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CANDELARIO, TRICIA VIOLETA S.

Math Questions...
11. What is the percent of BOD removed in a plant when
the influent BOD is 245 mg/L and the effluent BOD is 22
mg/L ?
a. 91%
b. 86%
c. 35%
d. 13%
e. 9%
12. A plastic float is dropped into a wastewater channel
and is found to travel 10 feet in 4.2 seconds. The channel
is 2.4 feet wide and is flowing 1.8 feet deep. Calculate
the flow rate of this wastewater in cubic feet per second.
a. 1.0 ft/sec.
b. 2.3 ft/sec.
c. 4.2 ft/sec.
d. 5.7 ft/sec.
e. 10.3 ft/sec.
13. What is the detention time in a stabilization pond if
the influent flow rate is 0.785 MGD, the pond depth is 4.5
feet, and the pond covers 17 acres ?
a. 97 days.
b. 56 days.
c. 32 days.
d. 14 days.
e. 4.2 days.
14. What is the volume of water (in gallons) in an upright
25 foot diameter cylindrical tank with a water depth of 22
feet ?
a. 10,794 gallons
b. 13,750 gallons
c. 80,737 gallons
d. 90,022 gallons
e. 102,850 gallons
15. Thirty-four hundred and fifty (3,450) gallons of
primary sludge is pumped to an anaerobic digester. How
many pounds of V.S. are pumped to the digester if the
sludge contains 4.3% T.S. and 76% V.S. ?
a. 25,806 lbs.
b. 12,370 lbs.
c. 1,237 lbs.
d. 940 lbs.
e. 715 lbs.
Answer Key...
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Math Questions...
11. A trickling filter wastewater treatment plant receives
a flow 1.95 MGD. Calculate the organic loading to this
plant if it has a 135 ft diameter trickling filter with a 5
foot media depth and has a primary effluent BOD
concentration of 110 mg/L.
a. 0.5 lbs BOD/1,000 ft/day.
b. 2.7 lbs BOD/1,000 ft/day.
c. 25 lbs BOD/1,000 ft/day.

d. 39 lbs BOD/1,000 ft/day.


e. 44 lbs BOD/1,000 ft/day.
12. At a wastewater treatment plant which receives a
flow rate of 650,000 gallons per day, a total of 50 cubic
feet of grit was removed for the month. Calculate the rate
of grit removal assuming 30 days in a month.
a. 1.1 cu.ft./MG.
b. 1.3 cu.ft./MG.
c. 1.7 cu.ft./MG.
d. 2.0 cu.ft./MG.
e. 2.6 cu.ft./MG.
13. At an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant
receiving 3.25 MGD, the final effluent suspended solids
concentration averages 21.2 mg/L. What would the
calculated MCRT value be when the aeration basin carries
2,050 mg/L MLSS and wastes 0.0550 MGD. The waste
activated sludge has a concentration of 7,980 mg/L. The
aeration tank has a volume of 1.00 MG and the
secondary clarifier has an operational volume of 0.250
MG.
a. 2.5 days
b. 5.0 days
c. 7.5 days
d. 15 days
e. 42 days
14. At a 5.32 MGD wastewater treatment plant the final
effluent is determined to have a suspended solids
concentration of 23.5 mg/L. How many pounds of
suspended solids are being discharged daily ?
a. 1043 lbs/day
b. 935 lbs/day
c. 125 lbs/day
d. 37 lbs/day
e. 15 lbs/day
15. It is found that at a wastewater treatment pond
system 35 days are required to bring the pond system to
its operations depth of 3.5 feet. Assuming that the pond
system was empty when the filling of the pond was
initiated and that a constant incoming flow rate fills the
pond, what would be the hydraulic loading on this pond
system ?
a. 0.47 inches/day
b. 1.2 inches/day
c. 2.1 inches/day
d. 3.5 inches/day
e. 10.0 inches/day
Answer Key...
1

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False

False

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False

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Math Questions...
11. A rectangular primary sedimentation basin is 100 feet
long by 20 feet wide with an average liquid depth of 12.5
feet. What volumetric rate of flow (expressed in MGD)
can be treated in that basin without exceeding a unit

CANDELARIO, TRICIA VIOLETA S.


hydraulic loading rate of 850 gallons/day/ft ?

of impact upon demand charges or interest on capital).

