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PHILIP JOHNSON

AN AMERICAN ARCHITECT,
LIVING BETWEEN 1906 AND
2005. BEFORE HE WAS
FAMOUS HE WAS FOCUSED
ON BUILDING THE TYPICAL
GLASS AND STEEL TOWERS,
SOONER OR LATER HE
BROUGHT HIS TRADEMARK
TO
THE
SCENE
BY
DESIGNING
WONDERFUL
CRYSTAL
STRUCTURED
BUILDINGS, WHICH LOOK AS
IF THEY ARE COVERED IN
GLASS ON ALL SIDES. HIS
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN IS A MIXTURE OF MINIMALISM AS POP
ART, AND THEY HAVE BEEN ALWAYS SEEN EITHER AS A
PROVOCATION OR ACCEPTED QUICKLY.

THE HAZEL WRIGHT MEMORIAL ORGAN. THIS WONDERFUL MASTER PIECE WAS COMPLETED IN 1981. IT CAN SEAT 2. USA IS ONE OF HIS FAMOUS WORK. THE CRYSTAL CATHEDRAL IS A CHURCH BUILDING IN GARDEN GROVE. THE AT&T BUILDING COMPLETED IN 1984[20] IN MANHATTAN. ORANGE COUNTY.736 PEOPLE. CALIFORNIA.THE CRYSTAL CATHEDRAL IN CALIFORNIA. THE CHURCH IS ALSO KNOWN TO BE ONE OF THE LARGEST MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS IN THE WORLD. WAS IMMEDIATELY CONTROVERSIAL FOR ITS NEO-GEORGIAN PEDIMENT (CHIPPENDALE TOP) CHARACTERISTIC FOR POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE AND CLOSE - . USA. NOW THE SONY BUILDING.

ALONG WITH HIS THREE BROTHERS. MAÑOSA EVENTUALLY CHOSE TO PURSUE ARCHITECTURE.TO THE GRAVES.IN CONCEPT . POPULARIZING THE IDEA OF PHILIPPINE ARCHITECTURE FOR FILIPINOS. 1982 HUMANA BUILDING BY MICHAEL FRANCISCO MANOSA FRANCISCO ‘BOBBY’ MAÑOSA HAS BEEN CHALLENGING ARCHITECTURAL CONVENTION IN HIS NATIVE COUNTRY FOR FIVE DECADES. . AND BEFORE LONG BECAME THE ‘OUTSPOKEN CHAMPION OF INDIGENOUS ARCHITECTURE’. HE DISPLAYED AN ARTISTIC TEMPERAMENT FROM AN EARLY AGE AND REMAINED A KEEN PAINTER THROUGHOUT HIS LIFE.

IN ADDITION THERE ARE LITTLE TOUCHES AND DETAILS THAT EVOKE VERNACULAR FORMS. GLASS. RATTAN. MAÑOSA ALSO DEVELOPED A SUMMER RESIDENCE BUILT ON A RICE FIELD IS DESIGNED AS A CLUSTER OF BAHAY KUBO-INSPIRED STRUCTURES FEATURING PYRAMID THATCH ROOFS. AND CONCRETE. STEEP ROOFS TOPPED WITH DECORATIVE FINIALS. THE COCONUT PALACE AT THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE PHILIPPINES COMPLEX TYPIFIES MANOSA’S STYLE. IN 2009 MAÑOSA WAS DESIGNATED A NATIONAL ARTIST IN ARCHITECTURE. A SILONG BUILT INTO A MODERN STRUCTURE. ITS COCONUT GOURD ROOF. FOR EXAMPLE AWNING WINDOWS HELD UP BY TUKOD. COCONUT LUMBER. . COCONUT SHELL CHANDELIER AND PINEAPPLE FIBER BEDCOVERS ARE INFUSED WITH TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION FOR THE MODERN ERA. SHELL. THATCH AND EVEN INDIGENOUS TEXTILES ARE JUXTAPOSED WITH HYPERMODERN MATERIALS: METAL. KNOWN AS CONTEMPORARY TROPICAL FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE. IS A HEADY MIXTURE OF SEEMINGLY INCONGRUOUS ELEMENTS.MAÑOSA’S DISTINCTIVE STYLE.

HONG KONG HAS BECOME A CENTRE FOR MODERN ARCHITECTURE AS OLDER BUILDINGS ARE CLEARED AWAY TO MAKE SPACE FOR NEWER. FUNCTIONALISM. IT HAS MORE BUILDINGS ABOVE 35M (OR 100M) AND MORE SKYSCRAPERS ABOVE 150MTHAN ANY OTHER CITY. POSTMODERNISM. DUE TO THE LACK OF AVAILABLE LAND. ETC. FEW HISTORICAL BUILDINGS REMAIN IN THE URBAN AREAS OF HONG KONG. CHINESE ARCHITECTURE . LARGER BUILDINGS. ESPECIALLY MODERNISM.HONGKONG DESIGNS AND THEIR CURRENT ARCHITECTURAL THE ARCHITECTURE OF HONG KONG FEATURES GREAT EMPHASIS ON CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE.

KOWLOON PRIOR TO THE BRITISH SETTLEMENT OF HONG KONG IN 1841. EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURE The headquarters of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited in 1890 . WITH THE MAJORITY OF THE POPULATION BEING FISHERS AT THE MERCY OF TYPHOONS AND PIRATES. ARCHITECTURE IN HONG KONG WAS PREDOMINATELY CHINESE. LIKEWISE FARMERS BUILT FORTIFIED VILLAGES TO DEFEND THEMSELVES FROM BANDITS.CHI LIN NUNNERY IN DIAMOND HILL. NUMEROUS TIN HAU TEMPLES WERE DEDICATED TO THEIR PATRON GODDESS.