You are on page 1of 239

`Q =~=

Telugu Alphabet

Telugu Learning Kit


Module 1

C P Brown Academy
The Alpha Foundation
Hyderabad
www.mohanpublications.com

Foreword
-

The Module-1, Telugu Varnamala,


is intended to help the Telugu
.
speakers, who cannot read/write Telugu, to pick up a reasonable level of
linguistic competence, through Roman script. The symbols used in this
book are intended to facilitate the transliteration template of the vowels,
consonants, gunintamulu
and the vowel-consonant clusters, i.e., vottulu.
.
The relationship of the Roman character with the Telugu letter and its
pronunciation have been clearly explained with examples to aid phonetics.
For instance, the symbol a stands for the Telugu letter J that sounds
like o as in the word come. Let us take another example. The symbol
c stands for the Telugu letter K that sounds like ch as in the word
church. The Module-1 is thus quite self-explanatory and is certain to
help those who desire to learn Telugu through the medium of English.
The workbook provided along with it is scientifically designed for practice
to help the learners pickup reading and writing of Telugu, satisfactorily.
We know that some of the alphabet and their sounds are difficult to
pronounce and quite a few are not in popular use. They do not even matter
in the acquisition of linguistic skills. However, we have included all the
Telugu letters irrespective of their usage in order to introduce them all to
the learners.
Enjoy!
SS Prabhakar Rao

www.mohanpublications.com

`Q =~=
TELUGU ALPHABET
Vowels (JK
: Acculu)
*

far

wood

.lu

J P W D
L T | |
Z U S
X F B
come

.lu

look

bit

ru
.

ru
.

cool

.rusi.

root

ai

get

loop

feel

rotate

stake

au

oat

am
.

mite

out

ah.

JO J
some

half

* a stands for J and sounds like o as in come. The same pattern applies to all other vowels.

www.mohanpublications.com

Consonants (

Hallulu)

36 Characters
*

kh

gh

H Y Q

K K K [
~ &
@ ~ _ _
` ^ ^ ^
khaki

silk

.c

.capa

church

.j

jhansi

th
.

take
.

tabala

nilakantha
.

dh
.

n.

dh

though

dhoti

}
#

prana
.

- asadha
. .

bird

thumb

jug

~
sanjna

d.

th

~
n

jh

t.

prajna

.jabili

witch

V
[

ghost

go

ch

.
n

nature

* k stands for H and sounds like k as in silk. The same pattern applies to all other consonants.

www.mohanpublications.com

ph

bh

| =
~
= +
H
cup

phone

bat

young

bharat

l.

rust

s.

sastry

levy

home

sun

ship

r.

ksh

-- kalimata
.

lump

month

error

raksha

Semi-Vowels or Semi-Consonants

( L
H~ ::

Ubhayaksharalu)

(# = O Sunna) (J~ # = Arasunna) (q~ = - Visarga)


Note: Five Telugu characters are not in general use.


They are
6

.lu .lu-

K [ |
.c

.j

www.mohanpublications.com

ru
.

JK U q^O Q "e?
How to write Vowels?

come

far

bit

feel

wood

cool

ru
.

.rusi
.

ru
.

root
www.mohanpublications.com

get

stake

ai

mite

rotate

au

oat

out
am
.

some
ah.

half
8

www.mohanpublications.com

U q^O Q "e?
How to write Consonants?
k

kh

silk

khaki

gh

go

ghost
.
n

.
prajna
c

ch

church

witch

jh

jug

jhansi
~
n

~
sanjna

www.mohanpublications.com

t.

th
.

take

nilakantha
.

d.

dh
.

bird


asadha
. .

n.

prana
.

th

tabala

thumb

dh

though

dhoti

nature
10

www.mohanpublications.com

ph

cup

phone

bh

bat
bharat
m

month
y

young

rust

l.

lump

kalimata
.

levy

sastry

www.mohanpublications.com

11

s.

ship
s

sun
h

home
ksh

raksha

.r

error
12

www.mohanpublications.com

Symbols of Gunintamulu
.
Telugu Letter

Roman Character

Symbol

How to write

ru
.

ru

ai

au

JO

am
.

ah

www.mohanpublications.com

13

Q}O`=
'H

14

(Gunintamulu)
.

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)


'Y Q}O`= (kha-Gunintamu)
Q}O`= (ka-Gunintamu)
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H

M
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

H
H
H
H

H$
H$
H
H
H
H
H
H
HO
H

ka

ka

ki

ki

ku

ku

kru
.

kru
.

ke

ke

kai

ko

ko

kau

kam
.

kah.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

www.mohanpublications.com

Y
M
d
v
Y
Y

kha

kha

khi

khi

khu

khu

Y$

khru
.

Y$
M
M
M
M
M
M
YO
Y

khru
.

khe

khe

khai

kho

kho

khau

kham
.

khah.

Q}O`=

'Q

(Gunintamulu)
.
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)
Q}O`= (ga-Gunintamu)
' Q}O`= (gha-Gunintamu)
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

Q
Q
y
w
Q
Q
Q$
Q$
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
QO
Q

ga

ga

gi

gi

gu

gu

gru
.

gru
.

ge

ge

gai

go

go

gau

gam
.

gah.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

www.mohanpublications.com


$
$






O

gha

gha
ghi

ghi
ghu

ghu
ghru
.

ghru
.
ghe

ghe
ghai
gho

gho
ghau
gham
.
ghah.
15

Q}O`=
'K

16

(Gunintamulu)
.

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)


Q}O`= (ca-Gunintamu)
'K Q}O`= (cha-Gunintamu)
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K

K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

K
K
z
p
K
K
K$
K$
K
K
K
K
K
K
KO
K

ca

ca

ci

ci

cu

cu

cru
.

cru
.

ce

ce

cai

co

co

cau

cam
.

cah.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

www.mohanpublications.com

K
K
z
p
K
K
K$
K$
K
K
K
K
K
K
KO
K

cha

cha

chi

chi

chu

chu

chru
.

chru
.

che

che

chai

cho

cho

chau

cham
.

chah.

Q}O`=

(Gunintamulu)
.

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)

'[ Q}O`= (ja Gunintamu)


.

'~ Q}O`= (jha Gunintamu)


.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

*
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[
[

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

[
*
l
r
A
E
[$
[$
*
*
*
*
*
*
[O
[

jru
.

je

je

jai

jo

jo

jau

jam
.

~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {
~ {

jah.

~ { J ~

ja

ja

ji

ji

ju

ju

jru
.

www.mohanpublications.com

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO

~
~
i
s
~
~
~$
~$
~
~
~
~
~
~
~O

jha

jha
jhi

jhi
jhu

jhu
jhru
.

jhru
.
jhe

jhe
jhai
jho

jho
jhau
jham
.
jhah.
17

Q}O`=

'@

18

(Gunintamulu)
.
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)
Q}O`= (ta-Gunintamu)
'~ Q}O`= (tha-Gunintamu)
.
.
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

\
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@

~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

@
\
\
\
@
@
@$
@$
>
>
>
\
\
\
@O
@

ta
.

ta
.

ti.

ti.

.tu

.tu

.
.tru

.
.tru

te
.

te
.

tai
.

to
.

to
.

tau
.

tam
. .

tah
. .

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

www.mohanpublications.com

~
~
i
s
~
~
~$
~$
~
~
~
~
~
~
~O
~

tha
.

tha
.

thi
.

thi
.

thu
.

thu
.

thru
. .

thru
. .

the
.

the
.

thai
.

tho
.

tho
.

thau
.

tham
. .

thah
. .

Q}O`=

'_

(Gunintamulu)
.
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)
Q}O`= (da-Gunintamu)
'_ Q}O`= (dha-Gunintamu)
.
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

_
_
_
_
_
_
_$
_$
_
_
_
_
_
_
_O
_

da
.

da
.

di
.

di
.

du
.

du
.

dru
..

dru
..

de
.

de
.

dai
.

do
.

do
.

dau
.

dam
. .

dah
. .

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

www.mohanpublications.com

_
_
_
_
_
_
_$
_$
_
_
_
_
_
_
_O
_

dha
.

dha
.
dhi
.

dhi
.

dhu
.

dhu
.

dhru
. .

dhru
. .

dhe
.

dhe
.

dhai
.

dho
.

dho
.

dhau
.

dham
. .

dhah
. .
19

Q}O`=

'}

(Gunintamulu)
.
Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)
Q}O`= (na-Gunintamu)
'` Q}O`= (ta-Gunintamu)
.
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
20

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

}
}
}
}
}
}
}$
}$
}
}
}
}
}
}
}O
}

na
.

na
.
ni
.

ni
.
nu
.

nu
.
nru
..

nru
..
ne
.

ne
.
nai
.
no
.

no
.
nau
.
nam
. .
nah
. .

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

www.mohanpublications.com

`
`
u
f
`
`
`$
`$
`
`
`
`
`
`
`O
`

ta

ta

ti

ti

tu

tu

tru
.

tru
.

te

te

tai

to

to

tau

tam
.

tah.

Q}O`=
'^

(Gunintamulu)
.

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)


Q}O`= (tha-Gunintamu)
'^ Q}O`= (da-Gunintamu)
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^

^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

^
^
k
n
^
^
^$
^$
^
^
^
^
^
^
^O
^

tha

tha

thi

thi

thu

thu

thru
.

the

the

thai

tho

tho

thau

tham
.

thah.

thru
.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO

^
^
k
n
^
^
^$
^$
^
^
^
^
^
^
^O

da

da

di

di

du

du

dru
.

dru
.

de

de

dai

do

do

dau

dam
.

{ J ^

dah.

www.mohanpublications.com

21

Q}O`=
'^

22

(Gunintamulu)
.

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)


Q}O`= (dha-Gunintamu)
'# Q}O`= (na-Gunintamu)
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^

<
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

^
^
k
n
^
^
^$
^$
^
^
^
^
^
^
^O
^

dha

dha

dhi

dhi

dhu

dhu

dhru
.

dhe

dhe

dhai

dho

dho

dhau

dham
.

dhah.

dhru
.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO

#
<
x
h
#
#
#$
#$
<
<
<
<
<
<
#O

na

na

ni

ni

nu

nu

nru
.

nru
.

ne

ne

nai

no

no

nau

nam
.

{ J #

nah.

www.mohanpublications.com

Q}O`=
'

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)


Q}O`= (pa-Gunintamu)
' Q}O`= (pha-Gunintamu)
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

(Gunintamulu)
.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

$
$

pa

pa

pi

pi

pu

pu

pru
.

pru
.

pe

pe

pai

po

po

pau

pam
.

pah.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO

$
$

pha

pha

phi

phi

phu

phu

phru
.

phru
.

phe

phe

phai

pho

pho

phau

pham
.

{ J

phah.

www.mohanpublications.com

23

Q}O`=
'|

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)


Q}O`= (ba-Gunintamu)
' Q}O`= (bha-Gunintamu)
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

|
|
|
|
|

|
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
|
24

(Gunintamulu)
.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

a
c
|
|
|$
|$

|O
|

ba

ba

bi

bi

bu

bu

bru
.

be

be

bai

bo

bo

bau

bam
.

bah.

bru
.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO

a
c

$
$

bha

bha

bhi

bhi

bhu

bhu

bhru
.

bhru
.

bhe

bhe

bhai

bho

bho

bhau

bham
.

{ J

bhah.

www.mohanpublications.com

Q}O`=
'=

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)


Q}O`= (ma-Gunintamu)
' Q}O`= (ya-Gunintamu)
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

"
=
=
=
=
=
=

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

=
=

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

(Gunintamulu)
.

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

=
=
q
g
=
=
=$
=$
"
"
"
"
"
=
=O
=

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

mam
.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

mah.

{ J

ma

ma
mi

mi
mu

mu
mru
.

mru
.
me

me
mai
mo

mo
mau

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO

www.mohanpublications.com



~
~

$
$






O

ya

ya
yi

yi
yu

yu
yru
.

yru
.
ye

ye
yai
yo

yo
yau
yam
.
yah.
25

Q}O`=
'~

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)


Q}O`= (ra-Gunintamu)
' Q}O`= (la-Gunintamu)
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

~
~
~
~
~
~
~

~
~
~
~
~
~
~

~
~
26

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

(Gunintamulu)
.

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

~
~
i
s
~
~
~$
~$
~
~
~
~
~
~
~O
~

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

ra

ra

ri

ri

ru

ru

rru
.

rru
.

re

re

rai

ro

ro

rau

ram
.

rah.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

www.mohanpublications.com

e
b

$
$

la

la

li

li

lu

lu

lru
.

le

le

lai

lo

lo

lau

lam
.

lah
.

lru
.

Q}O`=
'

(Gunintamulu)
.

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)


Q}O`= (la-Gunintamu)
'= Q}O`= (va-Gunintamu)
.
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

.li

.li

.lu

.lu

.
.lru

.lru
.

.le

.le

.lai

.lo

.lo

.lau

.
.lam

" { J
= { P
= { W
= { D
= { L
= { T
= { |
= { |
= { Z
= { U
= { S
= { X
= { F
= { B
= { JO

{ J

.lah.

{ J
{ P
{ W
{ D
{ L
{ T
{ |
{ |
{ Z
{ U
{ S
{ X
{ F
{ B
{ JO

o
m

$
$

.la

.la

=
"
q
g
=
=
=$
=$
"
"
"
"
"
"
=O

va

va

vi

vi

vu

vu

vru
.

vru
.

ve

ve

vai

vo

vo

vau

vam
.

= { J =

vah.

www.mohanpublications.com

27

Q}O`=
'

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)

Q}O`= (sa-Gunintamu)
'+ Q}O`= (sa-Gunintamu)
.
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

28

(Gunintamulu)
.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

t
j

$
$

sru
.

se

se

sai

so

so

sau

sam
.

+ { J
+ { P
+ { W
+ { D
+ { L
+ { T
+ { |
+ { |
+ { Z
+ { U
+ { S
+ { X
+ { F
+ { B
+ { JO

sam
. .

sah
.

+ { J +

sah
. .

sa

sa

si

si

su

su

sru
.

www.mohanpublications.com

+
+
+
+
+$
+$
+
+
+

+O

sa
.

sa
.

si
.

si
.

su
.

su
.

sru
..

sru
..

se
.

se
.

sai
.

so
.

so
.

sau
.

Q}O`=
'

(Gunintamulu)
.

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)


Q}O`= (sa-Gunintamu)
' Q}O`= (ha-Gunintamu)
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

sam.

{ J
{ P
{ W
{ D
{ L
{ T
{ |
{ |
{ Z
{ U
{ S
{ X
{ F
{ B
{ JO

sah.

{ J

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

$
$

sa
sa

si

si

su
su

sru
.

sru
.
se
se
sai
so
so
sau

www.mohanpublications.com







$
$






O

ha

ha
hi

hi
hu

hu
hru
.

hru
.
he

he
hai
ho

ho
hau
ham
.
hah.
29

Q}O`=
'H

Consonants + Vowels (Hallulu + Acculu)


Q}O`= (ksha-Gunintamu)
' Q}O`= (ra-Gunintamu)
.
.
.

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

Consonant + Vowel = Composite Letter

H
H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
30

(Gunintamulu)
.

{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{

J
P
W
D
L
T
|
|
Z
U
S
X
F
B
JO
J

H
H
H
H

H$
H$
H
H
H
H
H
H
HO
H

ksha

ksha

kshi

kshi

kshu

kshu

kshru
.

kshru
.

kshe

kshe

kshai

ksho

ksho

kshau

ksham
.

{ J
{ P
{ W
{ D
{ L
{ T
{ |
{ |
{ Z
{ U
{ S
{ X
{ F
{ B
{ JO

kshah.

$
$

.ra

.ra

.ri

.ri

ru
.

.ru

.rru
.

.rru
.

.re

.re

.rai

.ro

.ro

.rau

ram
. .

{ J

.rah.

www.mohanpublications.com

Symbols of Vottulu
k

kh

gh

ch

jh

~
n

t.

th
.

&

&

d.

dh
.

n.

th

dh

.
n

ph

bh

.l

s.

ksha

ra
.

www.mohanpublications.com

31

32

VOTTULU for ka consonant

VOTTULU for kha consonant

'H "`

'Y "`

kka

kdha

khka

khdha

kkha

kna

khkha

khna

kga

kpa

khga

khpa

kgha

kpha

khgha

khpha

kca

kba

khca

khba

kcha

kbha

khcha

khbha

kja

kma

khja

khma

kjha

kya

Y~

khjha

khya

kta
.

kra

khta
.

khra

ktha
.

kla

khtha
.

khla

H
H
H

kda
.

kla
.

khda
.

khla
.

kdha
.

kva

khdha
.

khva

kna
.

ksa

khna
.

khsa

kta

ksa
.

khta

khsa
.

ktha

ksa

khtha

khsa

kda

kha

khda

khha

www.mohanpublications.com

VOTTULU for ga consonant

VOTTULU for gha consonant

'Q "`

' "`

gka

gdha

ghka

ghdha

gkha

gna

ghkha

ghna

gga

gpa

ghga

ghpa

ggha

gpha

ghgha

ghpha

gca

gba

ghca

ghba

gcha

gbha

ghcha

ghbha

gja

gma

ghja

ghma

gjha

gya

ghjha

ghya

gta
.

gra

ghta
.

ghra

gtha
.

gla

ghtha
.

ghla

gda
.

gla
.

ghda
.

ghla
.

gdha
.

gva

ghdha
.

ghva

gna
.

gsa

ghna
.

ghsa

gta

gsa
.

ghta

ghsa
.

gtha

gsa

ghtha

ghsa

gda

gha

ghda

ghha

www.mohanpublications.com

33

34

VOTTULU for ca consonant

VOTTULU for cha consonant

'K "`

'K "`

cka

cdha

chka

chdha

ckha

cna

chkha

chna

cga

cpa

chga

chpa

cgha

cpha

chgha

chpha

cca

cba

chca

chba

ccha

cbha

chcha

chbha

cja

cma

chja

chma

K~

chjha

cya

K~

chjha

chya

cta
.

cra

chta
.

chra

ctha
.

cla

chtha
.

chla

cda
.

cla
.

chda
.

chla
.

cdha
.

cva

chdha
.

chva

chna
.

csa

chna
.

chsa

cta

csa
.

chta

chsa
.

ctha

csa

chtha

chsa

cda

cha

chda

chha

www.mohanpublications.com

VOTTULU for ja consonant

VOTTULU for jha consonant

'[ "`

'~ "`

jka

jdha

jhka

jkha

jna

jhkha

jhna

jga

jpa

jhga

jhpa

jgha

jpha

jhgha

jhpha

jca

jba

jhca

jhba

jcha

jbha

jhcha

jhbha

jja

jma

jhja

jhma

[~

jjha

jya

~~

jhjha

jhya

jta
.

jra

jhta
.

jhra

jtha
.

jla

jhtha
.

jhla

jda
.

jla
.

jhda
.

jhla
.

jdha
.

jva

jhdha
.

jhva

jna
.

jsa

jhna
.

jhsa

jta

jsa
.

jhta

jhsa
.

jtha

jsa

jhtha

jhsa

jda

jha

jhda

jhha

www.mohanpublications.com

jhdha

35

36

VOTTULU for ta
. consonant

VOTTULU for tha


consonant
.

'@ "`

'~ "`

tka
.

tdha
.

.thka

thdha
.

.tkha

.tna

.thkha

thna
.

tga
.

.tpa

.thga

thpa
.

.tgha

.tpha

.thgha

thpha
.

tca
.

.tba

thca
.

thba
.

tcha
.

tbha
.

thcha
.

thbha
.

.tja

tma
.

.thja

thma
.

@
~

.tjha

.tya

thjha
.

thya
.

.tta
.

tra
.

thta
. .

thra
.

ttha
..

.tla

.ththa
.

thla
.

tda
..

.tla
.

.thda
.

thla
..

tdha
..

.tva

thdha
. .

thva
.

tna
..

tsa
.

thna
. .

thsa
.

tta
.

tsa
..

thta
.

thsa
. .

ttha
.

tsa
.

ththa
.

thsa
.

tda
.

tha
.

thda
.

thha
.

www.mohanpublications.com

VOTTULU for da
consonant
.

VOTTULU for dha


consonant
.

'_ "`

'_ "`

dka
.

ddha
.

dhka
.

dhdha
.

dkha
.

dna
.

dhkha
.

dhna
.

dga
.

dpa
.

dhga
.

dhpa
.

dgha
.

dpha
.

dhgha
.

dhpha
.

dca
.

dba
.

dhca
.

dhba
.

dcha
.

dbha
.

dhcha
.

dhbha
.

dja
.

dma
.

dhja
.

dhma
.

_~

djha
.

dya
.

