC=
Pump = , Well = , Tank =

( 41)
MPPT, (
: , , ...),
[16].

: MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking)



30% .

83

6.1
29
V=22,3mm/day ,
Pe=0 ( 29)

.
( )
, .

:
Pl

V *g * p*L
n p * t

[16]

:
Pl : (W),
V: (m3 ),
g: (m/ s2 ),
: (Kg/ m3 ),
L: ( m)
p : ,
t : (s).

:
: = 1000 Kg/ m3
10m ,
.
.
,
L = 20m
. [19]
: g = 9,81 m/ s2
: p = 0,7
84

,
[19].
t=2h .
0,5h

.

Pl

V * g * p * L 22 ,3 * 9,81 * 1000 * 20

868 ,107 W 0,87KW


n p * t
0,7 * 2 * 3600

Php

PKW
0.87

1.16 hp
0.746 0.746

V 22.3

11.15 m3/h
t
2

1m3= 1000lt Q= 11.150 lt/h

t=0,5h

Pl

V * g * p * L 22 ,3 * 9,81 *1000 * 20

3,47 KW P=4.65hp
n p * t
0,7 * 0,5 * 3600

22.3
44.6 m3/h
0.5


,
P=4,65hp5hp Q=44,6m3/h.
t=2h P=1,16hp Q=11,156m3/h
.
.

85

MATRA-APD PST-5507P ( 42).


P=1,5hp P=1,16hp
Q=14,4 m3/h
Q=11,156m3/h.

42: MATRA-APD PST-5507P [20]

86

43 44.

43: MATRA-APD PST-5507P [20]

87

44: MATRA-APD PST-5507P [20]

44: H .
88

6.2
P=1,5Hp=1119W.
t ( )

Pl

V *g* p*L
V *g* p*L
t
n p * t * 3600
n p * Pl * 3600

29
mm/day. 30.

V (mm/day)
3,8

7,2

12,4

19,6

22,3

.
14,9

30: .

V=3,8mm/day = 3,8m3//day.

t

3,8 * 9,81 *1000 * 20


0,264 h /day
0,7 *1119 * 3600

V=7,2mm/day = 7,2m3//day.

t

7,2 * 9,81 * 1000 * 20


0,5h /day
0,7 *1119 * 3600

V=12,4mm/day = 12,4m3//day.

t

12 ,4 * 9,81 *1000 * 20
0,86 h /day
0,7 *1119 * 3600

89

V=19,6mm/day = 19,6m3//day.

t

19 ,6 * 9,81 *1000 * 20
1,364 h /day
0,7 *1119 * 3600

V=22,3mm/day = 22,3m3//day.

t

22 ,3 * 9,81 *1000 * 20
1,55 h /day
0,7 *1119 * 3600

V=14,9mm/day = 14,9m3/.

t

14 ,9 * 9,81 *1000 * 20
1,04 h /day
0,7 *1119 * 3600

V (mm/day)
3,8
t (h/day)
0,264

7,2
0,5

12,4
0,86

19,6
1,364

22,3
1,55

.
14,9
1,04

31: .

Ea=Pl*t*31=1119*0,264*31=9157,89Wh

Ea

Ea=Pl*t*30=1119*0,5*30=16785Wh

Ea

Ea=Pl*t*31=1119*0,86*31=29832,54Wh

Ea

Ea=Pl*t*30=1119*1,364*30=45789,48Wh

Ea

Ea=Pl*t*31=1119*1,55*31=53767,95Wh

Ea


Ea=Pl*t*30=1119*1,04*30=34912,8Wh
90

Ea

V (mm/day)
3,8
t (h)
0,264
Ea (Wh)
9157,896

7,2
0,5
16785

12,4
0,86
29832,54

19,6
1,364
45789,48

22,3
1,55
53767,95

.
14,9
1,04
34912,8

32: Ea

6.3


() [12]
0,80
0,90
0,85

,
,
.
10
1 1
1 =
200
. [12]

40
.
33.

