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An Industrial Training Report on

“Detail Study of Working in Blast Furnace
Area (VIZAG STEEL PLANT)”
For the award of degree of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
METALLURGY AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING
By
Arijit Karmakar (12/MME/29)
Under the guidance of
Mr. K. Soloman Raju
Asst. General Manager (Oprn)
Blast Furnace Department

DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING
NATIONAL OF INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DURGAPUR

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify Industrial Training Work entitled “Detail Study of
Working in Blast Furnace Area (VIZAG STEEL PLANT)” that is
submitted by Arijit Karmakar (12/MME/29), student of 2nd year
,B.Tech, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of National Institute
of Technology, Durgapur, during the academic year 2013-2014 and
it has found worthy of acceptance.

Date:
Mr. K. Soloman Raju
Department of Blast furnace

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all I would like to thank Vizag Steel Plant to grant me this unique
opportunity to see and learn the practical applications of Blast furnace.

I highly oblige Mr. Soloman Raju and Mr. Utpal Kumar Parui for their
mastery supervision through all the phases of my industrial training work
with valuable suggestions, resources and support.

I would also like to thank all my friends who helped me by sharing their
knowledge and materials to complete this training.

Finally, a word of gratitude for my parents who are my constant source of
support and encouragement.

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project report entitled “Detail Study of
Working in Blast Furnace Area (VIZAG STEEL PLANT)”
submitted is an original work carried out by me.

The matter embodied in this Industrial Training Report is a genuine
work by me done during the visit to VSP and has not been submitted
earlier to college or any other university.

Arijit Karmakar

Stock House Sending charge to the furnace Screening 5. Day 11. Day 5.Blast Furnace Area Various Departments under Blast Furnace Area Introduction to Burden Handling Section 3.Cast House Stove House Gas Enrichment Bell-less top charging system 7. Day 9.Masses and Compound Shop 12.Cast House Blast Furnace Operation Blast furnaces in VSP 8. Day 4. Day 1.Gas Cleaning Plant Main components of GCP 9. Day 12.Ladle Repair Shop . Day 3. Day 2. Day 10.TABLE OF CONTENT 1. Day 6.Cast House Introduction Blast Furnace Structure Principle components of the charge 6. Day 7. Day 8.Introduction to the steel making industry Various departments and their roles Main products of VSP 2.Stock House Stocking of burden Dust Controlling 4.Pig Casting Machine 11.Slag Granulation Plant 10.

fluxes. are burned to provide heat to the adjacent coal chamber. Coke Ovens & Coal Chemical Plant (COCCP) The primary goal of Coke Oven is to produce coke for the Blast Furnace. coal etc.Introduction to the steel making industry (Visakhapatnam Steel Plant) Major Departments in VSP and their roles  Raw Material Handling Plant (RMPH)  Coke Ovens & Coal Chemical Plant (COCCP)  Sinter Plant  Blast Furnace (BF)  Steel Melt Shop (SMS) & Continuous Casting Department (CCD)  Rolling Mills o Light & Medium Merchant Mill (LMMM) o Wire Rod Mill (WRM) o Medium Merchant & Structural Mill Raw Material Handling Plant (RMPH) VSP requires quality raw material like iron ore. crushed coking coal below 3 mm is heated up to 1050° C in the absence of air for 16-18 hours.e. In the hating chamber BF gas.Day 1. The unit is provided with elaborate unloading. The red-hot coke produced by carbonization is sent to Coke Dry Cooling plant (CDCP) for cooing using nitrogen gas as cooling medium and produces  BF Coke (+25-70 mm) which is sent to BF . which require large quantities of any strong. hard and porous fuel in form of hard metallurgical coke for supplying heat to carry out necessary reactions. The vital function of receiving the materials from various sources and feeding them to various departments is served by the RMPH. blending. Coke Oven gas etc. Each coke oven comprises of two chambers. stacking & reclaiming facilities. In the coal chamber coal blend charge i.