_~

dhjha
.

dhya
.

dta
..

dra
.

dhta
. .

dhra
.

dtha
..

dla
.

dhtha
. .

dhla
.

dda
..

dla
..

dhda
. .

dhla
. .

ddha
..

dva
.

dhdha
. .

dhva
.

dna
..

dsa
.

dhna
. .

dhsa
.

dta
.

dsa
..

dhta
.

dhsa
. .

dtha
.

dsa
.

dhtha
.

dhsa
.

dda
.

dha
.

dhda
.

dhha
.

www.mohanpublications.com

37

38

VOTTULU for ta consonant

VOTTULU for tha consonant

'` "`

'^ "`

tka

tdha

thka

thdha

tkha

tna

thkha

thna

tga

tpa

thga

thpa

tgha

tpha

thgha

thpha

tca

tba

thca

thba

tcha

tbha

thcha

thbha

tja

tma

thja

thma

`
~

tjha

tya

^~

thjha

thya

tta
.

tra

thta
.

thra

ttha
.

tla

ththa
.

thla

tda
.

tla
.

thda
.

thla
.

tdha
.

tva

thdha
.

thva

tna
.

tsa

thna
.

thsa

tta

tsa
.

thta

thsa
.

ttha

tsa

ththa

thsa

tda

tha

thda

thha

www.mohanpublications.com

VOTTULU for da consonant

VOTTULU for dha consonant

'^ "`

'^ "`

dka

ddha

dhka

dhdha

dkha

dna

dhkha

dhna

dga

dpa

dhga

dhpa

dgha

dpha

dhgha

dhpha

dca

dba

dhca

dhba

dcha

dbha

dhcha

dhbha

dja

dma

dhja

dhma

^~

djha

dya

^~

dhjha

dhya

dta
.

dra

dhta
.

dhra

dtha
.

dla

dhtha

dhla

dda
.

dla
.

dhda

dhla
.

ddha
.

dva

dhdha

dhva

dna
.

dsa

dhna

dhsa

dta

dsa
.

dhta

dhsa

dtha

dsa

dhtha

dhsa

dda

dha

dhda

dhha

www.mohanpublications.com

39

40

VOTTULU for na consonant

VOTTULU for pa consonant

'# "`

' "`

nka

nkha

nga

ngha

nca

ncha

nja

#~

njha

nta
.

ntha
.

nda
.

ndha
.

nna
.

nta

ntha

nda

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

ndha

pka

pdha

nna

pkha

pna

npa

pga

ppa

npha

pgha

ppha

nba

pca

pba

nbha

pcha

pbha

nma

pja

pma

nya

pjha

pya

nra

pta
.

pra

nla

ptha
.

pla

nla
.

pda
.

pla
.

nva

pdha
.

pva

nsa

pna
.

psa

nsa
.

pta

psa
.

nsa

ptha

psa

nha

pda

pha

www.mohanpublications.com

VOTTULU for pha consonant

VOTTULU for ba consonant

' "`

'| "`

phka

phdha

bka

bdha

phkha

phna

bkha

bna

phga

phpa

bga

bpa

phgha

phpha

bgha

bpha

phca

phba

bca

bba

phcha

phbha

bcha

bbha

phja

phma

bja

bma

phjha

phya

|~

bjha

bya

phta
.

phra

bta
.

bra

phtha
.

phla

btha
.

bla

phda
.

phla
.

bda
.

bla
.

phdha
.

phva

bdha
.

bva

phna
.

phsa

bna
.

bsa

phta

phsa
.

bta

bsa
.

phtha

phsa

btha

bsa

phda

phha

bda

bha

www.mohanpublications.com

41

42

VOTTULU for bha consonant

VOTTULU for ma consonant

' "`

'= "`

bhka

bhdha

mka

mdha

bhkha

bhna

mkha

mna

bhga

bhpa

mga

mpa

bhgha

bhpha

mgha

mpha

bhca

bhba

mca

mba

bhcha

bhbha

mcha

mbha

bhja

bhma

mja

mma

bhjha

bhya

mjha

mya

bhta
.

bhra

mta
.

mra

bhtha
.

bhla

mtha
.

mla

bhda
.

bhla
.

mda
.

mla
.

bhdha
.

bhva

mdha
.

mva

bhna
.

bhsa

mna
.

msa

bhta

bhsa
.

mta

msa
.

bhtha

bhsa

mtha

msa

bhda

bhha

mda

mha

www.mohanpublications.com

VOTTULU for ya consonant

VOTTULU for ra consonant

' "`

'~ "`

yka

ykha

ydha

rka

rdha

yna

rkha

rna

yga

ypa

rga

rpa

ygha

ypha

rgha

rpha

yca

ypba

rca

rba

ycha

ybha

rcha

rbha

yja

yma

rja

rma

yjha

yya

~~

rjha

rya

yta
.

yra

rta
.

rra

ytha
.

yla

rtha
.

rla

yda
.

yla
.

rda
.

rla
.

ydha
.

yva

rdha
.

rva

yna
.

ysa

rna
.

rsa

yta

ysa
.

rta

rsa
.

ytha

ysa

rtha

rsa

yda

yha

rda

rha

www.mohanpublications.com

43

VOTTULU for la consonant

VOTTULU for la
. consonant

' "`

' "`

lka

ldha

.lka

.ldha

lkha

lna

.lkha

.lna

lga

lpa

.lga

.lpa

lgha

lpha

.lgha

lca

lba

.lca

.lba

lcha

lbha

.lcha

.lbha

lja

lma

.lja

.lma

ljha

lya

.ljha

.lya

lta
.

lra

.lta
.

.lra

ltha
.

lla

.ltha
.

.lla

lda
.

lla
.

.lda
.

.lla
.

ldha
.

lva

.ldha
.

.lva

lna
.

lsa

.lna
.

.lsa

lta

lsa
.

.lta

.lsa
.

ltha

lsa

.ltha

.lsa

lda

lha

.lda

.lha

44

www.mohanpublications.com

.lpha

VOTTULU for va consonant

VOTTULU for sa
consonant

'= "`

' "`

vka

vdha

ska

sdha

vkha

vna

skha

sna

vga

vpa

sga

spa

vgha

vpha

sgha

spha

vca

vba

sca

sba

vcha

vbha

scha

sbha

vja

vma

sja

sma

=~

vjha

vya

sjha

sya

vta
.

vra

sta
.

sra

vtha
.

vla

stha
.

sla

vda
.

vla
.

sda
.

sla
.

vdha
.

vva

sdha
.

sva

vna
.

vsa

sna
.

ssa

vta

vsa
.

sta

ssa
.

vtha

vsa

stha

ssa

vda

vha

sda

sha

www.mohanpublications.com

45

VOTTULU for sa consonant

'+ "`

' "`

ska
.

sdha
.

ska

sdha

skha
.

sna
.

skha

sna

sga
.

spa
.

sga

spa

sgha
.

spha
.

sgha

spha

sca
.

sba
.

sca

sba

scha
.

sbha
.

scha

sbha

sja
.

sma
.

sja

sma

sjha
.

sya
.

sjha

sya

.sta
.

sra
.

sta
.

sra

stha
..

sla
.

stha
.

sla

sda
..

sla
..

sda
.

sla
.

sdha
..

sva
.

sdha
.

sva

sna
..

ssa
.

sna
.

ssa

sta
.

ssa
..

sta

ssa
.

stha
.

ssa
.

stha

ssa

sda
.

sha
.

sda

sha

46

VOTTULU for sa
consonant
.

www.mohanpublications.com

VOTTULU for ha consonant

' "`

hka

hta
.

hdha

hra

hkha

htha
.

hna

hla

hga

hda
.

hpa

hla
.

hgha

hdha
.

hpha

hva

hca

hna
.

hba

hsa

hcha

hta

hbha

hsa
.

hja

htha

hma

hsa

hjha

hda

hya

hha

Q=xH
V,&,}, H, D JH~ "`
Z=Q "_H =
H|\ g\H O|OkOz# k`H~ # W=^ .
NOTE
The vowel- consonant clusters for the Telugu letters viz.,
. ~
n, n, n,
. ksha, r. are not given since they are not
in much usage.

www.mohanpublications.com

47

Just try for yourself!

Write all the Vowels in Series

J JO

Write all the Consonants in Series

Write Gunintamulu
for ha
.

Write Vottulu for bh

48

()

()

www.mohanpublications.com

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

`Q |=

Telugu Vocabulary

Telugu Learning Kit


Module 2

The Alpha Foundation


Hyderabad, India

C P Brown Academy

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Preface

Language, in a sense, is mans culminating cultural instrument. It is a social


institution. It is an expression of human spirit. Every language has its own set of
vocabulary. And every word has its own sound. Indeed, words are more than sounds
- in the listener. For poets, words are vennelalo- -adukone- andamaina
they emote bhava
adapillalu
beauteous belles playing about under the moonlight.

Words are the accepted vehicles of new things, new ideas, new attitudes, or new
points of view. Every practitioner of a language must acquire a fair understanding of
words. No matter even if it is ones mother-tongue, one can enjoy it more, only if he
or she could see it from the inside looking at the words with a feeling for them. This
becomes feasible only when one knows what the symbol, the sound, the word stands
for.
And that is what this module aims at. It enables you to master the Telugu words
through Roman script all by yourself. This module launches you on the path of
reading and writing Telugu words. It starts with two-lettered words graduating into
multi-lettered words. This module is aimed at helping you learn to read Telugu words
with an artists eye.
It is hoped that by going through the module you would cultivate a better appreciation
for your language. This shall make words look more than mere sounds. Once you
cultivate this art of looking at words from inside, they no longer remain as mere
denotations of emotions. They will rather voice emotions. It is only then that the
language becomes yours. It then simply becomes innate. Talking in Telugu then
becomes a jingling of the beauteous belles.
Once the taste is cultivated for your language the sound and the feelings that the
words emote you are sure to be swayed by a newfound urge to learn more complex
words and start conversation in Telugu all with ease. If this happens, we shall feel
that this initiative of C P Brown Academy has achieved its objective.
Nonetheless, a book, just as a good teacher, can at best, direct, aid and encourage a
learner but it is his or her effort that alone can make learning happen.
We solicit feedback from the readers for making the module more learner-friendly.

GRK Murty

4
3

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Transliteration Scheme of Telugu Alphabet

Vowels (JK: Acculu)

.lu

.lu

JO

au

am.

ah.

.ru

ru
.

S
ai

Consonants (

Hallulu)

V V.

kh

gh

ch

jh

&
~

t.

t.h

d.

dh
.

n.

th

dh

ph

bh

l.

n
n

s.

ksh

* Not in common use.

r.

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Sachitra Aksharamala

z` JH~ =

Alphabet with Illustrations
a

amma

J=
mother
a

avu

P=

cow

illu

house
5

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4D
i

-iga

DQ

fly
u

uduta

L_`

squirrel
u

-uyala

T
cradle

ru

|
4

rusi
. .

|+

sage
6

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4Z
e

eluka

ZH
rat

enugu

U#Q

elephant
ai

aidu

S^
five

X
4

onte
.

XO>

camel
7

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4F
o

oda
.

F_
ship

au

ausadhamu
.

B+^=
medicine

am

JO

ambaramu

JO|~=
sky

J
4

duhkhamu
.

^Y=
grief

ah

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4H
ka

kanki

HOH
spike

kha

khadgamu
.

Y_=
sword

ga

gampa

QO
basket

ghatamu
.

@=
vessel

gha

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4.V
n

vanmayamu
.

"V=
literature

ca

cali

Ke
chill

cha

chatramu

K`=
umbrella
ja

jada
.

[_

[
4

plait

10

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4~
jha

jhasamu
.

~+=
fish

&

yajnamu

[=
ritual
ta

tapa
.

@
post
tha

~
4

kanthamu
.

HO~=
throat
11

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4._
da

dabba
.

_
box

dha

dhanka
.

_OH

drum
n

vina
.

g}

musical instrument

`
4

tala

ta

head

12

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4^
tha

rathamu

~^=
chariot

da

danda
.

^O_
garland

dha

dhanussu

^#
bow
na

natta

#`
4

#
4

snail
13

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
pa

palaka

H
slate

pha

phalamu

=
fruit
ba

bandi
.

|O_
cart

bhatudu
. .

@_
4

bha

soldier
14

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4=
ma

manta
.

=O@
flame

ya

yantramu

O`=
machine
ra

ratnamu

~`=

gem

lata

la

creeper

15

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4.
la

talamu
.

`=
lock

va

vala

=
net

sa

sankhamu

OY=
conch

+
4

mesamu
.

"+=
goat

16

sa

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
sa

sanci

Oz
bag

ha

hamsa

O
swan
ksh

vrukshamu
.

=$H=
tree

rampamu
.

O=
saw
17

ra

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

^= iK =

- Introduction to Words

ala

ara

wave

shelf

adavi
.

anasa

J_q

J<

forest

pine apple

arati.

alasata
.

anumati

plantain

tiresome

permission

J~

J@ J#=u

J~\

akulu

a t.a

aru

P@

P~

game

six

leaves

akali

a s a

hunger

desire

- -
akasamu

alayamu

PHe

=
PH
=

4
sky

temple

18

Padamula Paricayamu -

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
ila

inti

earth

lady

isuka

inumu

WH

W#=

sand

iron

ituka
.

itivala
.

ivatala

brick

recently

this side

WOu

W\= W=`

W@H

ita

ikalu

D`

DH

swim

feathers

- i n a d. u

-
i s u d. u

today

God Siva

itacettu
..

- ilapata
.

ite
.

D>
spear

D<_ D_
D`K@ D@
toddy tree

whistling

19

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
ukku

uli

Le

chistle

steel

urumu

ulavalu

L~=

L=

thunder

horsegram

utuku

L`

udayamu

L^=

wash

morning

u- r u

T~

u d. a l u

u t.a

T_

T@

village

spring

upiri

uha

Ti

breath

guess

uragaya

u r a d. i m p u

ariel roots

T~Q T~_O
pickle

consolation

20

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
.rusi.

rukku
.

sage

mantra

.rujuvu

.rutuvu

proof

season

|+

|A= |`=

.rusabhamu
.

.runamu
.

bull

debt

|}=

|+=

emuka

era

eguru

Z~

ZQ~

Z=H

bait

fly

bone

edari
.

erupu

Z_i

Z~

desert

red

egumati

ekaramu

ZQ=u ZH~=
export

acre of land

21

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

eru

enugu

U~

U#Q

river

elephant

elika

eruta
.

UeH

U~@

ruler

picking up

elakulu

edu
.

etavalu
.

U_

U@" U

seven

slant

aite

- aidu rupayalu

aikyata

S`

SH`

but

unity

cardamom

S^ ~
five rupees

a i s w a r y a m u

S~=

wealth
aihikamu

airavatamu

SH= S~=`=
worldliness

white elephant

22

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
onte
.

odi
.

camel

lap

odugu

okadu
.

XO>

X_

XH_

X^Q

one man

adjust
ontarivadu
.
.

oripidi
.

XH\

XO@i"_ Xi_

one

lonely person

friction

okati.

F@q

defeat

bear

opika

o s. a d h i

FH

o- t.u

opu

F@

vote

F+k

patience

medicine

o d. a r e v u

onamalu

harbour

alphabet

4F_~= F#=
23

o t.a m i

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

aunu

aura

B#

B~

yes

is it

aucityamu

Bz`=
aptness
audaryamu

autu
.

B^~=

B@

magnanimity

bomb
anta

ancu

andamu

JO`

JO^=

whole

beauty

antamu

ankitamu

JOK
border

JO`= JOH`=
end

dedication
ambujamu
lotus

JO|[=
24

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

antahsatruvu
.

JO``=
internal enemy

antahkaranamu
.
.

JO`H~}=
inner activity

antahkonamu
. .

antahpuramu
.

JO`H}=

JO`~=

inner angle

inner chamber

kanda

kalamu

HO^

H=

yam

pen

kadali
.

k a d. u p u

sea

stomach

kanakamu

kavalalu

H
#
H
=

4
gold

H_=

pot

H_
H=

twins

H_e

k a d. a v a

25

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

kharidu

kharamu

Y~=

Ys^

ass

price

khagamu

kharjuramu

YQ=

Y~~=

bird

date

khani

khanijamu

Yx

Yx[=

mine

gadi

mineral

gada

g a d. a p a

Q_

Q^

room

threshold

club

garika

gajamu

QiH

Q[=

grass

elephant

g a r a.l a m u

gaganamu

Qk

Q~=

QQ#=

poison

sky

26

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

ghatana
.

ghanamu

@#

#=

incident

solid
ghallumanu

=#
ringing

- -

gharsanamu
. .

ghantaravam
.

ghatikudu
. .

sound of the bell

capable person friction

O\~=O \_ ~}=
.
v a- n m a y i

"V~

.
v a- n m a y a m u

Goddess

"V=

Saraswati

literature
-.
v a n m a y a k a r u d. u

"VH~_

litterateur

27

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
cali

caku

Ke

chill

pen knife

candanamu

caduvu

KO^#= K^=
sandalwood

read

cakramu

campakamu

cakoramu

KH=

KOH= KH~=

wheel

flower

chandassu

chaya

chatrapati

KO^ K`u
prosody

square

sivaji

shadow

chalokti

KH
repartee
chatrakamu
mushroom

K`H=
28

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

jama

jalamu

*=

[=

guava

water
jayamu

[=
triumph
jata

[`

jagadamu
.

jananamu

quarrel

birth

[Q_= [##=

pair

jhankaramu
jhamu

~OH~=

jhasamu
.

~=

~+=

time

fish

jharamu

jhanjha

humming

~~= ~O~
mountain
stream

storm

4
29

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

sanjna

O[
symbol
~jnanam

*#=
knowledge
- ~
ajna

~vijnapana

P[

q*#

command

request

tapa
.

- tapakayalu
.

takku
.

post

@H

trick

crackers

takkari
.

@Hi
cunning fellow
tankasala
.

mint

@OH
30

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

thivi
.

- thana
. .

~}

sq

police station

style

mithayi
.

pathasala
.

q~~ ~
sweet
pathamu
.

school
kanthamu
.

~=

HO~=

lesson

throat

dabbu
.

dalu
.

damarukamu
.

_=~H=

cash

shield

small drum

_|

dambamu
.

_O|=
boasting
dazanu
.

12 pieces

_[#
31

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

dhi
.

_
clash
dhanka
.

_OH
big drum

dhalamu
.

dhammanu
.

shield

blast

_=#

_=

dharani
.

^~}
earth

venuvu
.

karuna
.

H~}

"}=

compassion

flute

kalyanamu
.

H}=
marriage
abharanamu
.
ornament

P~}=
32

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

tadu
.

tata

`_

``

rope

grand father

taruvu

tanaya

`~=

`#

tree

daughter

talupu

taragati

tarangamu

`~Qu `~OQ=

door

class

wave

atithi

pathamu

katha

Juk

^=

H^

guest

way

story

rathamu

sapathamu

~^=

^=

charriot

vow
mathanamu
churning

=^#=
33

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

dari

^_

^i

fence

way

danda
.

danamu

^O_

^#=

garland

donation

dandanamu
.

dantamu

^O`=

^O_#=

tooth

punishment

dhanuvu

dhara

^#=

^~

price

bow

stream

dhamani

dhanamu

^=x

^#=

vein

money

dhavalamu
.

dhagadhaga

dhara

^~

dadi
.

^== ^Q^Q
white

glittering

34

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

nati.

nagalu

#\

#Q

actress

jewelry

nadaka
.

naduma
.

#_H

#_=

walk

middle

nadavadi
.
.

nadireyi
.

<i

#_=_

#_~~

woman

conduct

midnight

nari

pani

padava
.

padaka
.

_H

_=

work

bed

boat

palaka

pagalu

slate

day

pagadamu
.
coral

Q_=
35

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

phalitamu
.

phalakamu
.

result

plate

phalgunudu
.
. .

-sitaphalamu
.

arjuna

custard apple

e `= H=
}_ ` =

phani
. .

phalaharamu
.

~=

snake

tiffin

badi
.

basa

banti

|_

|Ou

school

accomodation

ball

balamu

bakamu

|=

|H=

strength

crane

bandi
.

balapamu

|O_

|=

cart

slate pencil

36

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

bhakti

bhala
.

H
devotion

well done
bhayamu

=
fear

bhavanamu

bharincu

=#=

iOK OQ@

building

bear

bhangapatu
.
insult

mara

mandu

mancamu

=~

=O^

=OK=

screw

medicine

cot

manisi
.

manavi

=x+

=#q

man

appeal

makutamu
.

mayuramu

=@= =~=
peacock

crown

37

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
yati

yamini

qx

sage

night

yamuna

yatnamu

=# `=
river Yamuna

effort
yajamani

yagamu

yantramu

Q=

O`= [=x

ritual

machine

master
raju

~q

rani
.

~}

~A

sun

queen

king

ranamu
.

rasamu

battle

juice

ravi

~}= ~=
rahadari
high way

~^i
38

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

lavangamu

=OQ=
clove

lac

fatty

lalana

lancamu

OK=

woman

bribe

lavanamu
.

langaru

salt

anchor

=}= OQ~

galamu
.

"

Q=

time

throat

plates

kalalu
.

nalamu
.

fine arts

tube

talapucevi
.

saralamu
.

key

simple

pallemulu
..

<=

`Kq ~=

lavu

vela
.

lakka

39

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

vana

vanamu

"#

=#=

rain

forest

vajramu

vankaya

=[=

=OH

diamond

brinjal

vari

vasantamu

=i

vantakamu
.

=O`= =O@H=

paddy

spring

dish

sani

saramu


sasi

~=

saturn

arrow

moon

sakamu

sariramu

H=

s~=

era

body

satakamu

hundred verses

`H=
40

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
sasti
. ..

satkamu
. .

sixty

six folded

+@=

++

sanmukhudu
. .
.

+}Y_
six faced lord
satpadamu
. .

+_[=

saddakudu
.
. ..

+__ +@^=

hexagon

co-brother

insect

sadbhujamu
. .

sabha

sari

sagamu

Q=

court

equal

half

santa

samaramu

O`

=~=

market

war

sahajamu

samajamu

[= =[=

natural

society

41

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

hani

hamsa

harm

swan

harini
.

hasyamu

i}

deer

humour

halamu

haritamu

i`=

plough

green

kshama

H=

kshanamu
.

H}=

patience

moment

kshayamu

H=
decrease

bhikshagadu
.

H`=

aHQ_

wound

beggar

42

kshatamu

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

eruka
.

ceraku
.

ZH

knowledge

sugarcane

ceruvu
.

K=
pond
errarayi
..

marricettu
.. ..

=]K@

Z]~~

banyan tree

red stone

gorrepalu
..

Q]
ewe milk

gurramu
..

OH`

Q]=

torture

horse

rampapukota
.

43

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Kathina
Padamulu .

Hi# ^= - Difficult Words

indradhanussu

WO^^#

adhyayanamu

adhyakshudu
.

J^#=

J^_

study

president

agraganyudu
. .

anvesana
. .

JQQ}_

J<+}

topper

search

rainbow

arohanamu
.

Pk`_

P~}=

sun

ascent

- - asirvadamu

adhyatmikamu

Pj~^=

P^uH=

blessing

spirituality

ilavelupu

istaistamulu
.. ..

W"

W~+=

family god

likes and dislikes

indradhanussu

ihalokamu

WO^^#

WH=

rainbow

material world

44

- -

adityudu
.

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

-irsya

D~
jealousy

-isanyamu
-

D#=
northeast

Iswarudu

D~._

Lord Siva

-itakolanu

D~_

D` H#

Lord Siva

swimming pool

utkantha
.

utpatti

L`O~

L`u

suspense

production

udyanavanamu

udbhavincu

L^#=#=

L^qOK

park

araise

udarangu

urdhvalokamu

T^~OQ

T~H=

violet colour

upper world

45

-Iswarudu

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
-

.runagrastudu
.
.

.rusyasramamu
.

|}Q_

|==

debtor

hermitage

.rusabhadhvajudu
.
.

|+^A_

Lord Siva

endrakaya
.

ZO_H
crab

-.
egatali

ZxH

ZQ`o

elections

ridicule

edurkonu

endrakaya
.

Z^~#

ZO_H

face

crab

-elika

- ekantamu

UeH

UHO`=

ruler

solitary

- ekagrata

ekibhavincu

UHQ`

UHqOK

concentration

agree

--

46

ennikalu

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

aikyamu

aikamatyamu

SH=

SH=`=

union

unity

aiswaryamu

S~=
oddanamu
.. .

wealth

X_}=

waist ornament

ottu
..

oppandamu

X@

XO^=

vow

agreement

oppukolu

oddanamu
.. .

XCH

X_}=

willingness

waist ornament

orpu

-ojassu

F~

F[

patience

splendour

- -

ondrapettu
. ..

