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PRIMARY AUTHORITIES

A. Constitutions
1. Incumbent Constitution ................................................. 3
2. Repealed Constitutions .................................................. 3
B. Codes and Statutes
3. Codes ..........................................................................3
4. Statutes .......................................................................4

C. Cases
5. Reported Supreme Court Decisions ................................. 6
6. Unreported Supreme Court Decisions .............................. ?
7. Bar Matters as Decisions ................................................ ?
8. Supreme Court Decisions Other than the
Majority Opinion ....... .................................................... 8
9. Unreported Cases Available in the Supreme Court
Website ....................................................................... 8
10. Unreported Cases Not Available in the
Supreme Court Website ................................................ 9
11. Decisions of Other Philippine Courts in General ................ 9
12. Unreported Decisions of the Court of Appeals,
Court of Tax Appeals, and the Sandiganbayan ............... 10

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

D. Legislative Materials
Bills ........................................................................... 10
Resolutions ................................................................ 11
Committee Reports ..................................................... 11
Congressional Records ................................................ 12
Congressional Journals ................................................ 12

18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

E. Executive and Administrative Materials


Executive Issuances .................................................... 13
Advisory Opinions ....................................................... 14
Supreme Court Circulars and Administrative Orders ........ 14
Bar Matters ................................................................ 14
Implementing Rules and Regulations ............................ 15

23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

F. Rules of Procedure
Rules of Procedure Within the Rules of Court ................ 16
Rules of Procedure Issued by the Supreme Court
Not Incorporated in the Rules of Court ........... ...... .. ...... 16
Superseded Rules of Court ........................... ....... .. ...... 17
Rules of Procedure of Administrative Agencies ............... 17
Legislative Rules of Procedure ..................... ................ 18

G. Ordinances
28. Municipal Ordinances ....... ........................................... 18
29. City Ordinances ................ ............ ....... ..... ........ .......... 19
30. Provincial Ordinances .... .. ....... ...... ............................... 19

SECONDARY AUTHORITIES
H. Books and Other Non-Periodic Materials

31 . Single Author ..... ....... .. .... ......... ... .......... ....... .............. 20
32. Single Author with Multi-Volume Work ..... ...... .......... ..... 20
33. Two Authors ........... ........ ................ ...... ...... ............... 21
34. More than Two Authors ............... ........................ ...... .. 21
35. With Editor or Translator ............ ........ ...................... ... 21
36. Institutional Authors ... ...... ................ .......................... 22
37. Works in Collections ............ ...................................... .. 22
38. Prefaces, Forewords, Introductions, and Epilogues ...... .. 23
39. Compilations ... ................ ....... ......... ...... ..................... 23
40. Annotations .......... ....... ... .... ........... .... ........ ................ 24
41. Treatises ..... ....... ...... .................... ......... .. ........ .......... 24
42. Special Citation Forms ... ......... ...... ...................... ......... 25
I. Journals and Periodical Articles in General

43. Consecutively Paginated Journals .. ........... .................... 25


44. Non-Consecutively Paginated Journals .... ......... ............. 25
45. Citation of Student Works in Law Journals ......... ..... ...... 26
J. Other Periodical Articles

46. Magazine Articles ..... ... ...... .. ...... ...... ............. ........ ..... .. 27

47. Signed Newspaper Articles ....................... .................... 27


48.
49.
50.
51.

K. Internet Sources
I nternet Sources in General ........................... .............. 28
News Articles Online ...... ....... ....................................... 28
Paginated Unpublished Materials Online ............... ......... 29
Non-Paginated Unpublished Materials Online .......... ....... 29

L. Interviews
52. I n-Person Interview ................ .................... ......... ....... 30
53. Telephone Interview ................. .................. ........... ..... 30
54. Interview Not Personally Conducted ........... ................... 30
M. Speeches

55. Unpublished and Untranscribed Speeches .... ... .... ......... .. 31


56. Transcribed Speeches .... .... ........ ........... ....... ... ............. 31
57. Published Speeches .. ....... ..... ...... ........................ .... ..... 32
N. Theses

58. Dissertations and Theses ............... ............... ......... ...... 33


0. Electronic Databases

59. Westlaw Sources .................................. .................... .. 34


INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS
60.
61.
62.
63.

P. Resolutions
U.N. G.A. Resolutions .................. ................... .... ......... 35
U.N. G.A. Resolutions from Online Version ......... ........ .... 36
U.N. G.A. Resolutions Better Known by Titles ......... ....... . 36
Resolutions by Other U.N. Organizations ....................... 37

Q. Reports

64. U.N. Reports .... .. .. ...... .................... .... .... ... .. ............... 38
65. Reports by the Secretary-General or Other Officials ........ 38
66. Conference Reports ......... .......................... ..... .... ......... 39

67.
68.
69.
70.

R. Treaties
Multilateral Treaties .... .................. .......... ........ ............ 40
Bilateral Treaties ........................................................ 41
Founding Documents .................................................. 42
U.N. Charter and League of Nations Covenant ............... 42

S. International Law Cases


World Court Decisions (I.C.J. and P.C.I.J.) .................. .. 43
World Court Advisory Opinions ...... ............................... 45
Online I.C.J. Cases ...................... ............................... 45
Decisions of the Inter-American Commission on
Human Rights ....... .......... .... ......... ........... ........... ........ 46
75. Decisions of the Inter-American Court of
Human Rights .. .................... ........................ .......... .. .. 46
76. International Criminal Tribunals Cases ...... ................ .... 47
77. International Arbitration Cases ............. .............. .......... 47

71.
72.
73.
74.

T. WTO and GATI Materials


78. WTO Panel and Appellate Body Reports ........................ 48
79. Reports by other WTO Bodies ........................ .............. 48
80. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Panel
Decisions ........... ...... .... ...... ........................................ 49
81. WTO Ministerial Documents .. .. .... ..... .... .... ............ ..... ... 49

W. U.S. Rules of Procedure and Evidence


88. Federal Rules of Procedure ................................... ....... 55
89. Uniform Rules of Evidence .............. ............................. 55
X. U.S. Session Laws
90. Session Laws .............................................................. 56
Y. U.S. Cases
91. U.S. Supreme Court Cases ............ .... .............. .......... ... 57
92. United States Court of Appeals, Circuit Court, and
District Court Cases ..................................................... 58
93. State Court Cases ....................................................... 59
94. Unreported Cases Available in Electronic Databases ....... 60
Z. Codes of Selected States in the U.S.
95. California Codes ........... ..... ... .................................... ... 61
96. Louisiana Codes ... ...... ....................... ........ .................. 61
97. New York Codes ..... ........ ........ ...... ...... ...................... .. 62
AA. Spanish Codes
98. Spanish Civil Code ......................... .......... .................... 63
99. Spanish Criminal Code ................ ............... ......... ........ . 63
BB. German Codes
100 . German Civil Code .................. .................. .............. ... 64

U. Other International Materials


82. Materials by International
Non-Governmental Organization ............ ........ .............. 50
83. Sales Publications ........ ............... .... ... ..... ................. ... 50

CC. French Codes


101. French Civil Code ............ .. ......... .......... ...................... 65

FOREIGN MATERIALS

INTRODUCTORY SIGNALS

84.
85.
86.
87.

V. United States Code


Entire Statutes Codified in the U.S.C. ............................
Individual Provisions in the U.S.C. .......... ........ ........... ...
Citations to U.S.C. Supplements ....... .......... ......... .........
U.S. Internal Revenue Code ..... ..... .. ... ......... ........ .........

52
53
54
54

102. Signals
103. Signals
104. Signals
105. Signals

that signify support ................................ ......... 66


that signify comparison .. ................... ..... ......... 67
that signify divergence of views .. ..... .............. .. 68
as verbs .............................. .... .. ....... ............. 68

SHORT CITATION FORMS


106. !d. ........................................................................... 69
107. Supra....................................................................... 72
108. "Hereinafter" ............................................................ 72

GENERAL RULES OF USAGE


DD. Quotations
109. Quotations in General ................................................ 75
110. Alterations ................................................................ 77
111. Omissions ................................................................ 77
112. Emphasis ................................. ...... .......................... 78
EE. Punctuations
113. Periods .................................................................... 78
114. Commas ................................................................... 78
115. Semicolons ............................................................... 79
116. Colons .......... .... ....................................................... 79
117. Hyphens ............................................... ................... 79
118. Em Dash .................................................................. 79
119. Ellipses .................................................................... 80
120. Brackets ................................................................... 81
121. Parentheses ............................................................. 81
FF. Other Rules
122. Capitalization ............................................................ 82
123. Numerals ................................................................. 84
124. Ordinals ................................................................... 84
125. Symbols ................................................................... 85
126. Italicization ....................................... ....................... 85

ANNEX- LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


A. Selected Geographical Terms
B. Months
C. Periodicals
D. Other Selected Terms and Periodicals
E. Government Issuances
F. Subdivisions

PRIMARY AUTHORITIES
A. Constitutions
1. Incumbent Constitution
l . l.

1.2.

The incumbent Constitution is cited as fol lows : {STATE OR


COUNTRY} CONST. {subdivisions}.
I.

PI-liL. CONST. art. VI ,

2.

PHIL. CONST.

I.

art. VII ,

Il ,

2.

!d. may not be used to refer to the Constitution (see Notes 1


and 2 above).

2. Repealed Constitutions
2. 1.

Repealed constitutions may be cited as fo llows: {Year of


adoption} {STATE OR COUNTRY} CONST. {subdivisions}
({year superseded}}.

3.

2.2.

193 5 PHIL. CONST. art. I,

(superseded 1973).

Tip: CONST. is in a format known as SMALL CAPS. If you are using


Microsoft Word, you may simply press CTRL + SHIFT + K to
change the text to SMALL CAPS.

B. Codes and Statutes


J.Codes
3. 1.

The initial citation style for codes is as follows: {Full title}


[{sHORT TILE}], {statute number}, {subdivisions}
({year}}.

3.2.

3.3.

PRlMARY AUTHORlT l ES

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

The SHORT TITLE is in SMALL CAPS if the statute being cited is a


Code (e.g. REVISED PENAL CODE, INTELLECfUAL PROPERTY CODE, CIVIL
CoDE, LABOR CoDE, etc.). The short title may be in abbreviated
form. Refer to the Annex for selected citation abbreviations.
If the code's short title includes the phrase "of the Philippines",
such must be omitted (e.g. "LABOR CODE" instead of "LABOR CoDE
OF THE PHILIPPINES").

An Act Revising the Penal Code and Other Penal Laws


[REVISED PENAL CODE], Act N o. 3815, art. 2 (1932).

s.

An Act to Ordain and Institute the Civil Code of the


Philippines [CIVIL CODE), Republic Act No. 386 (I950) .

3.4.

The subsequent citation style for codes is: {SHORT TITLE},


{subdivisions cited}. Do not use supra.

3.5.

Id. may also be used for subsequent citations when applicable.


6.

REVISED PENAL CODE, arts. I7I-I73.

Id.
Jd. art. 180,

8.

1.3.

4.2.

The short title for statutes is in ordinary Roman font, not SMALL
CAPS. Follow the short title used in the statute itself. If no short
title is provided, do not indicate any.

ro.

An Act Providing for the Recognition and U se of


Electronic Commercial and Non-commercial Transactions
and Documents, Penalties for Unlawful U se Thereof and
For Other Purposes [e-Commerce Act of 2000), Republic
Act No. 8792, 33 (2ooo).

Id.

Id. 2.
An Act Penalizing the M aking or Drawing and Issuance of
a Check Without Sufficient Funds or Credit and for Other
Purposes, Batas Pamba.nsa Blg. 22, 6 (1978).

If t he statute has undergone express amendments, place "as

1 3.

A Decree instituting a Labor Code Thereby Revising and


Consolidating Labor and Social Laws to Afford Protection
to Labor, Promote Employment and Human Resources
Development and Insure Industrial Peace Based on Social
Justice [LATIOR CODE), Presidential Decree No . 442, as
An1ended, r (1974).

'1.4.

The subsequent citation style for statutes is as follows: {Short


Title or abbreviated statute number}, {subdivision
cited}. Do not use supra.

4.5.

Jd. may also be used when applicable. If the statute has no


short title, use the statute number for short citation.

2.

The initial citation style for statutes other than codes is as


follows: {Full title} [{short title, if any}], {statute
number}, {subdivision cited} ({year}).

II.

12.

Amended" after the statute number. However, do not include


"as Amended" in subsequent citations.

4. Statutes
4.1.

14.

e-Commerce Act of 2000, 34

15.

Id.

16.

B.P. Blg. 22, 3 & 5

17.

ld. I, 3, & 5

4.6.

There is a space between the section symbol () and the


subdivision number.

4.7.

When citing multiple sections which are non-consecutive, two


section symbols () are used plus an ampersand (&) and
commas to separate the subdivision numbers cited. If the
subdivisions cited are consecutive, use a hyphen (-) to delineate
them (e.g. 1-7).

4.8.

There is a space between the section number and the specific


paragraph in the section cited (e.g. 2 (a)).

. 6

ATE N EO LAW JOURNAL

PRIMARY AUTHORITI ES

C. Cases

Court Reports Annotated (SCRA) and the Philippine Reports


(Phil.).

5. Reported Supreme Court Decisions


5.1.

5.2.

When citing a court decision, om it the names of al l the parties


other than those first listed from the contending sides. Also, use
"v." (not "vs.") to distinguish the contending parties in the case.

6. Unreported Supreme Court Decisions

The initial citation style for Supreme Court (SC) decided cases is
as follows: {Case name}, {volume number} {reporter}
{first page}, {cited page} ({year}).

If the case cited has not yet been reported, the citation is as
follows: {Case name}, {case or G.R. number}, {date}.
This is appl icable to cases that have not yet been reported
because they have only been recently decided by the SC. If the
decision can be found on the SC website, cite the decision
thereto.

r8 .

Laurel v . Abrogar, 483 SCRA 243, 245 (2006).

22.

People v. Fragante, G.R. No . 182521, Feb. 9, 20II .

T9.

Garcia v. People, 410 SCRA 582, 58 3 (200 3) .

23.

Id.

5.3.

If the case being cited is a consolidation of two or more actions


'
cite only the first listed case.

5.4.

For subsequent citations of a case, follow th is format:


{Abbreviated case name}, {volume number} {reporter}
at {cited page}. The abbreviated case name is italicized. The
year and first page of the cited decision are om itted. This format
is generally applicable to any kind of court decision.

5.5.

Id. may also be used when proper.

5.6.

Supra may not be used for subsequent citations of cases.