The main by-product is crude coke oven gas which processed in Coal Chemical Plant gives us Ammonia. This sinter makes up the 70-80 % of iron bearing charge of BF. Two exhauster each driven by 5. Blast Furnace (BF) The basic reaction taking place in a BF is smelting and roasting of charge comprising of iron ore.6 m3 and of capacity 31. Coke Breeze (+0-15 mm) which is sent to sinter plant  Nut Coke (+15-25 mm) which is also used in BF The primary by-products are Ammonium Sulphate ((NH4)2 SO4). dolomite and some recycled metallurgical waste undergoes sintering to produce agglomerated mass or sinter of iron of +5 mm size. In the sinter plant a mixture of iron ore fines. 2. Tar and Benzol. 3. Each oven of size 41. Four CCDP each with 4 chambers. FACILITIES 1. FACILITIES 1. pig iron.6 ton. sinter & various other additives in presence of hot air & coke to produce hot metal i. .6 MW motor capable of creating 1500 mm water column suction under the grate. Crude Tar.5 MW each. Two sintering machines of grate area 312 m2 of Dwight Lloyd type. The heat brought out is used to produce 7. Crude Benzol. And hot air blasts are blown through tuyeres located at the bottom. Sinter Plant Sintering is the process of agglomeration of fine mineral particles into porous mass by incipient fusion caused by heat produced by combustion within the mass itself. bell less top system is installed for furnace charging. Capacity of 450 ton/hour each. each of capacity 50-52 TPH. limestone. Paul-Wurth. coke breeze. Four coke oven batteries each 7 m tall and with 67 ovens. 2. The solid charge materials are introduced in the vertical shaft of the furnace from the top.e.

They react to give hot metal and slag. With the help of basic fluxes and lime the heat released from the oxidation process helps in metal refining and slag formation. Two Blast Furnaces of 3200 cm3 useful volume each. steel making is oxidation process. One Blast Furnace of 3800 cm3 useful volume. FACILITIES 1. The entire molten steel at the plant is continuously cast at the radical type continuous casting machine resulting significant energy conservation and better quality steel (100 % Continuous Casting). 2. is collected. 99. cooled. In SMS steel is made in refractory lined vessels known as LD Converters or Oxygen Furnace/Converter. The remaining gas is collected and cooled to be used as fuel in the plant. Six 4-Strand continuous casting bloom machines. 2.8 % Carbon.5 % pure oxygen is blown through the metal bath at 15-16 kg/cm2 pressure. Capacity of 150 ton per heat/blow. cleaned and used as secondary fuel in the plant. Gas along with the heat moves in upward direction and solid in downward direction. Steel Melt Shop (SMS) & Continuous Casting Department (CCD) While iron making is a reduction process. FACILITIES 1. Hot metal received from BF has 3.Oxygen from the hot air combines with carbon from the coke to produce large amount of heat and Carbon Monoxide (CO).5-4.25 % Carbon and various other impurities while steel only has up to 1. Gases released from the converter is called LD gas. Rolling Mills . Three LD Converters of 133 cm3 volume each.

Light & Medium Merchant Mill (LMMM) FACILITIES LMMM comprises of two units. 7 Stand Rough Mill (4 Strand rolling) 6 Stand Intermediate Mill (4 Strand rolling) 4*2 Stand Pre-finishing Mill (Single Strand rolling) 4*10 Stand Finishing Mill (MORGAN BLOCK-Single Strand rolling) Medium Merchant & Structural Mill MMSM is a high capacity continuous mill consisting of 20 stands arranged in 3 trains. 2. .The cast blooms from CCD are sent to high speed rolling mills i. 6 Stand Finishing Mill. Stand Roughing Mill (2 Stand rolling) b. 4.e. 2. 1. 2 vertical and 2 combinations). LMMM. WRM and MMSM. 3. FACILITIES 1. 2*4 Stand Intermediate Mill (Single strand rolling) c. 7 Stand Break-down Mill 2. 6 Stand Intermediate Mill (2 high. 8 Stand Roughing Mill (4 high horizontal. Bar Mill a. 2*4 Stand Finishing Mill (Single Strand rolling) Wire Rod Mill (WRM) FACILITIES 1. Breakdown Mill a. 2 vertical and 3 universal) 3.

Main products of VSP:  Steel Products  Angles  Billets  Channels  Beams  Squares  Flats  Rounds  Re-bars  Wire-Rods  By-Products  Nut Coke  Coke Dust  Coal Tar  Anthracene  HP Naphthalene  Benzene  Toluene  Xylene  Wash Oil  Others  Granulated Slag  Lime Fines  Ammonium Sulphate .