F_

FO_@

sport in water

bray

47

olaladu
.

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
aucityamu

Bz`=
suitability

outsukamu

B`H=
angulikamu
.

anxiety

JOQmH=
ring

angusthamu
..

angarakshakudu
.

JOQ+=

JOQ~H_

thumb

bodyguard

andhakaramu

JOQmH=

JO^H~=

ring

darkness

antahprakruti
. .

manahpurvakamu
.

JO`H$u

=#~H=

inner nature

whole-heartedness

usahkalamu
. .

L+H=
dawn

48

angulikamu
.

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

kayyamu

karkasamu

H=

H~=

quarrel

cruelity

kanuguddu
..

kathinamu
.

H#Q_

Hi#=

eye ball

hard

Ganeswarudu
.
.

Q}~_

Lord Ganapati
.

khayamu

Y_

M=

bad man

certain

khinnamu

mukhadvaramu

d#=

=Y^~=

grief

portal

garvamu

gardabhamu

Q~=

Q~=

pride

ass

guptanidhi

Ganeswarudu
.
.

Qxk

Q}~_

hidden treasure

Lord Ganapati
.

49

khaludu
.

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Caturmukhudu
.

ghranamu
.

ghoramu

}=

~=

smell

awful

ghrutamu
.

ghinkarincu

$`=

OHiOK

ghee

trumpet

K`~Y_

Lord Brahma

vanmayakarudu
.

"VH~_
litterateur

Caturmukhudu
.

carmakarudu
.

K`~Y_

K~H~_

Lord Brahma

cobler

curnamu
.

camatkaramu

K~=

K=`~=

powder

repartee

chinnabhinnamu

K^=

z<a#=

cutting

helter-skelter

50

chedamu

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

jirnamu
.

janmabhumi

r~=

[#q

digestion

native place

- jivanopadhi

- jivasastramu

r=<k

r=G=

livelihood

biology

- - ~
maharajni

=~l
queen

jhasaketanudu
.
.

jhanjhamarutamu

~+H`#_

~O~=~`=

cupid

stormy wind

pratijna

prajnudu
.

u[

A_

vow

learned man

-maharajni

manojnamu

=~l

=<[=

queen

delight

51

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

.tenkaya

takkari
.

>OH

@Hi

coconut

cunning

damarukamu
.

.tippusultan

.tippani.

\C<

\}

tippusultan

commentary

_=~H=
drum

kathinamu
.

~#=

Hi#=

read

hard

pratistha
..

- kagitamu
thavu
.

u+

~= Hy`=

reputation

sheet of paper

dokku
.

dolla
.

useless

hallow

damarukamu
.

-dolayamanamu
.

_=~H=

_=#=

drum

wavering

52

pathanamu
.

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

- -

gadhanidra
.

asadhamu
.

Q_x^

P_=

sound sleep

name of a month

nigudhamu
.

drudhatvamu
.

xQ_=

^$_`=

hidden

sturdiness

gadhanidra
.

Q_x^

sound sleep

rakshana
.

grahanamu
.

~H}

Q}=

defence

eclipse

kshanamu
.

"}[=

H}=

commerce

moment

tiraskaramu

tirthayatra

u~~=

f~`

rejection

pilgrimage

tappidamu

tatvamu

`^=

``=

mistake

philosophy

53

vanijyamu
.

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Tathagatudu
.

sithilamaina

Tathagatudu
.

tk"#

`^Q`_

dilapidated

Lord Buddha

-tarapathamu
-

yathatathamu

`~^=

^`^=

zodiac

as it is

`^Q`_

Lord Buddha

digbandhamu

^`$`=

kQO^=

generosity

beleaguering

dirghayuvu

duradrustamu
. ..

n~=

^~^$+=

long life

misfortune

dhanyamu

dharmasatramu

^#=

^~`=

grain

choultry

dhyanamu

dhvanyanukaranamu
.

^#=

^##H~}=

meditation

mimicry

54

datrutvamu
.

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4
-

nirodhincu

natyamu
.

x~kOK

<@=

obstruct

dance

namaskaramu

nirnayamu
.

#=~=

x~=

salutation

decision

natyamu
.

<@=
dance

pariskaramu
.

~=`

i~=

Supreme Spirit

settlement

parthasarathi

- pascattapamu

~~k

`=

Lord Krishna

repentance

phanisayi
.

- phalanetramu

}~

<`=

Lord Visnu
.

the eye on forehead

praphullamu

phalitamu

e`=

blossom

result

55

paramatma

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

buddhimantudu
.

bauddhamatamu

|k=O`_ ^=`=
wise person

buddhism

brahmanandamu

bahiskaramu
.

|#O^= |~=
ecstasy

matsyamu

expulsion

=` =
fish

bhallukamu

bhaskarudu
.

H=

~_

bear

Sun

- - -

bhagyavantudu
.

O_Q~=

Q=O`_

treasury

rich man

matsyamu

mastiskamu
.

=`=

=+=

fish

brain

mahendrudu
.

madhyahnamu

=O^_

=^=

Lord Indra

midday

56

bhandagaramu
.

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

yauvanamu

yogyata

=#=

Q`

youth

eligibility

yathakramamu

yajurvedamu

^H==

A~^-=-

rajagruhamu
.
one of the vedas ~[Q
$=

as usual

palace

radduceyu

~Q`

~^K

illness

cancel

radheyudu
.

- -

rajagruhamu
.

~^_

~[Q$=

Karna
.

palace

- lokokti

lakshyapettu
..

HH

H@

proverb

care

lakshmipati

vilakshanamu
.

H;u

qH}=

Lord Visnu
..

elegant feature

57

rugmata

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

sirassu

gollemu
..

kallemu
..

Q=

H=

bolt

rein

parimalamu
.

- kalaratri
.

i==

H~u

fragrance

nightmare

t~
head

vastavamu

vijrumbhincu
.

"==

q[$OaOK

truth

enrage

vajrayudhamu

"~H=

=*^=

old age

indras weapon

satruvu

sirassu

`=

t~

enemy

head

suddhamu

saradrutuvu
.

^=

~^$`=

purity

autumn

58

vardhakyamu

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

4.

puspamu

Visnuvu
..

+=

q+=

flower

Lord Visnu
..

puskalamu
.

puskarini
. .

+=

+i}

plenty

pond

puspamu
.

+=
flower

sangramamu

O=

OQ==

society

war

satkarincu

sankalpamu

`iOK

OH=

honour

determination

harsamu
.

hrdayamu
.

~=

$^=

joy

heart

himasailamu

hiranyamu
.

==

~}=

Himalayan
mountain

gold

59

sanghamu

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

kshetramu

kshiramu

H`=

H~=

field

milk

kshemamu

H==
safe

marricettu
.. ..

=]K@

banyan tree

verrivadu
.. .

|]g

"]"_

broad moustaches

mad man

tiyyani ceruku
.

karrasamu
..

ux K

H]=

sweet sugarcane

martial art with stick

erra
.. samudram

marricettu
.. ..

Z] =^O

=]K@

red sea

banyan tree

-.. jerri
kalla
..

jadala
. barre
..

H *]

[_ |]

centeped

yak

60

--

burramisalu
..

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

H=#= -Time Scale

udayamu

L^= :

k s h a n. a k a- l a m u
H}H= : second

morning

ardharatri

J~~u :

n i m u s. a m u

pagalu

x=+= : minute
g a n t.a
QO@ : hour

dinamu

Q :
k#= :

day time
day

"~= :

early morning
morning

m a d h y a- h n a m u
=^= : midday

< :

s a- y a m k a- l a m u

ayanamu

OH= :

nela

month

J#= :

evening

ratri

~u :

week

pakshamu
H= : fortnight

udayamu

L^= :

midnight

v -a r a m u

v e- k u v a j h -a m u

"=*= :

six month-period

samvatsaramu
O=`~= : year

night

p u s. k a r a m u

+~= :
61

12 year-period

Kalamanamu
-

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Yugamulu (4) - Q= (4)

- Eras (4)

- H$` Q= : 17 H 28 "

krtayugamu
.

17 lakhs 28 thousand year - period of time

--

- ``Q= : 12 H 96 "

tretayugamu

12 lakhs 96 thousand year - period of time

dwaparayugamu

- ^~Q= : 8 H 64 "

8 lakhs 64 thousand year - period of time


kaliyugamu

- HeQ= : 4 H 32 "

4 lakhs 32 thousand year - period of time

Rutuvulu
.

|`= (6) : Seasons (6)

varsarutuvu
.

=~ |`= : rainy season

saradrutuvu
.

vasantarutuvu
.

: spring

~^$`=

4=~ .|`. =

of winter

hemantarutuvu
.

grismarutuvu
. .

w+ |`=

: begining

: summer

=O` |`= : winter


.
sisirarutuvu

varsarutuvu

: rainy

season

tt~ |`=
62

: autumn

=O` |`=

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Names of the Telugu Years

= : p r a b h a v a
q= : v i b h a v a
H
: su k l a
"^` : p r a m o- d u- t a
*`u : prajotpatti
- POw~ : angirasa
N=Y : s r-i m u k h a
=
: b h a- v a
= : y u v a
^`
: d h a- t u
D~ : -i sw a r a
|^# : bahudhanya
=k : p r a m a- d i
qH= : v i k r a m a
=$+
: v .r s. a
z`# : citrabhanu
# : s w a b h a- n u
`~} : t a- r a n. a
i= : parthiva
= : v y a y a
~l` : sarvajittu

~^i : sarvadhari
q~k : virodhi
qH$u : vikrti
.
Y~
: khara
#O^# : n a n d a n a
q[ : vijaya
[
: jaya
=#^ : manmatha
^~d : d u r m u k h i
=Oa : hevalambi
.
qOa : vilambi
.
qHi : vikari
~i : sarvari
=
: plava

H$` : subhakrtu
.

H$` : sobhakrtu
.
Hk
: krodhi
q= : viswavasu
63

`Q O=`~= ~

~= : parabhava
=OQ : p l a v a n g a
HH
: kilaka
= : s a u m y a
^~} : s a- d h a- r a n. a
q~^H$` : virodhakrtu
.
- s^q : paridhavi
=nK : p r a m a- d-i c a
P#O^ : a- n a n d a
~H : r a- k s h a s a
#
: nala
OQ : pingala
.
HH : kalayukti
.
^i : siddharthi
~k
: raudri
^~u : durmati
^O^a : d u n d u b h i
- ~k~^i : rudhirodgari
~HH : raktakshi
H^# : k r o- d h a n a
JH : a k s h a y a

Telugu samvastaramula perlu -

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Pakshamulu: 2 -

H= : 2 - Fortnights: 2

Suklapakshamu:
H H=: (from 1st day to fullmoon day)

Suklapaksha
Tithulu: 15 - HH u^: 15

suddha
padyami
.

^ _q

suddha
astami
..

: 1st

^ J+q

day after
full moonday

^ #=q
: 2nd

^ ^q
: 3rd

suddha

day

suddha
caviti

^ Kqu

suddha

day

suddha
pancami

^ OKq
: 5th

suddha
.sasthi
..
^ ++
: 6th
: 7th

day

suddha

day

: 10th

day

: 11th

day

: 12th

day

: 13th

day

-
dwadasi

^ ^^t

-
trayodasi

^ ` ^t
day

suddha
caturdasi

day

^ K`~t
p a u r n. a m i
~q

suddha
saptami

4^ q

-ekadasi
-

^ UH^t
: 4th

: 9th

suddha
dasami

day

suddha
tadiya

^ `k

day

suddha
navami

suddha
vidiya

^ qk

: 8th

: 14th

: fullmoon
day

64

day

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

H$+H=: (from 1st day to newmoon


Krishnapaksha
Tithulu: 15 - H$+H u^ : 15
.. .

Krishnapakshamu

bahula
. padyami
.

day)

bahula
. astami
..

| J+q : 8th day


bahula
. navami
| #=q : 9th day

bahula
. dasami
| ^q : 10th day
-
bahula
. -ekadasi
| UH^t : 11th day
bahula
. dwadasi
| ^^t : 12th day
-
bahula
. trayodasi
| ` ^t : 13th day
bahula
. caturdasi
| K` ~t : 14th day

| _q : 1st

day after
newmoon day

bahula
. vidiya

| qk : 2nd day
bahula
. tadiya
| `k : 3rd day
bahula
. caviti
| Kqu
: 4th day
bahula
. pancami
| OKq : 5th day
bahula
. .sasthi
..
| ++
: 6th day
bahula
. saptami
| q : 7th day

a m a- v a- s y a

J="

: newmoon
day

65

4 .. .

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Telugu Nelalu

English Nelalu

`Q <

WOw+ <
English Months

Telugu Months

K`=

janavari

caitramu

[#=i
:

vaisakhamu

*+=

jyestamu

=i

P_=

: - asadhamu
. .
: sravanamu
.

=}=
^^=

"Y=

: january

phibravari

|=i

: february

m a- r c i

..

: march

epril

: april

may

"

bhadrapadamu

: may

june

J[= : a- sw a y u j a m u

E<

: june

july

- : kartikamu

=~t~=

-
: margasiramu

+=

==

: maghamu

}=

E
a g a s..t u
PQ+
s e p t.e m b a r u
O|~
octobaru
.
JH|~

pusyamu
.

: july
: august
: september
: october

navambaru

phalgunamu
.

#=O|~

: november

disembaru

_O|~
66

: december

HsH=

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

- Rasulu
Signs of Zodiac

4 "~= -

~ -

Varamulu Week Days

12
11

10

4
5

1 . m e- s. a m u
2.

a d i v a- r a m u

4.

monday

gemini
cancer
leo

virgo

libra

scorpio

sagittarius

capricorn

-O=

aquarius

g#=

pisces

7 . tula

wednesday
8.

`
vrscikamu
.
=$tH=

9 . dhanussu

thursday

^#
10. makaramu

=H~=

friday

11. kumbhamu

sa n i v -a r a m u

4x"~=

taurus

H#

su k r a v a r a m u

H"~=

aries

6. kanya

tuesday

g u r u v a- r a m u

Q~"~=

q^#=
:
k a r k a.t a k a m u
H~@H= :
O=

b u d h a v -a r a m u

|^"~=

"+=
:
v..
rsabhamu
=$+=
:

5. simhamu

m a n g a l a v a- r a m u

.
=OQ"~=

3 . mithunamu

sunday

s o m a v a- r a m u

="~=

12. minamu

saturday

67

Pk"~=

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

- Dikkulu

8 k - 8 Directions
`~

PQ=

D#=

L`~

^H}=
"==

<~u
_=~

`~
p a d. a m a r a
_=~

PQ=

east

southeast

southwest

northwest

northeast

nairuti

west

<~u
v a- y a v y a m u

uttaramu

north

"==
- isanyamu

south

D#=

Rangulu nalupu

~OQ - Colours
-

cilakakupacca

: black

zHK
b u- d. i d a
|_^

telupu

: white

gulabi

erupu

Z~

: red
: yellow

Qa
k a- s. a y a m
HO

: blue

T^

: green

<iO[

pasupu

u- d -a

nilamu

h=
akupacca

PK

narinja

68

: parrot

green

: ash
: pink
: saffron
: violet

L`~=
:
d a k s h i n. a m u
^H}=
:

agneyamu

turpu

: orange

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Nakshatramulu 27-

#H`= 27

- Lunar Stars 27

a sw a n i

Jx

makha

=Y

mula

b h a .r a n i

~}

pubba

p u r v a .s a d. h a -

krittika
.

H$uH

uttara

L`~

rohini
.

~}

hasta

mrgasira
.

=$Qt~

citta

P~^

swati

punarvasu -

#~

v i sa k h a

p u s. y a m i

+q

P+

arudra

a- sl -e .s a

- - -

~_

uttarasadha
.

- -

L`~_

sr a v a n a m

=}O

z`

dhanistha
..

^x+

sa t a b h i.s a m u -

`a+=

qY

p u- r v -a b h -a d r a -

~^

anuradha -

J#~^

uttarabhadra
-

L`~^

jyestha
..

*+

revati

~=u

--

69

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

H_
:
Ju
:
~^A_ :

k a sy a p u d. u

qq`_ :
atri
Q`=_ :
b h a r a d w a- j u d. u
[=^y
:
. .
=+_
: vasisthudu

Navagrahamulu -

S u- r y u d. u
C a n d r u d. u

A n g a- r a k u d. u
B u d h u d. u
Brhaspati
.

Sukrudu

|
+ - The seven .rusis
.

Sa n a i sc a r u d. u
R a- h u v u
K e- t u v u

viswamitrudu
.

g a u t a m u d. u
j a m a d. a g n i

#=Q =: Names of 9 planets

~_
KO^_
JOQ~_
|^_
|$u
_
<~_
~=
H`=
70

Sun
Moon
Mars
Mercury
Jupiter
Venus
Saturn
Dragons head
Dragons tail

Saptarusulu
. . -

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Navaratnamulu

- #=~`= - The nine gems

vajramu

v a i d. -u r y a m u

g o- m e- d h i k a m u

p u s. y a r -a g a m u

marakatamu

m a-n. i k y a m u

nilamu

p a g a d. a m u

mutyamu

Navadhanyamulu

=[=
"_ ~=
Q"kH=
+~Q=
=~H`=
=}H=
h=
Q_=
=`=

diamond

cats eye

zirconium
topaz
emerald
ruby
sapphire
coral
pearl

- #=^#= - The nine varieties of grains

godhumalu
- Q^ = - wheat
=_ - paddy
anumulu - J#= - rajmagram
ulavalu - L= - horsegram
kandulu - H O ^ - redgram
pesalu - - greengram

- # Q - bengalgram
minumulu - q#= - blackgram sanagalu
nuvvulu - #= - gingili

vadlu
. -

71

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

- Manobhavamulu
-

=<== - Faculties of the mind

a- n a n d a m u

P#O^=
d u h. k h a m u
^Y=
a s -u y a

J
d v e s. a m u
^+=
a n u m -a n a m u

J#=#=
k o- p a m u

H=
a- sa

maunamu

: pleasure

=#=
e- v a g i m p u

: sorrow

U=yO

: silence
: vexation

asahyamu

: jealousy

J=
ahamkaramu

: hatred

JOH~=
polika

: suspicion

eH
sphurti

: anger

i
u t s -a h a m u

: ambition

L`=

daya

: kindness
72

: unbearable
: ego
: comparison
: inspiration
: spirit

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

s~=== - Parts of the body

sariramu

s~=

n a d. u m u

body

head

face

#_=
b o d. d. u
_
g u n .d e
QO_

tala

`
mukhamu

=Y=

eye

nose

mouth

n o- r u

<~
m e d. a

"_

4<H

heart

hand

stomach

thigh

back

leg

foot

finger

nail

ear

k a- l u

neck

throat

v e- l u

chest

"
g o- r u

tongue

Q~

p a- d a m u

^=

rommu

~=

gontu

QO`

navel point

vipu

cevi

Kq

K~
k a d. u p u
H_
t o d. a
`_

mukku

waist

ceyyi

kannu

H#

n a- l u k a

73

--

Sariravayavamulu
-

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

|O^ `= - Relationships

amma

vadina

J=
-

: mother

<#

: father

=k#
- todikodalu
. .
`_H_
k o d. u k u
H-_
k o d. a l u
H_

nanna
ammamma

J==
-

: grand

mother

``-

: grand

father

"-#==

: meternal

"-#`-

: aunt

: uncle

tata

m e n a m a- m a

=ik

=#=_ manumaralu
=#=~
m e- n a k o- d.a l u
"#H_
.s a d. d. a k u d. u
+__
m e- n a l l u d. u
"#_ -

: aunt

(mothers
younger sister)

: uncle

(fathers
elder brother)

peddamma

^=

: aunt

(mothers
elder sister)

q~

JH-

: elder

: brother-in-law

sister

bava

viyyankudu
.

qO_

anna

J#

: son
: daughter-in-law
: brother-in-law
: sister-in-law
: grandson
: grand

daughter

: niece
: co-brother
: nephew

viyyapuralu

akka

=~^
m a n u m a d. u

pinni

^<#

: co-sister

maradalu
(fathers sister)

babayi

p e d d a n -a n n a

: sister-in-law

maridi
uncle

menatta

: brother
74

: sons

or daughters
mother-in-law

: sons

or
daughters
father-in-law

Bandhutvamulu -

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Vruttulu
.

b o- y a

raitu

~`

: farmer

kummari

=i

: potter

H=i

: black

- kulivadu

.
e"_
gollavadu
.
Q"_
- s a l e v a d. u
"_

: hired

vadrangi
.
=_Oy

: carpenter

smith

HOe

: goldsmith

v a i d y u d. u

worker

: milkman

"^_
-pujari

: doctor

*i

: priest

naukaru

ganugavadu

: weaver

<H~

Q#Q"_

: oilpresser

Hi_

: barber

KHe

k a- r m i k u d u

cakali

mangali

: servant
: labourer

: washerman
rangulu
.
~OQ ""_ : painter

: accountant

- - vesevadu

: hunter

k a m s a- l i

kammari

=OQe
k a r a .n a m u
H~}=

=$`
- Professions

75

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

b e n d. a k -a y a

aratikaya
.

J~\H
: plantain
b a n g a.l a d u m p a
|OQ^O
: potato

O_H
d o n d. a k -a y a
^O_H

P ~
ulligadda
..
LeQ_

=OH
-.t o m a .t o
\=\

aku kuralu

kakarakaya

HH~H
g u m m a d. i k a y a
Q=_H
potlakaya
.
@H
gorucikkudu
.
Q~z_
cikkudukaya
.
z_H

4^H

d o- s a k -a y a

~Q - Vegetables

v a n k -a y a

: greens
: onion

: ladys

finger

: gherkins
: brinjal

c a- m a g a d d a

: tomato

..

: bitter

K=Q_

gourd

m u n a g a k -a y a

: pumpkin

=#QH

: colocacia
: drumstrick

mullangi

: snake
: local

gourd

=Oy

: radish

k a n d a g a d. d. a
beans

HO^Q_

- birakaya

: elephant foot (yam)

: beans

c~H

: ridge

gourd

: cucumber

P#H

: bottle

gourd

a- n a p a k a- y a

76

Kuragayalu
-

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

d a- n i m m a

arati.

J~\
d r a- k s h a

^H
m a- m i d. i

=q_
j -a m a

*=

-neredu

.
<~_
s a p o- t.a\

: banana

^x=

: grapes

"Q

: mango

Y~~=

kharjuramu

~
p u c c a k -a y a

4KH

: wood

apple

: date

panasa

: guava

: cherry

~yO_

: sapota

J<

-sitaphalamu

: pineapple

: orange

`=

: custard

: papaya

r e- g i p a n d u

: water

: jackfruit

a n a- s a

apil

melon

: pear

apple

: apple

b o p p a- y i

: pomegranate

velaga

kamala

H=

Pandlu
. - O_ - Fruits

77

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

- - - Flowers
Pulu

Vrukshamulu
- =$H=
- Trees
.

m a l l e p-u v u

~qK@

- badamcettu

^OK@
kanugacettu

..

