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napisao

written by

fotografije photographs by

David Frutos

Manuel Gausa Navarro

F-117 u
Cartageni

arhitekti
architects

F-117 bio je, prije jednog desetljea, nevidljivi pijunski avion A decade ago, the F-117 was an invisible spy aircraft par
par excellence. Iako je bio i ratni zrakoplov, naposljetku je excellence. Although it was also a military aircraft, it eventually
ostao poznat ponajprije kao tajni lovaki avion prve generacije become famous primarily as a first-generation stealth fighter
osmiljen za prepoznavanje teritorija, bez oruane pratnje, aircraft, created for reconnaissance without an armed escort,
skriven za veinu radara i ostalih sustava otkrivanja. Poeci hidden from most radars and other systems of detection.
njegova dizajna vezani su uz istraivanja to ih je ruski ma The beginnings of its design were related to research by
tematiar Pjotr Jakovljevi Ufimcev u 1960-ima izvodio u the Russian mathematician Pyotr Yakovlevich Ufimtsev in
vezi s teorijama lomljenja i odbijanja kratkih valova u odre the 1960s connected to theories of breaking and reflection
enim tijelima u kojima je radar nailazio na potekoe s lo of short waves in certain bodies and difficulties in detecting
kalizacijom (objektima ije su povrine u pravilu valovite these bodies with radar (objects with surfaces that were as a
ili uglaane). Kompjutorski razvoj nije omoguio primjenu rule wavy or mirror-like). Computer development did not enable
reenih potencijala taktikog nestajanja na aeronautiki application of this tactical stealth potential in aeronautical
dizajn gotovo sve do polovice 1980-ih godina.1 Prva ver design almost until the mid 1980s.1 The first version of the
zija F-117 bila je metalan plat, raa koja je, izmiui de F-117 was a metal cloak, a ray that glided through the air
tekciji, neopazice brodila zrakom. U drugoj, poznatijoj unnoticed, evading detection. In the second, better known
verziji, istanani i evokativni vijugavi oblici prvobitnog pro version, the delicate and evocative tortuous forms of the
original prototype were replaced with a diamond base and
1 Vidi http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_F-117_Nighthawk
body made of angular facets and surfaces (in which cockpit
and wings became one) which rationalized price, as well as
form.2 Its strategic design synthesized this dual capability
to appear-disappear in the fluid, flexible, topological...
spatial concept of folding paper origami more than
of modelling... Afterwards, the evolution of the F-117 led
to the F-22 which was a stealth aircraft for short runways
and aircraft carriers, capable of vertical take-off. There are
photographs that show the exact moment when the aircraft

Nicols Maruri

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F-117 in
Cartagena

Atxu Amann

Andrs Cnovas

Svod iznad rimskog nalazita u Cartageni,


panjolska

1 See http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_F-117_Nighthawk
2 See http://www.taringa.net/posts/info/4993185/Los-Mejores-Aviones-deGuerra.htm

Deck over a roman site in Cartagena,


Spain

totipa bili su zamijenjeni dijamantnom osnovom i tijelom takes off and hovers in the air for a second, as if a black cloud
sastavljenim od uglastih ploha i povrina (u kojemu su se is there. What is most interesting about these photographs
pilotska kabina i krila stapali), ime su se racionalizirali kako is the space caught between the ground and the body of the
cijena, tako i oblik.2 Njegov strateki dizajn sintetizirao je tu aircraft... (In)tense space, covered with the black cloak and at
dvostruku sposobnost pojavljivanja nestajanja u fluidnom, the same time exposed to the moving forces of taking off. At
fleksibilnom, topolokom... prostornom konceptu savijanja the same time empty and filled space, which reveals itself as the
papira origamija vie nego modeliranja... Poslije je third layer, the space in-between: between the surface-area
evolucija F-117 dovela do F-22, koji je bio stealth aircraft of the runway (hard, dense, horizontal) and surface-volume of
za kratke piste i nosae zrakoplova te je okomito uzlijetao. the cockpit (substantial, light, hovering). The space that can
Pojedine slike prikazuju upravo trenutak u kojemu se zrakoplov connect designed space and projected space: a covered surface
podie i ostaje naas lebdjeti u zraku, kao da je posrijedi crni and surface-cover. In the ruins of the Molinete archaeological
oblak. Ono najzanimljivije na tim snimkama jest prostor koji park in Cartagena, Amann-Cnovas-Maruri also designed
ostaje uhvaen izmeu tla i trupa letjelice... (In)tenzivan a hovering body... a large fuselage... If they were classical
prostor, pokriven metalnim platom i u isti mah izvrgnut architects, they would, while conceiving this cover above the
pokretnim silama uzlijetanja. Istodobno prazan i ispunjen protected space, certainly have designed a roof (temple, 2D). If
prostor, koji je otkriva kao trei sloj, prostor izmeu: izmeu they were modern architects, this would have been a skeletal
povrine-plohe piste (tvrde, guste, vodoravne) i povrine- construction (cage, 3D). Nevertheless, Amann-Cnovas-Maruri
obujma pilotske kabine (bremenite, lagane, lebdee). Prostor are advanced architects: they do not reproduce temples and
koji moe povezati projektirani prostor i projicirani prostor: they do not produce cages, but they create movements:
pokrivenu povrinu i povrinu-pokrov. U ruevinama arheo dynamic geometries. They do not work with rigid, but with
lokog parka Molinete, u Cartageni, Amann-Cnovas-Maruri flexible structures. The cover designed by Amann-Cnovastakoer su projektirali lebdee tijelo... veliki trup... Da su Maruri is actually a large polished fuselage, like the F-117s that,
klasini arhitekti, zacijelo bi pri osmiljavanju tog pokrova temporarily, covers an important area of recognition, registering
nad zatienim prostorom projektirali krov (hram, 2D). Da and processing the historical ground above which it hovers.
su moderni arhitekti, bila bi to kosturna konstrukcija (kavez, An instrument of soundless gliding flight above a noticeable
3D). No Amann-Cnovas-Maruri napredni su arhitekti: ne space. An unusual inflated flying machine whose unimposing
reproduciraju hramove i ne proizvode kaveze nego stvaraju light metal cockpit is just about to suddenly take off. This
ethereal, weightless, light-winged construction (empowered
2 Vidi http://www.taringa.net/posts/info/4993185/Los-Mejores-Aviones-de-Guwith the light colour of the very structure) indicates again a
erra.html