12. A pump was noted to lower the level in a basin by 10


feet in 12 minutes and 20 seconds while a steady flow
rate of 180 g.p.m. was entering the basin. The basin
diameter was 12 feet. What was the discharge rate of the
pump expressed in gallons per minute ?

9. Using the data given below determine the number of


pounds of dissolved oxygen transferred to water in an
aeration tank by 1,000 cubic feet of air. Assume that air
is 21% oxygen EITHER BY WEIGHT OR BY VOLUME.

13. An activated sludge plant generally operates well with


an F/M Ratio of 0.65 lbs COD/day/lb MLVSS. Given the
following information, show a determination of the
concentration of MLSS that should be maintained.
Average Plant Flow Rate 4.0 MGD
Normal RAS Flow Rate 2.0 MGD
Aeration Basin Volume 1.25 MG
Final Clarifier Volume 0.5 MG
Primary Effl. COD Conc. 300 mg/L
Final Effl. COD Conc. 56 mg/L
Primary Effl. Sus. Sol. Conc. 105 mg/L
Final Effl. Sus. Sol Conc. 20 mg/L
% Volatility of MLSS 70%
14. In an attempt to correct a filamentous growth in an
activated sludge process, you want to inject chlorine into
the RAS flow stream at the dosage of 2.5 pounds of
chlorine per 1,000 pounds of return activated sludge
suspended solids. Show the calculations to find the
proper chlorinator feed setting (in pounds of chlorine per
day), given the following information :
Average Plant Flow Rate 9.0 MGD
MLSS Conc. 2,850 mg/L
RAS Flow Rate 3.3 MGD
MLVSS Conc. 2,600 mg/L
WAS Flow Rate to DAF 1.2 MGD
RAS Conc. 8,500 mg/L

True

False

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1.7
866
12
13
mgd
gpm

10. A 2 meter belt press is being used to dewater


anaerobically digested sludge (3.8% TS) at the rate of 75
gallons/min. It is operated 6.5 hours per day. The feed
sludge is conditioned with a polymer solution and then
fed to the press. A 25 cubic yard truck full (level road) of
sludge cake (20.5% TS, bulk density 65.8 Lbs/ft3) is
hauled away at the end of each day. Calculate the
percent solids recovery.
Mandatory Essay Question...
11. Lab data from your 100,000 gallon primary anaerobic
digester, which receives primary sludge only, is shown
below. Using this data :
(a) Calculate the average volatile solids reduction.
Compare your calculated value to generally accepted
ranges for a healthy anaerobic digester. Comment.
(b) Compare the other data to expected ranges.
(c) Is this digester experiencing an operational problem ?
If so, what is the problem. Name three steps that may be
taken to mitigate the problem.
(d) Should slake lime be added ? Why or why not ?
Date

15. A secondary effluent has a total BOD5 of 45 mg/L. A


BOD5 test is run on this same secondary effluent at the
same time using a nitrification inhibitor. Using the data
for this test is given below, calculate the nitrogenous BOD
(Assume a 300 mL BOD bottle is used to run this test).
Sample Size: 30 mL 50 mL Blank
Initial DO, mg/L 8.9 8.8 9.0
Final DO, mg/L 6.0 4.2 8.9
Answer Key...

11

Oxygen to Water Transfer Efficiency: 6.35%


Air weighs 0.075 pounds per ft3

2,110
585
16.7
14
15
mg/L
lbs/day
mg/L

Math Questions...
8. A 6-year old pump motor is to be replaced. The new
motor, just like the old one, would run 75% of the time.
Both existing and replacement motors would operate at
100 OUTPUT HP. The existing motor efficiency is 86%
while the replacement motor would be guaranteed at
94% efficiency. Electricity currently averages $0.0780 per
KWH. Calculate the energy cost savings per year (to the
nearest dollar, assume 365 days/yr) if the existing pump
is replaced with the new pump (neglect any consideration

pH

Alkalinity (mg/L) Vol. Acids (mg/L) CO2 (%)

9/02 7.10

3,200

280

35.5

9/09 7.00

3,020

320

36.0

9/16 6.90

2,800

400

37.7

9/17 6.85

2,720

450

38.2

Date

Raw Sludge
(TS %)

Raw Sludge
(VS %)

Digested Sludge
(VS %)