H#QK@
marricettu
.. ..
=]K@
vepacettu
..
"K@
cintacettu
..
zO`K@
t u m m a c e ..
ttu
`=K@
araticettu
. ..
J~\K@
jamacettu
..
*=K@
mamidicettu
. ..
=q_K@
- - ..
asokacettu
JHK@

: fig

tree

==
t -a m a r a p-u v u

: almond
: Indian

tree

`=~=
k a l u v a p -u v u

bunch tree

: banyan

H==
c a- m a n t i

tree

K=Ou
: neem

gulabi

tree

Qa
: tamarind

bantipulu

tree

|Ou
: babool

m o g a l i p -u v u

tree

"Qe=
: banana
: guava

tree

: jasmine
: lotus
: water

lily

: chrysanthemum
: rose
: marigold
: pandarus

davanam

^=#O

tree

: motherwort

maruvam

: mango
: asoka

=~=O

tree

: cowhage

ravicettu
..

tree
78

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

Pakshulu -

- Birds

Jantuvulu - [O`= - Animals

kukka

H
nakka

pavuramu

#H
: pigeon

pilli

k a- k i

HH
koyila

H~

: owl

: crow
bird

: sparrow

gradda

Q^

: eagle

b a- t u

4O
`

Q^

: buffalo

"H
g o ..
rre
Q]
g a- d. i d a
Q_^

: goat

U#Q

: elephant

: sheep
: donkey

puli

: bat

nemali

<=e

: cow

e- n u g u

gabbilamu

Qa=

P=

m e- k a

piccuka

KH

: cat

g e- d e

: crane

: cuckoo

a- v u

konga

HOQ

: fox

: tiger

simhamu

: peacock

O=

: lion

Hu

: monkey

koti

: duck

hamsa

jinka

: swan

lOH
79

: deer

=~=
g u d. l a g -u b a
Q_Q|

: dog

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

=O@ WO\ =# Household Material4

cemca--

K O K - spoon
pogagottamu
.. - Q Q @ = - chimney
cipuru - p ~ - broom
pallemu
.. - = - plate
kulayi
. - ~ - tap
- - ~H e - pounder
rokali
- - * - flagon
kuja- - karra - s H] - rolling pin
purila
..
kavvamu - H = = - churner
balla - | - table
cettabutta
.. - K`|@ - dustbin

~ - hearth
garita. - Q i @ - ladle
jalleda. - [_ - sieve
- - @ H~ - tongs
patakaru
.
turumu - `~= - grate
mukudu
. - =_ - bowl
- - ` - vessel
patra
aggipette
.. - Jy > - match box
- - ~ - mortar
rolu
-- = KOK - fork
mullacemca
..
- - *_ - jar
jadi
.
poyyi -

Lohamulu -

b a n g a r a m u |OQ~=
v e n d. i

ittadi
.
r a- g i

"O_
W`_
~y

:
:
:
:

= - Metals

gold

ukku

silver

inumu

brass

tagaramu

copper

sisamu

80

L
W#=
`Q~=
=

:
:
:
:

steel
iron
tin

- Vanta
. Inti. samanulu -

lead

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

H~} =# - Provisions

miriyalu

pasupu

: turmeric

q~H

: chilli

m i r a p a k -a y a

qi
cintapandu
.
zO`O_

: coriander

LC
H~=

-jlakarra

: mustard

rH~

: cummin

a- v a- l u

P"

g a s a g a s a- l u

QQ

k a- r a m u

: poppy

seeds

p a n c a d a- r a

OK^~

plant seeds

lavangalu

=OQ
elakulu

: salt
: mirchi

powder

: jaggery
: sugar

kandipappu

HOkC

: assafoetida

: redgram

minapapappu

mentulu

"O`

: tamarind

bellam

inguva

WOQ=

: pepper

uppu

dhaniyalu

^x

q#C

: fenugreek

: blackgram

sa n a g a p a p p u

#QC

: cloves

pesarapappu

~C

: cardomum
81

: bengalgram

- - -Samanulu
Kirana
.

: greengram

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

P~}= Ornaments

talabilla
..

ungaramu

LOQ~=
:
k a n k a n. a m u
HOH}=
:

`a

headlocket

medal

earstuds

brooch

Kq^^
kiritamu
.
Hs@=

crown

nose-ring

=OH

armlet

necklace

anklets

ring

patakamu

`H=

bracelet

ceviduddu

golusu

Q
:
pamita. pinnu
q@ # :

chain

vanki

mukkera

=H~

h a- r a m u

cevikammalu

KqH=

tops

hair clip

~=
pattilu
..
\

pinnu

#
pakkapinnu

H #

m u k k u p u d. a k a

gajulu

QA

4#Q

side pin

bangle

jewelry

=_H :
-lolakulu

:
o d. d. a n. a m u
X_}=
:

nagalu

82

nosestud
hangings

Abharanamulu
.

waist ornament

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

- Inti
. Bhagalu -

4 H` -

Kolatalu Measures

WO\ Q Parts of the House

talupulu

v e d. a l p u

: width

: length

" ^~=
kitikilu
.
H\H

-
pravesa

ettu

Z`
potti
..
\

: height

Qk

varanda

: short

=~O_
: big

J~
g a d. a p a
Q_

: small

baruvu

|~=
g u n d. r a m u
QO_=

- almara

cinna

z#

: entrance
: windows

gadi

pedda

: doors

dvaramu

: room
: verandah
: almirah
: threshold

paikappu

: heavy

HC
g a v -a k s h a m u

Q"H=
mettlu
..
"@

: round

4
83

: roof
: ventilator
: steps

"_
p o d. a v u
_=

facebook / MOHAN PUBLICATIONS

telugu talli

ma telugu talliki malle pudanda


.
ma kanna talliki mangalaratulu
.
84

Transliteration Scheme of Telugu Alphabet


Vowels (: Acculu)

.ru

.lu

.lu

ru
.

ai

u
e

o
o
au
am
.
Consonants (: Hallulu)

ah.

kh

ch

jh

d.

dh
.

dh

gh

t.

th
.

th

ph

bh

s.

n.

l.

* Not in common use.

ksh

*
r.

www.mohanpublications.com

4 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

-.
munduga- oka mata

A word in advance

- - '
- - - mudava
'srenilo
i vakyanirmanam
ma- balasikshasamagri
pustakam.
.
.
.

Vakyanirmanam
(sentence and its structure or sentence-building in Telugu) is the
.
third book in the Telugu Learning Kit series being brought out by C. P. Brown Academy.
- - dwara
- - telugu aksharamala
- paricayamaindi. dinito
modati. pustakam varnamala
unna
.
abhyasa pustakam valana aksharalu nercukovadam,
pratilekhanam anaga translitaresan
. .
.
- - palike- vidhananni
- dwara
telusukovadam
jarigindi.
.

- You
Telugu alphabet was introduced to the learners through the first book varnamala.
.
have learnt how to write the Telugu characters and to pronounce them by means of
transliteration.
- - rakarakala
- padalu
- telikainavi,
'
rendava
pustakam sabdamalalo
kastamainavi
akshara
..
.
kramamlo ivvadam
. jarigindi.

- presented different easy and hard words in an alphaThe second module,'sabdamala,


betical order.
- - ipudu
vakyam
rayatam
gurinci teliyacestundi.
. mi cetilo unna vakyanirmanam
.
.

Now the book in your hands, vakyanirmanam,


helps you understand how to form
.
a sentence.
www.mohanpublications.com
5 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- kalipite- padalu
- ituvanti padala
- avutayi.
- kalayikatomanam nercukunna
aksharalu
.
.
vakyam
rupondincavaccu.

If the letters (characters) of the alphabet you have learnt are arranged in an order
forming a unit of grammar, they are called words. A group of words arranged in a
particular order which makes sense and gives a clear meaning is called a sentence.
- vakyalu
- - amarikato- cinnavi,
padala
peddavi, sulabhamainavi, kastamainavirakarakala
..
- ivi miru
- baga
- - nercukovadaniki,
- - istunnam.
telugu padalu
cakkaga- matladadaniki
.
. . .
upayogapadavaccu.
.

These sentences may be short or long, easy and difficult. Such sentences are used to
express a statement, a question, a command or some sudden feeling. They help you to
speak Telugu fluently and to write it well.

www.mohanpublications.com
6 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- . 1 Lesson 1
patham
- ippudu
- kada!
- telusukunnam
intaku mundu manam telugu aksharalu,
padalu
.
vakyam
gurinci telusukundam.

- (alphabet) and words (sabdamala).


'
We have already learnt about Telugu aksharamala
Let us now learn about Telugu vakyanirmanam
(sentence formation).
.
- arthanni
- purti
icce- pada samudayanni
vakyam
(sentence) antaru.
.
sentence)
A group of words which makes complete sense and gives a clear meaning is called a
sentence.
atadu
. ramudu.
.

idi caduvu.

He is Ramudu.
.

Read this.

-' - bhojanam
cesava?

- - idi nijama?
emiti!
.

Did (you) have your meal?

What! Is it true?

- - nalugu
manam cadivina nalugu
vakyalu
rakalu.

Those are four different kinds of sentences.

- - gurinci ippudu telusukundama?


a- nalugu
rakala
.

Let us now study those four kinds of sentences.


ramudu
.
. vaccadu

sita navvindi

Ramudu
. came.

Sita smiled.

www.mohanpublications.com

7 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- edcindi.
papa
.

lalita pilicindi.

Baby cried.

Lalita called.

- - manaku kaccitamga- telusu. anduke- avi niscayarthaka


'
paina ceppina visayalu
vakyalu
.
antaru.
.

We know for certain what is said in the foregoing sentences. That is why we call them
- - (declarative or assertive sentences.)
'
niscayardhaka
vakyalu
- - ivi rendu
. padalu matrame upayogincina cinna vakyalau. inkoncem pedda vakyalu
- raddam.


These are short sentences comprising two words. Let us now expand these
sentences a little.
ramudu
. badiki
. vaccadu.
.

sita andamga- navvindi.

- biggaraga- edcindi.
papa
.

lalita pelliki
. . pilicindi.

Ramudu
. came to school.

The baby cried loudly.

Sita smiled pleasantly.

Lalita invited us to the wedding.

- teliyani vatini
- gurinci ila- kaccitamga- cebutam.
telisina visayala
. adigi
.
.
. telusukuntam.

When we are sure of something, we are assertive.When we want to know something,


we ask others.
adigi
telusukundam.
.


Let us ask to know
-' - homework cesava?

lata vaccinda?

Have you finished your home-work?

Has Lata come?


www.mohanpublications.com

8 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - pusinda?
gulabi

pani purtainda?

Has the rose blossomed?

Is the work over?

- - antaru.
- kada!
- teliyalante
' vitini
prasnarthaka
vakyalu
edaina
.
.
. itarulanu adagali
.
'
prasnincatam
. ante
. adagadam.
.
.

- - (interrogative sentences). We need to ask others


' They are called prasnarthaka
vakyalu
about what we do not know. To question is to ask.
- - - ive- vakyalanu
koncem peddavi cesi
cuddama?

Let us expand these sentences a little:


- - pusinda?
erra gulabi

- nundi vaccinda?
lata skul
.

Has the red rose blossomed?

Has Lata returned from school?


www.mohanpublications.com

9 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

-' - ninnati
. homework cesava?

- ceppina pani purtainda?


nenu

Have you done your yesterdays homework?

(Have you) finished the work I gave you?

- - '
- prasnalaku
- vidhanam
telusukovalsina
visayanni
batti
untundi.
samanyamga
.. adige
.
.
.
- evaru, ekkada, enduku, eppudu, emiti,
- padalu
upayogince
.
. enta, enni (hu, ver, vai,
.
- hau, haumeny). vitini
- ven, vat,
. ela upayogincalo telusukundam.


The mode of asking depends upon the nature of matter we like to know. Words
such as who, whose, whom, where, why, when, and how are interrogative pronouns.
Let us know how to use them.
atanu evaru?

nannu enduku pilicavu?

-' i bomma ela- vesavu?

- -sita eluru eppudu


. veltundi?
.

Who is he?

How did you draw this picture?


a- pustakam vela enta?

What is the price of that book?

ippudu
. taimenta?
.

Why did you call me?

-When will Sita go to Eluru?


mamayya
vijayavada
. nunci eppudu
.
vastadu?
.

When will maternal uncle come from


Vijayawada?
.
meri ekkada
. undi?

What is the time now?


stesanku
enni gantalaku
vellali?
..
. .
.

Where is Mary?
- niku enni mamidipandlu
.
. kavali?

At what time should we go to the station?

How many mangoes do you want?

www.mohanpublications.com
10 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

-- -

- -

'
oka visayam
adesapurvakamga
ceppalante. ila.....
.


When we command others .

idi caduvu.

- ti. tisukura.

Read this.

akkadiki
..
. vellu.

Bring tea.
ramuki
ivvu

Go there.

Give this to Ramu.

- - ~- - pai vakyalanu
ajnapurvaka
vakyalu
antamu.
.

- ~- - - (Imperative sentences).
The above sentences are called ajnapurvaka
vakyalu
- - vitini
koncem pedda vakyalu
ceddam.
.

Let us expand these sentences a little:


idi sayantram
caduvu!

- ti
. ippude
. tisukura!

- akkadiki vellu!
repu
..
.

i pustakam ramuki
ivvu

Read this in the evening.

Go there tomorrow.

Bring tea immediately.

Give this book to Ramu.

- -

'
a ! ascaryam!

Oh! marvelous

a! idi nijama?

- padipoyada!
- - ayyo!
.
.

Is it true?

Alas! has he fallen!


www.mohanpublications.com

11 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - tajmahal
aha!
enta bagundi!

- bomma bagundi!
'sabhas!
.

- Mahal is!
Ah! How beautiful the Taj
The picture is nice, well done!
- -'
- - antamu.
pai vakyalanu
ascaryarthaka
vakyalu
.

- - (Exclamatory sentences).
'
The above sentences are called -ascaryarthaka
vakyalu
- ascaryam
- miku
-'
- tivramaina
- eppudaina
antuleni
kaligite- ila- antaru.
andolana
kaligina.
.
.
inte!

To express some strong emotions such as fear, surprise, agony or distress, we say
like this:
- - - -i gudi enta prasantamga
- undi!
'aha!
a! miru ceppindi nijama!
.

Ah! How serene is the ambience of this temple!


-' - -i bomma baga
- - vesavu!
- - - 'sabhas!
- raju
- metla mida
ayyo!
nunci padipoyada!
.
.
.
.
O! Is what you said true?

- fallen from the stairs? What a


Has Raju
pity!

Well done! You have drawn this picture


nicely.
www.mohanpublications.com

12 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - rayavaccu.
- - kuda
inka- pedda vakyalu
.

We can write still longer sentences.


- - - - unte- miku
- matladutu
ala rayadam
telustundi.
. .
.
.


You will know how to write them as you talk.
-ala- teliyalante
. emito
. mundu vakyam ante
. teliyali.

For you to be able to write, you need to know what a sentence is.
adi ippudu
. manam telusukundam.

Let us know it now.

www.mohanpublications.com
13 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- . 2 Lesson 2
patham
- amsalu
- - untam.
- avi karta, karma, kriya
' - manam custu
- mudu
sahajamga- vakyamlo
.
.

Three components are required to write a sentence in Telugu. They are: subject,
object and verb in that order.
manam oka vakyam
rasinappudu
. oka vyakti gurinco, vastuvu gurinco cebutam.
- - ante
. vakyaniki kendram a vyakti leka vastuvu avutundi. ade karta.

When we speak a sentence, we say something about a person or thing. So, the person
or thing mentioned is called the subject. It means the subject is the central point of
the sentence, and the meaning revolves round the subject.
- karma.
karta nirvahince- karyam
kriya avutundi. kriya yokka phalitam anubhavincedi

Job done by karta (subject) is kriya (verb). Result of kriya is received by karma
(object).
udaharanalu
: examples:
.
- ramudu
i vakyamlo- ramudu
. kukkanu kottenu.
..
. karta.

Ramudu
. beat the dog. In this sentence, Ramudu
. is karta.
-' ramudu
. . . anaga kottuta
. . . kriya.
. emi cesadu?
. kottadu.

What Ramudu
. did? He beat. That is beat is kriya.
denini
kottadu?
. . . kukkanu. kriyaphalitam anubhavincindi kukka kanuka, kukka karma.

Whom he beat? Dog. Dog has received the result of kriya. Hence dog is karma.
www.mohanpublications.com
14 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- antaru.
nauns miku telusu. naunsnu telugulo- namavacakalu
.

You know the nouns. In Telugu nouns are called Namavacakalu.


- ~ - namavacakamulu
- namavacakamulu
avi sanjna
(proper nouns), jati
(common
nouns), samuha namavacakamulu (collective nouns), guna
. namavacakamulu (abstract
nouns) antaru.
.

~- namavacakamulu
Those nouns in the Telugu language are called sanjna
(Proper nouns),
jati namavacakamulu (common nouns), samuha namavacakamulu (collective nouns)
and guna
. namavacakamulu (abstract nouns).
raju caduvutunnadu.
.

lalita padutunnadi
.

- is reading.
Raju

Lalita is singing.

dhilli
mana rajadhani.
.

-'
bharatadesam
mana matrubhumi.

- (India) is our motherland.


Bharat
- - - raju,
-'
- lalita vyaktula perlu.
- bharatadesam
pai vakyalalo
dhilli
oka pattanam
peru.
.
.. .
-'
- perlanu
- - padalanu
~ - namavacakalu
- antaru.
oka desam
peru.
teliyacese
samjna
.
Delhi is our capital.

- and Lalita in the above sentences are the names of persons. Delhi
Words like Raju
- is the name of a country. All such names are called
is the name of a city, and Bharat
- (proper nouns)
~ - namavacakalu
sanjna
amma uyala
uputunnadi.

Mother is rocking the cradle.


- 'vidyarthi
pathasalaku
veltunnadu.
.
.
.

The student is going to school.


www.mohanpublications.com
15 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - andamaina totalu
a- urilo
. unnavi.

There are beautiful gardens in that village.


- namavacakalu
- (Common nouns). amma, vidyarthi,
- ' - uru,
ivi jati
pathasala,
tota,
.
.
- oka jatiki
i padalanni okko rakamaina jatini
sucistunnayi.
sambandhincinavi kanuka
- namavacakalu.
ivi jati

The words mother, student, school, village, garden, in the above sentences are
common to every person or thing of the same class or kind. So, they are called
Common nouns.
ramudu
.
. gorrela mandanu tolukuveltunnadu.
.

Ramudu
. is tending his flock.
pakshula gumpu sayantraniki
gutiki
. cerutundi.

Swarms of birds return to their nests by evening.


- ceruvu gattuna valindi.
kongala baru
..

A row of cranes alighted on the shores of the lake.


- - vinapadadu.
- emi
i jana samuhamlo
.

Nothing is audible in this milling crowd.


- - - manda, gumpu, baru,
- namavacakalu.
- janasamuham
- samuha
pai vakyalaloni
anevi
- - - pakshula samuhanni
- gorrela samuhanni
manda antaru.
alage
gumpu antaru.
.
.
- ani, manusulanu janasamuhamani
kongalni baru
antaru.
.
.

Words like flock, swarms, row (group), in the above sentences are called
Collective nouns. So a Collective noun denotes a number of similar things taken
together and regarded as one whole: A flock of sheep; a swarm or group of birds; a
row of cranes and groups of people, etc.

www.mohanpublications.com
16 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

manisiki
. santosam
. mukhyam.

- - untundi.
- vediga
- gali
vesavilo
.
.

Happiness is essential for man.

The air in summer is hot.

- mana 'satruvu.
mana kopame

- nadi tiramlo callaga- untundi.


.

Our anger is our enemy.

It is cool near rivers.

- - - santosam,
- ane- padalu,
pai vakyalalo
kopam,
vedi
gunanni,
bhavananu
.
.
.
- sucince
- bhavanaku
teliyacestunnavi.
i padalu
rupam
ledu.
ituvanti
vatini
telipe- perlu
.
.
.
guna
.
. namavacakalu antaru.


In the above sentences, the words happiness, anger hot, do not have a definite
shape. Such nouns denote some quality, state, or action. They are called guna
.
namavacakalu or bhava namavacakalu (Abstract nouns).

www.mohanpublications.com
17 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- . 3 Lesson 3
patham
- - vaccindi. rani
- snehituralu.
- maku
- raniki
rani
. ti. iccanu.
.
.

- came. Rani
- is our friend. I gave tea to Rani.
Rani
.
.
.

- - caduvutadu.
- baga
raju
. rajuku eppudu
. manci markulu vastayi.

- studies well. Raju


- always gets good marks.
Raju

- kada!
- anadam bavundaledu
- perlu
- rendumudusarlu
ila- rani....raju
.
.
.
.
.

- does not look nice.


- and Raju
So, the repetition of the words Rani
.
- ala- namavacakanni
tirigi tirigi anakunda
.
. namavacakaniki baduluga
. undalante
- - - - sarvanamanni
- sarvanamanni
vadali.
inglisulo
pronaun antam.
.
.
.

To avoid repetition of nouns we use pronouns. A pronoun (meaning for a noun) is


a word used instead of a noun. The pronoun is called sarvanamam
in the Telugu
language.
udaharanalu
: examples:
.
- - - atadu,
. itadu,
. ame. ime, adi, idi, sarvanamalu. indakati
. vakyalu ippudu
. cudandi.
. .

The words I, we, you, he, she, it, they, this, that, are pronouns.
- - vaccindi, ame
- ma- akkaku snehituralu.
rani
ameku
ti. iccanu.
.

- came. She is the friend of my elder sister. I gave her tea.


Rani
.
- - caduvutadu.
- baga
- vadiki
raju
. eppudu
.
. manci markulu vastayi.

- studies well. He always scores good marks.


Raju

www.mohanpublications.com
18 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - - i kinda iccina vakyalalo sarvanamalu


gurthincandi.
.

Point out the pronouns in the following sentences:


- - bommalu vestundi.
rama baga
ameku
bahumati vaccindi.

Rama draws pictures nicely. She got a prize.


- nadavalekapotunnanu.
na- kaliki
debba tagilindi, nenu
.


My leg is hurt. I am unable to walk.
- tagindi.
pilli palu
amma danini
kottindi.
..

The cat drank the milk. Mummy hit it.


- - - ninnu andaru- istapadataru.
nuvvu cakkaga- matladatavu,
..
. .
.


