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Activity1.1.

1SimpleMachineInvestigation
VEX

Introduction
Greekmathematician,physicist,astronomer,andengineerArchimedesboasted,
Givemeaplacetostand,andwithaleverIwillmovethewholeworld.Archimedes
nevermovedtheworld,buthedidchangetheworldthroughthedevelopmentof
simplemachinemechanisms.

Inthisactivityyouwillexplorethefunctionandcharacteristicsofthelever,wheel
andaxle,andpulleysystems.Youwillseefirsthandhowsimplemachines
manipulateenergytocreateadesiredoutput.

Equipment

POEVEXkitcomponents
Rulersand/ortapemeasures
StringMasonryline
VernierInterface
VernierDualRangeForceSensor
VernierLoggerProsoftware

Procedure
ForthisactivityyourteamoffourwillconstructsimplemachinesusingVEX
components.Afteryouhaveconstructedthesimplemachines,youwillgatherdata
tocalculatemechanicaladvantage.Itisimportanttobeasaccurateaspossiblein
yourmeasurementsanddocumentation.

Termstoknowtocompletethisactivity:

TheEffort(FE)istheforcethatyouapplytothesystem.

TheResistance(FR)istheforceorloadthatyouaremanipulating.

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PrinciplesOfEngineeringActivity1.1.1SimpleMachineInvestigationVEXPage1

Part1Lever,WheelandAxle,andPulley
FirstClassLever

1. Createascaledannotateddrawingofthefirstclasslever.

2. Calculatetheidealmechanicaladvantageoftheleversystem.
Formula
IMA=De/Dr

Substitute/Solve
IMA=6in/6in

FinalAnswer
IMA=1in

3. Calculatetheidealeffortforceneededtoovercometheknownresistanceforce.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

4. Calculatetheactualmechanicaladvantageoftheleversystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

AMA=3/3

FinalAnswer
AMA=1newton

AMA=Fr/Fe

5. Calculatetheefficiencyoftheleversystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve
%=(1/1)*100

FinalAnswer
100%

%=
(AMA/IMA)*100

6. Listanddescribetwoexamplesofafirstclasslever.
Seesaw
Scissors

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SecondClassLever

1. Createascaledannotateddrawingofthesecondclasslever.

2. Calculatetheidealmechanicaladvantageoftheleversystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve
IMA=2/6

FinalAnswer
1/3or.66in

IMA=De/Dr

3. Calculatetheidealeffortforceneededtoovercometheknownresistanceforce.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

4. Calculatetheactualmechanicaladvantageoftheleversystem.
Formula
AMA=Fr/Fe

Substitute/Solve
AMA=3/9=1/3

FinalAnswer
1/3or.66newton

5. Calculatetheefficiencyoftheleversystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve
%=(.66/.66)*100

FinalAnswer
100%

%=
(AMA/IMA)*100

6. Listanddescribetwoexamplesofasecondclasslever.

PaintCanOpener
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GlassBottleopener

ThirdClassLever

1. Createascaledannotateddrawingofthethirdclasslever.

2. Calculatetheidealmechanicaladvantageoftheleversystem.
Formula
IMA=De/Dr

Substitute/Solve
IMA=6/2

FinalAnswer
IMA=3in

3. Calculatetheidealeffortforceneededtoovercometheknownresistanceforce.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

4. Calculatetheactualmechanicaladvantageoftheleversystem.
Formula
AMA=Fr/Fe

Substitute/Solve
AMA=3/1

FinalAnswer
AMA=3newton

5. Calculatetheefficiencyoftheleversystem.
Formula
%=
(AMA/IMA)*100

Substitute/Solve
%=(3/3)*100

FinalAnswer
100%

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6. Listanddescribetwoexamplesofathirdclasslever.
TennisRacket
Tweezers

7. Isitpossibleforafirstorsecondclasslevertohaveamechanicaladvantageless
thanone,orforathirdclasslevertohaveamechanicaladvantagegreaterthan
one?Justifyyouranswer.
Yesitspossibletohavea3rdclasslevertohaveaMAof3,buta1stor2ndnotto
haveaMAlessthan1.Thisisbecauseofhowtheresistanceandeffortforcesare
laidout.

8. Whenyouweresolvingformechanicaladvantage,whatunitsdidthefinalanswer
require?Explainwhy.Inchesfordistance,andnewtonforweight.Thisistheunits
ofmeasurewechose.

WheelandAxle

1. Whatisthediameterofthewheel?
41/8in
2. Whatisthediameteroftheaxle?
2in
3. Attachtheresistanceweighttothestringattachedtotheaxle.Useyourfingersto
turnthewheel.Basedonwheretheappliedeffortandresistancearelocated,
identifythedistancetraveledbybothforcesduringonefullrotation.