Day 2. If failed to do so i. continuous feeding of the furnace with charge material is necessary. Hence. there is a huge risk of failure of transportation facilities.e. if burden sent is not sufficient in amount would result in increase of pressure in the upper region of the shaft increases. Also if raw materials are received in the furnace directly from various sources and plants. leading to shortage and problems mentioned above.Blast Furnace (BF) Area Various Departments under Blast Furnace Area  Burden Handling Section (BHS) or Stock House  Cast House or Blast Furnace (BF)  Gas Cleaning Plant (GCP)  Slag Granulation Plant (SGP)  Pig Casting Machine (PCM)  Masses and Compound Shop (MCS)  Ladle Repair Shop (LRS) Burden Handling Section (BHS) Introduction As we know process in blast furnace is a continuous reaction not a batch process. It receives all the required raw materials for the furnace reaction from all the . So to avoid such situations Burden Handling Section (BHS) came into being. Such irregularities may lead to severe malfunction or accidents.

Received from Raw Material Handling Plant (RMPH) . It maintains a stock of all those materials and later sends them to the furnace as per requirements.available sources and plants. Burden handling System is designed to perform a number of technological operations essential for proper running of BF process. It allows maintaining a continuous process at the furnace even in case of breaks in supply of materials. BHS: Following raw materials are stored in the stock house Iron Ore (iron bearing). Capacity of these stock houses is sufficient enough for continuous operation of a blast furnace for next 20 to 30 hours. Only those materials whose quality is ascertained and is as per the requirement is stored in the stock house. In short.

Mechanical. Electrical. 3. Operational.MnO (additive) DRI.Day to day maintenance of power supplies to various machines and process.Day to day maintenance and repairing of mechanical equipment.Directly Reduced Iron (additive) Function Departments: 1. .Received from Sinter Plant Coke (fuel).       Sinter (iron bearing).Received from Steel Melt Shop (SMS) Limestone (additive) Quartzite (additive) Manganese Oxide.control storage. technological operations and sending of raw materials to furnace 2.Received from Coke Oven LD Slag (additive).

Day 3. AB5) Raw materials are received via conveyers (series of interlinked conveyers) from respective plants.SB2.SB4. OB2)  5 additive bunkers (AB1. Then they are filled in stock bins with the help of trippers.SB5. .CB3.CB4. Basically there are 20 bunkers (In some stock houses there are 17 bunkers).CB2.SB6)  6 coke bunkers (4 surface coke CB1.Stock House Stocking of burden (Method of storage of raw materials) In the stock house raw materials are stored in bunkers. classified as follows:  6 sinter bunkers (SB1. 2 center coke CcB1.SB3. AB4. AB3. AB2. CcB2)  1 nut coke bunker (NCB1)  2 ore bunkers (OB1.

whose quality has been ascertained and found corresponding to requirements are received to BF stock house. The set-up ensures constant monitoring of chemical composition. ore conveyer can be used to carry sinter or coke in case of breakdown of other conveyors. They provide information on the level of . The conveyer carrying burden splits into two vertical.Sinter Conveyer  OAC. Hence it is referred to as substitute conveyer. Quality check set-up is taken care of by responsible departments. size and other characteristic of sinter. Only those materials.Coke Conveyer As a benefit from the above placement of bunkers and conveyers. Quality compliant consideration and rejection procedure is laid down at the BHS. coke and other materials when they come to stock house. The materials after passing through tripper pass through series of screens and then are collected in the bins.e.Ore/Additive Conveyer  CC. The off-grade material is stored in separate bin and is not used in further operation. The following figure shows tripper floor: Conveyers There are three main conveyers that do the job of bin filling  SC. closed structures. Amount of materials within the bins can be assessed by means of level indicators installed at all bins.Trippers They are mechanical structures. OAC i.

there are large hammers connected to rapping motors.materials step-wise i. the dust particles are attached to the plates. Dust Controlling As large amount of raw materials are brought and dumped into the bins at the stack house. Under the influence of field inside the shell the dust particles acquire negative charge and the large parallel plates acts as anode. This action leads to dust particles falling and they are collected large containers and later disposed by the dumpers. when upper. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) is installed. In the house. there is emission of large quantities of dust particles into the environments. To maintain a healthy environment the dust content in air should be less than 100 mg/m3. It comprises of large parallel metallic plates of the same charge. surrounded by a large closed shell. Now. to clean the dust laden air. So. medium and lower fixed positions are reached. Therefore. which continuously beats the parallel plates. The above picture on left shows an ESP and the one on right shows one of the large fans used to create the suction to collect the dust particles. Normally level is maintained between medium to upper level.e. there are two large fans which create suction and collect all the dust particles and send them to the closed shell via large pipes. .