You speak agreeably. Everybody likes you.
javabulu
Answers
-ame
nenu
danini

ninnu

I
it
You
She
www.mohanpublications.com
19 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- . 4 Lesson 4
patham
- - untam.
- - vidhaluga
- - vadutu
- gamanince- untaru
sarvanamalanu
mudu
. pathamlo
.
.
. idi miru kindati
.
.

You must have observed that in the previous lesson we made use of pronouns in three
ways.
- vivaranga- cuddam!
- marala- okasari

Let us look at them in detail.


mana gurinci manam ceppinappudu
.
. nenu, memu, nayokka, naku antamu.

The words used about oneself: I, we, me, my, mine.


- - gurinchi ceppinappudu nuvvu, miru,
edutivari
miyokka, miku upayogistamu.
.
.

The words used to address those who are in front of us or spoken to: thou,
you, thee, thy, thine, your, yours.
ekkado
. ame, adi, atanini, ameku, daniki,
. unnavari gurinci ceppinappudu
. atadu,
- - upayogistamu.
amenu,
varini,variyokka
ane- padalu

The words used about the person or thing spoken of: he, his, himself, she,
herself, it, itself, they, them, theirs.

- - madirigane
- - telugulo- kuda
- - vitini
inglishu
.
.
. bhasalo
. ila vargikarincaru :

As in the English language, in Telugu also they are classified in the following ways:
tanagurinci uttama purusa
. nenu, naku, nayokka anu matalu.
.


Uttama Purusa
. (First Person). It denotes the person speaking : I, we, myself.
- gurinci madhyama purusa nivu,
edutivari
niku, niyokka anu matalu.
.
.
.

Madhyama Purusa
. (Second Person). It denotes the person spoken to: thou,
you, thyself.
www.mohanpublications.com
20 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

ekkado
atanu, ame,
ataniki,
.
. unnavari gurinci prathama purusa
ataniyokka anu matalu.
.


Prathama Purusa
. (Third Person). It denotes the person or thing spoken of: he,
she, it, they, himself, herself, itself, themselves.
- - marikonni vakyalu
cuddam.

Let us see some more sentences:


uttama purusa
.

(First Person)

- cesukuntanu.
na- pani nenu
.

naku
ayana gurinci telusu.

- -' a- samavesaniki
nannu pilicaru.

a- pustakam nadi.

I do my own work.

They called me to that conference.

madhyama purusa
.

I know about him.

That book is mine.

(Second Person)

nuvvu manci vadivi.


.

niku a- bahumati vastundi.

You are a good man.

You will get that award.

ninnu cudakunda
..
.
. vellanu.

i pani nide- anuko.

I will not go without seeing you.

Treat this work as yours.

prathama purusa
. (Third Person)
vallaku
manam vaccinatlu
..
. teliyadu.

- vastaru.
- repu
vallu
..

They do not know that we have come.

They will come tomorrow.

www.mohanpublications.com
21 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

idigo- niku kavalasina pustakam. dinini radha


iccindi.


Here is the book you needed. Radha
gave it.
vallanu
akkadiki
..
. rammani ceppanu.

I told them to come over there.


- badhyata
- e- nirnayam tisukunna
vallu
vallade.
.
..
..

Whatever decision they take, it will be their responsibility.


- - - - gurtinci e- purusalo
- - i kindi vakyalalo
sarvanamalu
. unnayo rayandi.
.

Pick out every pronoun that you can find in the following sentences and name its
person.
- - iccadu.
- atanu tana saikil gopalki
ramu
manci abbayi.
.


- Ramu
is a good boy. He gave his bicycle to Gopal.

www.mohanpublications.com
22 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - tanu caduvukontundi kuda.


- sita tana talliki panullo- sayam
cestundi.
tana pathalu
.
.
.


Sita helps her mother in her daily chores. She also studies her lessons.
-' - - ni- kosam
nuvvu ninna raledu.
andaru- edurucusaru.

You did not come yesterday. Everybody waited for you.


- - -i roju
nenu
akkadiki
. ralenu. naku jvaram vaccindi.


Today I cannot come there. I have fever.

- - evaru- ceppaledu.
- - velle- vadine.
a- sangati naku
cebite- nenu
.
...

Nobody told me about it. Had I been told, I too would have gone there.
- - - - enduku?
niku naku
madhya vallu
..

Where is the need for them between you and me?


-

javabulu Answers
atanu (prathama purusa)
.

- (uttama purusa)
nenu,
naku
.

he (Third person)

I, to me (First person)

tana, tana, tanu (prathama purusa)


.

- - (uttama purusa)
naku,
nenu
.


her, her, she (Third person)

nuvvu, ni (madhyama purusa)


.

you, your (Second person)


to me, I (First person)

- niku- madhyama purusa


. naku uttama
- prathama purusa
purusa,
.
. vallu
..

to you (Second person); to me (First


person); them/they (Third person).

www.mohanpublications.com
23 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

patham
5 Lesson 5
.
- - manamu linga bhedamunu
i pathamlo
gurinci telusukundam.
.

In this lesson we learn about variations of gender.


- rakalu.
- avi 1) pumlingam; 2) strilingam;
lingamulu mudu
3) napumsakalingam.
.
;;
Genders are of three kinds. They are: 1. masculine gender; 2. feminine gender and
3) neuter gender.
- e- lingamo- telusukundam.
i kinda iccina'sabdalu

The following table shows examples of the three kinds of genders:


pumlingam
strilingam
napumsakalingam

masculine gender
raju

feminine gender
rani
.

neuter gender
kurci

King
devudu
.

Queen
devata

chair

God

Goddess

temple

racayita

racayitri

racana

author
atadu
.

he
nayakudu
.
hero

authoress
ame
she
nayika
heroine

gudi
.

script
adi
it
natana
.
acting

www.mohanpublications.com
24 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- -'
- '
i mudu
. konni ubhayalinga sabdalu vunnayi. a sabdamulu
. rakamule kakunda
- pumlingamulaku- vartistayi.
srilingamulaku,

The names which can be applied either to a male or a female are of the Common
Gender (Ubhayalingamulu).
- naukaru, vyakti modalainavi.
- kodi,
' '
udaharana
. : sisuvu, anatha, vidyarthi, ledi,
.
.

Examples: child, orphan, student, deer, fowl, servant, person.

ramudu
. vaccadu.
.

sita vellindi.
..

Ramudu
. came.

Sita went.

pustakam sancilo- undi.

The book is in the bag.


sita vellindi
antunnam.
ramudu
sita strilingam-ramudu
..
. vaccadu
.
.
.
. antunnam.
- kriyapadalu.
- sita vellindi ani, ramudu
- anevi
pumlingam.ikkada
vellindi,
vaccadu
..
.
..
.
.
- ani- annamu.
- dini
vaccadu
napumsakalingamaina
pustakaniki
undi
annam.
valana
.
- karta yokka linganni
batti
. . kriya marutundi. ide vidhamga namavacakalaku baduluga
- - kuda
- - - sarvanamalu
- - lingabhedaniki
- maratayi.
- vade
anugunamga
.
.
.




In Telugu sentences we say:
Sita went. feminine gender
Ramudu
. came. masculine gender.
The book is in the bag. neuter gender.
Similarly, pronouns will change as per the gender:

www.mohanpublications.com
25 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - 'i sutranni teliyacese- marikonni udaharanalu


. parisiliddam.

Let us see some examples in support of this rule:


- atadu bajaru
- velladu.
ramudu
.. .
.
. ledu,
.

Ramudu
. is not here. He has gone to the market.
- ani rasamu.
-' -'
ramudu
.
. pumlingam anduvalana kriyasabdam velladu

Ramudu
is pumlingam (masculine gender). So, the verb ending in Telugu is du
.
-.
(velladu).
.. .
- - ledu,
sita kuda
ame
nillu
..
.
.. tevadaniki vellindi.

Sita also is not here. She has gone to fetch water.


- - ceppamu.
sita strilingam. anduvalana sita ledu, vellindi,
ani kriyapadam
marci
..

Sita is feminine gender. That is why the verb endings in Telugu are changed to ledu,
vellindi.
..
pustakam sancilo- undi; danini
cadavali.

The book is in the bag. I have to read it.

- - inkoka visayam telusukundam.


i pathamlo
.
.

Let us learn another point in this lesson.

- avi : ekavacanam,
- - padalu
- vacanalu.
- vacanalu
- rendu vidhalu.
sankyanu teliyacese
.
bahuvacanam.

Words indicating numbers are known as singular number, plural number.

www.mohanpublications.com
26 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- vyaktinigani,
- pradesanni
-' - sucincinapudu
namavacakam
oka vastuvunigani,
gani
. adi
-ekavacanam. okatikanna- ekkuva sankhyanu sucincinapudu
.
. adi bahuvacanam.

If a noun indicates one place, person, or thing, it is said to be in Singular Number.


When a noun indicates more than one, it is in the Plural Number.
- gamanincandi.
munduga- i kindi padalu
.

Before we move on, read the following words.


ekavacanam

bahuvacanam

Singular Number
avu.

Plural Number
-avulu.

cow.
mamidikaya.
.
mango.
tota.
.

garden.

cows.
mamidikayalu.
.
mangoes.
totalu.
.
gardens.

- - avu
- ante- oka
pai padallo
ekavacanam,
avulu
bahuvacanam. mamidikaya
.
.
- bahuvacana'sabdam ceratam
- teliyacestundi.
mamidikayane
mamidikayalu
ane
.
.
. valla
okatikanna
ekkuva ani teliyacestundi. ade vidhamga tota,
.
. totalu
. kuda.
.

In the above words, the word cow is in singular number; cows is in plural number. Mango indicates one mango fruit. By making that word plural mangoes it
indicates more than one fruit. So also the words garden and gardens.
www.mohanpublications.com
27 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - - - - nambarnu batti kuda


linga bhedanni
batti
..
. . kriyapadalu, sarvanamalu marinattugane
..
.
- - - marpunu
- - -i kindi vakyalalo
maratayi.
gamanincandi.
.

Depending on the changes in the gender, there will be corresponding changes in


the verb and pronoun pattern in the Telugu language. Similarly, there will be changes
in verbs and pronouns depending on the changes in the number. Notice such changes
in the following sentences:
- pakkane- oka kalava
ma- uri
undi.

- cuttu- mudu
- kalavalu
ma- uri
unnavi.
..
.

- - oka devalayam
- ma- urilo
undi.

- - nalugu
- - - unnavi.
ma- urilo
devalayalu

There is a canal by the side of our village.

There is a temple in our village.


- - oka jama
ma- totalo
cettu
.
.. undi.

There is a guava tree in our garden.

There are three canals around our village.

There are four temples in our village.


- - padi jama
ma- totalo
cetlu
.
. unnavi.

There are ten guava trees in our garden.


www.mohanpublications.com

28 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- na- snehitudu
repu
. vastadu.
.

- ma- snehitulu
repu
vastaru

My friend will come tomorrow.

Our friends will come tomorrow.

- '
unnadi, unnadu,
. . . kasindi, pusindi vanti. sabdalu ekavacananni
. vaccindi, velladu,
- unnaru,
- - ru, lu, vu, yi 'sabdalu
- bahuvacananni
- - vaccaru,
teliyacestayi.
teliyacestayi.

- (he is), vacchindi (she / it


In the Telugu language, words like unnadi (it is), unnadu
.
came), velladu
.. . (he went), kasindi (bore fruit), pusindi (bloomed), denote singular
number. Words which end in ru, lu, vu, yi, denote plural number. For example:
- (they are).
- (they came), unnaru
vaccaru
i vindhamga- -ekavacanam, bahuvacanam vadatam
. . jarugutundi.

Thus we use both singular and plural numbers.

ayite- konni padalaku


matram
ekavacana,
bahuvacanalunnappatiki
ekkuvaga.
bahuvacaname- vadutuntamu.
.
.

Though some words have both singular and plural forms, in most cases only plural
form is used.
uda- : pesalu, godhumalu,
kandulu, vadlu,
.

Example: Pesalu (green gram); godhumalu


(wheat); kandulu (red gram), vadlu
. (paddy).
- vadali.
- - vatini
- undadu. bahuvacanam matrame
konni padalaku
ekavacaname
.
. nitya
.
- uda- : palu,
- nillu.
- antam.
bahuvacanalu
.
..

Some words do not have the singular form at all. We have to use them as plurals.
They are called nitya bahuvacanamulu (forever plural forms). Examples: palu
(milk), nillu
. . (water).

www.mohanpublications.com
29 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

patham
6 Lesson6
.
- kosindi.
sita pulu

- kosindi.
sita errati. pulu

- navvindi.
papa

- gaunu vesukunna
pula
papa
navvindi.

Sita plucked the flowers.

The baby smiled.

Sita plucked the red flowers.

The baby in the embroidered gown laughed.


- kosindi
- ipudu errani pulu
intaku mundu manam sita pulu kosindi
annam.
annamu.
.

Earlier we said, Sita plucked the flowers. Now we have said, Sita plucked the
red flowers.
- - erraga- unnayani,
- gaunu vesukundani
- pula
- - pulu
i matala
dwara
papa
vivarana
.
.
'
istunnam. ave visesanalu.
. .

Thus we are explaining that the flowers are red and the gown is embroidered.
These words are adjectives.
- - - ' i kindi vakyalalo
visesanalu
gurtincandi.
. .
.

Point out the adjectives in the following sentences:


a- pedda ceruvulo- erra tamaralu
unnayi.

There are red lilies in that big tank.


- - mi inti
. pakka intilo
. ma mamayya unnadu.
.

Your next-door neighbour is my maternal uncle.


- - cinnavadu.
ramu
na- kanna- cala
.

Ramu is much younger than me.


www.mohanpublications.com
30 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - muggu vestundi.
amma gummam mundu pratiroju

Mother daily decorates the doorway with patterns made with lines of flour.
- unnade- raju
- illu.
a nallagetu
.

Rajus
house is the one with the
black gate.
atadu
. dhairyavantudu.
.


He is a brave man.

ati telivi anarthadayakam.

- tiyani
niku repu
mamidipallu
. .. istanu.

I will give you sweet mangoes tomorrow.


- pedda nagaram.
bengaluru
.

- is a big city.
Bengaluru
adi lotaina
ceruvu.

Over-smartness is harmful.

That is a deep tank indeed.

turpu
vaipuna unna bhavanam
granthalayam.

pustakam pedda ballamida undi.


The east-side building is a library.

The book is on the big table.


www.mohanpublications.com

31 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

javabulu
Answers
pedda, erra

-cala

intipakka
.

red
pratiroju
daily
ati

over
pedda
big

next-door
nalla
black
turpu
vaipuna
east-side
lotaina
deep

much
dhairyavantudu
.
brave
tiyani

sweet
pedda
big

' - - antam.
ila- namavacakam
yokka gunanni
vivaranga- ceppe- padalanu
visesanalu
.
. .
.
- spastamga- ceppadaniki
- - -i padala
'namavacakam
gurinci vivaramga,
visesanam
kavali.
..
.
. .
- - manam namavacakam
' - dwara
gurinci ekkuva vivarana
. .
. ivvagalugutamu. visesanalanu
- inglisulo
antaru.
. .
. edjektives
.


The adjective goes with a noun or pronoun adding to its meaning. Adjectives qualify
the nouns that follow them adding value to the sentence.

www.mohanpublications.com
32 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

patham
7 Lesson 7
.
- kada!
- - panulanni- kriyalu ani ceppukunnam
manam cese


We have already explained that our actions are known as verbs.
ramudu
. vaccadu.
.

Ramudu
. came.
- sita padindi.
.

- paddadu.
raju
.. .

- fell.
Raju

- navvindi.
papa

Sita sang.

The baby smiled.

-'
- kriyasabdalu.
paina rasina
vaccadu,
paddadu,
padindi,
navvindi anevi
.
.
.
.
.
- -'
kriyasabdalanu
inglisulo
verbs antaru.
.
.

The underlined words in the above sentences are verbs indicating the action of the subject.
- venakki paddadu.
sita madhuramga- padindi.
raju
.. .
.

amma aratipallu
. .. premato iccindi.

- kilakila navvindi.
papa

- fell on his back.


Raju

Sita sang sweetly.

Mother gave bananas with love.


The baby smiled charmingly.
- - kriyavisesanalu.
- padalu.
- kriyalu
'
kinda gita gisina padalu
avi kriyala gurinci teliyaceyu
. .
- - entavaraku jarugutayo teliyaceyu
eppudu
ela- jarigayo,
. jarugutayo, ekkada
.- jarugutayo,
- - ' - - vitini inglisulo
- - kriyavisesanalu.
padale
edverbs
antaru.
.
.
.
.
.

The underlined words in the above sentences are adverbs. An adverb is a word which
modifies or qualifies and expands the sense of a verb. So, an adverb goes with a verb
adding to its meaning when and where a certain action has taken place, and how
long it has taken, etc.
www.mohanpublications.com
33 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - cuddam.
- - ' - - - kurcina
' - - mariyu kriyavisesanalato
ippudu
marikonni vakyalu
. .
. visesanalu,
. .

' - Let us study some more sentences containing adjectives (visesanalu)


and adverbs
. .
'
(kriyavisesanalu).
. .

nalla kukkapilla parugetti adutondi.


.

The black puppy is running playfully.


- - - adataru.
a- pillalu prati adivaram
banti ata
. .

Those children play ball games every Sunday.


- pusindi.
malle mokka ninduga
.

The jasmine plant is in full bloom.


- rangu pensil mukkaluga- viricindi.
rani
.

- broke the colour pencil into pieces.


Rani
.
www.mohanpublications.com
34 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - telivaina abbayi.
gopal

amma pullati
konnadi.
. mamidikayalu
.


Mummy bought sour mangoes.

- - is an intelligent boy.
Gopal
- nalugava
radha
phlat
antasthulo- undi.
.

- phutbal
- - -- raju
. baga adatadu
. .

- plays football well.


Radhas flat is on the fourth floor.
Raju
- kattindi.
- a- pedda cettu mida
kaki
cakkaga- gudu
..
.
..

The crow built its nest neatly on that big tree.


- - munduku padindi.
- gadapa dataleka
pillikuna
.
.
.

Unable to cross the threshold, the feeble kitten fell headlong.


- oka tellatipitta
nillalo
.. munigindi.
. .. budungumani
.

A white bird suddenly dived into the water.


- gadiyaram
pedda goda
thangumani
ganta
.
.
..
. kottindi.
.

The big clock on the wall struck with a bang.


- callaga- vistundi.
sayantram
gali

The evening breeze blows pleasantly.

- visesanalu
- - rendusarlu
- ' - - ane- visayam cakkaga- kriyavisesanalu
- cadivite- evi
' - - evi
pai vakyalu
.
. .
. .
.
- - telusikondi.
- avuno- kado
- - kindi pattika cusi
mike telustundi. sariaina javabu
..
.
. ilanti
- - rayandi.
- - konni miru kuda
vakyalu
.
.

If you read the above sentences carefully, you will understand which words are
adjectives and which ones are adverbs. Now write some similar sentences yourself.
Verify your answers from the following list :

www.mohanpublications.com
35 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

javabulu
Answers
- '- kriyavisesanalu
. .

'- visesanalu
. .

nalla

Adjectives
prati

every

black

rangu

colour

pullati
.

telivaina

sour

intelligent
nalugava

fourth

pedda

big

pedda

tellati
.

big

white

sayantram

evening

Adverbs

banti ata
.

parugetti

playfully

football

mukkaluga-

ninduga
.

into pieces

full

- baga


well

cakkaga-

munduku

neatly

headlong

budungumani
.


suddenly

thangumani
.

with a bang

callaga-

pleasantly

www.mohanpublications.com
36 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

patham
8 Lesson8
.
- - manam ippudu
siddamga- unnam.
. cinna cinna vakyalu rayadaniki
.

Now we are ready to write small sentences.


- edaina
- ninna jarigina visayama,
- visayam ceppinappudu manam ceppedi
- -i roju
kani
.
.
.
- spastamga
- repu
- - visayama- anedi
- jaragaboye
- undali.
jarigina visayama,
.
..
.
.



Whatever we say, it should be very specific whether we are indicating the present
action, or a past action or a future action.
- -- ala- undalante
.
. e kalam gurinci cebutunnamo teliyali.

For this, we should know the tense of the verb we are writing about.
- ninna uttaram rasanu.
-' nenu

I wrote a letter yesterday.


- - i vakyam jarigipoina
visayam
gurinci teliyacestundi.
dinini bhutakalam
antamu.
.
.


This sentence describes a past action.
- bhutakalam
anaga- jarigipoyindi.

- Time that is past is called bhutakalam


(Past Tense).
- uttaram rastunnanu
nenu

I am writing a letter.

- - kalam
i vakyam ippudu
gurinci teliyacestundi.
dinini vartamana
. jarugutunna visayam
.
antamu.
.


This sentence mentions a present act. This is known as simple present tense.
www.mohanpublications.com
37 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

vartamana kalam
anaga- jarugutunnadi.

Time now is called the vartamanakalam


(Present Tense).
- - repu
- uttaram rastanu.
nenu

I will write a letter tomorrow.


- - - danini
i vakyam jaragaboye
gurinci teliyacestundi.
dinini bhavisyat kalam
antam.
.

This sentence talks of a future act. Time to come is future tense.


- vastayi.
- linga
- - - telugulo- kriyalu vakyaniki
samanyamga
civaraga
intavaraku,
- - - - vacana bhedalalonu
- - - - kriya- 'sabdalu
- maradam
bhedalalonu,
. gurinci telusukunnam.
- - kriyasabdam
-'
- - parisiliddam.
'kalam
marinappudu
marutundi.
i kindi vakyalu
.
. kuda

In Telugu sentences, verbs usually come towards the end of the sentence. We have so
far learnt that verbs change depending on the changes in gender and number. When
there is a change of tense, the verb also changes. Let us study some sentences:
sita ninna vaccindi.

ramudu
. ninna vaccadu.
.

sita ippudu
. vastundi.

ramudu
. ippudu
. vastunnadu.
.

- came yesterday.
Sita

Sita comes now.

- sita repu
vastundi.

- will come tomorrow.


Sita

Ramudu
. came yesterday.

Ramudu
. comes now.

ramudu
.
. repu vastadu.