Atxu Amann, Andrs Cnovas, Nicols Maruri;


Svod iznad rimskog nalazita

Atxu Amann, Andrs Cnovas, Nicols Maruri;


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pokrete: dinamine geometrije. Ne rade s krutim, nego s


gipkim strukturama. Pokriva to su ga dizajnirali AmannCnovas-Maruri zapravo je veliki uglaani trup, kao onaj u
F-117 koji, privremeno, pokriva vano podruje prepoznavanja,
registrirajui i procesuirajui povijesno tlo iznad kojega lebdi.
Instrument neujnoga kliznog leta iznad primjetljivog
prostora. Neobina napuhana letjelica ija se metalna, lagana,
nenametljiva pilotska kabina sprema iznenada podignuti. Taj
eterini, besteinski, lakokrili znaaj (osnaen svijetlom bojom
same strukture) upuuje pak na svojevrstan jedva raspren
oblak, nalik na plinovitu koronu koja se jo nije rasplinula,
neke razgovjetnije prisutnosti... jedva nazirane i, odjednom,
dematerijalizirane. Njegov oblik pokorava se inteligentnome
hibridnom rjeenju izmeu blage geometrije, liene veega
tjelesnog otpora, i stanovitih nunosti obujma i kapaciteta
koji trebaju ispuniti ciljeve te besteinske prisutnosti koja
prepoznaje mjesto i od njega se odljepljuje, s potovanjem i
skrovito. Njegov je dizajn topoloki: upuuje na varijabilan,
diferencijalan poredak evolucijskih geometrija, vie nego na

kind of barely dispersed cloud, similar to a gas corona that


has not dissolved yet, of some more articulate presence...
barely discernible and, all of a sudden, dematerialized. Its
form is submitted to the intelligent hybrid solution between
slight geometry, dispossessed of the more significant corporeal
resistance and certain necessities of volume and capacity that
are supposed to fulfil these goals of weightless presence which
recognizes the place and detaches from it with respect and
surreptitiously. Its design is topological: it indicates a variable,
differential arrangement of evolutional geometries, more than
some unifying and totalitarian order: geometries that flow and
adapt to precise demands (to the space of the ruins and space
of the city), interpret them... and reinterpret them. The new
structure transforms from the horizontal dimension of the very
cover into the vertical of the rear helm that covers the middle
of the support without visible interruptions, in an elastic and
integrated system of locomotion. The concept of Blended
Wing Body in aeronautics that indicates this dynamic and
alternative design was used here so that structures, elements,

situacija

tlocrt

site plan

plan

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detalj konstrukcije
construction detail

presjek
section

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Atxu Amann, Andrs Cnovas, Nicols Maruri;