available raw materials. It is prepared on the basis of calculation. . dolomite. Sinter composition required in BF includes additives like limestone.  To increase the basicity o LD Slag o Limestone  To decrease the basicity o Quartzite o Manganese Oxide (MnO) Hence. which are added to the burden through BHS additive bins. technological requirement and capacity. Following image shows the MB carrying burden to BF 3: The principle iron-bearing material is sinter with 20% lump iron ore. But there are many size. Additives are added to the charge to maintain of a particular basicity of the products formed. according to need the amount of each additive is regulated.Stock House Sending charge to the furnace: The burden is sent to the furnace via Main Belt (MB) conveyer. quartzite. quantity and quality parameters of the burden required at the furnace. manganese ore etc. The required composition of the charge otherwise known as recipe is laid by operation department.Day 4.

Efficiency of screening is ensured by  Proper condition and reliable securing of sieve elements. Those below this size limit are sent back to the sinter plant. 2.  Otherwise if sizing is not done. Hence.In case of change of availability of raw material or technological modifications there is change in the target sinter composition. With respect to availability and strength characteristics the composition is laid. But to be noted there is time gap between taking decision and implementation of the change in composition. Screening To regulate the size factor of the materials as per parameters laid down. Coke received at the stock house is produced from a mixture of local and imported coke subjected to dry quenching. but coal blend composition is not being changed for three months at least. Accordingly to need sieving is done when burden is filled into the bins with the help of series of screens. Some of the size requirements are as follows: 1.  When sieving is done. materials above the screen are collected in “Hopper”. sieves are introduced between trippers and bins. The center coke is introduced at the center of the shaft of the furnace for easy bed formation and better results. bed thickness. .  Quality incoming of materials and uniform distribution i. Surface coke is of size 25 to 60 mm and center coke of +60 mm size. according to requirement we can include or exclude hopper and fill into the main belt carrying charge.  Proportion between amount of material outgoing from upper and lower sieve. Coke should be of +25 mm in size. Sinter (Iron Bearing) should be +5 mm. materials are collected in “Fill”. This time is required to consume the old pile of charge and prepare a new one.e.

It is to be noted that bins are operationally never emptied below the lower level other than in cases of repairing of furnace shutdown. . It is achieved through sequential dumping of materials in batches from all bins. Sequential pattern in which bins are charged with coke and sinter effects the blending too. The image below shows the shed where the final burden to be sent is prepared: This is way bins are being emptied on the main belt for effective charge to the furnace.Another important method to be followed in BHS is blending of materials in order to average their qualitative parameters.

Blast Furnace Structure Blast Furnace structure comprises of mainly of these parts:  Foundation  Hearth  Tuyeres  Bosh  Belly  Stack .e.Day 5. tall vertical furnace which is used to produce pig iron or commonly referred to as hot metals in industries. Blast furnace is named so as it runs with preheated air blown form the bottom at high pressure and temperature.Cast House Introduction Blast furnace (BF) is a shaft i.

6 m lays the slag notch.3-0. 400500 mm thick fire bricks. If not in use. It is about 1500 mm in diameter and 600-800 mm thick upon which lies the furnace bottom i. partially embedded below the ground level. They are used to blow hot air blast into the shaft for fuel combustion.e. Tuyeres Immediately above the hearth are located the tuyeres. 0. It is constructed using fire bricks but now-a-days carbon blocks are used.2-1. hearth acts as the receptacle to collect hot metal and slag. the carbon wall with inner lining or refractory and to protect it water cooled copper/steel plates. At the top of the hearth lies the tuyeres uniformly distributed over the entire cross-section. which may about 10000 tones. It comprises of three layers. Hearth Also referred to as the crucible.Foundation It is a massive steel structure reinforcing concrete mass. It should be strong enough to stand the loaded furnace weight.6 m above the hearth bottom level lays the iron tap hole of 12-15 cm diameter and above that at 1. these taps are closed with masses coming from the Masses and Compound Shop (MCS). Depending on the furnace size number of tuyeres is decided and is uniformly distributed over the periphery. The carbon wall is more than 1 m uniformly thick and stadium like structure. Air from the stove house is supplied to a huge circular pipe encircling the .