5.7.

Choose an abbreviated case name that would not cause


ambiguity or confusion with other cited cases. Do not use for
short citation the name of a geographical or governmental unit,
government position, or other common names of litigants like,
for example, "People " or "Commissioner".

20.
2r.

5.8.

Laurel, 483 SCRA at 269.


Id.

If a cited case has been reported, the reported source of such


case must be cited . Examples of case reporters are the Supreme

d.

.2.

For subsequent citations of unreported cases, follow this format:


{Abbreviated case name}, {case or G.R. Number}. The
date of promu lgation is omitted. Do not use supra. However, !d.
may be used when proper.

24.

Fragante, G.R. No. J82521.

7. Bar Matters as Decisions

7. 1.

7.2.

There are also Supreme Court decisions involving concerns of


the Phil ippine Bar. These are referred to as Bar Matters. The
citation style is similar to that of unreported cases above. Refer
to the examples below.

25.

Pomperada v. Jochico, Bar Matter No. L-68, Nov. 21,


1984.

26.

In Re : Petition to T ake the Lawyer's O ath by Arthur M .


Cuevas, Jr., Bar M atter No. 8:r o, J an. 27, 1998 .

For subsequent citations of bar matters, use the ru le for


unreported cases above (6.2).

PRIMARY AUTHORITlE S

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

3 r.

8. Supreme Court Decisions Other than the Majority


Opinion
8.1.

8.2.

8.3.

When citing a decision other than the main opm1on (e.g.


Separate, Dissenting, Concurring, Separate and Concurring
Opinions, and the like), indicate that such other opinion is being
cited. Thus, the format is: {Case name}, {volume number}
{reporter} {first page}, {cited page} ({year}) ({Name
of Justice}, {separate/ concurring/ dissenting opinion}).
27.

Garcia v. Philippine Airlines, 576 SCRA 490, 5II-I2


(2009)
Velasco, Jr., separate opinion).

28.

Serrano v. National Labor Relations Commission, 323


SCRA 445, 503 (2ooo)
Puno, dissenting opinion).

a.

10. Unreported Cases Not Available in the Supreme Court


Website
10.1.

SC decisions which, although not recently decided, are not


reported nor found on the SC website, are cited as follows:
{Case name}, {case or G.R. Number}, {date}
(unreported).

To short-cite the above decisions, follow the examples below.


Id. may also be used when proper.
29.

Garcia, 576 SCRA at 5II-I2


opinion).

30.

ld.

a.

Velasco,

Jr.,

separate

There is generally no need to indicate whether a decision is the


opinion of the majority or was promulgated per curiam.
Nevertheless, if, in the same work, other opinions have already
been referred to, indicate the fact that what is being cited is the
majority or main opinion. This is also done through
parentheticals.

Usually, copies of new decisions of the SC are released


electronically on its website before they are published in case
reporters. For unreported cases which are available in the SC
Website, cite as: {Case name}, {case or G.R. Number},
{date}, available at {internet address} (last accessed
{date}).

Dulalia, Jr. v. Cruz, A.C. No. 6854, Apr. 27, 2007, available
at http:! /sc.judiciary.gov.ph/jurisprudence/2oo7/april2007/
6854.htm (last accessed Feb. 16, 2orr).

For subsequent citations, follow the rule for unreported cases


above (6.2).

a.

9. Unreported Cases Available in the Supreme Court


Website
9.1.

9.2.

32.

I 0.2.

Malate Taxicab Garage, Inc. v. Del Villar, G .R. No . L7489, Feb. 29, 1956 (unreported) .

For subsequent citations, follow the rule for unreported cases


above (6.2).

11. Decisions of Other Philippine Courts in General


Ll.l.

Generally, the citation format for reported decisions of other


Philippine courts is as follows: {Case name}, {volume
number} {reporter} {first page}, {cited page}
({deciding court abbreviation} {year}).
33.

People v. Collantes, 37 O.G. r8o4, 1805 (CA 1926).

11.2.

If not evident from the reporter name or other detail, the


deciding court must be indicated so as to distinguish from
binding precedents decided by the SC.

11.3.

For subsequent citations, follow the rule for reported SC


decisions in 5.4 above.

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

IO

PRIMARY AUTHORlTl ES

12. Unreported Decisions of the Court of Appeals, Court of


Tax Appeals, and the Sandiganbayan
12.1.

Unreported decisions of the Court of Appeals, the Court of Tax


Appeals, and the Sandiganbayan are cited as follows: {Case
name}, {case number} ({deciding court} {date}).

34

Tafiedo v. Tafiedo, CA-G.R. CV No. 76382, Dec. 8,


2006.

35.

Pilipinas Shell Petroleum C orporation v. Commissioner of


Internal Revenue, C TA Case No . 6003 , Aug. 2, 2004.

36.

People v. Estrada, et al. , SB Crim. Case No . 265 58, Sep.


! 2, 2007.

12.2.

The name of the deciding court need not be indicated if it can


be gleaned from the docket number of the case.

12.3.

Subsequent citations must fol low the fol lowing


{Abbreviated case name}, {case number}.

38 .

Tafiedo, CA- G.R. C V No. 7638 2.


Pilipinas Shell, C TA Case No. 6003.

39.

Estrada, SB Crim. Case No . 2655 8.

37

PUlposes, S.B. No. 2938 , 15 th C ong. , 2d Reg. Sess.


(20II).
13.2.

Subsequent citations for House or Senate bills shou ld use the bill
number, not the title of the bill. Thus: {H.B. or S.B. No.},
{subdivision}. Just omit the legislature number, session
details, and the date. !d. may also be used when proper.

42.

14.1.

format:

40.

H.B. No. 604, 15th C ong., rst R eg. Sess. (2on).

41.

An Act Amending R epublic Act No . 7898, Otherwise


Known as the AFP M odernization Act, And For Other

I.

14.2.

Resolutions are cited analogously to bills, as follows: {Title, if


needed}, {Senate (S.) or House of Representatives (H.)
Res. No.}, {subdivision cited, if any}, {legislature},
{session} ({year}).

43

S. R es. No. 599, 15th C ong. , 2d R eg. Sess. (2on).

44

H . R es. No . oo2, 15th Cong., rst Sess. (201 0) .

Subsequent citations for House or Senate resolutions should use


the resolution number, not the title of the resolution. Thus:
{Senate (S.) or House of Representatives (H.) Res. No.},
{subdivision, if any}. Just omit the legislature number,
session details, and the date. Id. may also be used when
proper.

15. Committee Reports

13. Bills
Generally, legislative materials, particularly bills, are cited as
follows: {Title, if needed}, {House of Representatives Bill
(H.B.) or Senate Bill (S.B.) No.}, {subdivision cited, if
any}, {legislature}, {session} ({year}).

H.B . No. 604,

14. Resolutions

D. legislative Materials

13.1.

II

15. 1.

Once a bill is introduced, it is sent to a committee or comm ittees


to hold hearings regarding the proposed legislation. Reports of
these committees may be cited as fol lows: {Title of relevant
bill, if needed}, {committee/committees}, {Senate (S.)
or House of Representatives (H.) Rep.
No.},
{legislature}, {session} ({year}) .

45

C ommittees on H ealth and D emography, Finance, and


Youth, Women, and Family Relations, S. R ep. N o. 49,
15th C ong., 1st R eg. Sess. (2on).

15.2.

PRIMARY AUTHORITIES

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

12

These may be subsequently cited as: {Senate (S.) or House


of Representative (H.) Rep. No.} {report number} at
{page number, if any}. Id may also be used when proper.

46.

S. Rep. No. 56.

47

S. Reo. No. 49.


d

, Executive and Administrative Materials


18. Executive Issuances
111.1.

16. Congressional Records


16.1.

For Congressional Records, citations should be in SMALL CAPS and


should include the following: {CONG. REc.} {volume and
number}, at {page cited}, {legislature}, {session}
({date}).

48.

16.2.

CONG. REc. Vol. I-I, at 5. ISth Cong., 2d Reg. Sess.


Ouly 25, 20II).

52.

For subsequent citations, follow this format: {CoNG. REc.}


{volume and number}, at {page cited}. Just omit the
legislature number, session details, and the date. Id may also
be used when proper.

17.2.

To cite Congressional Journals, follow this format: {Volume, if


any} {S. or H. JouRNAL} {journal or session number}, at
{page number cited}, {legislature}, {session} ({date}).

49

S. JOURNAL Sess. No. 75. at I204, ISth Cong., Ist Reg.


Sess. (Mar. 15, 2on).

so.

H. JOURNAL No. I4, at !7. ISth Cong., 2d Reg. Sess.


(Aug. 23 & 24, 20II).

For subsequent citations, follow this format: {S. or H.


JouRNAL} {journal or session number}, at {page cited}.
Just omit the legislature number, session details, and the date.
Id may also be used when proper.

For executive issuances, as a general rule, the citation is as


follows: {Issuing agency}, {title, if any}, {issuance or
series number, if any} [{short/ abbreviated title, if
applicable}], {volume and official reporter, if any},
{page or subdivision cited} ({date}). Always cite from a
reporter (e.g., Official Gazette (O.G.)) if published therein.

51.

17. Congressional Journals


17.1.

13

l .2.

Bureau of Internal Revenue, Revenue Memorandum


Circular No. 37-93 [BIR RMC No. 37-93], 89 O.G. 4476
(Aug. 9, 1993).
Bureau of Internal Revenue, Revenue Regulation No. r62005 [BIR Rev. Reg. r6-2005], effectivity cl. (Sep. I,
2005).

53 .

Bureau of Internal Revenue, Ruling No. DA- 176-04


[BIR Ruling No. DA-r76-o4] (Apr. 6, 2004).

54.

Office of the President, Instituting the Presidential Award


for Heroism in Times of Disaster, Executive Order No.
421 [E.O . No. 42I] (Sep. 7, I990).

55.

Securities and Exchange Commission, Code of Corporate


Governance, SEC Memorandum Circular No. 2, Series of
2002 [SEC Memo. Circ. No. 6, s. 2002] (Apr. 5, 2002).

For subsequent citations, indicate the acronym or abbreviation


of the administrative agency before the issuance or series
number. Then, include the pertinent subdivisions, if any.
56.
57

BIR RMC No. 37-93


SEC Memo. Circ. No. 6 (2002), art.

I.

ATE N EO LAW JOURNAL

14

PRIMARY AUTHORI T I ES

19. Advisory Opinions


19.1.

Advisory opinions are cited ana logously to administrative


issuances . Cite as: {Issuing agency}, {title, if any},
{issuance or series number, if any} ({date}).

s8.

19.2.

63.

JI, .

Department of Justice, D OJ Opinion No . 001, Series of


2009 (Dec. r8, 2008).

For subsequent citations, indicate the acronym of the


administrative agency then the issuance or series number.

59.

D O] O pini on N o. 009, s. 2009.

60.

DO] Opinion N o. 001, s. 2009.

22. Implementing Rules and Regulations


J) . l.

Supreme Court circulars and administrative orders are akin to


administrative issuances. Cite them as: {Supreme Court},
{title, if any}, {issuance or series number, if any}
[{short title, if applicable}], {subdivision} ({date}).

6r.

20.2.

Supreme Court, R e: Designation of Pilot Courts for Small


Claims Cases, SC Administrative O rder No. 141-2008 [SC
A.O. N o. 141] (Sep. 29, 2oo8).

For subsequent citations, just indicate the {short title} and


{subdivision} referred to. Jd. may also be used when proper.

62.

SC A.O. N o. 141, r.

21. Bar Matters


21.1.

A Bar Matter may be a Supreme Court issuance or case . For


issuances, the rules for SC circulars above is followed.

Supreme Court, R e: Proposed Reform in the Bar


Examinations, Bar M atter No . II6I [B.M . No. II61] (Feb.
3. 2009).

For subsequent citations, follow Ru le 20.2 above.

For Implementing Rules and Regu lations of various statutes, the


following format is be used: {Issuing agency, if needed},
Rules and Regulations Implementing {full title, if
relevant or short title of statute, if any}, {statute
number}, {subdivision} ({year}).

64.

R ules and R egulations Implementing the Anti- Violence


against W omen and T heir Children Act of 2004, Republic
Act N o. 9262, 14 (a) (2004) .

6s.

Id.
R ules and Regulations Implementing the e-Commerce
Act of 2000 [e-Commerce Act of 2000), Republic Act N o.
8792, I (2000).

20. Supreme Court Circulars and Administrative Orders


20.1.

15

66.

67.

Id.

22.2.

The ful l title of the statute need not be given if not relevant. If
there is no short title, indicate the fu ll title or the statute
number.

22.3.

For subsequent citations, indicate: Rules and Regulations


I mplementing {short title, if any or statute number},
{subdivision cited}. Jd. may also be used when proper.

I6

PRIMARY AUTHORIT I ES

ATEN EO LAW JOURNAL


79

F. Rules of Procedure
23. Rules of Procedure Within the Rules of Court
23.1.

23.2.

If a specific rule is cited, the following form is observed: {Year,


if applicable} {TITLE OF RULEs}, {rule number},
{subdivision cited}. The title is in SMALL CAPS.

''I.

69.

Id.

70.
71.

1997 RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, rule 41, 2 (a) .


Id.

72.

REVISED RULES ON EVIDENCE, rule 128,

73

Jd.

74

SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS, rule 73, 1.

75.

Id.

76.

1991 REVISED R ULES ON SUMMARY PROCEDURE,

77

Id.

1.2.

I.

llh. l.
10.

For subsequent citations, just omit the year, if any is used. Id.
may also be used when proper.

Cite ru les of procedure which are not under the Rules of Court
as: {TITLE OF RULES}, {rule or issuance number}, {date, if
any}, {if annotated, indicate such fact} {subdivision}.
78.

indicate:

{TITLE

OF

RULEs},

Rules already superseded must be accordingly cited .


8o.

1985 RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, mle Il2, 6 (a)


(superseded 2000).

81.

r983 RULES ON SUMMARY PROCEDURE IN SPECIAL


CASES, rule II2 , 10 (superseded 1991).

For subsequent citations, retain the year. Just omit the year it
was superseded .

26. Rules of Procedure of Administrative Agencies

24. Rules of Procedure Issued by the Supreme Court Not


Incorporated in the Rules of Court
24.1.

citations,

25. Superseded Rules of Court

2000 REVISED R ULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, mle


110,

THE RULE ON THE WRIT OF AMPARO, A.M . N o. 07-9r2-SC, Sep. 25, 2007, 9.

For subsequent
{subdivision}.

