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University Press Scholarship Online

You are looking at 1-10 of 18 items for: keywords : untouchability

Sadgati: Satyajit Ray's Deliverance of Premchand's Sadgati


Deepti Zutshi

in Filming Fiction: Tagore, Premchand, and Ray


Published in print: 2012 Published Online:
Publisher: Oxford University Press
September 2012
DOI: 10.1093/
ISBN: 9780198075936 eISBN: 9780199081851 acprof:oso/9780198075936.003.0016
Item type: chapter

This chapter explores Satyajit Ray's Sadgati (1981), a film adaptation of


Premchand's short story Sadgati (Deliverance, 1931), in terms of Ray's
handling of the dalit question. It analyses the mediation from Sadgati to
Sadgati and offers a reading of Mahasweta Devi's writings on the subject
in conjunction with the progressive politics of Premchand. It discusses
the shifts that seem to have taken place, particularly in relation to the
representation of the caste question, which has been a matter of serious
concern for writers/artists both within and outside the community, in the
light of present debates on the subject. Both Ray and Premchand were
sympathetic to the cause of the dalits, the most culturally marginalized
in India, yet their portrayal differs in terms of tone and rhythm, which
in a way transmutes the content. The chapter also considers Ray's nonrecognition of the issue of untouchability in West Bengal.

The Transparent Performer


Bruce Haynes

in The End of Early Music: A Period Performer's History of Music for the TwentyFirst Century
Published in print: 2007 Published Online:
Publisher: Oxford University Press
January 2010
DOI: 10.1093/
ISBN: 9780195189872 eISBN: 9780199864218 acprof:oso/9780195189872.003.05
Item type: chapter

Whatever is done to their music, the original composers will be affected.


Original repertoire is all in the public domain now. This chapter argues
that far from being faithful to a composer's intentions, people are
in fact merely stealing ideas from them, and doing it selectively. But
obviously, to get the most value out of this theft, it is necessary to be
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conscious of the composer's wishes. This will give the music the best
chance of being understandable. The wishes of the listener, in this case,
coincide with those of the composers. This chapter discusses fidelity
to the composer, Werktreue (work-fidelity) as the musical analogue
of religious fundamentalism, the Urtext imperative and text fetishism,
untouchability, the Romantic invention of the interpretive conductor, and
the maestro-rehearsal.

From Amalsad to Westminster


Ramin Jahanbegloo

in Talking Politics: Bhikhu Parekh in Conversation with Ramin Jahanbegloo


Published in print: 2011 Published Online:
Publisher: Oxford University Press
September 2012
DOI: 10.1093/
ISBN: 9780198071549 eISBN: 9780199081349 acprof:oso/9780198071549.003.0001
Item type: chapter

This chapter illustrates the early life of Bhikhu Parekh and his
experiences in becoming part of the British House of Lords. It begins
with an account of Parekhs childhood in Amalsad, where he talks about
his family background, describes the religious beliefs and caste system
in the village, and narrates his experiences in moving between the
castes by making friends from different caste levels. It then looks at his
education at the University of Bombay and eventually the London School
of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Several notable personalities
are introduced, including Usha Mehta and Isaiah Berlin. In addition,
the chapter brings to light Parekhs experience with untouchability,
the difficulties in marrying a person from a higher caste, and how the
diversities in British society are represented.

Gandhi and the Caste System


B. R. Nanda

in Gandhi and his Critics


Published in print: 1994 Published Online:
Publisher: Oxford University Press
October 2012
DOI: 10.1093/
ISBN: 9780195633634 eISBN: 9780199081332 acprof:oso/9780195633634.003.0004
Item type: chapter

Mahatma Gandhi was accused of acting as an apologist for the caste


system in India. In 1932, he resorted to fasting to block an affirmative
action planned by Britain in favour of the outcastes, the so-called
untouchables. Gandhi tried his best to undermine the centuries-old
caste system and to remove the blot of untouchability from Hinduism.
When he returned from South Africa, Gandhi was on the periphery
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of nationalist politics and launched a propaganda against the evils of


untouchability. His fasting struck the British officials as a thinly disguised
mode of coercion. After he was released from jail, Gandhi embarked on a
tour in hopes of informing the Indians about the evils of untouchability.

Raghuwar Tumko Meri Laj


Halid Edib

in Inside India
Published in print: 2009 Published Online:
Publisher: Oxford University Press
October 2012
DOI: 10.1093/
ISBN: 9780195699999 eISBN: 9780199080540 acprof:oso/9780195699999.003.0006
Item type: chapter

In this chapter, the author recalls her first encounter with Mahatma
Gandhi, who she thinks represented the Hindu of Hindus, the essence
of the oldest India. On her way to Gandhi's house she met Professor
Malkhani, the prominent Hindu worker and writer and Joint General
Secretary to the Association for the Abolition of Untouchability. When she
reached her destination, she met Gandhi's secretary, Mahadev Desai.
The pandit sang Raghuwar Tumko meri laj... while he played with his
sitar. Everyone in the house dissolved in the music. The prayer meetings
were attended by people of mixed faith.