The top of bosh is the maximum diameter of the furnace and a zone of intense heat. The uniform distribution of tuyeres along the bustle pipe equalizes the pressure of the blast throughout the furnace. The slope provides a smooth and uniform movement of the burden material. Stock This section above the belly is inward sloping. is at the top of the bosh. At the uppermost of the stack charge material is deposited and is at an angle of 80°. Bosh is built tight up in a gas tight steel shell of thickness about 50 mm. Bosh The region just above the tuyeres is outward sloping at an angle of 80° and going up. The shell plate is cooled with water sprays or enclosed water panels. . Belly The widest inside dimension of the refractory lining.furnace at the bosh level called the bustle pipe. Just above the bosh of the same diameter there is a straight vertical section connected to the stack called the ‘belly’.

. Mg) CO3) are two typical fluxes used in blast furnaces. Many of the impurities associated with iron ore are difficult to melt. Pellets are durable and ship well. Fluxes: When metal is smelted. • Act as a source of carbon in the pig iron and eventually in the steel. Iron ore is beneficiated to 65 -72% Fe. In some operations. and dolomite is often more readily available and less expensive than limestone. limestone is the preferred flux. An important criterion for flux selection is availability and cost. To make these impurities easier to melt. which retards the smelting process. with the impurities forming a molten slag on top of the metal. fused into porous lumps that are broken into one or two inch pieces. and pelletized to form pellets 3/8 inch to 5/8 inch in diameter. Pelletizing plants are therefore often built near the mine and pellets are transported to the blast furnace by rail or ship. • Provide a source of heat in the blast furnace (fuel). When a large amount of sulfur needs to be removed from the furnace charge. that is. and sinter does not. Coke: Coke serves three functions: • Supply chemical reactants for reducing iron ore to metallic iron.Principle components of the charge to a blast furnace: • Iron Ore • Coke • Fluxes Iron Ore: Iron ore can be hematite (Fe2O3). and so they will not form a proper slag easily. concentrated fines may also be sintered. the metal is separated from its impurities by melting. magnetite (Fe3O4) or taconite (a colloquial term used for Minnesota ores which can refer to either hematite or magnetite). Limestone (CaCO3) or dolomite ((Ca. fluxes are added. while sinter is usually produced at the steel mill. Limestone is also a better flux to use if slag from the blast furnace is to be used as a raw material for cement manufacture.

So at a time when one is on blast other can be boxed and sealed. In this mode. . so that it is ready to go on-blast. but cold air is passed through pre-heated stove and absorbs heat to become hot blast. so that stoves 1 and 2 are now on blast. The stove is first heated up burning gas and combustion of air within chamber the heat is absorbed into the brick wall. It is then mixed with cold blast to bring it to the right temperature and is then forced into the blast furnace via tuyeres. While sealed. at a temperature 1000°C. The following figure shows the stove changeover system: Assume stove 2 is on –blast and boxed ready for use. allowing cold blast into the stove to pressurize it. Valve 1 of stove is opened first. Meanwhile. this mode is called Caledon-gas. When required temperature is reached it is sealed and boxed.Day 6. the stove is prepared by heating and sealed. Valve 2 of stove 1 is opened. Stove 2 now come offblast by shutting valves 1 and 2 of stove 2.Cast House Stove House The hot blast air produced by passing the atmospheric air through preheated chambers known as ‘Stoves’. valve 3 and 4 of stove 2 are opened allowing gas and air enter the stove. no combustion takes place. Now stove 2 is put on-gas to heat up and store energy again. Commonly there are three or four stoves.