DE=9in
DR=9in
4. Removetheresistanceweightfromtheaxlestringandattachtheweighttothe
wheel.Useyourfingerstoturntheaxle.Basedonwheretheappliedeffortand
resistancearelocated,identifythedistancetraveledbybothforcesduringonefull
rotation.
DE=9in
DR=9in

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5. Wraptheresistanceweightaroundtheaxleusingstring.Usetheforcesensor
attachedtothestringwrappedaroundthewheeltocreateequilibrium.Basedon
wheretheappliedeffortandresistancearelocated,identifytheforcerequiredto
holdthesysteminequilibrium.
FE=2newton
FR=3newton

6. Wraptheweightaroundthewheelusingstring.Usetheforcesensorattachedto
stringontheaxletocreateequilibrium.Basedonwheretheappliedeffortand
resistancearelocated,identifytheforcerequiredtoholdthesysteminequilibrium.

FE=newton
FR=3newton

7. Forthesameresistance,istheeffortforcelargerwhentheeffortisappliedtothe
wheelorwhenitisappliedtotheaxle?Explainwhy.

8. Createascaledannotateddrawingofthewheelandaxlesystem.

9. Calculatetheidealmechanicaladvantageofthewheelandaxlesystemifthe
resistanceforceisappliedtotheaxle.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

10. Calculatetheidealmechanicaladvantageofthewheelandaxlesystemifthe
resistanceforceisappliedtothewheel.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

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11. Calculatetheidealeffortforceneededtoovercometheknownresistanceforceif
theresistanceforceisappliedtothewheel.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

12. Calculatetheactualmechanicaladvantageofyourwheelandaxlesystemifthe
resistanceforceisappliedtothewheel.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

13. Calculatetheefficiencyofthewheelandaxlesystemwhentheresistanceforceis
appliedtothewheel.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

14. Listanddescribetwoexamplesofawheelandaxle.

15. Ifyouknowthedimensionsofawheelandaxlesystemusedforanautomobile,
howcanyoudeterminethedistancecoveredforeachaxlerevolution?Explainany
additionalinformationandnecessaryformulas.

16. Whyisthesteeringwheelonaschoolbussolarge?

FixedPulley

1. Createascaledannotateddrawingofthefixedpulleysystem.
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2. Calculatetheidealmechanicaladvantageofthefixedpulleysystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

3. Calculatetheactualmechanicaladvantageofthefixedpulleysystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

Calculatetheefficiencyofthefixedpulleysystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

MovablePulley

1. Createascaledannotateddrawingofthepulleysystem.

2. Calculatetheactualmechanicaladvantageofthepulleysystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

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3. Calculatetheidealmechanicaladvantageofthepulleysystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

4. Calculatetheefficiencyofthefixedpulleysystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

BlockandTackle


1. Createascaledannotateddrawingofthepulleysystem.

2. Calculatetheactualmechanicaladvantageofthepulleysystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

3. Calculatetheidealmechanicaladvantageofthepulleysystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

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4. Calculatetheefficiencyofthefixedpulleysystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

5. Describetwoexamplesofapulleysystem.

6.

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Thefixedpulleycontainedtwostrands.Explaintheroleofeachstrand.

7. Themovablepulleycontainedtwostrands.Explaintheroleofeachstrand.

8. Intheblockandtacklesystem,explainhowmechanicaladvantagerelatestothe
numberofstrands.

9. Inablockandtacklesystemwithamechanicaladvantageof3,theeffortis
measuredat15lbf.Theresistance,whenbalanced,ismeasuredat42lbf.What
factorsmightaccountforthelossinenergy?

Part2InclinedPlaneandScrew
InclinedPlane

1. Createascaledannotateddrawingoftheinclinedplanesystem.

2. Calculatetheidealmechanicaladvantageoftheinclinedplanesystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

3. Calculatetheidealeffortforceneededtoovercometheknownresistanceforce.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

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4. Calculatetheactualmechanicaladvantageoftheinclinedplanesystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

5. Calculatetheefficiencyoftheinclinedplanesystem.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

6. Listanddescribetwoexamplesofaninclinedplane.

Screw

1. Createascaledannotateddrawingofthescrewsystem.

2. Calculatetheidealmechanicaladvantageofthescrew.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

3. Calculatetheidealeffortforceneededtoovercometheknownresistanceforce.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

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4. Calculatetheactualmechanicaladvantageofthescrew.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

5. Calculatetheefficiencyofthescrew.
Formula

Substitute/Solve

FinalAnswer

6. Describetwoexamplesofascrew.

7. Whydoyouthinkovercomingaresistanceforceusingascrewissoeasy?

8. Thescrewisacombinationoftwosimplemachines.Identifyanddefendwhattwo
simplemachinesyoubelievearecombinedtocreateascrew.

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