V (mm/day)
t (h)
Ea (Wh)
1 (C )


3,8
7,2
0,264
0,5
9157,896 16785
8,8
13,1

12,4
0,86
29832,54
18,3

19,6
1,364
45789,48
22,4

22,3
1,55
53767,95
25,4

33: 1 .
91

.
14,9
1,04
34912,8
25,1

1 10
200

8,8 10
0,906
200

1 10
200

13,1 10
0,8845
200

1 10
200

18,3 10
0,8585
200

1 10
200

22,4 10
0,838
200

1 10
200

25,4 10
0,823
200

1 10
200

25,1 10
0,8245
200

92

V (mm/day)
3,8
t (h)
0,264
Ea (Wh)
9157,896
1 (C )
8,8

0,906

7,2
0,5
16785
13,1
0,8845

12,4
0,86
29832,54
18,3
0,8585

19,6
1,364
45789,48
22,4
0,838

22,3
1,55
53767,95
25,4
0,823

.
14,9
1,04
34912,8
25,1
0,8245

34:

6.4
.

RWE SCHOTT Solar GmbH


ASE-160-GT-FT ( 45)
45. [12]

45: ASE-160-GT-FT [21]


93

45: ASE-160-GT-FT [12]


45
n

Pm
160

0,1166 11,66% [12]


E * F 1000 * 1,282 * 1,070

Pm = Wp (Watt-peak)
= W/m2
F = m2

,
:
COMPACT C2600-24

n1 = 95%

n2 = 85%
n3 = 97%
n4 = 98%
94

n= n1*n2* n3*n4= 0.95*0.85*0.97*0.98 = 0,7676


n=n*n = 0,1166*0,7676 = 0,0895



:
1
0,90
0,80

:
( 20%),
. [12]



=n**

=n** = 0,0895*0,906*0,80 = 0,06487


=n** = 0,0895*0,8845*0,80 = 0,06333
=n** = 0,0895*0,8585*0,80 = 0,06147
=n** = 0,0895*0,838*0,80 = 0,06
=n** = 0,0895*0,823*0,80 = 0,05892
=n** = 0,0895*0,8245*0,80 = 0,059

95

V (mm/day)
t (h)
Ea (Wh)
1 (C )

3,8
7,2
0,264
0,5
9157,896 16785
8,8
13,1
0,906
0,8845
0,06487 0,06333

12,4
0,86
29832,54
18,3
0,8585
0,06147

19,6
1,364
45789,48
22,4
0,838
0,06

22,3
1,55
53767,95
25,4
0,823
0,05892

14,9
1,04
34912,8
25,1
0,8245
0,059

35: .

6.5 .

Ea (Wh) 35 .
46 mk (KWh/m2)
.

96

46: ( mk ) . [12]

97

36 mk (KWh/m2)
.

29

128,930

184,674

193,545

184,214

156,000

173,819

36: ( mk ) .

=29
Ea
F
[12]
H mk *

Ea
9,157896

1,09495 m 2
H mk * 128 ,930 * 0,06487

Ea
16 ,785

1,69897 m 2
H mk * 156 ,0 * 0,06333

Ea
29 ,83254

2,7921 m 2
H mk * 173 ,819 * 0,06147

Ea
45,78948

4,13246 m 2
H mk * 184 ,674 * 0,06

Ea
53,76795

4,714968 m 2
H mk * 193 ,545 * 0,05892

Ea
34 ,9128

3,21225 m 2
H mk * 184 ,214 * 0,059
98

F= 1,282*1,070=1,37174 m2

F 1,09495

0,798 1
F
1,37174

F 1,69897

1,238 2
F
1,37174

F
2,7921

2,035 2
F
1,37174

F
4,13246

3,0125 3
F
1,37174

F 4,714968

3,437 4
F
1,37174

F 3,21225

2,34 3
F
1,37174

V (mm/day)
3,8
t (h)
0,264
Ea (Wh)
9157,896
1 (C )
8,8

0,906

0,06487
2
mk(KWh/m ) 128,930

7,2
0,5
16785
13,1
0,8845
0,06333
156,000
2

12,4
0,86
29832,54
18,3
0,8585
0,06147
173,819
2

19,6
1,364
45789,48
22,4
0,838
0,06
184,674
3

22,3
1,55
53767,95
25,4
0,823
0,05892
193,545
4

.
14,9
1,04
34912,8
25,1
0,8245
0,059
184,214
3

37: .
99


,

,
.
( ) .

6.6
(KWh/).