Concerning Mahatma Gandhi's Activities


Halid Edib

in Inside India
Published in print: 2009 Published Online:
Publisher: Oxford University Press
October 2012
DOI: 10.1093/
ISBN: 9780195699999 eISBN: 9780199080540 acprof:oso/9780195699999.003.0008
Item type: chapter

Mahatma Gandhi was involved in many activities, foremost of which


was to build Indian society from the ground up. He wanted to see
untouchability in India abolished and sought the regeneration of
villages as well as communal unity. Most Hindus believed that caste,
and, above all, untouchability, was essential to Hinduism. Gandhi's
pronouncement about caste was not definite, but he was clear and
emphatic in condemning untouchability. He was certain that there were
sanctions in the Gita for the abolition of untouchability.

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Conclusion

Mary Elizabeth King


in Gandhian Nonviolent Struggle and Untouchability in South India: The 1924
25 Vykom Satyagraha and Mechanisms of Change
Published in print: 2015 Published Online:
Publisher: Oxford University Press
March 2015
DOI: 10.1093/
ISBN: 9780199452668 eISBN: 9780199085279 acprof:oso/9780199452668.003.0010
Item type: chapter

Gandhis notion of suffering and uncritical belief that nonviolent action


can melt the stoniest heart is a hazardous article of faith. Vykom can
illustrate impediments faced today in nonviolent movements worldwide.
Todays social justice movements draw vocabulary, methods, and
thinking from Gandhi, although nonviolent action arises from divergent
cultural and political sources. Still vital is Gandhis 1905 discernment that
even the most powerful cannot rule without cooperation from the ruled.
Untouchability was reduced as a source of acute misery in what is now
Kerala more than a decade before it was constitutionally ended by free
India. Representative government became visible in Travancore after
independence. Ezhavas rose to high positions, not because sops were
thrown, but because they had waged disciplined struggle. Abolition of
untouchability in India is occurring primarily through actions taken by
and within castes, although Gandhis efforts to induce changes in uppercaste perspectives cannot be dismissed.

The Eleven Vows of Mahatma Gandhi


Halid Edib

in Inside India
Published in print: 2009 Published Online:
Publisher: Oxford University Press
October 2012
DOI: 10.1093/
ISBN: 9780195699999 eISBN: 9780199080540 acprof:oso/9780195699999.003.0023
Item type: chapter

This chapter examines Mahatma Gandhi's eleven vows, which contain


the essence of his teaching in its relation to India and represent a
trend in the writings of the world-intelligentsia, as well as the secret
longings of a large number of inarticulate human beings. Gandhi's
vows have something to do with ahimsa or non-violence; freedom from
untouchability; body-labour; celibacy; non-stealing and non-possession;
equal respect for all religions; and Satyagraha. From the point of view of
the Hindus, the untouchability campaign led by Gandhi has introduced a
new conception-Hinduism without a social hierarchy.

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Low Tide

B. R. Nanda
in The Nehrus: Motilal and Jawaharlal: With a New Preface
Published in print: 2007 Published Online:
Publisher: Oxford University Press
October 2012
DOI: 10.1093/
ISBN: 9780195693430 eISBN: 9780199081387 acprof:oso/9780195693430.003.0018
Item type: chapter

This chapter explains why Gandhi retracted his efforts for his fight
against foreign rule. Motilal and Jawaharlal heard the news of Gandhis
retreat while they were lodged in Lucknows district gaol. It first
identifies the Chauri Chaura tragedy as the sign that India was not
ready for a mass movement. Soon after the tragedy, Gandhi stopped
the aggressive portion of the non-co-operation campaign and hid the
plans for civil disobedience in Bardoli. Instead, Gandhi focused on a
programme on communal unity, hand-spinning, and the removal of
untouchability, among others. It shows that once Gandhi was placed
in Gaol, Motilal proved to be one of the most significant influences in
changing the course of the non-co-operation programme.

The Mahatma in Retirement


B. R. Nanda

in In Gandhis Footsteps: The Life and Times of Jamnalal Bajaj


Published in print: 2002 Published Online:
Publisher: Oxford University Press
October 2012
DOI: 10.1093/
ISBN: 9780195663433 eISBN: 9780199081424 acprof:oso/9780195663433.003.0011
Item type: chapter

This chapter discusses Gandhis retirement from politics in the


mid-1920s. It begins with a section on the role of the press in provoking
the animosity between the Hindu and Muslim communities. It then
describes the programme Gandhi had in mind, which was composed of
the removal of untouchability and the promotion of the upliftment of
women, national education, khadi, and HinduMuslim unity. It discusses
that although Gandhi could not fully detach himself from the political
sphere, he busied himself with the affairs of the Sabarmati Ashram.
It shows that Gandhi emphasized most on the everyday conduct of
the inmates in the way the Ashram was run. Gandhis retirement from
active politics also caused his foreign admirers to invite him to visit their
respective countries.

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