Ramudu
. will come tomorrow.
www.mohanpublications.com

38 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - --'
ramudu
. anaga bhutakalanni sucince ninna annappudu
. kriyasabdam
. ninna vaccadu.
-- repu
- bhavisyat kalanni
vaccadu
sucince
annappudu
.
. annamu. repu vastadu
.
.
'
kriyasabdam vastadu
. ani marindi. sita strilingam kanuka vaccindi, vastundi annamu.
- annamu.
ramudu
. pumlingam kanuka vaccadu,
.
. vastadu

- Ramudu
ninna (yesterday) indicates bhutakalam
. came yesterday. Here, the word
(past tense). Hence the verb vaccadu
. (came). When we use the word repu
(tomorrow), it indicates bhavisyatkalam
(future tense). Hence the verb vastadu
.
.
(will come). Sita being feminine gender, the verb in the past tense is vacindi; and in
the future tense the verb will be vastundi. So also, Ramudu
. being-masculine gender,
and
in
the
future
tense
vastadu.
the verb in the past tense is vaccadu,
.
.
- -- - - lekapote
- - - mi- matalaku
mukyamaina i mudu
artham undadu.
. .
.
.
. kalalu telusukuni matladali.

When we talk we must be mindful of these three tenses. Otherwise, what we


talk will not make sense.
- - - i mudu
.
. kalalu kaka jarugutu vunna kalam marokati
. undi. danini inglisulo
kantinyuvas
tens antaru.
mudu
. kalallonu aya samayalalo jarugutunna panini gurinci
.
.
adi teliyacestundi.


In addition to these three tenses, there is another one called Continuous Tense. The
vartamanakalam
(Present Continuous Tense) describes an action taking place. And
so the action is incomplete. So is the case with Past Continuous Tense and Future
Continuous Tense.
jarugutu- unna kalam.

Continuous tense:

- pustakam caduvutu- untundi.


radha
repu
.
radha
ninna pustakam caduvutu- undindi.
.

Radha
was reading the book yesterday.

Radha
will be reading the book tomorrow.
www.mohanpublications.com

39 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

radha
pustakam caduvutu- undi.

Radha
is reading the book.

- testu- undindi. testu- undindi ane- kriya bhutakalamlo


- - jaruguturadha
ninna pulu
.
.
unnadanni
teliyacestundi.


Radha
was bringing flowers yesterday. (The verb was bringing is in the Past
- Continuous tense a continuing work in bhutakalam).
- - - unnadu.
- bommalu vestu
- - unnadu.
- anaga- prastutam bommalu vestu
- kabatti
raju
.
.. i vakyam
.
- kalamlo
- pani jarugutunnatluga- teliyacestundi.
vartamana
.

- is drawing pictures. (The verb is in the Present Continuous Tense a continuing


Raju
work in vartamanakalam
the Present tense.)
- - untadu.
- bommalu vestu
- repu
raju
. kriya bhavisyat
.
. kalamlo jarugutu unde
. visayam
. . ikkada
teliyacestundi.


- will be drawing pictures tomorrow. (The verb, here, is in the Future Continuous
Raju
Tense) a continuous tense in the bhavisyatkalam.
.
- unnadu.
ramu
ninna banti adutu
.
.

Ramu
was playing with a ball yesterday.
- (The verb is in the Past Continuous tense a continuing work in bhutakalam.)
ramani
. pulu testu undi.

Ramani
. is bringing flowers.
- pulu
- testu- untadu.
- repu
raju
. .

- will be bringing flowers tomorrow.


Raju
www.mohanpublications.com
40 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - unnadi.
sita pata
. padutu
.

Sita is singing a song.


(The verb is in the Present Continuous tense a continuing work in vartamanakalam.)
- laibrariki
- undindi.
- ninna uyala
a- samayaniki
raju
veltu
papa
ugutu
. unnadu.
.
.

ramani
.
. pulu testu untundi.

- uyala
- unnadi.
papa
ugutu

- was going to the library at that time.


Raju
The baby was swinging yesterday.

Ramani
. will be bringing flowers.

The baby is swinging.

- teccindi.
radha
ninna pulu

- uyala
- - untundi.
- repu
papa
ugutu
.

Radha
brought flowers yesterday.
- - ramani
. roju pulu testundi.

Ramani
. brings flowers daily.

The baby will be swinging tomorrow.


- repu
- pulu
- testadu.
raju
.

- will bring flowers tomorrow.


Raju
www.mohanpublications.com

41 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- koyadaniki
radha
pulu
veltu
.
. untundi.
.

- - - sayantram
repu
sita eluru
veltu
.
. untundi.

- Sita will be going to Eluru


tomorrow evening.

Radha
will be going to pluck flowers.

-- - telugulo- mukhyamga- bhutakalam,


vartamanakalam,
bhavisyatkalalanu
anusarinci
.
'
kriyasabdam
marutundi.


When the tenses are changed, the verb also changes.
- - ippudu
. alanti. marpunu i kindi vakyala dwara gamaniddam.

Shall we look at some more sentences to know such changes?


- bhutakalam

vartamanakalam

Ranganna goes to the


market.
- - badiki veltunnadi.
meri
.
.

Ranganna will go to the


market tomorrow.
- - ellundi badiki veltundi.
meri
.
.
.

rahim pandlu
. teccadu.
.

Mary will go to school the


day after tomorrow.
- rahim pandlu
. testadu.
.
. rahim sayantram pandlu
. testunnadu.

Past tense
- velladu
ranganna bajaru
.. .
Ranganna went to
the market.
- - badiki vellindi.
meri
.
..

Mary went to school.

Rahim brought fruits.

bhavisyatkalam
.

Present tense
Future tense
ranganna bajaru veltunnadu
.
. .
. ranganna repu bajaru veltadu.

Mary goes to school.

Rahim brings fruits.

Rahim will bring fruits in the


evening.
www.mohanpublications.com

42 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- padindi.
karuna
.
. pata
.

karuna
.
. padutunnadi.

- padutundi.
karuna
.
.
. repu pata

Karuna
. sang a song.

Karuna
. sings a song.

amala ninna vaccindi.

amala vastunnadi.

Karuna
. will sing a song
tomorrow.
- vastundi.
amala repu

Amala came yesterday.


Amala comes.
Amala will come tomorrow.
- avi nirantara kriyalu. vatini
konni kalamto- nimittam lekunda
. eppudu
.
. jarigevi untayi.
.
- - - antaru.
inglisulo
yunivarsal
truts
.
.

There are some universal truths, true at any time and for all times:
vantena kinda nunci nadi pravahistundi. suryudu
. turpuna udayincunu.

The river flows under the bridge.


- - mallelu pustayi.
vesavilo

The sun rises in the east.


vennela callaga- undunu.
.

Jasmines bloom in summer.

The moonlight is cool.


www.mohanpublications.com

43 the trial version of Print2PDF!


This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - - e- kalaniki
kinda iccina vakyalu
sambandincinavo- gurtincandi.
.

Name the tenses of the following sentences:


sita a- pustakam cadivindi.


Sita read that book.
radha
padutunnadi.
.


- sings.
Radha

- - badiki veltu- undindi.


meri
.
.
.

Mary was going to school.


- pustaka pradarsanaku
- repu
'
memu
veltamu.
.


We will go to the book exhibition tomorrow.
- -i samayaniki
- repu
nenu
ma- uriki
veltu
.
. untanu.


By this time tomorrow, I will be going to our village.
ame,
monna ma- intiki
. vaccindi.

She came to our house the day before yesterday.


- caduvukuntu- untini.
- vaccesariki
ame
nenu
.
.

By the time she came, I was reading.


- suryudu
bhumi
. cuttu
.. tirugutundi.


The earth goes round the sun.

www.mohanpublications.com
44 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- poyina
-' - uttaram rasadu.
abraham
samvatsaram naku
.

Abraham wrote me a letter last year.


- - - rendu samvatsarala
- kritam kaleji
- cesindi.
- - caduvu purti
ayesa
.
.

- -Ayesa
. completed her collegiate studies two years back.
inko- samvatsaraniki
hari injaniring purtavutundi.


Haris engineering will be completed in a years time.

javabulu
Answers

- unnadi jarugutu- unna vartamanakalam


padutu
.


is singing present continuous tense.
- cadivindi bhutakalam.


read past tense.
padutunnadi
vartamanakalam.
.

sings simple present tense.


- veltu
jarugutu- unna bhutakalam
. undindi
.


was going past continuous tense.
veltamu
bhavisyatkalam
.
.

will go future tense.


veltu
jarugutu- unde
. untanu.
.
. bhavisyatkalam
.


will be going future continuous tense.

www.mohanpublications.com
45 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- vaccindi. bhutakalam

came simple past tense.


- chaduvukuntu
jarugutu unna bhutakalam
. untini.
.


was reading past continuous tense.
tirugutundi. nirantaram jarigedi

goes round ever happening action. (This simple present tense is also used
to express some general fact or eternal truth.)
-' - rasadu.
. bhutakalam

wrote past tense.


- purticesindi.
bhutakalam

completed past tense.


purtavutundi.
bhavisyatkalam
.


will be completed future tense.

www.mohanpublications.com
46 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

patham
9 Lesson9
.
-i pathamlo
- ane- padala
- gurinci telusukundam.
- madya
- manam avyayalu
- rendu padala
.
.
- - linga, vacana, kala
- bhedalanu
- - teliyacestayi.
nunna sambandanni
i avyayalu
batti
- . .avyayalu maravu. vitini
i padalanu inglisulo
.
.
. vibhaktyarthaka padalani kuda antaru.
pripojisans
antaru.
.
.

- which means indeclinable words words


In this lesson let us learn about avyayalu
not liable to change. They are immutable, eternal. In English they are called
prepositions. They are used to show the relationship of a word to other words in a
sentence. They are also called vibhaktyardhaka padamulu in Telugu.
udaharanalu
:examples:
.
a- cettukomma
mida cilaka unnadi.
balla kinda pensilu padindi.
..
.

There is a parrot on a branch of the tree. The pencil has fallen under the table.
balla, pensilu rendu
ani ceppadam
. padalu. pensilu ballakinda padindi
. valana adi
.
oka ardhavantamaina vakyam ayindi.

Table and pencil are two words. When we say, The pencil has fallen under the
table, it is a complete and meaningful sentence.
- unnadu.
- - madhya'syam
ramuki,
rajuki
.

' Shyam is in between Ramu


and Raju.
- - radhanu
tiki
. pilicanu,ayina raledu.

I invited Radha
for tea; but she did not turn up.
- - - -krusna
. . kosame custunna, kani raledu.

Krisna
. . has not come yet; I am waiting for him.
www.mohanpublications.com
47 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

samuccayalu

Conjunctions
- rendu padalanu
- rendu vakyalanu
- kaluputayi.
- - samuccayalu
- telugu bhasalo
gani,
gani
.
.
.
- - kanjenkshans antaru.
- samana
- dharmam kala vakyalane
- - - ivi
samuccayalanu
inglisulo
.
.
kaluputayi.

- (Conjunctions) in the Telugu language connect words with words as


Samuccayalu
well as sentences with sentences. (However, the words connected must be of the same
grammatical part of speech and of the same grammatical construction.)

- - - kamala mariyu sita akka cellellu


.. ane vakyamlo sitaku, kamalaku unna sambandham
mariyu ane- samuccayam teliyacestundi.

Kamala and Sita are sisters. Here the conjunction and connects two nouns showing
their relationship.
- cadavagaladu, mariyu rayagaladu
ramu
.
.

Ramu
can read, and write as well.

- kalamu, pensil rendu


- oka kalam ayina- pensil ayina- ivvandi. ane- vakyamlo
naku
.
.
- - okati kavali
- - ani ardham, ayina- ane- padam valla vaccindi.
vastuvulalo- edo
.

Give me either a pen or a pencil.


In this sentence, a choice is expressed. Either or is an alternative conjunction
denoting either a pen or a pencil.
- - anavaccu.
ikkada
.
. kalamu leka pensil ani kuda

In this sentence we can use only or to convey the meaning. Give me a pen or a
pencil.
www.mohanpublications.com
48 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- ikkada
. ayina, leka ane padalu emi teliyacestunnavi? naku pennu kani pensilu kani
- - kavalani.
i vidhamga- rendu
. padalanu gani, vakyalanu gani kalipe padalu samuccayalu.

In these sentences, what do the words either or and or indicate? I want a pen or
a pencil. Conjunctions therefore connect words with words as well as sentences with
sentences.
- anduvalana, vale, varaku, ayinappatiki- vanti padalu
- samuccayalu.
mariyu, kani,
.
.

Some other conjunctions are: and, but, therefore, like, too, till, however, as well as,
further, neither-nor, either or, moreover.
- - - samuccayalanu
i kindi vakyalalo
gurtincandi.
.

Point out the conjunctions (samuccayalu)


in the following:
- mancivadu
- mariyu telivainavadu.
gopi
.
.

- is a good boy and intelligent as well.


Gopi
- - caduvutadu
- kani
- baga
- allari cestadu.
- raju
.
.


- reads well, but plays mischief.
Raju

- ayevaraku
- undu, lekapote
- - vellu.
na- pani purti
..
.

Wait till I complete my work, or else you can go.


- ayina- nijayiti
- - parudu.
atadu
.
.
. pedavadu


Though poor, he is honest.

-- vaccindi andukani ma- akka raledu.


ninna sayantram
vana


It rained last evening; so my sister did not come.

www.mohanpublications.com
49 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

javabulu
Answers
mariyu

kani

- lekapote

and
ayina-

though

but
andukani

or else

so (reason for an action)

www.mohanpublications.com
50 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

patham
10
.

Lesson10

- - - manam -i pathamlo
- - telugulo- vibhaktulu vunnayi.
- vatini
inglisulo
keslu unnatlugane
.
.
.
.
gurinci telusukundam.

Just as there are cases in the English language, there are vibhaktulu in the Telugu
language. Let us learn about these vibhaktulu (cases) in this lesson.
- - vibhaktulu.
- madhya gala sambandhanni
- padala
vakyamlo
teliyacesevi

Vibhakti indicates relationship between the words in a sentence.


- karta edi?
ramudu
ane- vakyamlo
karta ramudu.
..
. kukkanu kottenu
. ramudu
. emi
-' cesadu?
kriya. evarini? kukkanu. kukka karma.
.. .
.. . anaga kottadam
. kottadu.

Ramudu
. is the subject.
. beat the dog. What is the subject in this sentence? Ramudu
What did Ramudu
. do? He beat. (Beating is an action. So it is the verb.) Whom did
he beat? He beat the dog. So, dog is the object.
- - - ramudu,
.. . anedi kriya.
. namavacakale. kottuta
. kukka ivi rendu

Ramudu
. and dog are nouns.Beat is the verb.

kukka 'sabdaniki
nu ane- vibhakti ceradam
valana adi ramudu
. kukkanu kottenu.
..
.
ane ardhavantamaina vakyamga marindi. anaga karta cese panini teliyacestunnadi.



Adding nu to the word dog made it a meaningful sentence. In other words, that
case-ending nu makes the work of the subject very clear.
www.mohanpublications.com
51 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- inko- udaharana
. cuddam.

Let us see another example:


idi sita kalamu.

This is Sitas pen.


ante
. adi sita yokka kalamu.
ikkada
. sitaku kalaniki unna sambandhamemiti?
. yokka ane padam sita hakkunu
teliyacestunnadi.

It means, this pen belongs to Sita. Here, what is the relation between Sita and pen? It
is Sitas pen. Sita possesses it. She has a right over the pen.
maroka vakyam

Let us consider another sentence:


- sita radha
koraku pandlu
. teccindi.

Sita brought fruits for Radha.


sita pandlu
. teccindi. evari koraku? radha koraku.
sita cesina
kriya, pandlu
evarikoraku radha
koraku.
. tevadam.
.
ikkada
. koraku anedi vibhakti.

Sita brought fruits.


For whom?
For Radha.
What did Sita do? She brought fruits. That was her action kriya (verb).
For whom? For Radha.
The fourth case-ending for (koraku) is used to indicate syntactic
relation between Sita, Radha
and fruits.
www.mohanpublications.com
52 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - karta, karma, kriyalaku gala sambandhanni


- oka vakyamlo
i vidhamga,
avi cese
- panulanu, cesina
vidhananni
vivaranga- ceppadaniki
vibhaktulu upayogapadatayi.
.
.
telugulo- edu
upayogincedi
.
. mukhyamaina vibhaktulu. okarini pilavadaniki
- cerikato
- padala
- vibhakti. ivanni- okati rendu aksharala,
- vakyaniki
- sambodhana
.
.
- - arthalanu
- -i kindi vibhaktulu cudandi.
ververu
istayi.
. .

Vibhaktulu (cases) are therefore used to show the syntactic relation between the subject,
object and verb, and to explain clearly the work they do and how they do it. In the
Telugu language, vibhaktulu are of seven kinds. Various case-forms are expressed with
the aid of various prepositions or case-endings. Examine the following vibhaktulu
(cases): There is another case form to address others. It is known as vocative case or
Nominative case of address.

prathama- vibhakti

nominative case

du,
mu, vu, lu
.

du,
. mu, vu, lu.

'
'du'
. pumlinga sabdalaku vastundi.
uda- : ramudu,
.. .
. krusnudu,

The first case-ending du


. is applicable to masculine nouns.
Eg: Ramudu,
Krisnudu.
.
.. .
'mu' napumsakalingalaku
vastundi.
uda : daivamu, vanamu, vrukshamu

mu is applicable to nouns of neuter gender.


Eg: deity, forest, a tree.
www.mohanpublications.com
53 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - 'sabdalaku,
- 'sabdaniki
'vu' ukaranta
go
vastundi.
uda :jantuvu, taruvu, madhuvu, govu

Vu is applicable to words ending with U sound and to the word go (cow).


Eg: animal, tree, honey, cow.
'lu' bahuvacanamlo vastundi.
- govulu
uda- : strilu,

lu is aplicable to plural forms.


Eg: strilu (women), govulu
(cows).
atadu
.
. ramudu

He is Ramudu.
.
-avu sadhu
jantuvu.

Cow is a domestic animal.

- vikasincayi.
'
pulu

The flowers have bloomed.


a vanamu andamuga- unnadi.

That garden is beautiful.


- - vadina
paina cadivina ramudu,
vanamu, jantuvu ane- padalalo
du,
. mu, vu, lu
.
.
prathama- vibhakti.

In the above sentences, Ramudu,


. vanamu, jantuvu .du, mu, vu, are the first case
(prathama vibhakti or Nominative Case) endings.
dwitiya- vibhakti

ni, nu, la, gurci,


gurinci

accusative case ni, nu, la, gurchi,


gurinchi.
karmaku sambandhinci dwitiya- vibhakti vastundi. kriya yokka phalanni
evaru
anubhavistaro, varu karma


The case that relates to the object in a sentence is called Accusative or Objective Case
- - vibhakti or second case in the order). A noun or noun equivalent is in the
(dwitiya
Accusative or Objective Case when it is used as the direct object of a transitive verb.

www.mohanpublications.com
54 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

sitanu pilicanu.

I called Sita.
ikkada
pilavadam
kriya. evarini pilicanu?
sitanu. sita karma. 'nu' ane- dwitiya- vibhakti
.
.
sitanu cerindi.

Here, called is the verb. Whom did I call? Sita. (Sitanu)


So, Sita is the object. In Telugu, it is Sitanu. In the second case, the case-ending
nu is added to the object Sita.
tallini mincina daivamu ledu.
rajuni
rammanu.

- naku
- teliyadu.
atani gurci

- telusu.
ni gurinci naku

- to come.
Ask Raju

No deity is greater than mother.

I do not know anything about him.

I know about you.

trutiya- vibhakti

cetan,
ce(n),
todan,
to(n)
.

instrumental case chetan,


che, todan,
to.
.

- - - varu
- karta. trutiya
-'
- - paniki evaru asrayam
kriya cese
avutaro
vibhakti kartaku cerutundi.

A noun or its equivalent about which something is said (predicated) in a sentence is


called the subject. The third case (trutiya- vibhakti) relates to the subject.
- ceta
- pustakam cadivincu.
papa

Get the book read by the girl.


- papaceta.
- cadivincadam
kriya-evari ceta?
.

To make the baby read (chadivincu) is the verb.


By whom (evariceta)?
- By the girl (papaceta).
Other sentences can be similarly formed.
www.mohanpublications.com
55 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - vastanu.
nito- nenu

- saukyamu untundi.
'santam
toda
.
.

I will also come with you.

Happiness exists along with peace.

- - ramani kuda
- - vaccindi.
rajuto
.
.

Ramani
. also came along with Raju.

caturthi vibhakti

dative case

koraku, kai

koraku, kai.

evari nimittam kriya jarugutundo- variki


caturthi vibhakti vastundi.

The case of nouns or pronouns and words in grammatical agreement with them,
indicating an indirect object or recipient, is known as Dative Case (caturthi vibhakti
for, to).
atadu
. ramuni koraku vaccadu.
.
ramuni
koraku.

He came for Rama.


atadu
.
. vaccadu.

He came.
enduku?

For Ramu.

- radhakai
- teccanu.
nenu
pulu

I have brought flowers for Radha.

Why?

- paramatmudu
anekasarlu
avatarincadu.
.
.
. dharma rakshnakai

God manifested Himself time and again on the earth to protect righteousness
(Dharma).

www.mohanpublications.com
56 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

pancami vibhakti

ablative case

valana, kante,
..
. patti

valana, kante,
..
. patti.

apayamu,
bhayamu, parajayam,
pramadam,
alasyam
modalainavi jariginappudu,
. avi
enduku jarigayo a karanam
ceppadaniki
pancami vibhakti vastundi.
.
.

The case of nouns or pronouns and words in grammatical agreement with them
indicating an agent, instrument or location is Ablative Case (pancami- vibhakti
valana, kante,
.. by, than, on account of). It indicates the cause of certain effect
. patti
or result.
coruni
valana bhayamu kaligindi.

Fear was caused by the thief.

i pani ni valana alasyam


ayindi.

This work has been delayed on account of you.


- telisindi.
hanumantuni valana sitamma jada
.

The whereabouts of Sitamma were made known by Hanuman.


- - vaccadu.
rajuni
batti
. . ranga kuda
.
.

Ranga also came on account of Raju.


- kante ramana balavantudu.
vasu
.
.
.

Ramana
. is stronger than Vasu.

www.mohanpublications.com
57 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- sasti
. . . vibhakti ki, ku, yokka, lo, lopala

- lopala.
genitive case ki, ku, yokka, lo,
- sambandhanni
teliyacesetappudu
. . . vibhakti vastundi.
.
. sasti

The Genitive Case primarily expresses possession, and from that it has been extended
to many kindred relations. This is the sasti
vibhakti with sixth case-ending of ki, ku,
.
.
yokka, lo, lopala to. of, in, and s.
-i visayam teliyadu.
rajuki
idi ramani(yokka)
pennu.
.
.

This is Ramanis
. pen.

- does not know about this matter.


Raju

- telusu; niku
a- visayam
naku
telusu.
.

atani(yokka) gunam
. andariki telusu.

You and I know about it.

Everybody knows about his character.

lata illu ikkadaku


daggare.
.

-ni- mansu lopala


alocana
nike- telusu.

Latas house is not far from here.