Then the dome temperature controller output replaces the O2 trim signal activated by the dome controller high target temperature.  Gas flow control. until the dome temperature nears its required value. This calculated value is then used as ratio set point for the natural gas and coke oven gas control blocks. Generally. . Gas Enrichment The water gas produced by the furnace is used as fuel in many areas of the steel works. keeping the proportion of each type of gas entering the stove constant and achieving the desired calorific value of the total mixed gas.Gas flow into the stoves is measured and controlled to a local set point. when it can boxed and put back on blast. This allows increment of air flow to the stove. This helps in heat distribution in the stove while cooling the stove dome.  Air flow control. This on-gas phase continues until the stove has absorbed enough heat.There are three control modules for stoves combustion:  Dome temperature control. however its calorific value is very low and it requires the addition of natural gas or coke oven gas.The O2 reading trims the air/ fuel ratio. The figure shows how gas flow rate is inferred by subtracting the natural gas and coke oven gas from the total mixed gas flow rate.The gas flow reading is used as a set point for air flow ration controller. while gas flow is constant.

expenses and dimension i. spiral charging as well as point charging. And a constant value of O2 is maintained. Bell-less top charging system Bell-less top charging (BLT) is of modern design with chute feeder and blower charging throttle valve. Charge regulating throttle valve provides accurate and constant distribution of burden materials. But as a drawback increases complexity. so it can carry out as multi-ring or one-ring charging of materials into the furnace. On large furnaces like in VSP.e. maintainability and life-time of BLT. The proposed BLT has high productivity.Oxygen enrichment of cold blast: It is proven that slight increase in the oxygen gas content of cold gas improves the efficiency of the furnace. two –hopper charging systems are applied that raises productivity. as a rule. height. Main parts of BLT:  Receiving hopper  Upper bank of valves  One or two material hoppers  Lower bank of valves  Bellow arrangement  Distributing device (DD) with a drive  Distributing chute  Pressure equalizing system  Hydraulic system . The cold blast flow is measured and oxygen is injected into the main. controlled by a ratio control block with the control blast flow as a rationed PV.

. Lubrication system  Cooling system  Monitoring and cooling systems.

or charged. leaving metallic iron. some furnaces inject coal or oil along with the air as supplemental fuels to reduce coke usage. and to generate carbon monoxide. and are tipped. into the furnace.Cast House Blast Furnace Operation The furnace is charged with iron ore lumps. The fluxes combine with impurities in the coke and ore to form the slag. The coke is partially burned by the injected air both to produce heat. . Meanwhile. Since coke is relatively expensive. air preheated to 900°C is injected through the tuyeres. coke. pellets.Day 7. and possibly extra flux. and removes oxygen from the iron ores on their way down. The carbon monoxide travels upward through the column. which floats on the iron and is removed through the “cinder notch”. The resulting molten “hot metal” is tapped at regular intervals by opening the “tap hole” in the bottom of the furnace so that it can flow out. the heat generated there melts the iron. By the time the charge reaches the base of the furnace. which are nozzles at the bottom of the furnace. and/or sinter. These are carried to the top of the furnace with skips or conveyors.

The torpedo cars carry the molten iron to the steelmaking furnace. If the furnace were allowed to cool. which reduces the carbon content and removes other . difficult to work with. Blast furnaces are operated continuously without shutdown for ten years or more. The period between shutdowns is referred to as a “campaign”.5% carbon. Iron taken directly from the blast furnace contains about 4 . This is referred to as “pig iron”. as well as a number of other elements. the refractory bricks in the furnace will wear away. The pig iron can be converted to steel by refining in the steelmaking process. thermal stresses can cause damage to the refractory bricks.4. and if it is allowed to solidify it is brittle. called “torpedo cars”. and has poor structural properties.The hot metal from the furnace is collected in specially-constructed railway containers. Eventually. and at that point the furnace is emptied and shut down so that it can be relined with new bricks.

to make a stronger. Blast furnaces in VSP Blast Furnace 1 and 2 (BF1 & BF2) .impurities. tougher. and more generally useful product.

Currently BF1 is shut down and is undergoing a capital repair. The . Blast Furnace 3 (BF 3) This furnace is of useful volume 3800 m3 and hearth diameter 13 m. The tuyeres stock is of double carded type. Slag Granulation Plant and air-lift system. The cast house is also equipped with Mud-gun and drilling machine for each tap-hole.These furnaces are of 3200 m3 each with four tap hole and 34 tuyeres. These furnaces are equipped with double-bin bell less top with conveyer charging system. four stoves. There are four tap holes and 34 tuyeres.

