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CHAPTER 27 Guided Reading Strategies 27.4


Modern Chapter 18 The Terms of Peace

READING THE SECTION As you read the section, complete the graphic organizers by
supplying the main points of each of the following.

The Fourteen Points

1. ____________________________________________________________________

2. ____________________________________________________________________

3. ____________________________________________________________________

4. ____________________________________________________________________

5. ____________________________________________________________________

6. ____________________________________________________________________

The Armistice

1. ____________________________________________________________________

2. ____________________________________________________________________

3. ____________________________________________________________________

Demands at the Paris Peace Conference

1. ____________________________________________________________________

2. ____________________________________________________________________

3. ____________________________________________________________________

POST-READING QUICK CHECK After you have finished reading the section, explain
how Woodrow Wilson felt about Germany as compared to the other Allies.

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ANSWER KEY

Detail E: Italy entered the war against 5. Russian revolutionaries’ overthrow of the
Germany and Austria-Hungary. czarist government, making it a war
fought for democratic ideals
Post-Reading Quick Check
Answers will vary, but should mention the fact SECTION 3
that the Balkans provided an outlet to the sea Reading the Section
and played a part in Pan-Slavism. 1. poorly supplied
2. the Ottoman Empire
SECTION 2
3. government reforms
Reading the Section
4. army
1. Central Powers: the alliance of German,
5. more radical
Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the
6. economic equality
Ottoman Empire
7. Bolsheviks
2. Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia, and
8. Communist Party
their partners
9. Allies
3. British navy: the largest in the world at
10. did not
that time.
4. U-boats: submarines which caused exten- Post-Reading Quick Check
sive losses to Allied shipping Lenin envisioned a socialist government led by
5. trenches: served to counter machine guns a small group of leaders.
and artillery
6. airplanes: new weapons used for observ- SECTION 4
ing enemy troop movements Reading the Section
7. total war: a war in which nations turn all The Fourteen Points
their resources to the war effort (Six of the points contained plans for a general
8. propaganda: use of selected bits of future)
information to gain support for war 1. no secret treaties
9. Battle of the Marne: France’s success in 2. freedom of the seas for all nations
this battle changed the nature of the war. 3. removal of all economic barriers such as
10. Gallipoli: Allies’ failed attempt to take tariffs
Contantinople via the Gallipoli Peninsula 4. reduction of national armaments
11. Lusitania: passenger liner sank by German 5. adjustment of colonial claims to make
U-boats, killing many Americans them fair
12. Woodrow Wilson: United States president 6. establishment of “a general association of
who denounced the attack by German nations.”
U-boats. The Armistice
13. war of attrition: a slow wearing-down 1. Germany canceled the Brest Litovsky
process in which each side was trying to treaty with Russia
outlast the other 2. Germany had to give up a large part of its
14. Arthur Zimmerman: German official fleet.
secretly proposing an alliance between 3. The Allies would occupy German territory
Germany and Mexico west of the Rhine.
Post-Reading Quick Check Demands at the Paris Peace Conference
1. heightened trade with the Allies due to the 1. France insisted on moving its border east-
British blockade of Germany ward to the Rhine.
2. the effect of British propaganda about 2. Italy claimed the Tirol region.
German war atrocities 3. Belgium wanted two small portions of
3. Germany’s attempted alliance with Mexico German territory along the border.
4. resumption of unrestricted submarine Other possible answers:
warfare by the Germans Great Britain wanted Germany’s African colonies.
Japan wanted German colonies in the Pacific.
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ANSWER KEY

Post-Reading Quick Check Major Figures: Igor Stravinsky, Arnold


The Allied leaders wanted Germany to bear Schoenberg; jazz artists like Louis Armstrong
the cost of war. Woodrow Wilson wanted to and Billie Holiday; painters like Pablo Picasso,
set up an organization to maintain peace. Georges Braque, Salvador Dali, Wassily
Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian
SECTION 5 Architecture
Germany: New Styles: functionalism
1. Germany had to abolish its military draft; Major Figure: Frank Lloyd Wright
was allowed an army of just 100,000 men.
Post-Reading Quick Check
2. Germans were not allowed to manufac-
Entertainment: movies became popular;
ture artillery, tanks, or military airplanes.
movie industry introduced sound
3. The German navy could have a few
Consumer Culture: luxury goods became
warships, but not submarines.
affordable; advertising began; use of credit
Ethnic populations:
expanded
1. problems of national self-determination,
Social Values: The younger generation began
especially to Austria and Hungary
to challenge “proper” societal norms.
2. Armenians were brutally oppressed;
Bulgarians were punished.
SECTION 2
New nations formed with lands from the
Reading the Section
Ottoman Empire:
1. Effect: Farmers made very little money.
1. Palestine
2. Cause: high American tariffs
2. Transjordan
3. Effect: more stocks are bought and they
3. Syria
become overvalued.
4. Iraq
4. Effect: Stock prices dropped.
Post-Reading Quick Check 5. Cause: Bankruptcy
1. to promote international cooperation 6. Cause: worldwide Great Depression
2. to keep peace among nations 7. Effect: American workers who lost their
3. three main agencies would conduct jobs had to rely on savings or charity.
League business: an assembly, a council, 8. Cause: Franklin D. Roosevelt immediately
and a secretariat created a program of relief and reform.
9. Effect: The United States became deeply
Chapter 28 involved in the welfare of its citizens.

(Modern Chapter 19) Post-Reading Quick Check


1. The New Deal granted money to each
SECTION 1 state to provide clothing, food, and shelter
Reading the Section to the needy.
Literature 2. Public works programs created jobs.
New Techniques: examined unconscious moti-
vations; reflected on the era’s mood of decay SECTION 3
and sadness; portrayed life in a dreamlike way Reading the Section
Major Figures: Gertrude Stein, Ernest 1. Solution: rebuilt its army and constructed
Hemingway, Marcel Proust, Thomas Mann, the Maginot Line
Franz Kafka 2. Solution: organized a government called
Music and Painting the Popular Front that persuaded industry
New Styles (music): different instruments leaders to grant pay increases, then put the
playing in different keys at the same time; jazz, weapons industry under government
or a fusion of styles from West Africa and control
Latin America
New Styles (painting): cubism, dadaism

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Holt World History: The Human Journey 42 Geography Activities/Guided Reading Answer Key