9/02

5.4

65.5

56.0

9/09

5.0

66.7

53.8

9/16

4.9

65.9

54.2

12. You are the superintendent of a 100,000 gpd


conventional activated sludge plant which discharges into
a shallow bay. Your NPDES permit currently sets a
discharge limit of 5 mg/L for total ammonia-nitrogen in
your effluent. However, the Regional Water Quality
Control Board at the request of the Department of Fish
and Game will soon revise your plants discharge
requirements and have even lower total ammonia limits
so that certain species of fish may be re-introduced into
the bay. The proposed limit is as follows :
Total Ammonia - Nitrogen
Maximum Concentration

Time of Year

CANDELARIO, TRICIA VIOLETA S.


2.0 mg/L

November through March 15

1.0 mg/L

March 16th through October 31st

th

Answer the following questions :


(a) What is total ammonia-nitrogen and why are such low
limits being considered ?
(b) Why are there different limits during different parts of
the year ?
(c) Identify and briefly discuss three (3) impacts that
these new limits will have on plant operations.
Answer Key...
1 A 2 D 3

6 E 7 B 8

3,813 $/year

1 lb air

10

98.2 %

Math Problems...
9. Given the information below estimate the heat value of
the gas produced from an anaerobic digester in units of
BTUs per day. PURE METHANE has a net heat value of
932 BTUs per standard cubic foot. Assume gas produced
is measured at standard conditions.
Raw sludge pumping
schedule

7.0 min/30 min

Sludge pumping rate

75 gpm

Raw sludge % TS

4.2%

Raw sludge % VS

73.0%

Digester Sludge % VS

58%

Gas Production

11.5 ft/day/Lb VS
destroyed

Percent CO2 (by volume)

35.5%

Other Gases (by volume)

1.0%

10. Liquid alum (9.1% Aluminum) is being used to


remove phosphorus from an activated sludge effluent.
Seven and one-half (7.5) mg/L of aluminum is required
to give adequate removal of the phosphorus in this
effluent. Calculate the daily cost of liquid alum given the
following information :
Plant flow

1.8 MGD

Specific Gravity of Liq Alum

1.32

Percent Alum (wt/wt)

49%

Liquid alum

$1.62 per gallon

11. A DAF thickener used to thicken WAS has been


operated 24 hours/day and 7 days/week. All the WAS is
pumped to the thickener. In order to save on energyand
labor you plan to switch to one 8-hour shift per day and 7
days/week. Use the data below to calculate the solids
loading rate (lbs/ft/hour) to DAF unit.

DAF Dimensions : 12.5 ft. wide x 38 ft. long x 6.5 ft.


liquid depth.
Plant Flow

4.2 MGD

Total Aeration Basin Vol.

1.55 MG

Total Final Clarifier Vol.

0.60 MG

Pri. Effluent BOD

135 mg/L

Pri. Effluent SS

92 mg/L

Final Effluent SS

22 mg/L

MLSS

3,250 mg/L

WAS

9,100 mg/L

Target (Optimum) MCRT

5.5 days

Mandatory Essay Question...


12. The control and calculation of RAS flow rates are
important considerations in the operation of activated
sludge wastewater treatment plants. Most commonly the
operator either sets the return rate (QR) at a constant
flow or as a constant percentage of flow.
(a) Identify two effects that each of these approaches will
have on plant operations. Assume that a normal diurnal
variation in both wastewater flow and strength.
(b) The so-called solids balance approach (shown
below) may be used to mathematically estimate QR. What
two assumptions are made in deriving this formula ?
[QR + Q] x MLSS Conc. = QR x RAS Conc.
(c) Using the information given below and the solids
balance equation, calculate SVI and QR comment on
these values :
Q

2.0 mgd

MLSS

2,350 mg/L

RAS

7,350 mg/L

SV-30

320 mLs/g

13. Your supervisor has been asked to evaluate the use


of liquid chlorine versus sodium hypochlorite. He has
requested your input. Prepare a memo for your
supervisor in which you identify FIVE factors that should
be considered when comparing the use of chlorine with
sodium hypochlorite. Briefly discuss each of these factors.
Where possible indicate which chemical has the
advantage when a particular factor is discussed.
Answer Key...
1 D 2 B 3 C 4

6 C 7 B 8 D 9 21,500,000 BTUs/day 10

$ 372/day

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2.6 lbs/hr.ft2