BF cooling system consists of cast iron & copper staves are having three closed circuit of soft water & one open circuit of industrial water. There are three stoves with ceramic burners to supply blast of 12500 C at 5. The tapholes are equipped with Hydraulic Clay Gun. Drilling Machine & Cover Manipulator. in burden probe. BF 3: . radar stack line etc. The furnace is equipped with special probes for measurement like above burden probe.furnace is equipped with New Generation Parallel Hopper Bell Less Top of 63 m3. profilometer. There is also Pulverized Coal Injection with Dense phase system at a rate of 60t/h.5 Bar. Annular Gap Scrubber does the dust cleaning.

5 mm. Gas is supplied to the scrubber from BF top via 2800 mm Raw (Dirty) gas pipe with refractory lining. pressed tight to seal by loads. . The water circulation in the scrubber is done with the help of two water collection rings. This system keeps the water level inside the scrubber under check. the sprayed water evaporates and in turn makes the medium sized dust particles heavy and they settle down. They are evenly distributed throughout the scrubber so that the whole inside area is covered with sprayed water. directed upward and is of size 62.Day 8. Now there are four overflow pipelines with 500 mm gate valves and the vertical part of each pipe has a 400 mm throttle valve controlled from a float. The lower part of the scrubber has a conical bunker.Gas Cleaning Plant (GCP) Main components of GCP are:  Scrubber  Adjustable Ventures  Two Cyclone Mist Separator (2600 mm)  One Cyclone Separator (4000 mm)  Throttle Assembly (3700 mm) Scrubber The purpose of scrubber is to cool the gasses released from the blast furnace and remove the dust particles from them. The upper part of scrubber is spherical in shape and has two outlet gas pipes (1600 mm) which supply gas to the venture tubes.e. The collected gas is re-circulated with water. The process is characterized by evaporation i. Near the nozzle branch pipe there is a purging branch pipe cocks of 125 mm gates to purge the nozzles. Each ring has 12 nozzles. Each gas pipe is provided with 300 mm atmospheric valves.

Each pipe is provided with gate to cut-off the float chamber if necessary. The accumulated dust in float chamber is done via drain cock provided at the bottom of each chamber. The movement of float in the chamber is checked by a screw in upper position and a special support in the lower position. Adjustable Ventures GCP has one automatic adjustable venture and one manual adjustable venture. Each venture pipe has three nozzles and water is sprayed through them. The purpose is of final cleaning of gas. The fine dust and gas is categorized and collected along water in bottom of cyclone mist eliminator after venture. The float assembly is installed near the throttle valve and connected to the scrubber with the help of two pipes. Each venture is adjustable and the throat area is adjusted with a sphere head. which constantly is supplied to water seal chamber.The float shaft mentioned above is connected to the throttle shaft by means of a turn buckle. This thoroughly mixes with fine dust present in the gas. It is vertically mounted on the body and the shaft actuates through water seal of clean water.  Two CME of diameter 2600 mm Each CME has one nozzle with 25 mm outlet for flushing of slurry pocket and one nozzle for washing of blades.one for the water and other for the gas. The water is drained out of scrubber by means of 600 mm * 500 mm slime gate and 150 mm branch pipe with gate. The slurry is collected in the water seal of scrubber. The sphere is controlled by electric dive or by manual operation. Cyclone Mist Eliminator (CME) It serves to separate the water drops which are carried out by BF gas during the process of cooling and cleaning. Water sprayed through nozzle and incoming gas proceeds to nozzle neck where high speed of gas flow atomizes water drops into mist. Mist Eliminators drain is .

4. Pocket washing overflow line joins to this seal by a separate line. . 5. Maintain differential pressure across the ventures between 1500 and 2500 mm. Inspect individual components and parameters. 3. Maintain water seal level at scrubber from 300 to 700 mm. Monitor water pressure throughout the GCP. Important parameters: 1. It has a conical bunker where water seal is maintained by simple overflow line. 2. Maintain the clean gas temperature between 40°c and 45°c.  One CME of diameter 4000 mm In this type there are three nozzle of 25 mm outlet for flushing slurry pocket and one nozzle for cleaning of blades.directly connected to scrubber seal via 300 mm pipeline and overflow of pocket washing is also connected to this line.