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kakav ujedinjujui i totalistiki red: geometrija koje teku i


prilagouju se preciznim zahtjevima (prostoru ruevina i
prostoru grada), tumae ih... i reinterpretiraju. Nova struk
tura prelazi iz vodoravne dimenzije samoga pokrivaa u oko
mitu stranjega kormila koje pokriva sredinu potpornja, bez
vidljivih prekida, u elastinom i integriranom sustavu gibanja.
Koncept integriranog trupa-krila Blended Wing Body u aero
nautici koji upuuje na taj dinamini i alternativni dizajn
prizvan radi stapanja struktura, elemenata i pokreta.3Kao i
u F-117, oblik vie ne slijedi funkciju i strukturu, nego stra
tegiju.4 Prezentabilan ustroj arhitektonskog objekta utire
put difuznijoj, nestalnijoj definiciji koja odgovara stratekim
mjerilima, temeljno operativnima: kriterijima registriranja
konteksta, njegova procesuiranja i oznaavanja te, istovre
meno, njegova (re)aktiviranja u stvaranju novog polja sil,
materijalnih i nematerijalnih, vidljivih i nevidljivih, zvunih
i prijenosnih. U toj varijabilnoj geometriji, ali i u toj prim
jetljivoj materijalnosti u toj volji djelatne nestalnosti korije
ni se velika suvremena sila Amann-Cnovas-Marurijeva djela.
Ovdje, takoer, prostor izmeu izmeu tekih ruevina
temelja i novoga lebdeeg pokrivaa zadobiva posebnu
vrijednost kao prostor-jastuk potovanja i prepoznavanja.
Prostor pokrivene povrine (ruevina) odgovara praktiki pros
toru zranog pokrivaa (oblaka-broda). A prostor izmeu njih
jest onaj koji ih povezuje i daje im smisao. Rije je o prostoru
promatranja, pamenja i spoznavanja, istraivanja i interakcije.
Japanski prostor u... koji odgovara zapadnjakom prostoru
izmeu.
Zavrna biljeka: Unato uspjenim misijama na Kosovu
i u invaziji na Irak, potkraj 2006. gradnja zrakoplova F-117
obustavljena je zbog poveanih trokova. Dana 23. travnja
2008. sve jedinice F-117 koje su ostale u slubi rasputene su
i zrakoplovi su uskladiteni u hangarima. Prvi pilotski avion
trenutano je izloen u okolici Zrane baze Nellis u Nevadi.
Drugi je izloen u Muzeju zrakoplovnih snaga Wright Patterson
u Ohiju. Trei se moda ponosno izlae danas u Cartageni...
3 Vidi http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_F-117_Nighthawk
4 Vidi MULLER, Willy: F111 u V.V.A.A. Diccionario Metpolis de la Arquitectura
Avanzada, str. 223, ed. Actar, Barcelona 2001. V. takoer GAUSA, Manuel: Fuselaje,
str. 246, opus cit.

and movements could blend.3 Like in the case of the F-117, the
form no longer follows function and structure, but strategy.4
The present construction of the architectural object paves
the road for a more diffuse, more unstable definition that
corresponds to strategic measures, fundamentally operative:
criteria of registering context, its processing and designation
and, at the same time, its (re)activation in creation of a new
field of forces, material and non-material, visible and invisible,
sonorous and portable. It is in this variable geometry, but
also in this observable materiality in this will of operative
inconstancy that the great contemporary power of the work
by Amann-Cnovas-Maruri is rooted. Here, also, the space inbetween between the heavy ruins of the foundation and the
new hovering cover gains a special value as a space-pillow
of appreciation and recognition. The space of the covered
area (the ruins) corresponds practically to the space of the
aerial cover (cloud-craft). And the space between the two is
what connects them and gives them meaning. It is the space of
observation, remembering, and cognition, research and inter
action. The Japanese space in... that corresponds to the Wes
tern space in-between.

Endnote Despite successful missions in Kosovo and the in


vasion on Iraq, construction of F-117 aircraft was terminated at
the end of 2006 due to increased costs. On 23 April 2008, all
F-117 units that had remained in service were disbanded and the
aircraft stored in hangars. The first piloted aircraft is being
exhibited in the vicinity of Air Force Base Nellis in Nevada at the
moment. The second one is exhibited in the National Museum
of the United States Air Forces Wright Patterson in Ohio. The
third one is perhaps being proudly exhibited in Cartagena to
day...
3 See http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_F-117_Nighthawk
4 See Muller, Willy: F111 in V.V.A.A. Diccionario Metpolis de la Arquitectura
Avanzada, page 223, ed. Actar, Barcelona 2001; see also GAUSA, Manuel: Fuselaje,
page 246, op. cit.

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oris, broj 74, godina 2012

oris, number 74, year 2012

Svod iznad rimskog nalazita, Cartagena, panjolska


Deck over a Roman site, Cartagena, Spain
autori authors
arhitektonski ured architectural office
investitor client
povrina parcele site area
izgraena povrina built up area
projekt project
realizacija completed
cijena costs
Atxu Amann, Andrs Cnovas, Nicols Maruri;
Svod iznad rimskog nalazita

Atxu Amann, Andrs Cnovas, Nicols Maruri


Amann, Cnovas, Maruri
Cartagena Puerto de Culturas
2036 m
1847 m
2008-2009
2010-2011
977 719
Atxu Amann, Andrs Cnovas, Nicols Maruri;
Deck over a roman site

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