Only you know what is in your mind.

- illu uripakka
- - unnadi.
vasu
totalo
.

Vasus
house is in the garden on the outskirts of the village.
- lopala
- vallu
gadilo- matladukuntunnaru.
. .
.
..

They are talking in the room.

www.mohanpublications.com
58 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

saptami vibhakti

locative case

andu, na.

andu, na.

- - adharanni
teliyacesetappudu
.
. saptami vibhakti vastundi.

The Locative Case (saptami- vibhakti andu , na) relates to nouns, pronouns, and
adjectives, expressing location (a particular place or position in which a person or
thing is.)
bhagavantudu
.
. endu cusina andu kaladu.

Wherever you look, there is God. (Or) God is everywhere.


amma yandu orpu
ekkuva.

a- darina
dongala bhayam ekkuva.

Mother has a lot of patience.

There is a threat of robbers on that road.

- cettuna cala
- - kayalu
jama
unnavi.
..

- -' - lekkalenanni
akasana
cukkalu unnavi.

- untaru.
punyatmulu
svargana
.
.

- i cikatina
padi
.
.
. ela veltavu?

There are plenty of fruits on the guava tree. There are countless stars in the sky.
(The guava tree has plenty of fruits.)

The virtuous men stay in the heaven.

How can you go in this darkness?

www.mohanpublications.com
59 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - sambodhana- prathama- vibhakti o, oyi

- prathama- vibhakti):
Vocative case or nominative case of address (sambodhana
O, you, hi, hello, hey.
- sambodhincadaniki,
- i vibhakti-evarinaina- pilavadaniki,
anaga
upayogistamu.
.
.

Nominative Case of Address or Vocative Case is used to address a person (sambodhana


vibhakti ) o, oyi hey, you, hi, hello.
- - ani, strilanu
- ani- sambodhistaru.
purusuni
oyi
o
.

Oyi refers to man.


O is used to address a woman. It may imply closeness or contempt.
- o- sita!
itu
. ra!

Hey Sita! Come here.


- - atu vellaku!
oyi!
..
.

Hey, dont go that side!


-o krusna!
. . nannu rakshincu!

O Krisna!
. . Come to my rescue.

www.mohanpublications.com
60 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

patham
11 Lesson11
.
- - ardhanni
- purti
icce- pada samudayanni
vakyam
antamu.
dinini inglisulo
sentence
.
.
.
antaru.
.


A sentence is a group of words making complete sense.
- vidhaluga
- - mudu
- - vibhajimpabaddayi
vakyalu
..
.
- 1. samanya
vakyam
2. samyukta vakyam
'
3. samslista
. . vakyam




Sentences are classified as follows:
1. Simple Sentence
2. Compound Sentence
3. Complex Sentence
- samanya
vakyam

simple sentence.
- - karta, karma, kriya anevi
- pradhanamaina
- - samanya
vakyamlo
vakyangalu.

A simple sentence contains subject, object and verb (karta, karma and kriya) in that
order.
udaharanalu
:examples:
.
kamala andanga- untundi.
vimala telivainadi.
.

- - caduvutadu.
- baga
raju
.

ramani
..
. vellindi.
. badiki

- studies well.
Raju

Ramani
. went to school.

Kamala is beautiful.

Vimala is intelligent.

www.mohanpublications.com
61 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

samyukta vakyam

Compound sentence
- - - - - rendu
. leka mudu
. samanya vakyalu kalasi oke vakyamga marite adi samyukta
- kani
vakyamavutundi.
ala- kalapadaniki
mariyu leka
vanti
.
. samuccayalu
sahayapadatayi.
.

A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences joined together by


coordinating conjunctions but, and, etc.
sita akka, kamala cellelu.

Sita is the elder sister, and Kamala is the younger sister.


sita (mariyu) kamala akkacellellu.
..

-
Sita and Kamala are sisters.

- - caduvutadu.
- ranga baga
- - caduvutadu.
ramu
baga
.
.

Ramu
reads well. Ranga reads well.

- - caduvutaru.
ramu
(mariyu) ranga baga

Ramu
and Ranga read well.

- maracipotadu.
- baga
- - caduvutadu.
- vasu
- vasu
.
.

- reads well. Vasu


- forgets.
Vasu

- maracipotadu.
- - baga
- - caduvutadu
- kani
vasu
.
.

- reads well but forgets soon.


Vasu

- atanu rajuki
atanu rajuki
annayya?
tammuda?
.

- Is he the younger brother of Raju?


Is he the elder brother of Raju?
www.mohanpublications.com
62 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- tammuda?
- leka
atanu rajuki annayya?
.

Is he the elder or younger brother of Raju?


'sailaja patalu
'
. padutundi.
. rastundi. sailaja patalu
.

'Sailaja writes poems. 'Sailaja sings songs.

'sailaja patalu
. rastundi, padutundi.
.

'Sailaja writes poems and sings, too.

'
samslista
. . vakyam

Complex sentence
- vakyamto
- okatigani
- antakante- ekkuva apradhana
- vakyalu
- - kalisi vakyam
oka pradhana
.
. -erpadite- danini
' .. vakyam antaru. purti arthanni icce vakyanni pradhana
samslista
.
.
- - arthanni
- vakyam
vakyam
ani, purti
ivvani vakyanni
apradhana
ani antaru.
kriya
.
samaptam kakapote vakyam purti ardhanni ivvadu.

A sentence may also be made up of two or more clauses, one of which is dependent
on, or subordinate to, another. Such a sentence is called a Complex Sentence.
- vakyam.
ramudu
idi pradhana
anaga- arthavantamaina vakyam.
..
. velladu.

Ramudu
. went. This is the main sentence which gives a clear meaning.
- ramudu
ramudu
..
. vaccadu.
.
. velladu.

Ramudu
. went. Ramudu
. came.
- ane- vatini
.. vaccadu,
. kalipi ramudu
. velli
. ani rastamu.

We can club these two sentences thus: Ramudu


. velli
.. vaccadu.
. after going
. (Ramudu,
out, returned.)
www.mohanpublications.com
63 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- anedi
- purti
- arthanni
ramudu
istundi.
. velladu
..

The sentence, ramudu


.. . (Ramudu
. velladu
. went.) makes complete sense.
- - ramudu
. velli
.. anedi apradhana vakyam. kriya padam purti kakunda
. vakyaniki artham
ledu.

The expression, ramudu


.. (Ramudu
. velli
. having gone) does not give complete meaning.
The verb is incomplete.
- - avi
- navvi - ila
- cusi,
- - a- kriya madhyalo- -agipote,
- vallu
- cestunnaro
- edaite
velli-cesi,
..
..
- - vakyalu.
- - ala- agipoyina
apradhana
kriyalu asamapaka
kriyalu.

Having gone (velli),


.. having done (chesi), having seen (cusi), sporting a smile (navvi),
they are, he became, do not mean anything. They need some complements of the
verbs, as they help to complete the meaning of the sentences. These are some types of
incomplete verbs.
- pustakam cadivindi. rani
- nidrapoyindi.
rani
.
.

- read the book. Rani


- slept off.
Rani
.
.

- pustakam cadivi nidrapoyindi.


rani
.

- slept off.
Having read the book, Rani
.

www.mohanpublications.com
64 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

patham
12 Lesson12
.
anukarana
. vidhamulu :
. vakyamulu rendu


There are two forms of speech
pratyakshanukaranam
.


Direct Speech

parokshanukaranam
.

Indirect Speech

pratyakshanukaranam
:
.

Direct Speech

- ceppindi ceppinatluga- anukarincatam. a- matalu


- edutivaru
pratyakshanukaranamlo
.
.
.
.
.
- uncali.
kotesanlo
. .

In pratyakshanukaranam
(Direct Speech) we give the words of the speaker in
.
quotation marks without changing the words.
konni udaharanalu
: Some examples:
.
- cestanu,
- a- pani naku
- telusu, nenu
- vasu
annadu.
.

I know that work. I will do it, said Vasu.

- andi.
amma nannu, sayantram
twaraga- ra,

Come early in the evening, said my mummy to me.


ticar
miranta- mokkalu natandi,
.
. . annaru.

All of you plant saplings, said the teacher.


www.mohanpublications.com
65 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- gopito
- - sraddaga
- caduvu, annadu.
'
raju
.

- to Gopi.
Pay more attention to studies, said Raju
- - kotta battalu, ani ammanu adigindi.
sunita nakevi
.
..

What about new clothes for me? Sunitha asked her mother.
- katha ceppu, katha ceppu, ani godava cestundi.
papa
.

The baby pesters me, Tell me a story, tell me a story.

parokshanukaranam
:
.

Indirect Speech:
- okaru ceppina vakyanni
- - ceppali.
- kotesans
parokshanukaranamlo
mana matalato
. .
.
.
- sarvanamalu
- - upayogincali.
undavu.
avasaramaina cota
.
.

In the parokshanukaranam
(Indirect Speech), the words uttered by the speaker are
.
not given, and no quotation marks are used. In other words, the speaker is not quoted
verbatim.
- annadu.
- a- pani tanaku telusani,
- vasu
tane- cestanani
.

- said that he knew that work, and so he would do it.


Vasu
- nenu
- - ceppamannadu.
- ekkadiki veltunnano
raju
.
.
.

- asked me to tell where I was going.


Raju
amma nannu sayantram
twaraga- rammandi.

Mummy asked me to come back early in the evening.


www.mohanpublications.com
66 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

ticar
ma- andarini mokkalu natamannaru.
.
.

The teacher asked us to plant saplings.


- gopini
'sraddaga- cadavamannadu.
raju
.

- advised Gopi
- to pay more attention to his studies.
Raju
sunita tanaku kotta battalu
. . evi ani ammanu adigindi.
.

Sunitha
asked her mother about new clothes for her.
- - katha ceppamani godava cestondi.
papa
.

The baby pesters me to tell her a story.


- - ela- ceppina- intaku mundu telusukunna visayalu
- - gurtuncukovali.
miru emi
ceppina,
.
- - ekavacanam,
- - bhuta,
- bhavisyat, vartamana
- kalalu,
linga bhedalu,
bahuvacanam vitini
.
.
- - vacce- marpulu
- - vitini
anusarinci kriya- padalalo
gurtuncukovali.
batti
vakyam
.
..
arthavantamga- tayaravutundi.


Remember all the points we have dealt with so far to gain fluency in Telugu. Also
remember the inevitable changes in the verb patterns depending upon the gender
differences, tenses, and number.

www.mohanpublications.com
67 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

patham
13 Lesson13
.
ikkada
. koncem agandi
.

Wait a bit here.

- concem agi
- - - matladutuntamu.
manam matladutunnappudu,
. .
.
. avasaramainacota
. .
.

When we speak, we give some pauses to make our speech clear and meaningful to the
listener.
- - untundi. alage
- arthanni
- - swaramlo- marpu
vakyamloni
batti
a- vyavadhi marutu
valana
..
.
kuda
artham avutundi.
. visayam
.

The duration of the pause depends upon the meaning and context. Sometimes we
make our point clear by means of intonation.
- - mukyamaina
rasetappudu
valla telustundi. vatilo
.
.
. matram konni gurtulu pettadam
.. .
nalugu
gurtulu ippudu
telusukundam.
.

In writing we use punctuation marks to make the sentence clear and meaningful. Let
us now discuss four punctuation marks:

- - -- - - cadivetappudu,
.
.
. rasetappudu
. padala madhya ekkada
. agalo, ela artham
. apalo, ekkada
- - - telipevi
- viramamu
-- cihnalu.
- virama
cesukovalo
ante
cihnam ante
. apadam,
.
. gurtu.

All written work is divided by points or stops which help the reader to follow the
sense of what he is reading. Those signs are called punctuation marks. They regulate
reading by indicating where the reader may pause and take breath, and how long he
may pause.

www.mohanpublications.com
68 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- cihnalu
- -i kindi vidhamga- unnayi.
virama

The following are the punctuation marks:


binduvu

full stop

(.)

comma

(,)

- binduvu
nyuna

ardha binduvu

- - ' binduvu
vakyamsa

semi-colon

(; )

anukarana
. cihnalu

quotation marks

colon

(:)

' prasnarthakam

( )

question mark

(?)

-'
ascharyardhakam

exclamatory mark

(!)

sita tana pedda cellelu cinna tammudu


pelliki
..
. pillalu annayya koduku
.
.. vellaru

Sita her younger sister next to her younger brother children went to wedding of older
brothers son
- - cihnalu
- - okkasari
- levu.
- cadivi cudandi.
i vakyamlo- virama
. . ekkada
. apali? ela cadavali?
teliyadam
. ledu kadu!

There are no punctuation marks in this sentence. We do not know where to stop and
how to read it. It is a bundle of confusion, isnt it?

sita, tana pedda cellelu, cinna cellelu, cinna tammudu,


pelliki
vellaru.
..
. annayya koduku
.
..
- - vivaramga- telustundi.
ila- raste

Sita, her elder sister, younger sister and younger brother went to the wedding of her
elder brothers son.
www.mohanpublications.com
69 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- evarevaru veltunnaro
- - antaru.
- - ceppadaniki
sita taruvata,
upayogincina
gurtuni kama
.
.
.

- - oke- visayaniki
- mataku
- madhya viramam
mataku
undadaniki
sucana
i kama.
.
.
. .
.
- ekkuvaga- unnappudu civari visayaniki
sambandhincina vivaralu
tappa migilina
.
.
annintiki
. kamalu undali.
.

After the word Sita, the punctuation mark, comma() is used to inform as to who
are all going. Comma is used to denote the gap between the words. When there are
too many details to be given, comma is used after every name or matter excepting the
last name or matter.
konni udaharanalu
: Some examples:
.
- - rastundi.
- - patalu
ame
kathalu, navalalu, natakalu,
.
.

She writes stories, novels, plays and songs.

- - - ma- intlo
. erranivi, tellanivi, pasupuvi, udarangu gulabilu pustayi.

Red, white, yellow and purple roses bloom in our courtyard.


The Full Stop (the Period)
- cukka pettali,
- a cukka binduvu. oka vakyam
ekkuva viramam
kavalsina
cota
.
..
purtainappudu
.
. binduvu undali.

The full stop ( . ) marks the end of a complete and independent sentence.
- ninna vaccanu.
uda- : nenu

Ex : I came yesterday.
- -eluru
- velladu.
raju
.. .

- - has gone to Eluru.


Raju
www.mohanpublications.com
70 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- binduvu undali.
- rasina
samkshiptarupamlo
prati aksharam taruvata
.


Abbreviations are indicated by periods:

-'
am.pra.
= andhra
prades.

-'
A.P. (Andhra Prades).
- - - cintapalli ramamurti.
ci.ra.murti

Chi. Ra. Murthy


(Chintapalli Rama
Murthy);
- = tirumala tirupati devastanam.
ti.ti.de.

U.N.O. (United Nations Organization); TTD (Tirumala-Tirupati Devasthanam), etc.


- - - rasina
- - civara cukka undali.
cirunama
.
. madhya varasalaku kama undali.

Even in ones postal address, there should be a period at the end. For the middle
lines, there should be commas at the end:
- ravu
vi.es.ar.
- - - - vijayawada
- - 520 002.
inti
.
. nem. 123/4, suryaraopeta,
.

Mr. V.S.R. Rao


- - - - Vijayawada-520
H. No. 123/4, Suryaraopeta,
002.
.
.
amma gudiki
lalita ninna vaccinda?
..
. vellinda?

Has mummy gone to the temple?


- - civara iccindi prasnarthakam.
- prasnincina
- -i ? gurtu prasnanu
' '
'
pai vakyala
evarini emi
sucistundi.
Did Lalita come yesterday?

The above sentences carry interrogative marks at the end. Interrogative mark is
used at the end of every direct question.

www.mohanpublications.com
71 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

- - adi enta bagundi!


oho!

- padipoyada!
- - - raju
a!
.
.

Oh, how nice it is!

- has fallen!
Alas, Raju

-'
- - nokki ceppadanni,
ascaryanni,
udrekanni,
e- visayamaina
vyangyanni.
.
-'
- prakatincetappudu
.
.
.
. i ! ascaryarthakanni vadali.

Exclamatory mark is used to express emotion or some sudden feeling such as wonder,
surprise, horror, indignation, joy, or some satirical remark.
- ni- sangati telusu, nivu
a!
bhimudavu!
.

O! I know about you. You are Bhima!


aunu! atanu munde- vaccadu!
.

Yes, he came early!

- - - - bhasa
- vastundi. cinna cinna vakyalu
- - - cakkagatelugulo- matladandi.
. . . matladitene
. .
.
- - kotta kotta
- - - cadavandi. cadivitene
rayandi.
telugu pustakalu
.
. rastene gurtuntundi.
.
- - telustayi.
- kotta kotta prayogalu
padalu,


Now try to speak in Telugu. Unless you speak in Telugu you cannot master the
language. Learn to write short and sweet sentences. Unless you write, you cannot
remember usages. Read Telugu books. If you read you learn more and more new
words and new expressions.

www.mohanpublications.com
72 the trial version of Print2PDF!
This document was created with
Once Print2PDF is registered, this message will disappear!
Purchase Print2PDF at http://www.software602.com/

==^ aOK QO^=


1. =`H^ [
1. N q<H =`O
" ~.10-00
2. N qflfi~*}"K#O
2500
3. N qflfi~[ (H}HH`=`O`) 1000
4. OH+~K`i N=Q}u =`O
3000
5. =~H; =`O
750
6. H^~fi~ =`O
750
7. u<^ =`O(H~)
750
8. u<^=`O(^)
5-00
9. H~a =`O
1000
10.=OQ Qs=`O
10-00
11."=H; =`O \ O`O`
20-00
12.NH; ~ =`O (\ O`O`)
20-00
13.H#H=H; =`O (H"fis@`)
20-00
14.O`+=` =`O
20-00
15.U_ x"~ =`O
20-00
16.`<~}=`O
20-00
17.N =~#=nH
20-00
18.t=nH
10-00
19.H`h =`O
2000
-1-

20.Q Qs=`O
21.u~" (^#~=`O)
22. =`H^
23.=`H^Hi(<^#iQOQ^~~=Qi)
24.@ (H"fis@`)
25.~fi^=` *q^#O
26.P~=`
27.^#fiO`s =`HO
28.~HO^~^g*
29.` x`[, `LQ
30.N KH[
31.N KH ~ q*#"
32.NKH *q^#O(^k)
33.H; Qs x`[
34.Ne`x`[(e`<=`O`)
35.N Qf x`[
36.J#fl~ x`[
37.N ~fif x`[
38.=~ =~h[
39.~[~*fis x`[
40.N ^~x`[
41.H~= x`[
-2-

2000
3600
3000
5400
3600
2000
3000
10-00
10-00
10-00
10-00
3600
3600
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

42.t=[
43.g~^ [
44.PO[< x`[
45.<QO^ fiq [
46.|} x`[
47.~=^=x H^
48.t=^=x H^
49.H;#~O[
50."OH>fi~[
51.|OQi x`[
52.~ x`[
53.#=Q x`[
54.~H} H}O
55.L==fi~ =`O
56.N H"fis =`O
57.16 ="~= =`=
58.~fifH}O
59.H==i =`=
60.OK=Y PO[<x`[
61.J+<Q[
62.[ ZO^Ke ?
63.U ^=xH U` lOKe?
-3-

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
3600
3600
3600

64.U ^=xH U^O <"^O \e?