Molten slag is received to SGP through slag runner.Day 9. containing .Slag Granulation Plant (SGP) The slag produced in the blast furnace (BF) in the process of iron reduction is sent to Slag Granulation Plant (SGP). In this plant a reservoir is maintained 13 m deep below the ground level. The runner is coated with runner mass to avoid accumulation of slag and damage of the runner. In this unit the entire slag is granulated and then transferred to the Slag Storage Yard.

The remaining slurry is slowly poured into the dehydrator from the top via a conveyer. In the dehydrator the remaining of the moist slag is dried with the help of high speed rotations and screens. The steam and gases generated during this process is released into the atmosphere via chimney. with the help of a compressed air at pressure 50. . slag conveyers which carries the material to slag storage yard. The water coming off the jets hits the falling slag from the runner at high speed.e. Granulation takes place under the action of high-pressure water jets. This results in instant cooling and granulation. At the bottom of the dehydrator container there is a bin where all the dry is collected after the dehydration.7 Pa provided by the Air-Separation plant. The air creates a suction to pull the slurry off the chamber so that most of the water is separated in this step. In the bin at a depth of 10 m there is opening which is used to transfer the slurry into an air-lift chamber.clean and cool water. This setup is used as granulator of the hot slag. From these yards slag is transported to outside. In this chamber a hydro-pneumatic system is used. This water is sent to water jets with the help of hightensile pumps. The falling water and granules forms a mixture called slurry and is collected into large container called receiving bins which is also 13 m deep. other industries for various purposes like cement making etc. From the dehydrator bins the slag is dumped into two conveyers i.

In this unit the ladle full of hot metal is tilted so that the molten metal passes through the runner to a rotating conveyer.Pig Casting Machine (PCM) Due to exhaustion of rich ores in the recent years new methods were devised to utilize impure ores. Hence pig iron is used where rough. tough and strong metals are required like steel furnaces. As the conveyer is moves forward water is poured over it.Day 10. The runner is prepared with mass coming from the Mass and Compound Shop (MCS) so that the high temperature liquid does not coagulate at the surface and damage it. which does the further cooling and solidification. The conveyer has moulds coated with lime which help in sticking of the metal on the moulds surface. This led to formation of various industries that require pig iron for many important applications. . PCM does the work of converting the hot metal coming from the Blast Furnace (BF) into pig cast iron which would be easy to transport to the above mentioned industries.

After dumping when empty moulds return lime is sprinkled over it to form the lime layer again for protection.The PCM is provided with a Lime Preparation Plant which provides the required lime for cooling and sends it to the conveyers. . Later the solids are dumped into wagons for transportation or dumped into yard to be transported either help of cranes and trucks.

Runner mass comprises of Coke. Clay and bauxite are received from outside and stored in bunkers via conveyers. coke breeze. The binder and . bauxite and Oil (Wash oil. Pan-Mixture comprises of two rollers running in counter-direction which helps in mixing of various components thoroughly. And water mass has fine coke. namely used to for closing of tap hole in the furnace and in the runners of the Pig Casting Machine (PCM). Binder. The process of mass formation is carried out by Pan-Mixture and Kneader Machine. clay and pitch as constituents. while coke and oils are received from the Coke Ovens and the Coal Chemical Plant (COCCP). Main constituents Mud gun mass is clay. Pitch and Clay.Masses and Compound Shop (MCS) MCS serves the vital function of preparation of various refractory materials required in the BF department. Liquid resin). Mainly there are three type of masses prepared at MCS  Mud gun mass/ Oil mass  Runner mass  Water mass The composition of the masses required depends on the furnace/ runner condition.Day 11.

which causes easy evaporation and hardening of mass. along with it there is also cutting and packing machine which gives us final product. The masses are then sent to Pig Casting Machine and Cast House as per requirements. The amount of binder oil and resin oil depends on the atmospheric condition. The Kneader Machine works similarly.other oils are used to increase the adhesion force between the particles resulting in formation of clay-like mass. The product is pushed out. . cut into regular sizes and packed before they become too hard for use.

Ladle Repair Shop (LRS) In VSP Open Top Ladles are used to carry hot metal from Blast Furnace to Pig Casting Machine or Steel Melt Shop via means of rail lines. Over time these ladle tend to degrade under the influence of high temperature and various other chemical phenomenon. LRS does the work of repairing of damaged ladle with all necessary means and make them use full again for service.Day 12. .