The Rules of Court cannot be cited in the footnote text as a


collective repository of rules. It may only be mentioned in the
body to refer to the Rules of Court as a collective.

68.

23.3.

U.

17

RULES OF PROCEDURE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CASES,


A.M. N o. 09-6-8-SC, Apr. 13, 2oro, annot. r.

6.2.

Generally, if rules of procedure of administrative agencies,


exercising their quasi-judicial functions, are promulgated as
official issuances, cite them as in Executive and Administrative
Materials (Section E above). Thus: {Issuing agency}, {title}
[{short title}], {subdivision} ({date}).
82.

Department of Agrarian Reform Adjudication Board, T he


2009 Departm ent of Agrarian Refom1 Adjudicatio n Board
R ules of Procedu re [2009 D ARAB R ules of Procedure],
rule III, I (Sep . I, 2009).

8 3.

National Labor Relations Commission, The 200 5 Revised


R ules of Procedure of the N ational Labor Relations
Commission [2005 N LRC Revised R ules of Procedure],
rule III , 6 (a) (2005).

For subsequent citations, follow this format: {Short title},


{subdivision cited}.

PRIMARY AUTHORITiES

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

r8

29. City Ordinances

27. Legislative Rules of Procedure


27.1.

27.2.

Cite congressional
rules of procedure as fol lows:
{Congressional body} {title} [{short title, if any}],
{subdivision cited}, {legislature} ({date}).
84.

H. Rules of Procedure in Impeachment Proceedings [H.


Rules on Impeachment], rule I, I, 13th Cong. (Aug. I,
2005).

85.

S. Rules of Procedure Governing Inquiries in Aid of


Legislation [S. Rules on Inquiries in Aid of Legislation],
2, 15th Cong. (Aug. 2I, I995).

Municipal ordinances are cited by: {Ordinance No.},


Sangguniang Sayan of {Municipality}, {title of
ordinance} [{short citation}], {subdivision} ({date}).
86.

28.2.

City ordinances are cited by: {Ordinance No.}, Sangguniang


Panlungsod of {City}, {title of ordinance} [{short
citation}], {subdivision} ({date}).
1!8.

Municipal Ordinance No. 002-2006, Sangguniang Bayan of


Balete (Aldan), An Ordinance Enacting the Gender and
Development (GAD) Code of the Municipality of Balete
and Mandating the Implementation of a Comprehensive
and Sustainable GAD Program [Balete Municipal
Ordinance No. oo2-2oo6], 6 (Mar. 9, 2006).

For subsequent citations, Id may be used when proper.


Otherwise, use the short citation and the subdivision number.
This is applicable to all kinds of ordinances below.
87.

Balete Municipal Ordinance No. 002-2006, 6.

Tagum City Ordinance No. 508-2ou, Sangguniang


Panlungsod of Tagurn (Davao del Norte), An Ordinance
Granting Separation/Disability/Death Benefits to All
Qualified Barangay Health Workers (BHWs) in Tagum
City [Tagum City Ordinance No. 508-20II], 4 (May I6,
20II).

30. Provincial Ordinances


Ill. I ,

28. Municipal Ordinances


28.1.

II, I ,

For subsequent citations, use this format: {Short title},


{subdivision cited}.

G. Ordinances

19

Provincial ordinances are cited by: {Ordinance No.},


Sangguniang Panlalawigan of {Province}, {title of
ordinance} [{short citation}], {subdivision} ({date}).
89.

Provincial
Ordinance
No.
5-2009, Sangguniang
Panlalawigan of the Province of Davao Oriental, An
Ordinance on Environmental Regulations and Resource
Management in the Province of Davao Oriental [Davao
Oriental Provincial Ordinance No. 5-2009], 7 (a) (Nov.
17, 2009).

SECO NDARY AUTHORITIES

SECONDARY AUTHORITIES

33. Two Authors

H. Books and Other Non-Periodic Materials

II. I .

31. Single Author


31.1.

31.2.

A book by a single author is cited as: {AUTHOR}, {TITLE}


{cited page} ({year of publication} or {edition number}
{year of edition}).
The

AUTHOR

and the

TITLE

are both in

SMALL CAPS

form.

90.

RUBEN F. BALANE, jOTTINGS AND JURISPRUDENCE IN


CIVIL LAW: SUCCESSION 59 (4th ed. 2010).

9I.

jOAQUIN G. BERNAS, S.J., THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF


THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES: A COMMENTARY
II95 (2009 ed. ).

31.3.

For subsequent citations, !d. may be used when proper.

31.4.

Supra may also be used for other subsequent citations following


this format: {AUTHOR}, supra note {footnote number of
initial citation}, at {page number cited}.
92 .

32.2 .

If the book has two authors, separate their names with an


ampersand ("&") as follows: {FIRST AUTHOR} & {SECOND
AUTHOR}, {TITLE} {cited page} ({year of publication} or
{edition number} {year of edition}).
94

JUSTICE JOSE C. VITUG & JUDGE ERNESTO D. ACOSTA,


TAX LAW AND JURISPRUDEN CE 150 (3d ed . 2006).

95.

]OVITO R . SALONGA & PEDRO L.


INTERNATIONAL LAW 77 (5th ed. 1992).

96.

VlTUG & ACOSTA, supra note 94, at 175 .

H. I .

For materials by a single author with multi-volume work, follow


th is format: {Volume number} {AUTHOR}, {TITLE} {cited
page} ({year of publication} or {edition number} {year
of edition}).

I . .

93

l 11.l.

ISO

For subsequent citations, follow Rule 31.4 above.

(2007 ed.).

PUBLIC

34. More than Two Authors


If the material was written by more than two authors, follow
this format: {FIRST AUTHOR}, ET AL., {TITLE} {cited page}
({year of publication} or {edition number} {year of
edition}).
97

NAR.CISO PENA, ET AL., REGISTRATION OF LAND TITLES


AND DEEDS 200 (2008 ed.).

98.

JOSUE N. BELLOSILLO, ET AL., OMNIBUS ELECTION CODE


181 (2007).

99.

PENA, ET AL., supra note 97, at 225.

BALANE, supra note 90, at 103 .

2 OSCAR B. HERRERA, REMEDIAL LAW

YAP,

For subsequent citations, fol low Ru le 31.4 above.

32. Single Author with Multi-Volume Work


32.1.

21

For subsequent citations, fol low Ru le 31.4 above.

35. With Editor or Translator


If the material has an indicated editor or translator, the format
is: {AUTHOR}, {TITLE} {cited page} ({Editor or
Translator} {ed(s). or trans.}, {year}).

22

SECONDARY AUTHORlTlES

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL


roo. ADAM SMITH, THE WEALTH OF NATIONS 30-31 (Edwin
Cannan ed., 2000).
101. WOMEN AND AMERICAN JUDAISM 108-09 (Pamela S.
Nadell &Jonathan D . Sarna eds., 2001).
102. WOMEN AND LANGUAGE IN LITERATURE AND SOCIETY
284-99 (Ruth Broker, et al. eds., 1980).
103 . NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, THE PRINCE 45-50
Marriott trans., 1908).

For subsequent citations, follow Rule 31.4 above.

36. Institutional Authors


36.1.

If the indicated author is an institution, cite as: {INSTITUTIONAL


{cited page} ({year of publication} or
{edition number} {year of edition}).

AUTHOR}, {TITLE}

104. WORKING GROUP FOR AN ASEAN HUMAN RIGHTS


MECHANISM, TOWARDS AN ASEAN HUMAN RIGHTS
MECHANISM 3 (1999) .

36.2.

For subsequent citations, follow Rule 31.4 above.

37. Works in Collections


37.1.

For works in collections, the citation style is: {Author}, {title


Of the shorter WOrk}, in {TITLE OF THE WHOLE COLLECTION}
{cited page} ({year of publication} or {edition number}
{year of edition}).

37.2.

The author and the title are not in SMALL CAPS but, rather, in
ordinary Roman font and italics, respectively. The TITLE OF THE
COLLECTION, however, is in SMALL CAPS format.
105. Lola Rodriguez de Tio, Ode to October 10, in HERENCIA:
THE ANTHOLOGY OF HISPANIC LITERATURE OF THE
UNITED STATES 562 (Nicolas Kanellos ed. & Manuel
T ellechea trans. , 2002) .

or subsequent citations, follow Rule 31.4 above. However, the


f rmat of the author's name in the short citation must follow
hat used in the initial citation, i.e., ordinary Roman font.

, Prefaces, Forewords, Introductions, and Epilogues

(W.K.

Ill I .
35.2.

he indicator "in" must be italicized.

1/ I,

II I,

23

or prefaces, forewords, introductions, and epi logues by


omeone other than the author of the cited material, use this
format: {Author of the preface, foreword, etc.},
I ntroduction 1 Preface I Foreword I Epilogue to
{ AUTHOR}, {TITLE} {cited page of preface, foreword, etc.}
({year of publication} or {edition number} {year of
edition}).
1

Ill, ,

o6. Ricardo Paras, Foreword to JOSE Y. FERIA & MAKIA


CONCEPCION
S.
NOCHE,
CiVIL
PROCEDURE
ANNOTATED iii (2001) .

For subsequent citations, follow Rule 31.4 above. However, the


format of the author's name in the short citation must follow
that used in the initial citation, i.e., ordinary Roman font.

39. Compilations
Certain legal compi lations combine several issues of a periodical
or journal into a multi-volume work. These compilations may be
divided into chapters or divisions based on specific topics. While
the initial edition is attributable to the authors, further editiog,s
are updated or expanded by a new team of editors.
works may be cited as follows: {Volume number} {AUTHOR},
{TITLE}, {division} {cited page}, ({editor} {ed(s).},
{year of publication} or {edition number} {year of
edition}).
l07. T CHRISTOPHER SHAWCROSS & K.M. BEAUMONT,
SHAWCROSS & BEAUMONT: AIR LAW, VII 3! 7 0- David
McClean, et al. , eds ., 4th ed. 2003).

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

24

108. 2 CHRISTOPHER SHAWCROSS & K.M . BEAUMONT,


SHAWCROSS & BEAUMONT: AIR LAW, A 43-67 (].David
McClean et al., eds., 4th ed., 2003).

39.2.

SECO NDARY AUTHORLTlES

25

42. Special Citation Forms


I I 1,

For subsequent citations, follow Rule 31.4 above.

Below are examples of frequently cited works that require


pecia l citation:
1 1 r. BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY 714 (9th ed . 2009).

40. Annotations

1 12. L7 AM. JVR. 2D Contracts 74 (1964) .


1 3. I john 4:7-8 (KingJames).

40.1.

Annotations, which are discussions in selected case reporters


(like the SCRA and the Phil.), are cited as follows: {Author},
Annotation, {title}, {volume number} {reporter} {first
page}, {cited page} ({year}) .
109. Jorge R. Coquia, Annotation, The National Computerized

enerally, short-cite them by omitting the year or edition


number. !d. may also be used when proper.

uurnals and Periodical Articles in General

Identification Riference System as Violation of the Right to


Privacy: A R eview of the Principles and Jurisprudence on Privacy
as Human Rights, 293 SCRA 201, 203 (1998).
40.2.

For subsequent citations, follow Rule 31.4 above. However, the


format of the author's name in the short citation must follow
that used in the initial citation, i.e., ordinary Roman font.

41. Treatises
41.1.

Treatises are formal discourses covering specific subject


matters. These may come in volumes. When citing a single
volume of a multi-volume work, give the main title of the
specific volume cited. If the title ends with a numeral, or if
distinguishing between the title and page number could
otherwise be confusing, the page number should be set apart
and preceded by a comma and the word "at" as follows:
{AUTHOR}, {TITLE} {cited page} ({year}) Or {AUTHOR},
{TITLE ENDING WITH A NUMBER}, at {cited page} ({year}).
ITO.

41.2.

SAMUEL WILLISTON, A TREATISE ON THE LAW OF


CONTRACTS, ADMINISTRATIVE LAW TREATISE 120- 21
(1990).

For subsequent citations, follow Rule 31.4 above.

43. Consecutively Paginated Journals


I 111.

Cite consecutively paginated journals as: {Author}, {title},


{volume number} {JOURNAL} {first page}, {cited page}
({year}).

I I.

A journal is consecutively paginated if the works are paginated


In sequence throughout the whole volume. Author name and
title are in ordinary Roman font and italics, respectively.

II, I.

The JOURNAL NAME is in SMALL CAPS and abbreviated (refer to the


Annex for selected abbreviations).
1 14.

U.S. -japan Enhanced Initiative as an


Instrument of Change: The Efficacy of Japan 's Latest Effort at
Telecommunications Deregulation, 22 ASIAN-PAC. LAW &

Dawn N agatani,

POL'Y]. 29 I, 296 (200 I) .

44. Non-Consecutively Paginated Journals

11.1.

Cite non-consecutively paginated journals as: {Author},


{title}, {JOURNAL}, {date, month, quarter, period or
year}, at {cited page}.

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL


44.2.

Non-consecutively paginated journals are those whose issues


per volume are separately paginated.
I 15.

SECONDARY AUTHORlTIES
I Oth r Periodical Articles
46. Magazine Articles

Victor L. Streib, Sentencing Women to Death, CRIM. JUST. ,


Spring 2000, at 23.

lit I,

Cite magazine articles as: {Author}, {title}, {NAME OF


{date, month, quarter, period or year}, at
{page number cited}.
MAGAZINE},

45. Citation of Student Works in Law Journals


45.1.

27

Cite
student
works
in
journals
as:
{Author},
{Comment/Note/Case Note}, {title}, {volume number}
{JOURNAL} {first page}, {cited page} ({date, month,
quarter, period or year}}.

1 2 1.

Usha Tankha, Traniforming Miifortune into Opportunity,


ADB REv., Apr.-May 2006, at 30.

47. Signed Newspaper Articles


The Public
Character of Coconut Levy Funds in Republic v. COCOFED,

116. Kristoffer James E.

Purisima,

Comment,

47 ATENEO L.J. 154, 155 (2002).

I , I,

rr7. Bernard Joseph B. Malibiran, Note, Psychological Incapacity


Revisited: A Review of Recent jurisprudence, 52 ATENEO L.J.
392, 416 (2007).

45.2.
45.3.

For subsequent citations under this Section (I), Id may be used


when proper.
Supra may also be used accord ing to this format: {Author},
supra note {footnote number of initial citation}, at
{page number cited}.

uS. Hans Leo ]. Cacdac, The 2006 ILO Maritime Labor


Convention: Prospects for Philippine Ratification, 55 ATENEO
L.J. 4.7 (2oro).
II9.