45
P = v*Pm=4*160 = 640W


F= 1,282*1,070*4 = 5,48696m2


= mk * * F

=mk** F = 128,930*0,06487*5,48696 = 45,89KWh


=mk** F = 156,000*0,06333*5,48696 = 52,21KWh
=mk** F =173,819 *0,06147*5,48696 = 58,62KWh
=mk** F = 184,674*0,06*5,48696 = 60,79KWh
=mk** F = 193,545*0,05892*5,48696 = 62,57KWh
=mk** F =184,214 *0,059*5,48696 = 59,63KWh

100

V (mm/day)
3,8
t (h)
0,264
Ea (Wh)
9157,896
1 (C )
8,8

0,906

0,06487
2
mk(KWh/m ) 128,930

(KWh)
45,89

7,2
0,5
16785
13,1
0,8845
0,06333
156,000
1

12,4
0,86
29832,54
18,3
0,8585
0,06147
173,819
3

19,6
1,364
45789,48
22,4
0,838
0,06
184,674
4

22,3
1,55
53767,95
25,4
0,823
0,05892
193,545
4

.
14,9
1,04
34912,8
25,1
0,8245
0,059
184,214
3

52,21

58,62

60,79

62,57

59,63

38: .

6.7 .

= a

= a = 45,89 9,157896 = 36,732 KWh


= a = 52,21 16,785 = 35,425 KWh
= a = 58,62 29,83254 = 28,787 KWh
= a = 60,79 45,78948 = 15,00052 KWh
= a = 62,57 53,76795 = 8,80205 KWh
= a = 59,63 34,9128 = 24,717 KWh

101

V (mm/day)
3,8
t (h)
0,264
Ea (Wh)
9157,896
1 (C )
8,8

0,906

0,06487
2
mk(KWh/m ) 128,930

(KWh)
45,89
(KWh)
36,732

7,2
0,5
16785
13,1
0,8845
0,06333
156,000
1

12,4
0,86
29832,54
18,3
0,8585
0,06147
173,819
3

19,6
1,364
45789,48
22,4
0,838
0,06
184,674
4

22,3
1,55
53767,95
25,4
0,823
0,05892
193,545
4

.
14,9
1,04
34912,8
25,1
0,8245
0,059
184,214
3

52,21
35,425

58,62
28,787

60,79
15,00052

62,57
8,80205

59,63
24,717

39: .

102

6.8 .


, ,
.


. [12]

( Pb H2SO4 )
,
.
,
, ,
. [22]

DC-AC (inverter)
COMPACT C2600-24.
48.
COMPACT C2600-24
230V, .
48
24V. 24V
(VBat =24V 47).

47:
. [23]

103

48: . [12]
104

Ea * J Aut
VBat * n * dod m ax

[12] [16]

:
C : (Ah)
Ea : (Wh)
JAut :
VBat : (V)
n : , 0,85
dodmax : (%), 0,80

32 E a Wh.
,
,
.
Ea = 53767,95 Wh.
Ea = 53767,95 / 31 = 1734,45 Wh.

( ) .
,
JAut =2 .
V Bat =24V.

Ea * J Aut
1734 ,45 * 2
3468 ,9

212 ,55 Ah
VBat * n * dod m ax 24 * 0,85 * 0,80 16 ,32

105

2V ,
12 . 49
PzS / ECO // SUN.
C = 212,55 Ah.
, ,
C = 212,55 Ah.
49 3PzS 240
( 50) 2V 240 Ah.

49: PzS / ECO // SUN


V=2V. [12]

50: H 3PzS 240. [24]


106

51 3PzS
240. VBat = 12*2 = 24V
C = C1 = C2 = = C12 = 240 Ah.

51 : 3PzS 240. [23]

, compact C2600-24
( 52) .
P=1,5hp = (1,5*0,746) KW = 1,119 KW =1119W.

52: COMPACT C 2600-24. [26]


107

40 ( 48)
COMPACT,
. () 1119W,
C2600-24, 2300VA
C1600-12, 1300VA,
,
.
. [25]

INVERTER


( 25C)


C1600-12
12V
9,5V-16V
1300VA
94%

C2600-24
24V
19V-32V
2300VA
95%
230V
50Hz

C4000-40
48V
38V-64V
3500VA
95%

40: COMPACT,
.

6.9 .