65.U^=xH Uq^=Qn~^#Ke?
66.U^=xH Zxfl ^H}Ke ?
67.#=^ =`O
68.OK`# [
69.28 =`=
70.H[ (9XHi)
71.H[ (q_q_Q) (O@)
72.OH~ =[O (O@)
73.J~#
74.N~= H~=$`=
75.N ^g Q=`O
76.N ^g Q=`O (HO_)
77. H`<=~#

3600
3600
3600
3600
4500
10800
15000
15000
15000
4000
9900
9900
36000
6300

2. ``= <==
1. N e` q+ <=`
4000
2. N e` q+ <=` (HO_) 6300
3. Hie`q+<=`=
(uH* H O_)
10800
~}O_ ~^H$+=iQi OH#O
4. e`q+ <=`= (On) ,,4000
5. e`q+ <=`= (WOw+) ,,4000
-4-

6. ~fi^=` `=O[i
12000
7. H^=` J`~`<==o (63)
2000
8. e` <= `"(H<)
3600
9. e` <==
2000
10.H; <==
2000
11.^~ <==
2000
12.PO[< <==
2000
13.t= <==
2000
14.q+ <==
2000
15.Q}u <==
2000
16.|} <==
2000
18.e`q+ <=`
2000
19.N~= <==
2000
20.H;#$O<==
2000
21.~<== Pk`$^O 2000
22.N"OH>fi~<==
2000
23.=}nfi=~# (^k)
2000
24.O^=O^#O
2000
25.=O`+"
2000
26.u #=<Kb
1000
27.#=< Kb
900
28.=}nfi=~# (H\)
1000
-5-

29.P~ Kb
30.t"~^# (t=`)
31."OH>fi~ `O (H\)
32.P~^O_H
33."OH>fi~ QqO^<==
34.J+H; `" H#H^~`"
35.^gY_=`"
(=~=~h`O`)
36.u~ O^s x`[
37.O^~HO_ (H\)
38.Q=n` =O
39.~=~H`"
40.` ~`fl=o
41.~}O_e`
q+ <=`"(qh)
42.~}O_ e`<=`"(qh)
43.~}O_ q+ <=`"
44.~}O_ Pk` $^O
45.=O`+O (qh)
46.t"#O^iO^~i
47.[^+O
48.H~ ^+O
-6-

10-00
1000
1000
600
600
1000
1000
1000
1000
2000
1500
3600
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
3600
1000
1000

49.g JC f~?
50.^$+^ x"~}
51.~fi^=` ^#H=
52.OKH=
53.O^=O^#O
54.~^#=H"K=H"
55.Qf=O`
56.[=O`
57.w= `=
58.^H}=i `=
59.^fi^ *uiOQOK~=`
60.NHO ~+ HO
61.#=^~
62.#=Q`=
63.=<"
64.O^~HO_ Q<=$`O
65.O^ =O^#O (^k)
66.Q=`*q^#=
67.P#O^k 1 N^g `=
68.P#O^k 2 U =
U `" ~}Ke
69. x`^=`~#
-7-

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
3600
3600
3600
3600
1000
10800
10800
4500

70. Ne` <==qq=~}`O


71. N ^~u(KO_) =q^#=
72. ~fi^=` `xk
73. =}nfi= (q =K# "M#=)
74. H~= ~HH=K=

14400
....
9900
9900
6300

3. N ~ ^` QO^=
1. N ~ Ki`
2. O~ N Q~ Ki`
3. N ~P~^#+i"=O
4. N ~ rq` Ki` (H<)
5. N Q~Ki` (H<)
6. ^Q}H$` N~ Ki`
7. #=<^ Ki`
8. N~Ki`(O_)
}~}QO^O
9. NQ~Ki` (O_)
}~}QO^O
10.`^`=`O ^``*HO,O`
11.J#^g =`O
12. fl ["|
13.=#xflN~["|
14.JH~H== N~
-8-

9900
9900
9900
5400
5400
3600
9900
5400
5400
2000
2000
3000
3000
3000

15.N ~*HO (O`)


16.N ~[#=
17.N ~ [<
18.N ~H w`
19.ti_~` (=O`)
20.''N~H\
21.''N~~"H\
22.N ~<^ `=O[i
23.N ~"~<=
24.N ~ <==o
25.N ~ Kb`O
26.N ~<^ Kb
27.N ~ ~` (H\)
28.N ~ x`[ (H\)
29.N ~
30.N ~ =#=O[i^`Kb
31.N~ #H`=eH
32.On N ~ ~`
33.x OQ}~ H`=`O
34.WOw+ N ~~`
35.+i_ ^~#ON~ "=O
36.~`=`O
-9-

2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2500
2000
1000
3-50
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1200
4500
1200
9900
2000

37.~ J#Q"
38.#=Q~"~ =`H=
39.N^`b=$`=
40.$^O ~
41.N+i_~ b=$`O(NKi`)
42.Q*##=~* Ki`

10800
1500
9900
1200
9900
9900

4. *u
1. 'HKHO QO@OKOQO (Q~)
6000
2. Qq OKOQ= (Q~)
11600
3. NKH OKOQO (`e =OKOQO) 4500
4. P#O^k OKOQO (".q.)
6000
5. =Q"i~te`(12~"iH) 4000
6. =Q"i~te` q_q_QXHH\ 1000
7. HKHO*u+HO_~( Nx"Q~}u\q) 2500
8. = (_i) HO_~
2500
9. ^ HO_~
500
10. H\ HO_~
1500
11. `[H hHOs"
10000
12. H~ *u+ ~
15000
13. *u+ | ~
15000
14. =#Qi *`H^u
15000
15. =~q~ *`H^u
15000
- 10 -

16. =^=~ q""u^fi^@=


17. O ~q_
18. O ~HtH
19. ~fi ~i
20. ~~ *u+q*# ~fifiO
21. fl O^
22. #H` q+ e`
23. ~fi~ KOkH
24. ~^O`OKOQQ}`OK_OZ?
25. ^$H^O`OKOQQ}`O K_OZ?
26. P~ x~O
27. *`H Q}` "tH
28. *u+=~kx
29. *u+ fl`~=
30.=~O x~~OK_OZ?
31.*`H =H~O^O
32.*u+ ~fiu
33.g[##H q
34.=~ q*# ~O
35.*u+ fiOkx
36.=~ t~=}
37.#H` =O[i
- 11 -

9900
25000
25000
10000
20000
9900
4500
9900
15000
15000
4500
5000
5000
5000
5000
3600
3600
3600
3600
3600
3600
3600

38.OKOQO K q^#O
39.~fi~ *u+O
40.^qH *u+O
41.#=~`fl= Q=
42.<
43.~Me`
44.OY q+`
45.=~ nH
46.@=K e`
47. H e`
48. *`H KHO "_O Z?
49. =#Qi (p#*u+QO^O)
KNx"~=
50. *u+G z\
51. Q `a OKOQO(19402050)
52. flKO_fi~"
53. ^fi^= KOkH
54. *`HKHO g~ "H=K
55. *u+ `Q~`fl=o
(#~Qe`)
56. JOQ=kHO
57. =kHO
- 12 -

3600
3600
3600
3600
2500
3600
3600
9900
2500
2500
3600
25000
10800
99900
5000
25000
3600
10800
3600
4000

58. H`
59. #GO
60. P^xHflGO
61. ~~*u+ fl*u+O
62. J+H=~
63. |$`*`HO (p#uH#~^})
64. Qfl~`flH~O
65. +@OKtH
66. 40 ~A *u+O<~H#O_
67. 40 ~A =kHO<~H#O_
68. 40 ~A OMGO
69. 40 ~A #H` (<_) e`=
70. 40 ~A "^*u+O <~HO_
71.g \#`n J^`~
#=~r ~ Q_
72. H..*u+O (iKO)
73. =~zO`=}
74. ~KO^ Q}=
75.^= *`H ("~HO_)
76.J^$+~"_
77.QOK~ x~nH
78.*u+ ~q_
- 13 -

9900
8000
12000
15000
5000
20000
4500
12000
27000
15000
15000
27000
25000
27000
20000
5000
9900
5000
15000
12000
5000
30000

79.*`H=~O_O `uH
^`^O(HO_e)
25000
80.*u+q^HtH `uH
^`^O(HO_e)
25000
81.<_*u+O
5000
82.Q~O g Q|O ~q_
25000
83.#H`i*`O (Q~g~^K~)
5000
84.Qfli*`O (Q~g~^K~)
5000
85.Q`=O`
5000
86.~~`fl=
5000
87.*`H =}=O[i
20000
88.+~ OKOQO
54000
89.^H x~O
25000
90.qO` *+=
5000
91._=~
20000
92105.~q/KO^/[/|^/Q~/H/x/~H`
#=Q= XHH HO
9900
93. =~=~O_O
5000
94. *`HO
5000
95. *`HOH~=
5000
99107. "k g#O12 Qfl
XHH QflO QO^O
9900
- 14 -

108. <~^ O`
109. OKOQiHdHQ}`O
110. `~|O KO^|O ("~ HO_)
111. Qfl ^# (z`Q~=iQ)
112. ~=GO
113. =~ ~`fl=o
a.q.~=< Qi QO^=
114. *u+ q^~OO
115. Q= |=
116. HKH^
117. J#= fl*u+O
118. *u+GO "`=~} HO
119. ~Qq *`HO
120. "~~`flH~O
121. ~f*u+ ~fifiO
122. J+H=~ ^u
123. *u+GO O^,=^<
124. fl`O`
125. =~O
126. qt+ *`H=
127. ~fe`*u+O
128. 300 =Y"# Q=
- 15 -

20000
25000
9900
20000
10800
25000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
7500
7500
7500
7500
7500
7500
12500
12500
12500

129. *`HOijeOK_OZ ?
30000
~Ru J"~Q`, ==^, "Ku

N =^~H$+=iQi QO^=
130. |$`~~~G=1
131. |$`~~~G=2
132. |$`~~~G=3
133. |$`~~~G=4
134. "~~`flH~=
135. =~ zO`=}
136. =~ zO`=}~2
137. fifl G=
138. `Q=O[i
139. =`x~H=e
140. ^=[=O
141. =O`~[#" (ZO.P~.q.~)
142. L< q^#= (ZO.P~.q.~)
143. "Gq"H=1
144. "Gq"H=2
145. "Gq"H=3
146. "Gq"H=4
147. J#=" 1
148. J#=" 2
- 16 -

20000
20000
20000
20000
10000
10000
20000
5000
3300
16500
7500
25000
9900
5000
20000
5000
20000
5000
10000

5. "
1. 40 ~A ''"q^ <~H#O_
2. "G ~= (O_)
3. "#|\ g W
4. g~ g "
5. Q$" z\
6. " [
7. " `=
8. "G ~
9. Q$" =~
10.qfiH~" Gs` g WO\ #
11.qfiH~ "Gs` gWO_P=
12.qfiH~ " GO(z`Q~=iQ)
13.P^xH Q$"
14."
15."O` ~`fl=o
16."GO
17. #
18.Q$"~O
19.Q$" KOkH
20.Q$" ^~}O
21.*u+Q$"KOkH
- 17 -

18000
10800
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
9900
5000
9900
18000
9900
27000
10800
12000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000

22."~`flH~O (HO_e)
23."t~=}
,,
24.NH$+"
,,
25.OK" i*`O
,,
26."_O_="
,,
27."^Oka
,,
28.qfiH~"HtH
29.H$+"G=
30.[","(^O`iO_s<^)
31.=" (Q~g~^K~)
32."*u
33."= "*q^#=

5000
5000
5000
10800
5000
10800
9900
5000
7500
12000
5400
10800

6. =O`
1. =O`^#
2. `O`*O
3. =O`H
4. ^`` `O`q^
5. ^`` =eH`O`"
6. `OuH OKOQO
7. H} `O`O
8. =O`## KOkH
9. ~fi^=` =O`H=K=
- 18 -

5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400

10.=O`H~~O(c*H~xO@=)
11.~fi^=` =O`~`fl=o
12.^K~ nH
13.yh"=Hfi~`O`O
14.OK~`O`O
15.|^xH `O`"
16.Lz+ Q}u `O`"
17.Q ^# `O`O
18.QO^~fi `O`"
19.O^~i (=O`O`~`fl=o)
20.O` =O` `O`
21.` `O`O
22.OK^ =Y_ `O`O
23.~^^
24.=O`k
25.~~=`O`"
26.Ne`q= OK^j
27.N Q~ `O`O
28.Qf `O`"
29.eh^~`O`O (z#flk)
30.=H =O` `O` ~
31.N ^~ `O`"
- 19 -

5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
5400
9900
9900
9900
10800
10800
10800
10800
10800
10000
15000
20000

32.==$`O[J=$``"
33.~ (<Q)`O`O
34.=# `O`O
35._x``O`O
36.H`O`O
37.~^=`O`O
38.H;`Oy~ `O`"
39.~}eh `O`"
40.=`Oy~ `O`"
41.N qfi~ `Oy~ `O`"
42.fi~H~}~=`O`O
43.HjqH `O`O
44.Ou`O`"
45.O`k
46.N H; `O`"
47.=O`=^k (^=`H")
48.=O`=^k (~+^=`H")
49.=O`GO (QO^=)
50.`Oy~H$``O`O
51.H=^#= `O`O
52.eh^~`O`O

7. QO^ P~^#
- 20 -

20000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
36000
36000
36000
36000
36000
36000
36000
36000

1. Q=n` H ``~ `O
2. Q} P~^# 1
3. Q}# 2
4. #=Q"=O
5. #=Q ~"_
6. #=Q "^O
7. xQ~^#
8. Pk`~^#
9. |}~^#
10.N t= P~^#
11.H; P~^#
12.#=^~^#
13.e`~^#
14.N KH~^#
15.Qf P~^#
16.g~^~^#
17.[Q~^#
18.~"~^#
19.^"~^#
20.w`~^#
21.N"OH>fi~^#
22.w"~^#
- 21 -

5400
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900

23.H;#~O~^#
24.N u~O^s ` H^O|O
25.^g b=$`O
26.~}O_ O^~HO_ =K#O
27.~}O_ ~=}O
28.~}O_ ~`O
29.~}O_ Q=`O
30.(i) "bH ~=}O
31.H~ QO
32.x` rq`= ~^H
33.x` rq`= #=~`fl
34."^H=
35."=# ^~=$`O
36.O_Q ~fik<
37.H~`fl
38.N PO[<O (Ki`==`)
39.#=Q ^~#"
40.x`rq`O #=Q
41.Q==
42.Q~H == KO^H<_
43.xQ~q_
44.*`H^~=*`H"H^~x
- 22 -

9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
21600
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900

45.q" *u+=O[i
=~*=zOQQ_ (~Q}u~_)
46.g\#`nx|\ grq`~
(#=~r Q_) ,,
47.gJ^$xH (~) <"H~H<
48.=HOKf
49.OK="^O =~`O
50.^= _\ H"
51.Q}u+O
52.A~fi^ L##q"Q=O[i
53.#=Q
54.PO^^x^iOK=# =Y^~
55.H^=`J`~(^k)
(180J`~`<==`)
56.H^=` <==
57.P^uH H xk
58.} Q`,=~
59.~fi^=`fi~_ N "OH>fi~_
60.N H;xflk
61.NH; Q}u =HO
62.=~P~ (H~>,OQ<~HO_)
63.=lHQ_
- 23 -

9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900

64.K^~OQO
65.OK=Y #=` "=O
66.Q~_~}O
67.=~}O
68.t=~}O
69."Y~}O
70.Hi =~}O
71.Hi t=~}O
72.Hi "Y~}O
73.HsH ~}O
74.HsH ~}O (z#flk)
75.~fiH~kH ~=}~}
76.^tH
77.Qf ==
78.=` O` ==
79.=$H^=`
80. A+ ~ O~ KOkH
81.<`#"kH }~Q=H"
82.K`~fi^=
83.#=Q~^#
84.`` =~ Q~O
85.=#^~ GO (=K#O...)
- 24 -

9900
5400
4000
3000
3000
3000
5400
5400
5400
3000
2500
5000
4000
3600
5000
5000
15000
15000
14400
14400
14400
14400

86."^=O` O`
87.eOQ~#
88.N t=w`
89.^fi^Lx+`
90.~}O_"i O^~i
(H``~` q"Y`)
100. |$` t= ` ~`flH~=
101. |$` ^g `~`flH~=
102. |$` q+ `~`flH~=
103. H^~<^ |^s<^ `Q_
104. ^H}=$` OY=
105. 108 k=^ q+H`^~x
106. ^~O^=
107. ~f =H``^ix
108. zi rKi`
109. Q=`u
110. ~#
111. <`# O^PK~==~
112. HjYO_O
113. Jfih^=`

14400
14400
14400
14400
25000
21600
21600
21600
4000
5000
3600
27000
10800
3600
...
3600
...
25000
21600

8. "^ QO^
1. P~O P~QO

3600
- 25 -

2. =eH"^ z\
3600
3. P~fi^ "^ z\
2500
4. P~fi^ "^O
3600
5. Q$"^ ~
3600
6. Q$"^~O
3600
7. q"^O (^fi^=}zH`)
5400
8. H$u"^O
3600
9. P~O"^O
9900
10.O~ P~fi^z\ "^O
9900
11.P~fi^"
3600
12.P~fi^ =eH"^nH
9900
13.^O~, P~, HQ~
"_HO LQ
9900
14.<@"^O (H O_OQ)
36000
15.UH=eH"^O
9900
16.JOQ $^O(4Q)
120000
17.~^Q"^~"
9900
18.^qH q"^O
9900
19.X\
9900
20.Q_
9900
21.P~fi^Or=#"^O
9900
22._^~
9900
- 26 -

23.<K~^~
24.O~P~QxH 20xII
25.H<C g =`...
26.Q=O`
27.Q O_ @ =O_
28.~ "_<@_
29.
30.=Q}~O
31.~# "rH~} `O`O
31.^=eH ~O
32. }== Q`O[eNx"

9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
10800
25000
15000
9900
6300

9. J "h ~H
1. N J b=$`O
2. N J P~^#
3. N J [#@
4. N J *HO
5. N J H w`
6. N J nH F
7. N J [#= F
8. N J x`[ P
9. N J x`x==o P
10.N "h b=$`O(^~"hnH)
- 27 -

3600
5400
5400
2000
2000
1000
1000
1000
800
3600

11.^gb=$`O
12.N ^g *HO
13.^g Hw`
14.* "hnH F
15."hnH P
16.^g H=
17.N J [<=o
18.J*qk (*^OQ`)

9900
2000
2000
1000
800
1000
12000
2000

10. [# H~#
1. J#fl= H~#
2. N~=^ H~#
3. ~fi^=` =OQ~`
4. =O^~ =OQ ~`
5. Q ^=` =OQ~`
6. ~fi^=` [#
7. z\ \ @
8. *f w`
9. ^H w`
10.O_Q}H` Hw`
11.Qa@,e@,H@@
12.J#fl= OH~#
13.o@@
- 28 -

2500
2500
2000
2500
3600
3600
1000
1000
3600
3600
3600
9900
3600

14.H#O^ [#H~#(Fh)
15.~fi^=`H=}=
16.|`H= L @
17.J#fl= OH~<xk(1000H~#)

3600
3600
3600
27000

11. \ OQ
1. O@ Hw`Q=n`
2. Z.. Hw`
3. O@ =^~w`
4. . j =^~w`
5. Z.. =^~w`
6. Z.*#H =^~w`
7. "@i O^~~==i\
8. ~fi^=` hHw`

3600
3600
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900

12. LH H=
1. NHO`=} =O@ ("*)
2. NHO`=} =O@ (<<"*)
3. H~ =O@
4. =O~=O@
5. z\z\
6. JO^xH z\
7. ~ (^k)
8. ~ (z#flk)
- 29 -

5400
5400
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
1000

9. > ZO~_s s~~


10.> ZO~_s _*<
11.z<fl~ z~u
12.O^# _ =O@
13.", _ ~, "~\ ~
14."WQ~
15.WOw+P_~
16.WOw+ =Q~
17.H =O@
18.O_Q KH< O_=O@
19."H""< =O@
20.~fi^=`H=
21.~ (|)
22.~ ()
23."_< "Ok (QiO\ _*<)
24."_< ~
25.<~iOK <<"*=O@
26."_< >iOQ (_ [O\)

3600
3600
2500
2500
2500
2500
5400
5400
2500
2500
9900
3600
3600
3600
3600
9900
9900
9900

qq^ ~H
~ @ GO
@ GO
ZO^~=#=

30000
3600
20000
- 30 -

Q<
3600
}==Q (`O[eNx")
6300
~#=~=
3600
_ H^ (z#flq)
750
H*# `` fi
3600
On`Qfikx
2200
WOw+`Qfikx
2000
[#~ <_
2000
#~ ZH
1000
1100 >| |H
1000
|e tH
2000
1100 >||H (H<A)
1000
N~=H\
2500
Nt=H\
2500
"lH
2500
JOH` Q~_
2500
=H^
2500
=`~OQ (=`~OHO)
2500
= h *~ ("_H#s)
2500
$^O^# (Hq`)
2500
"`# H=`
3600
Z..@i Q_
3600
- 31 -

WO^* ~
=O^* ~
s~+ (_ OQfi*)
HQO
P#O^OQ rq^O
iO^ <@HO
"`#H=`
OKHO
~u~
J#OQ~OQO (HOO\ fiOH+)
$OQ~Ho (HOO\ fiOH+)
J`= ^=
Qfq*<
zO`=} (<@HO)
<Q=
O_= L^Q=
H =`H^
H Q$" zO`=}
H Q$" =~ (O_)
~= `O`"
PK~ ^ <Q~#`O`O(Xi[#)
Q< (VG/TNL)
- 32 -

2500
2500
9900
3600
9900
5000
9900
9900
9900
9900
9900
4500
9900
5000
5000
5000
3600
9900
5000
15000
30000
3600

~=~"GO(=^Q_~=~=)
9900
ZO.Z.P~.#=<Kb
1000
ZO.Z.P~.O^~HO_
7000
J+=Y QO_~O_`O`O
7500
|OQirq`Ki` ([=OQ)
9900
N PkOH~K~ k=Ki`=$`O
4500
w`O[e (~gO^<^~Q~)
5000
Hj~"fi~ =lb H^
7500
Ne`<==(~+O)
60000
H$u^O`="^q*#=
e`*`H `=
59500
q"nH ("^H qk)
20000
=^O_ qfi<^~AQi QO^=
qfiH~ H=
8000
p#"P^xH"ij#
,,25000
<~^ O`
,,15000
"~[===#"^=
,, 6000
==`= =K#=
,, 8000
|$`O` =K#=
,,16000
Q" "q*#*u
....
- 33 -

~H`= = ==
JOQ~_ (A_)
_
~` ^~x (Q~g~^K~)
qfiH~"q^~= ,,
" q*# KOkH
,,
=^ i*`O
,,
*`H <~}O("_="iq)
" <~}O ,,
Q=mYO_O
,,
~fi~KOkH (4Q)
g~ #=~l (^=^)
x~O^ (2Q)
[...[...(~}O_Nx")
~...
,,
N ^~#O^i
,,
N=eH
,,
P~u~
,,
u+H(y #~O=i)
`An< Ki`
- 34 -

15000
9000
7500
....
....
....
....
15000
12000
12000
120800
37000
59000
2700
2700
20000
2500
1100
50000
10000

=~ 100 OII~<\ p# ` uiy


D HOk QO^= KiOK|_#q.
^= ZO^ \e ? _ O~=
~ Hi HiH
#OH Or=#=, "^ t~=}
q+"^ zO`=}
=k i} t`^
~fi=eH Q}~`flH~O
`~= H^ ^ J^HO_
`~= H^ ^ HO_
N~=#=~``=H
POc ^~`
J~ Q ^~}O
~fiOu ^~}O
Q}H~O[x
O`# nH
ukx~ H}
=~ ^~}O
*u+ G ~`fl=
`KH=
N "Y# `$"kH Q
$u ~`flH~= (^~GO)
*`H=$``~O
*`H kx
- 35 -

Ow` q^^~}O
Ow` ~fi~~OQO
=~ =~O_O
*`H~O
~[=~O_O
P~nH
"^=$`O
J##=O[s
#=QOu q^#OL^HOu qk
zH`~`fl=
fi~zO`=}
^fi^ q^#O
^=[* q+}O
J## ~`flH~=
H=$`=
^=[H~=$`=
~O^ zO`=}
~~`fl =KO
=Q}~`flH~=
~#^~}=
qfiH~ HtH "G=
[# H=e
Ow` ~fi~ OQO
Ow` ^OQ=
J~ H=
Ow` =~O_=
- 36 -

Ow` ^=kx
"^H`~=
~nH
Q}H#O^=
N e`<==oq=~}`H =O`
#=KO_ "^H N ^g *HO
N Qf J## `` fiHtH
Ow`=~O_=
~=o
+[H=
Q~t+ "^zO`=}
*`H=}
~fi# HtH
A+ Q KOkH
tH=bP#O^=b$Q=b
=O`~[ #=
`\ "^O
*u+ ^O` OQ= (OKOQ Q}`O)
QHtH
H H=#"~ :

"< aH+<,
P^uH QO^xO
H@Q=O, J[O` @ Z^@,
~[=O_.
- 37 -

J~^# ` OKOQ=, =`H^,


~}=,P~^# QO^=,
`=,=`=, <==,
*q^#=, `, =}H QO^=,
H^, *u+, ", "^, =O`k P^uH
QO^=

"< aH+<,
P^uH QO^xO
H@Q=O, J[O` @ Z^@,
~[=O_. < : (0883) 246 25 65
Cell : 903 246 25 65

From :

J : 0883-246 25 65

MOHAN PUBLICATIONS
Fort Gate, Opp : Ajanta Hotel
RAJAHMUNDRY-533 101 (A.P.)
WWW.MOHANPUBLICATIONS.COM
WWW.GRANTHANIDHI.COM
google play store / mohan publications
facebook Like us to follow /Mohanpublications
sale e-books - www.kinige.com
sale e-books - daily Hunt app
- 38 -