Jd.

120. Nagatani, supra note II4, at 293.

lte sig ned newspaper articles as: {Author}, {headline},


{date of article}, at {page
on which article appears}.

{ABBREVIATION OF NEWSPAPER},

122.

John M. Broder, Clinton Adamant on 3D World Role m


Climate Accord, N.Y. TIMES, Dec. 12, 1997, at A1.

17, ,

or subsequent citations under this Section (J), Jd may be used


when proper.

I , I,

Supra may also be used according to this format: {Author},


supra note {footnote number of initial citation}, at
{page number cited}.
123.

Ronnel W. Domingo, Philippine insurers expect rise in sales,


PHIL. DAILY INQ., Sep. 21, 201!, at B3.

124. Id.
125. Broder, supra note 122, at A1.

28

SECO NDARY AU THORITI ES

ATEN EO LAW JOURNAL

29

http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/ breakingnews/ nation/view/


20 I 0 r I 25-3 0 52 7 5/House-bill-seeks-to-crim.inalize-plagiarism
(last accessed Jan. 24, 20II ).

K. Internet Sources
48. Internet Sources in General

0. Paginated Unpublished Materials Online


48.1.

In general, internet sources are cited as follows: {Author or


organization, if any}, {title}, available at {internet
address} (last accessed {date}). The author and title are
both in ordinary Roman font.

'II I ,

Pag inated unpublished materials available online are cited as:


{Author}, {title} ({description of material}) {page
number cited}, avaHable at {internet address} (last
accessed {date}). The author and title are both in ordinary
Roma n font.

126. Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau, Tamaraw


Conservation Proj ect, available at http://www.p awb.
gov.ph/ progs/ta maraw.htm (last accessed Dec. 27, 2002).

1 3 L.

127. Barry M. Leiner, et al., A Brief History of the Internet,


available at http://www.isoc.org/intem et/ history/brief
shtml# Introduction (last accessed Apr. 26, 2007).
128. D. Ian Hopper, Destructive ' ILOVEYOU ' computer virus
strikes worldwide, available at http://archives.cnn.com /
2ooo/TECH/ computing/ o sl 04/ iloveyou/ (last accessed
Aug. 27, 2006).

,n,; ,

129. PlagiarismdotORG, What is Plagiarism?, available at http :!/


www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_what_is_pl agiarism. html
(last accessed Jan. 26. 2on).

49. News Articles Online


49.1.

News articles online are cited as follows: {Author, if


available}, {headline}, {ABBREVIATION OF NEWSPAPER},
{date of publication/report}, avaHable at {internet
address} (last accessed {date}).

49.2.

Use only the official website of a news publication .

49.3.

The format for signed newspaper articles above is followed. The


Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and last accessed date,
however, are added and the page number is omitted.
130. Lira Dalangin-Femandez, House bill seeks to criminalize

plagiarism, PHIL. DAILY INQ., N ov. 25, 2010, available at

Rita Simmons, Political Inclusion and Decentralization


(An U npublished Paper Submitted to the Canadian
Democratic Forum) 37, available at http://www.
canadiandemocratic. com/ 467 390/ papers/simmons/political
inclusioni7288.pdf (last accessed July 9, 2010).

If the online material has a published/printed version, cite that


instead.

51. Non-Paginated Unpublished Materials Online


' 1. 1.

Non-paginated unpublished materials available on line are cited


as: {Author}, {title} ({description of material}),
available at {internet address} (last accessed {date}).
The format is substantially the same as in paginated materials
above, except that the page number is omitted.

ltl ,:l.

If the online material has a published/printed version, cite that


instead.

' 1. .

These unpublished materials may be in the form of Working


Papers, Discussion Papers, and the like.

' 1/1.

For subsequent citations under this Section (K), I d. may be used


when proper.

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

30
51.5.

Supra may also be used according to the following format:


{Author or organization or web site}, supra note
{footnote number of initial citation}, at {page number
cited, if any}.

13 2. Dalangin- Fernandez, supra note 130.

L. Interviews
52. In-Person Interview
52.1.

Cite personal interviews as: Interview with {name}, {title


or position}, {institutional affiliation, if any, of the
interviewee}, in {location of the interview} ({date of
the interview}).

133 . Interview with Dick C heney, Vice-President, United


States of America, in Washington, D .C. (Oct. 24, 2006).

53. Telephone Interview


53.1.

When citing a telephone interview, fol low this format:


Telephone Interview with {name}, {title or position},
{institutional affiliation, if any, of the interviewee}, in
{location ofthe interviewee} ({date of the interview}).

134. Telephone Interview with Orban Pamuk, in Stockholm


(Oct. 12, 2006).

54. Interview Not Personally Conducted


54.1.

SECONDARY AUTHORITIES

When the author did not personally conduct the interview,


provide the name of the interviewer. Follow this format:
Interview by {name of interviewer} with {name of
interviewee},
{title
or
position},
{institutional
affiliation, if any, of the interviewee}, in {location of the
interview} ({date of the interview}).

31

135 Interview by Harry Keisler with Kofi Annan, Secretary


General, United N ations, in University of California,
Berkeley (Apr. 19, 1998) .

I, .

For subsequent citations under this Section (L), Id. may be used
when proper.
Supra may also be used according to this format: Interview
with/Telephone Interview with {interviewee}, supra
note {footnote number of initial citation}; or Interview
by {name of Interviewer} with {Interviewee}, supra
note {footnote number of initial citation}.

136. Telephone Interview with Orban Pamuk, supra note 134.


137. Interview by H arry Keisler with Kofi Annan, supra note
13 s.

eches
55. Unpublished and Untranscribed Speeches
Cite unpublished, untranscribed speeches as fol lows:
{Speaker}, {title or position}, {institutional affiliation,
if any}, {title of speech, if any}, Address I Remarks at
{event or place of address} ({date of address}).
If t he speech does not have a formal title, provide a description.
LJ8. Cesar L. Villanueva, D ean, Ateneo de M anila School of

Law, Opening R emarks at the Ateneo Law Journal 6oth


Anniversary Commemorative Dinner (Sep. 10, 20II ).

56. Transcribed Speeches


Cite transcribed speeches as: {Speaker}, {title or position},
{institutional affiliation, if any}, {title of speech, if any},
Address 1 Remarks at {event or place of address}
({date of address}) (transcript available in/ available at

ECONDARY AUTHORITIES

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL


{location of transcript
accessed {date}}).
56.2.

or

internet address}

{last

57. Published Speeches


Cite published speeches as: {Speaker}, {title or position},
{institutional affiliation, if any}, {title of speech, if any},
Address 1 Remarks at {event or place of address}
{{date of address}), in{source}.

140. Sedfrey M. Candelaria, Postscript to the


MOA-AD Judgment: No Other Way
Forward, Address at Peace Process
Development: An Academic Symposium
in 54 ATENEO L.J. 269 (2009).

Supreme Court
But to Move
and National
(Apr. rs, 2009),

141. Ricardo C. Puno, Justice of the Court of Appeals, Missions


of Judicial Administration in Asia and the Pacific, Address
at LAWASlA Conference of Chief Justices (Aug. 1923, 1986), in 30 ATENEO L.J. l i (1986).
57.2.

For subsequent citations under this Section (M), !d. may be


used when proper.

57.3.

Supra may also be used according to the following format:

{Speaker}, supra note {footnote number of initial


citation}, at {page number cited, if any}.

142. Candelaria, supra note 140, at 270.


143. Villanueva, supra note 138.
144. Panganiban, supra note 139.

es
58. Dissertations and Theses

If the transcript is available online, use available at

139 Artemio V. Panganiban, Ret. Chief Justice of the Supreme


Court, Bulwark of Filipino Catholicism, Remarks at the
5th Manila Cathedral-Basilica (MCB) Pipe Organ Concert
at the Manila Cathedral-Basilica (Nov. 12, 2010) (transcript
available at http:// cjpanganiban.ph/speeches/bulwark-offilipino-catholicism (last accessed Dec. 17, 2010)).

57.1.

, lh

33

III I I ,

lssertations and theses are cited as follows: {Author},


{title}, at {page number cited} {{date}) {{type of
work}, {institution that awarded the degree})
{{source}) .

111 5 WiUiam M. Howard, Mandatory Arbitration of


Employment Discrimination Disputes: Can Justice Be
Served?, at 5 (May 1995) (unpublished Ph.D . dissertation,
Arizona State University) (on file with author).
146. Archie E. Blake, Daubert and Reality: A Survey of Nevada
Judges (1996) (unpublished thesis, University of Nevada)
(on file with Reno Library, University ofNevada).
14 7. Rosalyn C. Rayco, Cyber Prostitution at a Click of a
Button: Evaluating the Applicability of Prostitution
Statutes in Criminahzing Paid Video-based Cybersex, at 2
(2006) (unpublished J.D. thesis, Ateneo de Manila
University) (on file with the Professional Schools Library,
Ateneo de Manila University).
148. Bernard Joseph B. Malibiran, Are We Ready for Another
Lovebug? Delving into Cybercrime and Re-Examining the
e-Conu11erce Act of 2000 and Other Pertinent Laws (2008)
(unpublished J.D. thesis, Ateneo de Manila University) (on
file with the Professional Schools Library, Ateneo de
Manila University).
For subsequent citations, !d. may be used when proper.
Supra may also be used following this format: {Author},

supra note {footnote number of initial citation}, at


{page number cited}.
r 49 Rayco, supra note 147, at 3

34

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS

0. Electronic Databases

olutlons

59. Westlaw Sources


59.1.

59.2.

Westlaw and other electronic databases are recognized as


reliable, up-to-date, and convenient repositories of authorities.
Legal encyclopedias like American Jurisprudence (second
edition) and Corpus Juris Secundum are regularly updated and
available in Westlaw.
For American Jurisprudence (second edition), cite as follows:
{Volume} {AM. JuR. 2o} {topic} {subdivision} (Westlaw
{year updated}).

150. 64 AM.JUR. 2D Public Works and Contracts 104 (Westlaw


2010).
151. 71 AM. JUR. 2D State and Local Taxation 32 (Westlaw
20II).
59.3.

For subsequent citations, remove (Westlaw {year updated})


but retain it if the cited subdivision was updated in a different
year. !d. may also be used when proper.

152. 64 AM.JUR. 2D Public Works and Contracts 104.


153. Id. 3
59.4.

For Corpus Juris Secundum, cite as follows: {Volume}


{C.J.S.}
{topic}
{subdivision}
(Westlaw
{year
updated}).

154. 98 C.J.S. Witnesses 361 (Westlaw 20II) .


155. 67A C.J.S. Parent and Child 140 (Westlaw 20II ).
59.5.

For subsequent citations, remove (Westlaw {year updated})


but retain it if the cited subdivision was updated in a different
year. Id. may also be used when proper.

156. 67A C.J.S. Parent and Child 140.


157. Id. 346.

60. U.N. G.A. Resolutions


ttll 1.

United Nations (U.N.) General Assembly (G.A.) Resolutions or


I clsions, if published in the General Assembly Official Records
(GAOR), are cited as follows: {Resolution or decision
number}, {paragraph number, if applicable}, U.N.
GAOR, {session number}, {supplement number},
({volume number}), {document designation and volume
number, if applicable}, at {page number} ({full date}).
0.1.1. After 1976, G.A. resolutions are indicated by the
session number and the specific resolution number in
the said session. For example, the second resolution
adopted during the sixty-second G.A. will appear as
G.A. Res. 62/ 2. Refer to Notes 158 and 159 below for
examples.
0.1.2.

Prior to 1976, G.A. resolution numbers are increased


from year to year with the session number indicated by
Roman numerals. Thus the format is: {Resolution or
decision number} ({session number in Roman
numerals}), {paragraph number, if applicable},
U.N. GAOR, {session number}, {supplement
number}, ({volume number}), {document
designation and volume number, if applicable},
at {page number} ({full date}). Take for example,
G.A. Res. 832 (IX), contained below in Note 160.

158. G .A. Res. 471I63,


5, U .N . GAOR, 47th Sess., Supp.
No. 49, (Vol. l), U.N. Doc. A/47/49 (Vol. I) , at u6 (Dec.
18, 1992).
159. G.A. Dec. 62/557, U.N. GAOR, 62d Sess., Supp. No. 49,
(Vol. III), U.N. Doc. A/63/49 (Vol. III), at 104 (Sep . 15,
2008).

ATE N EO LAW JOURNAL

INTE RNATIONAL DOCUMEN TS

160. G.A. R es. 832 (IX ), U.N. GAOR, 9th Sess., Supp. No .
21, U.N. Doc. A/2890, at 17 (Oct. 21 , 1954) .

2.1.2.

61. U.N. G.A. Resolutions from Online Version


61.1.

If the resolution is from an online version, specifical ly the


Official Document System (ODS), cite as follows:
1

61.1.1. After 1976: {Resolution or decision number}, {at


page number, but if applicable, paragraph
number}, {document designation} ({full date}) .

16r. G.A. R es. 57/377 , ,-r 3, U .N . Doc. A/ RES /5 7/ 377 (July 3,,
2003).
61.1.2. Before 1976: {Resolution number} ({session
number in Roman numerals}), {at page number,
if
applicable,
paragraph
number},
but
{document designation} ({full date}).

I I,

62.1.1. If from the online version, the citation format is:


{Title}, {resolution or decision number}, {at
page number, but if applicable, paragraph
number}, {document designation} ({full date}).

163. Establishment of the World H ealth Organization, G.A.


R es. 61 (I) , at 96, U.N. Doc. A/ RES /61(I) (Dec. 14,
1946).

4 Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to


N ational or Ethnic, R eligious and Linguistic Minorities,
G.A. Res. 47lr 35 , Annex, U.N. GAOR, 47th Sess. , Supp.
No . 49, (Vol. 1) , U.N. Doc. A/ 47/49 (Vol. I) , at 210 (Dec.
18, 1992).

Resolutions issued by other organizations are cited ana logously


with t he above citation types for resolutions and decisions.

165. S.C. Res. 508, 3, U.N. SCOR, 37th Year, U.N . Doc.
S/IN F/ 38, at 5 (June 5, 1982).
106. S.C.
Pres .
Statement
2008/48 ,
S/PRST12oo8/ 48 (Dec. 22 , 2oo8).

62. U.N. G.A. Resolutions Better Known by Titles


For resolutions that are better known by their titles, cite by
placing the title at the beginning of the citation. This is followed
whether the cited resolution or decision is from the GAOR or
from the online version .