,

, :

,
, . ,
H2SO4
Pb PbSO4 ( 53). [22]

108


.
( 53),
:
.
.
(-)

(+)

53: Pb/ H2SO4


) (H2SO4)
Pb PbSO4, ) ,
) . [22]

109

,
( 53),
, PbSO4. [22]


(overcharging),
(over discharging).
.
( ,
4% 94% )

( ). [22]

.
,
(inverter), .[12]
,
(microcontrollers),
, (relays),
(transistors bipolar, MOSFET, thyristors, triacs ..). ,
,
. [22]
110


. ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
(2V ), ,
. [22]

,
2V/ ( 2,35V ) .
(
),
( 1,75-1,80V ). [22]
54 ON - OFF

MOSFET. [27]

54: ON - OFF
MOSFET [27]

111




. 11V (
), ,
, MOSFET (CHG MOSFET),
( 12V 6 2V)
LED (CHG LED).
11V ( )
MOSFET, ,
LED
(LO-BAT LED)
. [27]
.
13,8V ,

D

t on
0,95 ( 55).
Ts

55: 95%. [27]

13,8V
95% 10%.
. [27]
12V 14V. [12]

MOSFET, (LOAD MOSFET),
MOSFET .
10V, ,
112

MOSFET,
.
LED
(LO- BAT LED). ,

11V,
12,5V
LOAD MOSFET . [27]

6.10
.

(Hopt = Hmk)

40. 41 KWh/m2/day
.

. .

5,13

5,59

6,1

6,67

7,11

41: Hmk KWh/m2/day

Hmk KWh/m2/month :

Hmk= 5,13*31= 159,03 KWh/m2


Hmk= 5,59*30= 167,7 KWh/m2
Hmk= 6,1*31= 189,1 KWh/m2
Hmk= 6,67*30= 200,1 KWh/m2
Hmk= 7,11*31= 220,41 KWh/m2
Hmk= 6,93*30= 207,9 KWh/m2

113

6,93

. .

159,03

167,7

189,1

200,1

220,41

207,9

42: Hmk KWh/m2/month

ASE-160-GT-FT
.
ETATRACK active 1000 (
56). 57
,
( 58) 1,25KWh/year.

56: ETATRACK active 1000. [28]

114

57:
. [28]

115

58:
. [28]

1,25KWh/year.
1,25/12 = 0,10416 KWh/month.

32.
tracker :

Ea = 9,157896+0,10416= 9,262056 KWh/month


Ea = 16,785+0,10416= 16,88916 KWh/month
Ea = 29,83254+0,10416= 29,9367 KWh/month
Ea = 45,78948+0,10416= 45,89364 KWh/month
Ea = 53,76795+0,10416= 53,87211 KWh/month
Ea = 34,9128+0,10416= 35,01696 KWh/month

116

Hmk
(KWh/m2)
Ea (KWh)

159,03

167,7

189,1

200,1

220,41

207,9

9,262056

16,88916

29,9367

45,89364

53,87211

35,01696

43: Ea (KWh/month)
tracker.

Ea
H mk *

[12]

35.
F

Ea
9,262056

0,89783 m 2
H mk * 159 ,03 * 0,06487

Ea
16 ,88916

1,590316 m 2
H mk * 167 ,7 * 0,06333

Ea
29 ,9367

2,57543 m 2
H mk * 189 ,1 * 0,06147

Ea
45,89364

3,822558 m 2
H mk * 200 ,1 * 0,06

Ea
53,87211

4,148316 m 2
H mk * 220 ,41 * 0,05892

Ea
35,01696

2,85477 m 2
H mk * 207 ,9 * 0,059
117

Hmk
(KWh/m2)
Ea (KWh)

F (m2)

159,03

167,7

189,1

200,1

220,41

207,9

9,262056
0,06487
0,89783

16,88916
0,06333
1,590316

29,9367
0,06147
2,57543

45,89364
0,06
3,822558

53,87211
0,05892
4,148316

35,01696
0,059
2,85477

44: F (m2) .

F= 1,282*1,070=1,37174 m2
:

F 0.89783

0,6545 1
F
1,37174

F 1,590316

1,1593 2
F
1,37174

F 2,57543

1,87749 2
F
1,37174

F 3,822558

2,7866 3
F
1,37174

F 4,148316

3,02412 3
F
1,37174

F 2,85477

2,08113 2
F
1,37174

118

Hmk
(KWh/m2)
Ea (KWh)

F (m2)

159,03

167,7

189,1

200,1

220,41

207,9

9,262056
0,06487
0,89783
1

16,88916
0,06333
1,590316
2

29,9367
0,06147
2,57543
2

45,89364
0,06
3,822558
3

53,87211
0,05892
4,148316
3

35,01696
0,059
2,85477
2

45: .


,

,
.
( ) .

6.11
(KWh/).

