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LinguisticReorganizationofIndianStatesafterIndependence

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Independence!
DharCommission:
Theintegrationandmergerofprincelystateswaspurelyadhocarrangementandtherewas
needforreorganizationofstatesonapermanentbasisonaccountofthehaphazardgrowthof
provinces,disparitybetweenvariousstatesandmultilingualnatureofthestates.
In1948,thegovernmentappointedcommissionunderSKDhar,ajudgeoftheAllahabadHigh
Court,toexaminethecaseforthereorganizationofstatesonthelinguisticbasis.

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Admittingtheimportanceofthereorganizationofstatesonalinguisticbasis,thecommission,
however,attachedmoreimportancetohistorical,geographicalandeconomicconsiderations.It
favouredreorganizationonthebasisofadministrativeconvenienceratherthanlinguistic
considerations.
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JVPCommittee:
InDecember,1948,CongressappointedacommitteeunderJawaharlalNehru,Vallabhbhai
PatelandPattabhiSitaramayya(knownastheJVPCommittee)toexaminetheissueafresh.The
committee,inareportsubmittedinApril,1949,dismissedtheideaofreorganizationona
linguisticbasis.Howeverthecommitteestatedthattheproblemmaybereexaminedinthelight
ofpublicdemand.
FirstLinguisticState:
In1953,thegovernmentwasforcedtocreateaseparatestateofAndhraPradeshforTelugu
speakingpeoplefollowingthelongdrawnagitationanddeathofPottiSriramuluafterahunger
strikefor56days.Thus,thefirstlinguisticstateofAndhraPradeshwascreatedunderpressure.
FazlCommission:
Thisledtothedemandforcreationofstatesonlinguisticbasisfromotherpartsofcountryand
onDecember22,1953,JawaharlalNehruannouncedtheappointmentofacommissionunder
FazlAlitoconsiderthisdemand.TheothertwomembersofthecommissionwereKMPanikkar
andHNKunzru.Thecommissionsubmitteditsreportaftertakingintoaccountthewishesand
claimsofpeopleindifferentregions.
Itrecommendedthereorganizationofthewholecountryintosixteenstatesandthreecentrally
administeredareas.However,thegovernmentdidnotaccepttheserecommendationsintoto.
WhileacceptingCommissionsrecommendationtodoawaywiththefourfolddistributionof
statesasprovidedundertheoriginalConstitution,itdividedthecountryinto14statesand6
unionterritoriesundertheStatesReorganizationAct1956.
ThestateswereAndhraPradesh,Assam,Bihar,Bombay,JammuandKashmir,Kerala,Madhya
Pradesh,Madras,Mysore,Orissa,Punjab,Rajasthan,UttarPradeshandWestBengal.Thesix
unionterritorieswereAndamanandNicobarIslands,Delhi,HimachalPradesh,Laccadive,
MinicoyandAmindiviIslands,ManipurandTripura.TheActwasimplementedinNovember,
1956.
ConceptofZonalCouncil:
Withaviewtopromotingcooperationamongvariousstates,theactprovidedforfivezonal
councilsforthenorthern,central,eastern,westernandsouthernzonestates,respectively.
EachzonalcouncilconsistedofaunionministerappointedbythePresidentthechiefministers
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ofstatesinthezones,twoministersofeachstateinthezone,onememberfromeachunion
territorynominatedbythePresident(ifsuchaterritorywasincludedinthezone),andthe
advisortotheGovernorofAssaminthecaseoftheeasternzone.Inaddition,thezonalcouncil
wastohavecertainadvisors.
DiversionoftheStateofBombay:
In1960,asaresultofagitationandviolence,thestatesofMaharashtraandGujaratwerecreated
bybifurcatingthestateofBombay.WiththisthestrengthoftheIndianstatesroseto15.
FormationofNagaland:
In1963,thestateofNagalandwasformedtoplacatetheNagas.However,beforeprovidingitthe
statusofafullfledgedstate,itwasplacedunderthecontroloftheGovernorofAssamin1961.
WiththisthestrengthoftheIndianstatesroseto16.
TerritoriesfromFranceandPortuguese:
AftertheacquisitionofChandernagore,Mahe,YamanandKarekalfromFrance,andthe
territoriesofGoa,DamanandDiufromthePortuguese,thesewereeithermergedwiththe
neighbouringstatesorgiventhestatusofunionterritories.
ShahCommission:
In1966,theParliamentpassedthePunjabReorganizationActafteranagitationforthe
formationofPunjabiSubha.ThisstepwastakenontherecommendationoftheShah
CommissionappointedinApril,1966.
Asaresultofthisact,thePunjabispeakingareaswereconstitutedintothestateofHaryanaand
thehillyareasweremergedwiththeadjoiningUnionTerritoryofHimachalPradesh.
ChandigarhwasmadeaUnionTerritoryandwastoserveasacommoncapitalofPunjaband
Haryana.ThetwostateswerealsotohaveacommonHighCourt,commonuniversityandjoint
arrangementforthemanagementofthemajorcomponentsoftheexistingirrigationandpower
system.WiththedivisionofPunjab,thestrengthofstatesroseto17.
FurtherFormationoftheState:
1.In1969,thestateofMeghalayawascreatedoutofthestateofAssam.Initially,thestatewas
givenautonomousstatuswithinAssam,butsubsequentlyitwasmadeafullfledgedstate.This
raisedthestrengthofIndianstatesto18.
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2.In1971,withtheelevationoftheunionterritoryofHimachalPradeshtothestatusofastate,
thestrengthofIndianstatesroseto19andthento21withtheconversionoftheUnion
TerritoriesofTripuraandManipurintostates.
3.In1975,SikkimwasadmittedasastateoftheIndianUnion.Initially,Sikkimwasgiventhe
statusofanassociatestatebutwassubsequentlymadeafullfledgedstate.
4.In1986itwasdecidedtogiveMizoram,aUnionTerritoryofIndia,thestatusofafullfledged
state.However,itactuallyacquiredthestatusofastateinFebruary1987andbecamethe23rd
stateoftheIndianUnion.
5.InFebruary1987ArunachalPradesh,anotherUnionTerritoryofIndia,wasalsogiventhe
statusofastateandbecamethetwentyfourthstateoftheIndianUnion.
6.InMay1987thestateofGoawascreatedbyseparatingtheterritoryofGoafromtheUnion
territoryofGoa,DamanandDiu.WhileDamanandDiucontinuedtobeaUnionTerritory,Goa
becamethe25thstateoftheIndianUnion.ThreenewstatesofChhattisgarh,Jharkhandand
UttaranchalwerecreatedinNovember2000.
PresentStatusoftheListofStatesandUnionTerritories:
Atpresent,theIndianUnionconsistsof28statesandsevenunionterritories.Theseare
States:
AndhraPradesh,ArunachalPradesh,Assam,Bihar,Chhattisgarh,Goa,Gujarat,Haryana,
HimachalPradesh,JammuandKashmir,Jharkhand,Karnataka,Kerala,MadhyaPradesh,
Manipur,Maharashtra,Meghalaya,Mizoram,Nagaland,Orissa,Punjab,Rajasthan,Sikkim,
TamilNadu,Tripura,UttarPradesh,UttaranchalandWestBengal.UnionTerritoriesAndaman
andNicobarIslands,Chandigarh,DadraandNagarhaveli,Delhi,DamanandDiu.
Lakshadweep,Pondicherry.
UnionTerritoryofDelhibecameNationalTerritoryofDelhionFebruary1992under69th
Amendment.Asaresultofthischange,theexistingMetropolitanCouncil(with56seats)was
replacedbya70memberLegislativeAssembly.

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