But if from the GAOR, the format is: {Title},


{Resolution or decision number}, {paragraph
number, if applicable}, U.N. GAOR, {session
number}, {supplement number}, ({volume
number}), {document designation and volume
number, if applicable}, at {page number} ({full
date}).

63. Resolutions by Other U.N. Organizations

162. G. A. R es. 2625 (XXV), at 76, U.N. Doc. A/ 8o28 (Oct.


24, 1970).

62.1.

37

U .N.

Doc.

167. E.S.C. Res. 1990/26, U.N. Doc. EIRESir990!9o (May


24, 1990).
I ,

For subsequent citations under this Section (P), Id. may be used
when proper.

I, I,

Supra may also be used following this format: {Title, if


applicable, otherwise, resolution number} ({session
number, when applicable}), supra note {footnote
number of initial citation}, {at page number or, if
applicable, paragraph number}.

168. G .A. R es 57/377, supra note r 61,

r69. Id.
170.

6.

8.

Establishment of the W orld Health O rganization, supra


no te 163, at 96.

IIIII I NATI

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

NAL DOCUMENTS

39

66. Conference Reports

Q.Reports

11 1H r t Is the result of a conference or a series of


' "''" IIIII I'' 1 lte as follows: {Conference name or name of

64. U.N. Reports

1
64.1

I 111 r meeting of the conference, if it is part of a


) 1 {pi ce of conference, except when it occurs in
111 <. of the headquarters of the organization},
Indicating duration}, {report title}, {paragraph
1 1 IJ lnt citation}, {document designation, when
Y I hi } ({official date of document, if different from
11111 n
date}).
11

Reports published by U.N. organs or committees are generally


cited as follows: {Name of the issuing body and
subcommittee, if any}, {title of the report, if any},
{paragraph number or the pinpoint citation, if any},
{document designation} ({full date}) (by {author, if
indicated}).

171. U .N . Econ. & Soc. Council, United Nations Forum on


Forests, Report of the Seventh Session, Ch. I, A. I. r at r, U.N.
Doc. E/CN.r8/2oo7/8 (Feb. 24, 2006 & Apr. 16-27,
2007).

11111

in11a l Conference on the Dialogue of Civilization s,


yu and Kyoto, Jap., July 3t-Aug. 3, 2001 , Conference

1 "''

/.'"l'fltl, ,, A.2.

Wnild Conference on Human Rights, June T4-25, 1993,


I it'll/Ill /)ec/aration and Programme of
34, U.N. Doc.
/\/( '( )NF.157/23 Ouly 12, 1993).

65. Reports by the Secretary-General or Other Officials

I 111 'olll>'l quent citations under this Section (Q), Id. may be
65.1.

11 ,, tl wll n proper.

If the report was by the Secretary-General or by anyone acting


in an official capacity as in the position of an envoy or
spokesperson, cite as follows: {Capacity or position},
{report title}, {paragraph or pinpoint citation, if any},
{name of the institution or committee to which the
report was delivered, if indicated}, {document
designation} ({full date}) (by {author, if indicated}).

'11/11.1 m y also be used fol lowing this format: {Report title},

upr. note {footnote number of initial citation}, {at


11 1 number or, if applicable, paragraph number}.
flollrlh Rep. on the Expulsion of A liens, supra note 173, at 7.

lrl. at 12.
172. U.N. Secretary-General, Report of the Secretary-General on
the Situation of Women and Girls in Afghanistan, 8, 48th
Session of the Conmuttee on the Status ofWomen, U .N .
Doc. EICN .6/2004/5 (Dec. 19, 2003) [hereinafter Report
on the Situation qf Women in Afghanistan] .

Ht '/)(JT/

011

the Situation of Women in Afghanistan, supra note

172, ,, 8.

' I

173. Special Rapporteur on the Expulsion of Ali ens, Fortrth Rep.


on the Expulsion qf Aliens, lnt'l Law Comm'n, U.N. Doc.
A/CN-4.594 (Mar. 24, 2008) (by M aurice Kamto).
''' 11

II 1, u ually advisable to use " hereinafter" in


IH ' lfl short citation form for all kinds of
wll n the report title is lengthy. The specific
ll 'ol I must be in the same typeface as that
1.11 In th is case, it must be italicized. See,
1/8, In connection to Note 172, above.

order to indicate a
reports, especia lly
short citation form
in the ful l citation,
for example, Note

Ill short citation form of the report, regardless of whether


"11 reinafter" was used, must be in italics(see Note 176) .

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

40

INTERNATlONAL DOCUMENTS

R. Treaties

w 1 opened for signature, approved, ratified, or adopted may


IH used. The signification of the date used must be indicated in
IItil/cs typeface.

67. Multilateral Treaties

67.1.

Treaties or agreements among three or more parties are cited


as follows: {Name of agreement}, {abbreviated names of
parties, if relevant}, {subdivision cited or pinpoint
citation}, {full date of signing or other significant date},
{international treaty source}.

, ,,

H'i Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons,


opened for signature July I, 1968, 729 U.N .T.S. 161.

II r levant, the entry into force of a treaty may be added by


ll II ating it through parentheticals at the end of the citation.
1H

179. U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea pmbl., opened for
signature Dec. 10, 1982, 1833 U.N.T.S. 397 [hereinafter
UNCLOSJ.
r8o. Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted Nov . 20,
1989, 1577 U.N.T.S. 3 [hereinafter CRC].

181. !d. art. 23.

U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea pmbl., opened for


sig1wture Dec. ro, 1982, 1833 U.N.T.S . 397 (entered into
force Nov. r6, 1994) .

When citing multilateral treaties, the names of the parties may,


II n cessa ry, also be indicated using their country abbreviations.
1

182. UNCLOS, supra note 179, art. 192.

H6 . North American Free Trade Agreement, U.S.-Can.-Mex.,


Dec. 17, 1992, 32 l.L.M. 289.

183. North Atlantic Treaty art. 4, Apr. 4, 1949, 34 U .N.T.S.


24367.2.

67.3 .

67.4.

67.5.

41

There is no comma between the name of the treaty and the


subdivision or paragraph cited.

68. Bilateral Treaties


II I

The citation of a treaty or other agreement must always include


the full name of the agreement; the parties, when applicable;
the full date of signing or other significant date; and the treaty
source citation. The on ly exceptions to this are citations to the
U.N. Charter and the League of Nations Covenant. For these
documents, fol low Ru le 70 below.
Treaties may be in one of the following forms: Agreement,
Convention, Protocol, Treaty, Memorandum, etc. Thus, in
indicating the fu ll name or title of the treaty, specify its form as
used in the first designation that appears on the title page of
the treaty.
The exact date of signing must be indicated. If for some reason
the date of the signing cannot be indicated (as when a treaty
was not signed on a single date), the date on which the treaty

rr

aties between two parties are cited as: {Name of


greement}, {abbreviated names of parties to
greement}, {subdivision or pinpoint citation, if any is
used}, {date of signing}, {international treaty source}.
1

R7. Treaty of Amity and Economic Relations, U .S.-T h., art. 2,


May 29, 1966, 652 U.N.T.S. 253 (entered into force June
8, 1968) [hereinafter T.A..E.R.].

1!!8 . !d.

rill ,

If the Philippines is a party to the agreement or treaty cited,


place its country abbreviation (Phil.) before that of the other
party.
189. Mutual Defense Treaty, PhiL-U.S., Aug. 30, 1951, 177
U.N.T.S . 133-

42

68.3.

IIIII I NAT IO NAL DOCUMENTS

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

!11 American Free Trade Agreement, supra note r86,

Indicate the exact date of signing. If there are multiple dates of


signing (like in the case of exchanges of notes), give the first
and last dates of signing to indicate the period covered for the
signings.

190. Agreement Relating to Visa Requirements, U.S.-Neth.,


July 30-August 20, 1947, 84 U.N.T.S. II.

Ill

I I

111 7 'I'.A. . R.., supra note 187.


IJH

UNCLOS, supra note 179, art. 97.

"I World Court Decisions (I.C.J. and P.C.I.J.)


I I

For citations to the Charter of the United Nations or the


Covenant of the League of Nations, follow this style: {Short
Title} {article number}, {paragraph number}.

, 'I rally, decisions of the International Court of Justice (I.C.J .)


or the Permanent Court of International Justice (P.C.I.J.)
(dl solved in 1946) are cited as: {Case name} ({parties'
bbreviated names, if any}), {type of court document, if
r levant}, {volume number and name of publication}
{page or case number}, {page number cited or pinpoint
citation} ({date}) .
<;9 . Asylum (Colom. v. Peru), 1950 I. C .J. 266, 277-78 (Nov.

20).

193. U.N. Charter art. 43,

.1.00. Id.

194. League ofNations Covenant art. 8.

201. Diversion of Water from M euse (Neth. v. Belg.), T937


P.C.I.J. (ser. A/B) No . 70, at 4 Qune 28) .

For subsequent citations under this Section (R), !d. may be used
when proper.
Supra is generally used for subsequent citations under this
Section (R) following th is format: {Title}, supra note
{footnote number of initial citation}, {at page number
or, if applicable, paragraph number or pinpoint citation}.

ble to use "hereinafter" to indicate a specific short

wll II olh r cited materials.

70.3.

upra may not be used for subsequent citations to t he

111 ty 11 used for these documents.

II j, tdvl

70. U.N. Charter and League of Nations Covenant

70.2.

1.

1ll.rllon form especially for treaties with long names or in cases


Will 11 ltlng the ful l name of the treaty may cause confusion

191. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court art. 5


(a), July I, 2002,2187 U.N.T.S. 90.

70.1.

1\llltll.ill cfcnse Treaty, supra note 189, art.

llttWI VI r,

hi

Treaties which result in the creation of new institutions are cited


analogously to other treaties, as follows: {Title of the treaty
or agreement}, {parties, if applicable}, {article or
subdivision cited}, {date of signing or other significant
date}, {international treaty source}. Exceptions to this are
citations to the U.N . Charter and the League of Nations
Covenant.

192. Statute of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
art. 2, Dec. ro, 1982, 1833 U.N.T.S. 561.

I''

II N. < llt11l r and the League of Nations Covenant. Nevertheless,

69. Founding Documents


69.1.

43

202. Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against


Nicaragua (Nicar. V. U.S.), 1986 I. C .J. 14, 138 Qun e 27).

/ I ,'J. ,

The case name t hat appears on the first page of the case report
must be used .

44
71.3.

IN I I:RNAT !ONAL DOCUMENTS

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

The word "Case" may be used only if a person's name was used
as the case name.

II

of publication} at {page or subdivision number

1}.
h)'l11111 , 1950 I.C.J. at 277- 78.

203 . The Nottebohm Case (Liech. v. Guat.), 1955 I. C .J. 4 (Apr.


6) .

It!.

71.4.

Do not include the abbreviated names of the parties anymore if


they are already found in the case name.

N11clear Tests, 1973 I.C.J. at I37


/1/ilitary and Paramilitary Activities, 1986 I. C .J. at 5,

71.5.

The indicator "v." between the abbreviated names of the parties


is used if the case was brought by unilateral application of one
party against the other (e.g., Nicar. v. U.S.). If the controversy
was brought by special agreement of the parties, the
abbreviated names must instead be separated by a slash (/).

72. World Court Advisory Opinions


I or dvisory opinions, the citation style is analogous to those of
oth r kinds of decisions: {Case name}, Advisory Opinion,
(volume number and name of publication} {page or
e number}, {page number cited or pinpoint citation}
({date}).

If important or relevant, the type of court document being cited


(i.e. Interim Protection Order, Provisional Measure, Judgment,
Preliminary Objection, etc.) may be indicated.

o. Reservations to the C onvention on th e Prevention and


Punishment of th e Crime of Genocide, Advisory Opinion,
1951 I. C .J. I S (May 28).

205 . Nuclear T ests (N.Z. v. Fr.) , Interim Protection Order,


1973 I.C.J. 135 Q'une 22).

71.7.

For I.C.J. and P.C.I.J. cases, the year is used to identify the
volume number. Thus, the year is omitted from the date at the
end of the citation where only the month and day are given
(e.g., 1981 I.C.J. 64 (Jan. 15) or 1925 P.c.I.J . (ser. A) No. 3
(March 22)).

71.8.

I.C.J. cases are cited to the page on which they begin in the
volume. P.C.I.J cases, meanwhile, are cited by the number
indicated in the case report.

71.9.

For subsequent citations of World Court cases, Id may be used


when proper.

71.10.

Supra may not be used for subsequent citations. Instead, a


short name of the case being cited must be indicated as in other
types of cases (see Primary Authorities, Section C). Generally,
the format is: {Short case name}, {volume number and

rules that pertain to World Court decisions may be


ously applied to other citation types of international law
covered below.

I II

204. Delimitation of Maritime Boundary in Gulf of M aine Area


(Can./U.S .), 1982 I.C.J. s6o (Nov. 5).

71.6.

45

I,

rhe parties are not listed.


or subsequent citations, follow Ru les 71.9 and 71.10 for World
ourt cases above.

73. Online I.C.J. Cases


/I I ,

I.C.J . cases that have not yet been published may be cited from
the International Lega l Materials (I.L.M.) or from the I.C.J.
Website (http:/ /www.icj-cij.org).
2 1 r.

Territorial and Maritime Dispute (Nicar. V. C olom.) ,


Judgment, 19 (MaY 4, 201 I) , available at http: //www.icj-

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

INl ER.NATlONAL DOCUMENTS

cij .org/docket/files1I24/r6soo.pdf (last accessed Sep. 23,


201 r).
73.2.

47

'I , International Criminal Tribunals Cases


I h 1 1,1 ns of ad hoc or regional tribunals such as the
lltlt 111 tiona! Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and
IIW 111d are cited as follows: {Case name}, {case number},
( yp of ruling or court document}, {subdivision cited}

For subsequent citations of on line I.C.J . cases, Id. may be used


when proper. Otherwise, follow Ru le 71.10 for World Court
cases above.

((cl t }).

74. Decisions of the Inter-American Commission on


Human Rights

11msccutor

v. Kunarac, Case No . ICTY-IT- 96-23 & ITII9 (Oct. II, 2001).

Ir, 23/r-A, Appeals


74.1.

74.2.

Generally, contentious cases (which excludes advisory opin ions,


provisional measures, and compliances) decided by the InterAmerican Court of Human Rights (Inter-Am. Ct. H.R.) are cited
as: {Case name}, {matter of decision}, {type of court
document}, {report and volume number}, {subdivision
or pinpoint citation} ({date}).