45
P = v*Pm=3*160 = 480W


F= 1,282*1,070*3 = 4,11522m2


= mk * * F
119

=mk** F = 159,03*0,06487*4,11522 = 42,45KWh


=mk** F = 167,7*0,06333*4,11522 = 43,7KWh
=mk** F =189,1 *0,06147*4,11522 = 47,83KWh
=mk** F = 200,1*0,06*4,11522 = 49,4KWh
=mk** F = 220,41*0,05892*4,11522 = 53,4425KWh
=mk** F =207,9 *0,059*4,11522 = 50,47KWh

Hmk
(KWh/m2)
Ea (KWh)

F (m2)

(KWh)

159,03

167,7

189,1

200,1

220,41

207,9

9,262056
0,06487
0,89783
1
42,45

16,88916
0,06333
1,590316
2
43,7

29,9367
0,06147
2,57543
2
47,83

45,89364
0,06
3,822558
3
49,4

53,87211
0,05892
4,148316
3
53,4425

35,01696
0,059
2,85477
2
50,47

46: .

6.12 .

= a
= a = 42,45 9,157896 = 33,2921 KWh
= a = 43,7 16,785 = 26,915 KWh
= a = 47,83 29,83254 = 17,99746 KWh
= a = 49,4 45,78948 = 3,61052 KWh
= a = 53,4425 53,76795 = -0,32545 KWh
= a = 50,47 34,9128 = 15,5572 KWh

120

Hmk
(KWh/m2)
Ea (KWh)

F (m2)

(KWh)
(KWh)

159,03

167,7

189,1

200,1

220,41

207,9

9,262056
0,06487
0,89783
1
42,45
33,2921

16,88916
0,06333
1,590316
2
43,7
26,915

29,9367
0,06147
2,57543
2
47,83
17,99746

45,89364
0,06
3,822558
3
49,4
3,61052

53,87211
0,05892
4,148316
3
53,4425
-0,32545

35,01696
0,059
2,85477
2
50,47
15,5572

47: .

,
= 0,32545/31=0,010498 KWh/day.
P=1,5Hp=1,119KW.
.

0,010498
P * t t t
t 0.00938 h t= 0,5628min
P
1,119

1,55 ( 90)
( , ),
1,55h 0,5628 min
.

6.13 .

tracker
Ea = 53,87211 KWh/month.
tracker
Ea=53,87211/31=1,73781KWh/day=1737,81Wh/day.

121

Ea * J Aut
1737 ,81 * 2

212 ,96 Ah
VBat * n * dod m ax 24 * 0,85 * 0,8


. 12 3PzS 240 solar.

122

7:



, 60 [29],
.

350 .
2000 , 1800 .

6000 .
,
10 .



ASE-160-GT-FT SCOT solar
GmbH [30] 25 [31].
791,35 [32]
4 4*791,35=3165,4 .
famulus ( 59)
, Conergy [33]
10 [34] 59 [35].
2*59=118 .

59: . [34]

123

COMPACT C2600-24
STUDER INNOTEC SA [36]
. 1649 [37] 5
[38]. 3 PzS 240
Sunlight 12-14 72
[39]. 12 2V
12*72=864 . MATRA-APD PST-5507P
MATRA 2
371,67 [20].
6168,07
48.
(tracker)
ASE-160-GT-FT
.
3 3*791,35=2374,05 .
ETATRACK 1000
LORENTZ [40]
912 [41]. ,
,
6170,72
48.


4*791,35 = 3165,4
2*59 = 118
1649
12*72=864
371,67
6168,07

tracker
3*791,35 = 2374,05
912
1649
12*72=864
371,67
6170,72

48:
.


, ,
tracker 2 ,
.

