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Advanced Materials Research Vols.

1049-1050 (2014) pp 949-952


Online available since 2014/Oct/10 at www.scientific.net
(2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1049-1050.949

Submitted: 26.08.2014
Accepted: 01.09.2014

3D FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF CUTTING PROCESS USING


SURFACE MICRO-TEXTURED CUTTING TOOL
Haokai Yang1, a, Yuyang Tu2, b
1,2

School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 450000, China;
a

hawkyoung@outlook.com, b750954935@qq.com

Keywords: surface texture, 3D FEM, cutting.

Abstract. Surface texturing has become a technique to reduce friction and wear in cutting process;
laser surface texturing is a method used to create micro-dimples on the interface surface. It is
considered that cutting of titanium is difficult. As the experiments are costly and time demanding,
metal cutting modeling provides an alternative way for better understanding of machining processes
under different cutting conditions. In this paper a 3D finite element model has been used to simulate
the cutting process of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V to predict the cutting forces and temperatures.
Introduction
Surface texture effects have been studied with growing interest. It is observed from experimental
studies that surface texture has a positive effect on load capacity and coefficient of friction for certain
applications and load cases. Laser surface texturing is one such method used to creat micro-dimples
on the interface surface. Till recently cutting alloy titanium is considered difficult.
In this paper, FEM software DEFORM 3D is used to analyze the variation in cutting forces and
temperatures during turning alloy Ti6Al4V using surface textured cutting tool. Two kinds of cutting
tools are used to turning the same material. The left tool in Fig. 1 is a standard indexable insert and the
right one has micro-grooves on the surface.

Fig. 1 Models of two cutting tools


Experimental Details
In the present work, turning experiments have been conducted on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
cylindrical bars. Indexable inserts are used in the simulation. Experiments were conducted by
different cutting velocity and different indexable inserts, with other same specification parameter,
shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Specification parameter
Parameter
Depth of cut
Feed rate
Temperature
Convection coefficent
Shear friction factor
Heat transfer coefficient

Symbol
0.5
0.3
20
0.02
0.6
45

Units
mm
mm/rev
C
N/sec/mm/C
N/sec/mm/C

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Modern Technologies in Materials, Mechanics and Intelligent Systems

Initial data settings for modeling and simulation


3D model of cutting tools. In the present work, Indexable inserts, with material of WC, along with
the tool holder DCKNL(tool geometry: side cutting angle: -5, back rake angle: -5, side rake angle: -5)
are used in the simulation. The parameters of indexable insert is shown in Fig. 2. Micro-grooves are
added to the standard indexable insert, with the depth of grooves 0.01mm, width of grooves
0.025mm, and distance of two grooves 0.05mm, shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2 Parameter of standard indexable insert

Fig. 3 Micro-grooves on surface textured indexable insert


Workpiece. In the present work, turning experiments have been conducted on titanium alloy
(Ti-6Al-4V) cylindrical bars of diameters 50 mm.
Mesh and simulation. Two kinds of experiments are conducted. Each kind consists of 3 different
cutting speeds with 100, 150, 200 m/min. The only difference of the two kinds of experiments is that
one indexable insert is surface-textured and another is standard insert. Deform 3D is used for mesh
and simulation. The meshed surfaces of tool and workpiece are shown in Fig. 4.

(a)
(b)
Fig. 4 Meshed surfaces: (a) tool (b) workpiece
Simulation results
Simulations were carried out according to experimental conditions shown in Table.1 using the
estimated values of heat transfer coefficient and shear friction factor. Fig. 5 shows one of the
simulations obtained for the experimental conditions with cutting speed as 100 m/min. The same

Advanced Materials Research Vols. 1049-1050

951

exercise is repeated for all the other 5 experiments and the corresponding cutting forces were
recorded.

Fig. 5 Cutting forces and temperatures with cutting speed as 100 m/min
The simulated results of cutting forces are shown in Fig.6. It can be observed from the Fig. 6 that
cutting forces of both X axle and Y axle increase as cutting speed goes up. And the cutting forces with
surface-textured insert are larger than the cutting forces of standard insert.

Fig. 6 Cutting forces with different cutting speeds and inserts


Fig. 7 shows the simulated highest temperatures during cutting process. The highest cutting
temperature increases as cutting speed goes up. And the highest cutting temperatures with
surface-textured insert are larger than the highest cutting temperatures of standard insert.

Fig. 7 Highest temperatures with different cutting speeds and inserts

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Modern Technologies in Materials, Mechanics and Intelligent Systems

Summary
A new 3D FEA simulation method about surface-textured cutting tools is conducted in the present
work: design of experiments, including evaluation of heat transfer coefficient and friction factor, is
discussed; and standard indexable inserts and surface-textured inserts are compared using the average
values of cutting forces and highest temperatures; a simple procedure of cutting process for 3D
simulation is considered.
References
[1] Diana Andreea Coroni, Sorin Mihai Croitoru, Prediction of cutting forces at 2D titanium
machining, Procedia Engineering. 69(2014)81-89.
[2] S. M. Croitoru, G. Constantin, Simulation of Titanium Parts Manufacturing, Proceedings of the
1-st WSEAS International Conference on VISUALIZATION, IMAGING and SIMULATION
(VIS'08), 2008, ISBN: 978-960-474-022-2, pg. 121-126.
[3] Pradeep L. Menezes, Kishore, Satish V. Kailas, Michael R. Lovell, Factors influencing stick-slip
motion: effect of hardness, crystal structure and surface texture, Proceedings of the ASME/STLE
2011 International Joint Tribology Conference, IJTC2011-61225.
[4] Yi Liao, David A. Stephenson, Jun Ni, assessment of tool wear based on surface texture
parameters, Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering
Conference, MSEC2009-84153.

Modern Technologies in Materials, Mechanics and Intelligent Systems


10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1049-1050

3D Finite Element Simulation of Cutting Process Using Surface Micro-Textured Cutting Tool
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1049-1050.949