212. Velasquez Rodriguez Case, Merits, Judgment, Inter-Am.


Ct. H.R. (ser. C), No . 4, 3 (July 29, 1988).
75.2

,I

For subsequent citations, Id. may be used when proper.


Otherwise, follow Ru le 71.10 for World Court cases above.

14

(lnt'l Crim. Trib. for the Former Yugoslavia Oct. 2,

I 1)\15).

!d.

For subsequent citations, Id. may be used when proper.


Otherwise, follow Ru le 71.10 for World Court cases above.

75. Decisions of the Inter-American Court of Human


Rights
75.1.

l'rosccutor v. Tadic, Case No. IT -94-1-l, Decision on


I krcnce Motion for Interlocutory Appeal on Jurisdiction ,

Decisions of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights


(Inter-Am . Comm'n H.R.) have the following citation format:
{Case name}, {case number}, {volume name}, {report
number}, {series and docket numbers}, {at page or
paragraph number, if available} ({year of reporter}).

name of the tribuna l which rendered the decision


be gleaned from the case number, indicate the
tiiiH .vlated name of the tribunal before the date. For exa mple,
11 111p r Notes 213 and 214 above.

1 11111 t

lnt ubsequent citations, Id. may be used when proper.


( lllu 1wlse, follow Rule 71.10 for World Court cases above.
1r1

Case No. ICTY- IT-96-23,

1;. 'l ltdic, Case No. IT-94-1-l,

II7.

77. International Arbitration Cases


A1lltr I cases are cited quite analogously to World Court
d1 I Ions above.
1

H Ambatielos Arbitration (Greece v. U.K.), 12 R .I.A.A. 83,


I! ([956).

I or the case name, the indicated names of the adversaria l


p 11 I s may be used. Otherwise, the subject matter of the case
tillY be indicated as the case name.

I Il l

AT EN EO LAW JOURNAL
77.3.

Do not indicate anymore the countries involved through


parentheticals when their names are already evident in the case
name.

77.4.

For subsequent citations, Id. may be used when proper.


Otherwise, follow Rule 71.10 for World Court cases above.

DOCUM ENTS

49

I Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Panel


Decisions
I I

''' 1111 tlly, for Genera l Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATI)
p 1111 I d ' I Ions, Basic Instruments and Selected Documents
(ill ,,J .) must be cited. The format is as follows: {Body},

(1/1/;}, {case number, if listed} ({document date}),


I B.I.S. D. ({annual volume}) at {page} ({year of
1hl tlon}).

219. A mbatielos A rbitration, 12 R .I.A.A. at 87.

T. WTO and GATT Materials


llJHllt of the Panel, United States- Taxes on Petroleum and

I;,.,,,;,,

Imported Substances, L/6175-34SII36 (June 17,


11H7), GATT B. I. S.D. (34th Supp .) at 154 (1988).

78. WTO Panel and Appellate Body Reports


78.1.

To distinguish reports rendered by the World Trade Organization


(WTO) panels or appellate body from reports of other WTO
bodies, the form er must be cited by using the official document
symbol and indicating whether it is by a Panel or by the
Appellate Body, to wit: {Panel or Appellate Body Report},
{title of dispute}, {subdivision or paragraph number
cited}, {document symbol} ({date}).

220. Panel R eport, Indonesia - Certain Measures Affecting the


A utomobile Industry, W T /DS5 4/ R (July 2, 1998)
[hereinafter Automobile Industry R eport] .
221. Appellate Body Report, Canada W T /DS7o/ AB/R (Aug. 20, 1999).

A ircraft,

2,

81. WTO Ministerial Documents


I I

Wl1111

( clu ument number and unofficial source, such as I.L.M,


rII r In} ({year}).
1 World Trade Organization, Doha Work Progra mme -

M111 isterial Text, WT/MIN(o5)/ W / 3 (2005) [hereinafter


I >o ha Work Programme].

111 'Iii) quent citations under this Section (T), Id. may be used

wlu 11 proper. Supra may also be used following this format:


(I tl of the ministerial document or title of the report

79. Reports by other WTO Bodies


79.1.

dl pute}, supra note {footnote number of initial


ton}, {at page or subdivision number}.

Cite reports by the WTO Secretariat and other WTO bodies


analogously with panel decisions by using the following format:
{Body}, {report title},
{document designation}
({date}).

222. GATT Secretariat, A n Analysis of the Proposed Urugttay


Round Agreement, with Particular Emphasis on Aspects of
Interest to Developing Countries, MT N .TN C/W II22 (Nov.
29, 1993 ).

Jllng a ministerial document, the following must be

IIHih 11 d: {World Trade Organization}, {title, if any},

C:r111r1da

-Aircraft, supra note 22 r,

r.

1 I >o ha Work Programme, supra note 224.


Id.

Jill

hort citation form must be in the same typeface as that

11 ,tclln the initial citation (i.e. whether the title of the document

w ,., Italicized or was

in ordinary Roman font).

so
81.4.

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

111111 NATIO NAL DOCUMENTS

It is advisable to use a specific short citation form for materials


under this Section (T) by using the indicator "hereinafter"
especially for materials that have long or confusing titles.

51

I lt'l ll l' l 1 NATIONS OFFICE ON D R UGS AND C RIME, A

I I N II mY

I J N Saks

F INTERNATIONAL DRUG CONTR OL, at 6 8,


No . 09.XI. r8 (2010) (hereinafter CENTURY OF

1 Ill 1 H: <:oNTROLl.
'' I Ill U 'II l )p THE H IGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN
ll I! .II'I'S, SELECTED DECISIO NS OF T HE HUMAN RIGHTS
C t tMMI I'TEE
UNDER T HE OPTIONAL P ROTOCOL:
IN 1 I 1 N!\TI NAL COVENANT ON C IVIL AND POLITICAL
It II 111 1'S, at t67, U. N . Sales N o. o 8.XIV.9 (2009).

U. Other International Materials


82. Materials by International Non-Governmental
Organizations
82.1.

Materials published by international NGOs (such as the


International Committee of the Red Cross and the Amenesty
International) are cited by: {Name of the organization}
[abbreviation], {title of the document}, {document
designation, if any} ({date}}.
228. Amnesty International [Amnesty In t'l], N igeria: R ape The Silent Weapon, A I Index A FR 44/ 020/2006 (Nov. 28,
2006) [h ereinafter Amnesty In t'l, Nigeria].

82.2.

For subsequent citations, !d. may be used when proper.

82.3.

Supra may also be used following this format: {Title of the


document}, supra note {footnote number of initial
citation}, {at page number or, if applicable, paragraph
number}.

83. Sales Publications


83.1.

Many U.N. agencies release materials (other than official


documents and records) for sale to the public. These materials
may be in the form of reports, studies, or statistics. These
materials are cited quite analogously to books and other nonperiodic materials. Cite these materials using the following
format: {AUTHOR OR INSTITUTIONAL AUTHOR}, {TITLE}, {at
page or paragraph number}, {document designation, if
any}, {U.N. Sales No.} ({year of publication}).

lilt Alii II(


11 ttd 11111 I
1111

nd TITLE must be in SMALL CAPS. The AUTHOR name


Indicated if such name is apparent in the title.

llli' o' JU nt citations,

!d. may be used when proper.

'lll't, / 111 1y lso be used using the fol lowing format: {AUTHOR
tN uuTIONAL AUTHOR}, supra note {footnote number
uf 1 II I citation}, at {page or paragraph number, if

11

I y) ,

11

/,/
C 1 N l IJil.. Y OF DRUG CONTR.OL,

supra note 229, at 27.

II 1 ulvl, bl to use " hereinafter" in order to indicate a specific


lu1l 1 II 111 n form.

P 1\E lG N MATERIALS

FOREIGN MATERIALS

53

Ill' Wl1 n using Westlaw, the currency of the statute can be


h11 11 t<tl l>y licking "Currentness" on the web page containing
111 tilt d rn terial.

v. United States Code

1 ' II; llt ' l !-l'l lntelligence Surveillance Act, 50 U.S .C.A.
tH11 1 1H7 1 (West, Westlaw through P.L. 11 2-28).

84. Entire Statutes Codified in the U.S.C.

t II h pr visions in a statute or act may also be cited in the


lo11n t as above, with the cited section or sections being
llldh II I'd .
1)11

84.1.

1111

Generally, to cite an entire statute as codified in the United


States Code (U.S.C) I United States Code Annotated (U.S.C.A.)
by West 1 United States Code Service (U.S.C.S.) by LexisNexis,
the following must be cited: {Official name of act} ({short
name, if any}), {title number} U.S.C./U.S.C.A/U.S.C.S.
{span of sections containing the statute} ({year of code
edition cited}).

1\tl)

233 . Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, 50 U .S.C. r8o rI87I (2000) .

II lilt Vllllt, the date of effectivity of the statute cited may also
lu liull<lll d in parentheticals ( e.g., effective Sep. 23, 1967) at

I 1!1 lloll n me of the statute may be indicated if the statute is


'lltllllllllly cited by such name and to prevent confusion. For
Utlplt ,
Notes 234 and 235 (CAN-SPAM Act, Taft-Hartley

1111

234. Controlling the Assault of N on-Solicited Pornography and


Marketing Act of 2003 (CAN-SPAM Act) , 15 U .S.C.
7701-7713 (2006) .

84.2.

Give the official name of the act as indicated by the statute, if


any is provided.

84.3.

If the statute was not cited from an official source (U.S.C.),


indicate the name of the publisher or compiler (e.g., LexisNexis
and West) of the material. The unofficial publisher or compiler
of materials referred to in this Ru le are in print form and not
electronic databases like, for example, Westlaw.
235. Labor Management R elations Act of T947 (T aft-Hartley
Act) , 29 U .S.C.A. 141-197 (W est 20II ).

84.4.

If, due to unavailability of or extreme inconvenience in locating


printed sources, the statute or a provision therein was cited
from an electronic database, indicate the publisher or compi ler,
if any, and parenthetica lly indicate the currency of the source.

1 111 I

of the citation.

111 !Itt c I ' of foreign materials (including U.S. materials), the


111111111 y F origin must be indicated at the end of the citations

( t/. 1 (U .S.)). Refer to the


tltltll vl111i ns. Nevertheless, for
tltllll vl11tl n (U.S. ) need not be
1111 1111 I vldent from the context
111

Annex for selected country


U.S.C. citations, the country
indicated since the country of
of the citation.

1111 lJ. S.C. Is the officia l federal code of the U.S. It is published
VI 1y ,lx y ars, with annual cumu lative supplements for each
11111 1v nlng year. Thus, it is advisable to cite the most current
till hHI r upplement.

1I

copy of the U.S.C. may be accessed at


ccess.govluscodelindex. html. When a statute or
)llltVhlcm Is cited from this address, there is no need to indicate
1111 11111 1n t address.

All

1 XII

www. 111

H . Individual Provisions in the U.S.C.


1 ,, 111 1,lily, to cite an individual provision in the U.S. C., follow this

111111111 : {Title number} U.S.C./U.S.C.A./U.S.C.S. {section

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

54

FO RElGN MATERlALS

cited} ({date of code edition cited}). This citation format is


especially applicable to provisions that are not covered under a
specific act or statute. The rules above, including those for
unofficial sources and electronic databases are also applicable
here.

237 36

I or ther subsequent citations, use the following short citation


101m: {Title number} U.S.C./ I.R.C. {section cited}. As an
111 rnative, the official name or title or short title of the statute
lillY lso be used, omitting the U.S.C. title number. The year
111 I ou ntry abbreviation are omitted .

u.s.c. 136 (1996).

' I . 7 U.S.C. roo8.

238. 7 U.S.C.A. 1008 (West 2011).

II Porcign Intelligence Surveillance Act, r814.

239. 42 U.S .C.A. 1987 (West, W estlaw through P.L. II2-28).

II Taft-H artley Act, 148.

l. ll.... C. n

ld. 67.

' jll

86. Citations to U.S.C. Supplements

I Z CAN- PAM Act,

86.1.

Supplements are published every year within the six year


intervals of publication of the U.S.C. To cite a prov1s1on
published in a supplement, follow this format: {Title number}
U.S.C.
{section
cited} (Supp.
{volume} {year
supplement was released}). In case the cited provision
appears both in a main volume and a supplement, indicate also
the year of publication in the main volume, as in the following
example.
240. s6 U. S.C. 1784 (b) (1986 & Supp. I 1988).

55

nro.

, I ules of Procedure and Evidence


88. Federal Rules of Procedure
I

11 11 dera l Rules of Civil or Criminal Procedure, follow this


1111111,, : {ABBREVIATION OF RuLES CITED} {number of rule
I ' d} (U.S.).
IH li HD. R . Clv. P. 12 (U.S.) .

87. U.S. Internal Revenue Code


87.1.

87.2.

The Internal Revenue Code of the U.S. is included in the U.S.C.


as title number 26 so any citations thereto may be changed
from "26 U.S.C." to "I.R.C." in order to properly reflect the title.
Thus "26 U.S.C. 77 (2000)" should be cited as in the following
example. The year of code edition must still be indicated.
The country of origin (U.S.) must be indicated at the end of the
citation since such is not evident from the details in the citation.

1'1, ill .l>. R.. CRIM. P. 39 (U. S.).

1111 ,ubdlvision number is not preceded by a subdivision sign


or ).

( r /.,

,I

89. Uniform Rules of Evidence


!111 lJ.S. rules of evidence, follow the same format as that for
llli ll'o f procedure above: {ABBREVIATION OF RULES CITED}

( uumber of ru le cited} (U.S.).

241. I.R. C. 77 (2ooo) (U.S .).


11

87.3.

For subsequent citations under this Section (V), !d. may be used
when proper.

lJ N IF.

R . EVID . 82 (U.S .).

AT EN EO LAW JOURNAL
89.2.

FO REIGN MATERlALS

For subsequent citations under this Section (W), !d. may be


used when proper. For other subsequent citations, simply
remove the country abbreviation.

II

251. FED. R . CIV. P. 12.

Ill

57

II th

session law has been codified in the U.S.C. or other


indicate such U.S.C. citation parenthetically at the
11cl. See, for example, Notes 256 and 257.

1 ompllations,

252. U N rF. R. EVTD. 82.


25 3. !d.

I 01 ubsequent citations, !d. may be used when proper.


I >Ill rwise, follow this format: {Title of the statute or short
n me, if any}, {volume number} {official/privately
published federal or state session law repository} {page
111 mber cited}.

X. U.S. Session Laws


90. Session Laws
90.1.

session laws, whether federa l or state, are generally cited


according to the fol lowing format: {Name of the statute;>({short name, if any}), {public law or chapter number, 1f
any}, {subdivision cited, if any}, {volume
{official/privately published federal or state sess1on law
repository} {page number} ({year passed}) (U.S.).

