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• Statistics – Theory & Practice
– D. Bhattacharya & S. RoyChowdhury (UN Dhur & Sons Pvt.
• Probability & Statistics
– M Spiegel (McGraw Hill)
• Probability & Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences
– Jay L. Devore (Duxbury Press)
• Quantitative Analysis for Management (Forecasting)
– B Render, RM Stair, ME Hanan

Classification, Collection &
Presentation of Data
RK Jana




• Data is defined as known or assumed facts and figures from
which conclusions can be drawn.
• Data are used to make decisions, to support decisions already
made, to provide reasons behind the happening of certain
events, and to make prediction about future events.
• Data are numbers with a context.

What is Statistics?
Classification of variables
Classification of data
Collection of data
Presentation of data


What is Statistics?


Branches of Statistics

• Statistics

• Statistics

– In singular sense: Refers to the discipline of study to
collect, organize, summarize and analyze data and to draw
– In plural sense: Refers to data.

– Descriptive Statistics
• Deals with collection, organization, presentation as well
as numerical & graphical methods to look for the
patterns in the data set.

– Inferential Statistics
• Deals with the ways of making prediction or drawing
conclusion about population characteristics based on
collected data.




house rent etc. quality of students etc. Example: income group. Example: number of customer visiting a bank in a day. • Ordinal Variable: The qualitative variables that can be arranged in natural order is known as ordinal variable. IQ of a student. • Non-ordinal Variable: The qualitative variables that can not be arranged in natural order is known as non-ordinal variable. 9 Classification of Data 10 An Alternative Classification of Data • Data • Data – Qualitative – Frequency data – Non-frequency data • Ordinal • Non-ordinal • Time series data • Cross-sectional data – Quantitative • Discrete • Continuous 11 12 2 . religion. number of telephone calls received in a given time interval etc. Example: blood group.06-09-2015 Some Basic Characteristics • • • • • Classification of Variables Units (individuals) Population Variable Observations Data set Classification of data depends on the type of variable we measure. marital status etc. • Quantitative Variable: The variable which can be measured numerically is known as the quantitative variable. • Continuous Variable: The quantitative variables that can assume any numerical value is known as a continuous variable. • Variable – Qualitative • Ordinal • Non-ordinal – Univariate – Bivariate/Multivariate – Quantitative • Discrete • Continuous • Raw data 7 8 Continued… Continued… • Qualitative Variable: The variable which cannot be measured numerically but can be measured by their quality is known as the qualitative variable. cloudiness of sky. effectiveness of medicine etc. Example: hair colour. time taken to finish a job etc. Example: temperature. height. Example: daily temperature. • Discrete Variable: The quantitative variables that can assume finite or countable number of discrete values is known as a discrete variable.

06-09-2015 Continued… Data Collection • Time series data: The data collected on the same unit for the same variable for different time periods is known as the time series data. 13 14 Surveys Continued… • Surveys can be done by using a variety of methods: – Examples are telephone. • Cross-sectional data: The data collected on different units for the same time period are called cross-sectional data. personal interviews. 15 • Systematic samples are obtained by numbering each value in the population and then selecting the kth value. surveying records and direct observations. statisticians use the following methods of sampling: • Random samples are selected by using chance methods or random numbers. 17 18 3 . • Stratified samples are selected by dividing the population into groups (strata) according to some characteristic and then taking samples from each group. Not suitable for pollsters or medical research. • Spatial data: If the cross-sectional data relate to different geographic location then it is known as the spatial data. – Example: Total population of different states of India as per 1991 census. • Method of collecting primary data – Direct observation method – Designed experiment method – Survey method • To obtain samples that are unbiased. • Convenience samples are typically used in student projects and by journalists. 16 Data Presentation • • • • Textual Presentation Tabular Presentation Diagrammatic Presentation Numerical Description • Cluster samples are selected by dividing the population into groups and then taking samples of the groups. • Data Source – Primary source – Secondary source – Example: Rice yield recorded for the last ten years. average per square feet rate of houses in Kolkata between 1990-2000. export of your company in last five years etc. uses subjects that can be conveniently polled or tested. – Example: Present price of ten cars of 2005 models. mail questionnaires.

e.  Gives an immediate depiction of the differences and patterns in a set of data. • Components of a Table • This is not a very good method as it is not effective for large mass of data. • In this method data are presented in the form of a table comprising of a number of rows and columns. e. we use horizontal bar chart when there are • variable values with long name • many variables 23 24 4 . Data presented through this method will not lend itself directly to statistical analysis.  Many details can be shown in a small area. • In this method data are presented using different types of diagrams (line. – – – – – Title Stub Body Source & footnote Caption 19 20 Diagrammatic Presentation Power of Charts  Gives reader a compact and structured synthesis.g. • Simple to create and easy to interpret. and follow the logical sequence.  Reader can see immediately major similarities and differences.06-09-2015 Textual Presentation Tabular Presentation • In this method the data are presented along with a piece of text which is brief. – – – – Bar chart Line chart Area chart Pie chart 21 22 Bar Chart Example • Bar graphs compare the values of different items in specific categories or at discrete points in time. survival rates for boys and girls respectively. precise. compared across grade levels and/or between those in urban and rural areas. • This method is very effective. Vertical Bar Chart Horizontal Bar Chart Normally. chart). • Used to illustrate variable values which are distinct (i. qualitative variable).

respectively. gross and net admission rates for boys and girls. the breakdown of the annual education budget into categories of expenditure such as teacher salaries. the number of schools in operation over time.e. • Best show patterns created over time. • Should not have too many sectors.g.06-09-2015 Example Line Graph • Line graphs show the progression of values over time. • Displays the contribution of each value to a total. due to enrolment changes in urban and rural schools respectively. e. consisting of those in and those out of school. 27 Pie Chart 28 Source: GMR 2002 Example • Suitable for illustrating percentage distributions of qualitative variables . school construction. • Easier to get a clearer picture of the development over time. • Easier for the eye to follow curves for different series.g. • Good for answering the following questions: – In what periods were the changes large? – When were the turning points? 26 25 Area Graphs Example • Area graphs show the actual value each series contributes to the total. over time. how total enrolment changed over time. • Good for illustrating situations with only a few parts that have simple development patterns. how total children of school-age. etc.g. e. 29 30 5 . grew over time. • Best suited for overviews.

way forwards Absolute.06-09-2015 Before Preparing Charts After Making Charts • Who is the target audience? • Is it easy to understand? – What is their level of understanding? – What are their interests? – Too fancy. Pie. too much. too little • Does this give the message that I would like to convey? • Role of charts in conveying your message – – – – – – What is my question before doing this graph • Can this chart be misinterpreted? Trends Contrast Achievement. B&W – In a publication. percentage – Am I giving the wrong message? • Is it self-contained? – – – – – – • How will the charts be presented? – In color. too dull. as a presentation using overhead projector • What chart is the best? – Bar. relative Magnitude. Maps? – Compare various styles Title Legend Axis title Scale Sources Other relevant information • Is the chart in right place? 31 32 6 .