600m
600*30=18000 . [42]
124

[1] http://www.paragogi.net/4164/ta-panta-gia-thn-kalliergeia-ths-ntomatias
[2]
https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A4%CE%BF%CE%BC%CE%AC%CF%84%CE%B1
[3]
http://www.gaiapedia.gr/gaiapedia/index.php/%CE%9A%CE%B1%CE%BB%CE%BB%
CE%B9%CE%AD%CF%81%CE%B3%CE%B5%CE%B9%CE%B1_%CE%BD%CF%84%CE%B
F%CE%BC%CE%AC%CF%84%CE%B1%CF%82
[4] http://www.geoponiko-parko.gr/products/products-categories/sporofytalaxanikon/sporofyta-anoiksis/505-detail
[5] http://www.viologika.gr/viologikes-ntomates_fytema.php
[6] http://biologikaorganikaproionta.com/viologika-proionta/viologiki-tomatagreek-organic-tomato/
[7] http://www.paragogi.net/573/polles-oi-xrhseis-pollapla-ta-ofelh-apo-thviomhxanikh-ntomata
[8] http://www.reporter.gr/Eidhseis/Oikonomia/245920-Poies-kalliergeies-dinoyneisodhma-ews-4-000-eyrw-to-stremma?tmpl=component&print=1
[9] http://www.ethnos.gr/entheta.asp?catid=23353&subid=2&pubid=64152571
[10] http://www.fao.org/docrep/s2022e/s2022e07.htm
[11] http://www.fao.org/docrep/s2022e/s2022e08.htm
[14] http://www.pvtech.gr/pvgis.html
[15] http://www.meteo.gr/meteoplus/index.cfm
[17] http://www.fao.org/DOCReP/003/T0234e/T0234E03.htm
[18]
http://safeit.gr/gaiasoft/Geoponos/%D0%F1%FC%F4%F5%F0%E1/%C1%F1%E4%E5%F5%F4
%E9%EA%DE%20%CC%E5%EB%DD%F4%E73.dot.

[19] http://agroselida.blogspot.gr/2014/10/blog-post_85.html
[20] http://www.e-toolsmarket.com/antlia-geotrisis-ypobryxia-4-1-5hp-220v-matraapd-pst-5507p.html
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[21] www.secondsol.de
[23] http://www.studer-innotec.com/?cat=download_center
[24 http://www.eshops.gr/4-pzs-320-solar-2v-battery.html
[25] http://www.iqsolarpower.com/inverter/
[26] http://www.mysolarshop.co.uk/studer-c-260024-p-486.html
[27] http://sandysplash.blogspot.gr/2013/07/pwm-solar-charge-controllercircuit.html
[28] ETATRACK active 1000 - LORENTZ
[29]
http://www.agroenergy.gr/en/content/%CF%80%CF%81%CF%8C%CF%84%CE%B1%
CF%83%CE%B7-%CF%83%CF%84%CE%BF%CE%BD%CE%B1%CE%B3%CF%81%CF%8C%CF%84%CE%B7-%CE%BD%CE%B1%CE%BA%CE%B1%CE%BB%CE%BB%CE%B9%CE%B5%CF%81%CE%B3%CE%B5%CE%
AF-%CF%84%CE%BF-%CE%B4%CE%B9%CE%BA%CF%8C-%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%85%CE%BA%CE%B1%CF%8D%CF%83%CE%B9%CE%BC%CE%BF
[30]
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w/74f6f6dc23eea28e
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923e325e16617477/ase-160-gt-ft
[32] http://www.pro-umwelt.de/solarmodul-ase160gtft-p-437.html
[33] http://www.conergy.com/
[34] http://www.superiorsolar.com.au/solar-power/residential-solarpower/products/flat-roof-solar-panel-mounting-system/
[35] http://www.fotovoltaika.gr/solar-energyshop/index.php/catalogsearch/result/index/?___from_store=gr&___store=en&cat=
440&dir=asc&limit=5&mode=list&order=price&q=%CE%A6%CE%A9%CE%A4%CE%9F
%CE%92%CE%9F%CE%9B%CE%A4%CE%91%CE%99%CE%9A%CE%91+120+WATT+fle
xi
[36] http://www.studer-innotec.com/?cat=contact_us
[37] http://www.eshops.gr/studer-c-2600-24-inverter.html
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[38] http://www.studer-innotec.com/?cat=sine_wave_inverter-chargers&id=433
[39] http://www.eshops.gr/4-pzs-320-solar-2v-battery.html
[40] https://www.lorentz.de/en/company/about-us.html
[41] http://www.1-eshop.net/index.php?act=viewProd&productId=11512
[42] http://www.michanikos.gr/topic/5978%CE%BA%CF%8C%CF%83%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%82%CF%83%CF%8D%CE%BD%CE%B4%CE%B5%CF%83%CE%B7%CF%82%CE%BC%CE%B5-%CF%84%CE%BF%CE%B4%CE%AF%CE%BA%CF%84%CF%85%CE%BF-%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%82%CE%B4%CE%B5%CE%B7/

[12] , . & . (2009). .


: .
[13] , . & , . & , . .
: .
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Paper
[16] An algorithm for sizing photovoltaic pumping systems for tomatoes irrigation
I. Yahyaoui & M. Chaabene, F. Tadeo, University of Sfax, Tunisia & University of
Valladolid, Spain ,Madrid, Spain 20-23 October 2013

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