254. Parental Notice of Abortion Act, I, Fla. Stat.


390.0II15 (3) (a) (2003 ) (U. S.).
255. Omnibus Consolidated R escissions and Appropriations Act
of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104- 134, 504 (a) (16), I 10 Stat.
13 21 (1996) (U.S .).
Communications Decency Act of 1996 (CDA), Pub. L.
No. 104-104, tit. v, I ro Stat. 56 (1996) (codified as
amended at 47 U.S. C. 223 (a)- (e) (2000)) .
257 Securities Act of 1933, ch. 38, 48 Stat. 74 (codified as
am ended at r 5 U.S. C. 77 (a)- 77 (aa)) .

90.2.

90.3.

91. U.S. Supreme Court Cases

u.s.

The official repository of federal session laws is the "Statutes at


Large" (Stat.). Other state session laws .
exist. The
names and abbreviations of these reposttones can be found 1n
the Bluebook.
The specific sections or paragraphs may be cited along with the
page or pages where these subdivisions are found.

I I

I 01 1t1 initial citation of a U.S. Supreme Court case, the


lollowlng format should be used: {First party} v. {second
p 1 y} ,
{reporter
volume
number}
{reporter
hhr vlation} { first page of case}, {specific page cited}
( ( y r of decision}). The fact that the decision was rendered
l1y Ill U.S. Supreme Court need not be indicated.

H
11

r v. Macomber, 252 U.S. 189, 191 (1920).


Il ock fe ller v. United States, 257 U. S. J76, 177 (192 1) .

II 1 1 ti S Is published in the U.S. Reporter, use such citation .

1111 c untry of abbreviation (U.S.) is omitted since such is


vldt 111 from the citation context.

'I11 1'.1 qu

nt citations of the same case should be formatted

IIIII' : Abbreviated name of the case}, {volume number}


( port r} at {specific page referred to}. !d. may be used
wl1111 pi p r. Follow abbreviation rules in 5.7 above.
'" 1

lt't l llt 'r,

lol

/r/,

252 U.S . at 193 .

II I It v mt, the action of the Supreme Court on a case elevated


11 11 lillY I o be indicated (e.g., aff'd, rev'd, aff'd en bane, rev'd

F R.E l G N MATE R.JALS

ATE N EO LAW JOURNAL


en bane). In such cases, the citation style is as follows: {First
party} v. {second party}, {reporter volume number}
{reporter abbreviation} {first page of case}, {specific
page referred to, if any} ({deciding court and year of
decision}) ({phrase describing the decision of the
Circuit Court, if any}), {action of higher court}, {citation
of the decision of reversal/affirmance} .

quent citations use: {Abbreviated name of the


{volume number} {reporter} at {specific page
l't' d to}. !d. may also be used when proper. Follow
1lrl11r Vllllon rules in 5. 7 above.

lrll

111>

District Court Cases


92.1.

Most Court of Appeals, Circuit Court, and District Court decisions


are published in the Federal Reporter (i.e., F., F.2d, F.3d, F.
Supp., F. Supp. 2d) which are contained in series covering
different periods or material. When published therein, cite cases
to the Federal Reporter.

92.2.

Generally, for the initial citation of federal court decisions other


than Supreme Court decisions, the following format should be
observed: {First party} v. {second party}, {reporter
volume number} {reporter abbreviation} {first page of
the case}, {specific pages referred to} ({deciding court}
{year of decision}) (U.S.). The name of the deciding court
must be indicated .

263. Ahmad v. Wigen , 910 F.2d ro63 , 1070 (2d Cir. 1990)
(U .S.).
264. Jhirad v . Ferrandina, 536 F.2d 478, 482 (2d Cir. 1976)
(U .S.).
92.3.

The country of origin (U.S.) must be indicated since it is not


evident from the context of the citation.

92.4.

For abbreviations of reporter and court names, refer to the


Bluebook.

lillllrl!l, 910 F.2d at 1073.

'" ,,, 1075


f/r/rm/, 536 F.2d at 483 .

262. Uni ted States v. M acDo nald, 53 1 F.2d 196, 199-200 (4th
Cir. 1976) (resting review of the dispositive issue on the
principle ofjudicial economy), rev'd, 435 U. S. 850 (1978).

92. United States Court of Appeals, Circuit Court, and

59

93. State Court Cases


I hr 111< n of state courts are cited ana logously to citations of
111111 I f 'd ra J courts other than the Supreme Court (see Rule 92
tlurvt ). he format is: {First party} v. {second party},
( porter volume number} {reporter abbreviation}
U I t page of the case}, {specific pages referred to}
( ( t t abbreviation} {deciding court, except when
cl cld ng court is the highest state court} {year of
cl cI lon}} ( U.S.).

ttl

ltl',l ms v. City of Grand Junction, 676 P.2d II89, 1191


(< 'olo. t984) (U.S.).
ll or hstedler v. St. J oseph County Solid W aste M gmt.
770 N .E.2d 910, 91 4 (Ind. C t. App . 2002) (U .S.).

Jltr ,l t

name need not be indicated when such is evident


reporter abbreviation. In the examples below, it is
1 vldt nt from the reporter name that the jurisdiction of the court
I within the state of California.
1111111 lh

llu rnctt v. M ayor & C ommon C ouncil of Sacramento , 12


Cal. 76, 81-82 (1859) (U.S .).
r

County of Alameda v. C ity & County of San Francisco, 97


<:al. Rptr. 175, 178 (C t. App . 1971) (U. S.) .

lrll bbreviations of reporter and court names, refer to the


11/llr book.

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

6o

93.4.

FOREIGN MATERlALS

For subsequent citations, !d. may be used when proper.


Otherwise, follow this format: {Abbreviated name of the
case}, {volume number} {reporter} at {specific page
referred to} . Follow abbreviation rules in 5.7 above.

6r

. Codes of Selected States in the U.S.


95. California Codes

272. R eams, 676 P.2d. at 1192.

(Cal.) codes or statutory compilations are generally


Cited In the following format: CAL {ABBREVIATION OF SUBJECT OF
CODE} CODE, {section} ({publisher name} {year}}
({U.S.}}.

273 !d.
274. Hochstedler, 770 N .E.2d at 912.

94. Unreported Cases Available in Electronic Databases

279. CAL. Bus. & PROF. CODE, r6ooo (West 1997) (U.S.) .
280. CAL. PENAL CODE, 632 (Deering 2004) (U.S.).

94.1.

Some U.S. cases are unreported. It may also happen that the
reporter volume containing the cited case is unavailable or
extremely inconvenient to locate. In these situations,
commercial electronic databases may be referred to. These
databases provide citation numbers. Cite as follows: {Case
name}, {docket number}, {database citation}, at
*{page cited} ({deciding court {date}} (electronic
database name}.

There is a comma after the CODE NAME ABBREVIATION.

'" l.

For Cal. codes, it is required to indicate the publisher name


before the year. Refer to the 8/uebookto determine which state
codes require this information to be included in the citation.

P,,IJ.

Refer to the 8/uebookfor subject abbreviations of Cal. codes.

1't ,) ,

275. Rivas v. Dinwiddie, No . 07-CV-152-GKF-Pj C, 2010 WL

96. Louisiana Codes

476651, at *4 (N.D. Okla . Feb. 4, 2010).


276. Aguilar v. Cabrillo Mortgage, No. 09-CV-1799-IEG
(AJB), 2010 WL 476650, at *3 (S.D . Cal. February 3,
2010).

94.2.

94.3.

'111. 1.

The electronic database name must be indicated if such is not


clear from the database citation. In the examples above, it may
be inferred that the database used was Westlaw (WL).

281. LA. REV. STAT. ANN., 9:4521 (1991) (U.S.).


282. Id. 9:4522.

For subsequent citations, cite as follows: {Abbreviated case


name}, {database citation}, at *{cited page}. Follow
abbreviation rules in 5.7 above.

28 3. LA. CHILD. CODE ANN., art. r6o (1995) (U.S.).


284. LA. CIV. CODE ANN., art. 86 (1996) (U.S.).
285. LA. CODE Crv. PROC. ANN., art. I 23I (1984) (U.S.).
286. LA. C DE EV!D. ANN., art. 22 (2001) (U.S.) .

277 . RiiJas, 2010 WL 476651, at *1.


278 . Id.at*3 .

(La.) codes are cited ana logously to the previous


otatron style. Follow the following format: LA. {ABBREVIATION
LOUISIANA STATUTE OR CODE ANNOTATED}, {section or
art1cle number} ({year}} (U.S.}.

'It! ,),

The different codes and statutes of La. include the Revised


Statutes Annotated (LA. REv. STAT. ANN.), the Children's Code
Annotated (LA. CHILD. CODE ANN.), the Civil Code Annotated (LA.

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

62

Civ. CODE ANN.), the Code of Civil Procedure Annotated (LA. CODE
Civ. PRoc. ANN.), the Code of Criminal Procedure Annotated (LA.
CODE (RIM . PROC. ANN.), and the Code of Evidence Annotated (LA.
CODE Evm. ANN.).
96.3.

The publisher or compiler name need not be indicated.

F R.E l GN MATE RIALS


AA. Spanish Codes
98. Spanish Civil Code
98.1.

Forth Initial citation of the C6DIGO CIVIL, use the said name of
th
od
(In SMALL CAPS), indicate next in brackets the
bbr vi tlon of the code that will be used subsequently (C.C.),
th n p lfy the particular subdivision being referred to, if any.

98.2.

If n p 1tl ul r provision is being cited, immediately place the

97. New York Codes


97.1.

New York (N .Y.) codes or statutory compilations are cited


analogously to the above styles as follows: N.Y. {ABBREVIATION
OF SUBJECT OF CODE} lAW, {section cited} ({publisher
name} {year}) (U.S.).

untr y bbr vlatlon in a parenthetical at the end of the citation.

98.3.

287. N .Y. STAT. LAW, 12 (Gould 1993) (U.S.) .

288. N .Y. ELEC . LAW, 4 (McKinney 1997) (U. S.).

97.2.

Instead of using "CODE", use the word "LAw".

97.3.

For N.Y. codes, it is required to indicate the publisher name


before the year. Refer to the 8/uebookto determine which state
codes requ ire this information to be included in the citation.

97.4.

Refer to the 8/uebookfor subject abbreviations of N.Y. codes.

hU ,

II

format is: { NAME OF CODE} [{ABBREVIATION OF

oo } ) { ubdlvision cited} (Spain). Since it can already be


I , n d fr m th appellation of the code (C6orGo CIVIL), the
<J 0

98!1.

n, m

In English need not any more be indicated .

<'c>I >ll a> ( :rv 11

.C.] art. 289 (Spain).

ltatlons, !d. may be used when proper.


II H twl,c, ,ul) qu nt citations of the C6orGo CIVIL are made as
r llow ,: AllOR VIATION OF CODE} {subdivision cited, if
bl
I h r ference to t he country of origin is omitted.
0

,JJ , ( J' ollf

97.5.

For subsequent citations under t his Section (Z), use !d. when
proper. Otherwise, just omit the year and the country
abbreviation.

''Jol

<'

J I)\

/,/

1 1)(1

/,/

Ht) ,

< '. ,u t HIJ


oil

f,

_____

' I) I ;o_ _

289. LA. CHILD. CODE A NN., art. r6o.


290. CAL. PENAL CODE, 632.
29!. Jd.

97.6.

The rules and styles under this Section (Z) may be analogously
applied to other states' codes or statutory compilations.

99.L
99.

I ot 1111 lnllltl c
n of the C6DIGO PENAL, follow the same
f01111 tl fl ,r<l Ill t 11111 th C6DIGO CIVIL.
11 111 , 1111

fo1111tt I : {NAME oF coDE} [{ABBREVIATION oF

cem ) I ( uhdlvl Jon cited, if applicable} (Spain). Since it


t 111 tit 1 tdy Ill tlr m d from the appellation of the code ( C6orGo

F RHG N MAT ERIALS

ATENEO LAW JO URNAL

99.3.

PENAL), the code name in English need not any more be


indicated .

Th
ountry of origin is omitted. !d. may also be used when
prop r.

297. C6DIGO PENAL [C.P.) art. 745 (Spain).

30J . C.P .
J04

For subsequent citations, maintain the same format used in


short-citing the C6DJGO CIVIL. Thus, the format is as follows:
{ABBREVIATION OF CODE}

745

BGB art.

w.

/d.

106. ld.

{subdivision cited, if applicable}.

The country of origin is omitted. !d. may also be used when


proper.

11 .

CC. French Codes

298 . C.C. art. 289.


299 C.P. art. 745
300.

Id.

301.

Id. art. 746.

101. French Civ il Code


101.1.

r lh In I I I ltation of the CODE CIVIL, follow the citation format


Ih C Dl CIVIL.

101. .

II II< I 1 lh f rm t is: {NAME OF CODE} [ABBREVIATION OF CODE]


{ ubdlvl lon cited} (Fr.).

BB. German Codes


100. German Civil Code
100.1.

The BORGERUCHES GESETZBUCH (Civil Code) should be initially cited


by indicating the name of the code, then place in brackets the
abbreviation, followed by the translation of the code in English,
also in brackets.

100.2.

Specify the particular subdivision being referred to, if any. The


country of origin must be indicated.

100.3.

The format is: {NAME OF CODE} [{ABBREVIATION OF CODE}]

[{code name in English}], {subdivision cited} (Ger.).


302. B ORGERLICHES GESETZBUCH (BGB) [Civil Code) art. 10

(Ger.).

10'/. ( 'c llll < 'l V II IC.


101!'1.

101. .

11111 II I II h C d s are analogously cited .

I o 'tth,t q11 ntly it , use the following format: {ABBREVIATION


o <em } { ubdlvlsion cited, if applicable}. The country of
011 1111 I 011111 t d. !d. may also be used when proper.
1uH . II< ,JI

100.5.

Other German Codes are analogously cited.


For

subsequent

citations,

{ABBREVIATION OF CODE}

the

format

is

as

follows:

{subdivision cited, if applicable}.

IIIIJ

1111

ld
/d

Ill

100.4.

IV.] art. t52 (Fr.) .

.11 t. 11>.

I IV 1111

olll

I N 'l R L U TORY SIG NALS

INTRODUCTORY SIGNALS
Signals are used to convey the relation between the text an? the
authority cited in the footnote text. Generally, signals may
support, comparison, divergence, or opposition. They are ttaltCized
for emphasis.

102.6.

I0

102.1.2. names the source of the quotation, or


102.1.3. names the authority relied upon in the text.

"See " is used if the cited authority


102.2.1. indirectly maintains the text,
102.2.2. is paraphrased by the text, or
102.2.3. supplies an inferential link between itself and the
text.

102.3.

"See, e.g.," is used if the cited authority


102.3.1. supplies an example of what is asserted in the
text, or
102.3.2. is supplemented by other authorities stating the
same proposition, but stating all of them is not
necessary.

102.4.

r ommended that parenthetical explanations


mp ny this introduction in order for the reader
d quately understand the analogy or
mp rl on.

Direct citation, without any introduction, is used if the cited


authority

0 . lgnals that signify comparison

102.1.1. directly maintains the text,

102.2.

. I . "Cf. " lit rally means compare.

10

102. Signals that signify support


102.1.

" Cf. " Is u d If th cited authority supplies a distinct, yet


p II I, upp 1t for the text.

"See also" is used if the cited authority supplies an additional


direct authority for the text, when the main authorities have
already been previously cited.

103.1.

" ( 111/J "' ' /md/wlth]" or "Contrast [and/with]" is used if


llt d Hllil till
upport or demonstrate the text when
>tnpru1 d t
h other, or if they supply divergent

1 o,lt Ion on t11 t xt.

I 0 1. 1. 1. Ilk

In "Cf. ", parenthetical explanations may


lilt l
better understanding of the
comp rl on.

t,

II , ( .'tiiiiJ'II ' IIIli HN T . M EDINA, THE FILIPINO FAMILY

17 1 ( oo 1 td.) (asserting that traditionally, the Filipino

wtft 1 lllllrt' nlationship- oriented and dependent on


tlu
and is often considered as the one mainly
II' pomtblt lm k cping the marriage intact), with
wuh Dr. Ricardo G. Abad, Ph.D.,
I kpartment
of
Sociology
and
At neo de Manila University in
<
< ' uy (/unc 12, 2007) (explaining that at
p11 ' Ill , llu tdu r ated Filipina is more independent
p Y l11 ''"K" .dly .111d economically, and is becoming
"'""' 1 omc
of the discrimination she has been
II ,Hllll llll,dly
t d to) .
luttlvl!w

l'roll-

111,

ATEN0 LAW JOURNAL

68

SHORT CITATION FORMS

. d.
gence of views
104. Signals that sigmfy ver
104.1.

.
d 'f the cited authority directly maintains the
"Contra" IS use I
contrary of the text.
o contradict a direct citation
104.1.1. It should
to Rule 102.1 above).
with no mtro u IO

104 1 2 A parenthetical explanation may facilitate a better


. . . understanding of the companson.

proper

106.Id.
106.1.

d when citing the immediately preceding authority


within th same footnote or when citing the authority in the
lmm dl t ly preceding footnote and such footnote indicates
on ly on authority (otherwise, use a specific short citation
form).

106.2.

It should be capita lized only when it is the first word in a


sentence.

106.3.

It cannot be used to refer to the Constitution but it may be


used for all other laws, jurisprudence, and secondary
authorities.

106.4.

As a general rule, follow this format: Id at {cited page}.

"But see " is used if the cited authority maintains a view

104.2.

contrary to the text.


"But cf. " is used if the cited authority maintains analogous

104.3.

support to the reverse of the text.


"But
and "But
.
"B t, should be omitted from
.
104.3.1. u
fter a negative s1gnal.
cf." if they come a

105. Signals as verbs


.
note text which may otherwise
Terms
used
m
the
foo_t
I eed not be italicized when
105.1.
qualify as introductory Signa s n h n they form part of a
used as verbs in
as w e
parenthetical explanation.
"
eg
"
"
"See
b "See' becomes see ,
' .
"
d
becomes "compare .
105.2. When used as ver s,
becomes "see, for example , an
.

normally used for subsequent citations of

3I3. M acalintal v. Commission on Elections, 405 SCRA


614, 643-44 (2003).
314 Id. at 645.
315. Id. at 643-44 (citing Transcripts of Senate Proceedings,
Oct. I, 2002).
316. Macalintal, 405 SCRA at 644.

106.5.

In the example, Id. was not used in Note 316 since


Footnote 315 indicates more than one authority.

106.6.

Use the specific short citation form if the material has been
cited five consecutive times as Id. in the same footnote or
in the preceding footnotes.

ATENEO LAW JOUIZNAL

70

106.7.

Thus, on the sixth consecutive similar citation, indicate the


specific short citation form and do not use !d. anymore. In
other words, use !d. only five times consecutively. For
example:

317. An Act Strengthening the Workers' Right to Self-

Organization, Amending for the Purpose Presidential


Decree No . 442, as Amended, Otherwise Known as
the Labor Code of the Philippines, Republic Act No .

Slf
10 .I.'.

ITATION FORMS

mple Notes 319, 321, and 322 above which


.ubdlvlsion "". Distinguish these frdm the
In Notes 314 and 315, which indicate page

10 .JIJ . 11111 o<lu l 1Y lgnals may not precede I d. Use the short

It til

rm In tead when introductory signals are placed.

11

I I Vt'JH'r.t r ion v. Mancilla, 495 SCRA 712 , 714 (2 oo6) .


,o..,,., f!,'lll'lfll/y Veneracion, 49S SCRA
.

9481 , I (2007).

712

3 r8. ld.

319. ld. 2.

lt'l

106.1 N

320. !d.

pr

32I. Jd. 6.

322. Id. 3

: h I s , !d. may be used when an immediately


din footnote whtch has an introductory signal is the
m uthorlty for the cited text.

(1 ,

323. R.A. No. 9481, 5

s,.,,

M:tna op v. Court of Appeals, 277 SCRA 57


(11)1)7) .

J 7 ld,
106.8.

106.9.

In the example, !d. may no longer be used in Note 323 in


accordance with this rule so the specific short citation form
is used instead.
Every time Jd. appears or is used, whether within a single
footnote or in a set of successive footnotes, it is counted for
the application of the said rule. The same rule applies for
cases and secondary authorities.

106.16.

h pr

5
106.17.

ding rule is observed regardless of whether or not


quent Note 327 also needs the introductory signal
for the same cited authority.

!d. may also be used when there are quoted passages in


th footnote text. When a direct quote which is less than 50
words Is
and !d. may be properly used, place it right
after the dtrect quote.

106.10. The indicator "at" is only placed after !d. if indicating page
numbers and not subdivision numbers. In the case of
subdivision numbers, the format is: Id. {subdivision

328 . !: fil L. . NST. ar.t. XI, r. This Section provides that

lplubhc office IS a public trust. Public officers and


employees must, at all times, be accountable to the
serve them with utmost responsibility,
loyalty, and efficiency, act with patriotism
and JUStice, and lead modest lives." Id.

cited}.

106.11. Subdivision numbers are those pertaining to statutes or


other legal documents that are not separated by pages, but
rather, by subdivisions or parts.

106.18.
106.12. Page numbers, meanwhile, usually pertain to cases and
paginated secondary authorities.

If a di.rect. q.uote in the footnote text is 50 words or more


1t IS a
quote) and !d. may be properly used,
place 1t on the next hne after the direct quote.

329.

PHIL.

CONST. art. II,

I2.

This Section provides-

71

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

72

Sll
The State recognizes the sanctity of fami ly life and shall
protect and strengthen the fami ly as a basic autonomous
social institution. It shall eq ually protect the life of the
mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The
natural and primary right and duty of parents in the
rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the
development of moral character shall receive the support
of the Government.

10 . .

11 1' 11 ' 11 II
void confusion or
tlllluu lndl t his own
wlllt II will 11pt1y Identify

107. Supra
108.4.
Supra may be used to subsequently cite an authority which
has been fully cited previously (but not in the immediately
preceding footnote, where !d. may be proper), excluding
statutes, cases, constitutions, legislative materials, and
regulations.

107.2.

For subsequent citations of previously cited statutes and


cases, refer to the specific rules discussed above.

107.3.

The shortened form should appear in the same way as it


appears in the full citation (i.e. whether in SMALL CAPS, italics,
or in ordinary Roman font).

107.4.

If the author is an institution, use the full institutional


name. If no author is indicated, use the title of the work.

107.5.

Follow this format: {Author's last name}, supra note


{footnote number of initial citation}, at {cited
page}.

73

.
By usmg this, the
citation form

II 1, 1dcl 'CI

t the end of
.
xplanation :n Cited authority, before any
lo Jl lilt r with the special
in brackets

p II

107.1.

ITATION FORMS

't Vt I tl Hllll r of a work or


HIIIHtl I II< <lin one article.
several works by the same

108..

Id.

ItT

IIIII

tl I

f oil w lhl
format: {Full citation of the mat . I
[h r In ft r {special short citation form}].
ena }
l.fl , IIIII liN 'I' ME
.
.
: DINA, THE FILIPINO FAM

ttl.) Ihereinafter MEDINA F


ILY I73 (2oor
, ILIP INO fAMILY]
..
.f.f J. ll\'1(11 r M I'
.
et tna, Issues Relating to R'f'
.
hllllil)', ill TI JE FIUPINO F
ltpmo Mamage and
Vll . WS ANI) ISSUES 29 (AAMIL:r, A SPECTRUM OF
I
.
urora Perez ed
)
I ' ' t't' JJtolflcr Medina, Issues].
., 1995

108.5.
108.6.

108.7.

108.8.

"H r Inafter" Is never used h


. . .
and us d only once.
w en the Citation IS mentioned
A subsequent citation based
h
always accompanied by supra.on t e use of "hereinafter" is
Whden the simple supra form suffices
an should not be used.
' "hereinafter" need
The shortened form should a
.
appears in the full citation.
ppear m the same way as it

330. BALANE, supra note 90, at 76.


333. MED INA, f iLIPINO fAMILY sunra not
.

108.9.
108.1.

"Hereinafter" is used when the authority would be too


burdensome to cite repeatedly, such as when there are

'

:r

334. Medma, luues, supra note 332, at 30.

108. "Hereinafter"

There could arise extraordina

e 331, at

231

cir
cumstances where supra,
statutes, cases, legislative mat '.
be used to refer to
when the title of the author'ty
s, regulations, etc., as
I
IS extremely long or when
tn conJUnction with

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

74

the use of ordinarily


short
cause confusion or ambiguity. Keep I
.
purpose of these indicators is to prevent confusion.

I the Matter of the Charges of Plagiarism, Etc.,


M
c . del . Cast1llo. '
.
A ainst Associate Jusnce
anano
SC Oct 12 2010 [heremafter In
g .

'
A.M. No. 10-7-17- ,
Re: Plagiarism}.

GENERAL RULES OF USAGE


DO. Quotations

335 n

109. Quotations in General


109.1.

Quot tlons consisting of less than 50 words should be enclosed


within double quotation marks (" ").

109.1.1. Quotations within the quoted material should be


enclosed in single quotation marks (' ').

109.1.2. If the exact passage being cited is itself quoted


material in the original, only one set of double
quotation marks should be used.

109.1.3. All punctuation marks should be placed inside the


quotation marks, except question marks (?) and
exclamation points (!), if they were not part of the
original quotation. Thus, commas (,) and periods (.)
are placed within the quotation marks, even if the
original text of the quoted material does not contain
them. This is for plain aesthetic purposes and must
only be used if the integrity of the quoted material will
not be compromised.

109.1.4. The footnote number or footnote reference should be


placed at the close of the quotation marks.

109.1.5. The footnote reference must be placed after a comma


(,)or a period (.)when such is used to indicate a break
or signify the end of a sentence, except if the integrity
of the quoted material will be prejudiced by doing so.

109.2.

Quotations consisting of 50 or more words should be quoted as


a block quotation.

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

-NERAL RULES OF USAGE

77

109.2.1. A block quotation should be single-spaced, indented on


both sides, and justified.

further indent on the left side nor use an ellipsis to


lnd1cate the omission.

109.2.2. Block quotations are not enclosed within double


quotation marks.

109.2.8. Indicate the omission of an entire paragraph or


1n the block quote by placing on the next
line of th.e quoted paragraph an ellipsis consisting of
three penods (" ... "). This is only done when one or
more paragraphs are om itted in the length of a single
block quote.

109.2.3. Quotations within the block quotation should be


retained using single quotation marks.
109.2.4. The footnote reference should be placed after the final
punctuation of the block quote.
109.2.5. If the block quote is not contained in the text or body
but, rather, in the footnote text, the citation reference
should not be indented but shou ld beg in at the left
margin on the line immediately following the quotation.
336. Under the Land Transportation and Traffic Code, a motor
vehicle is defined as
any vehicle propelled by any power other than
muscular power using the public highways, but
excepting road rollers, trolley cars, street-sweepers,
sprinklers, lawn mowers, bulldozers, graders, fork-lifts,
amphibian trucks, and cranes if not used on public
highways, vehicles which run only on rails or tracks,
and tractors, trailers and traction engines of all kinds
used exclusively for agricultural purposes.
An Act to Compile the Laws Relative to Land
Transportation and Traffic Rules, to Create a
Transportation Commission and for Other Purposes
(LAND

TRANSPORTATION

AND

TRAFFIC

110. Alterations
110.1.

Alterations (such as the substitution or omission of letters or


words) made . to quotations shou ld be indicated by enclosing
such changes 1n square brackets ("[ ]").

110.2.

Significant
1t

110.3.

109.2.6. The first line of a block quote is only further indented


on the left margin if it is also the first line of a
paragraph in the original text being cited.
109.2.7. If a word or words at the beginning of the paragraph in
the original text is omitted in the block quotation, do

Omitted letters or punctuations must be indicated by empty


square brackets ("[ ]"). The rules on the use of brackets are
enumerated below in Rule 120.

111. Omissions
111.1.

CODE),

Republic Act No. 4136, 3 (a) (1964) .

IS

mistakes in the original, if maintained and


should be followed by "[sic]" but otherwise left as
1n the original.

111.2.
111.3.

.the quoted material should be indicated by an


of three periods with a space before and after
( .. . ), tak1ng the place of the omission.
An ellipsis
begin a quotation. It is used generally
when the om1ss1on 1s m the middle of the quotation.
!he rules on the use of an ellipsis are further enumerated below
m Rule 119.

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL


ENERAL RULES OF USAGE
112. Emphasis
112.1.

112.2.

114..

When em hasis is added to or omitted from quoted


a
clause indicating. such_
or omiSSIOn (I.e.,
"emphasis supplied" or "emphasis omitted ).
There is no need to indicate that the emphasis was sustained
from the original text, if such was the case.

lements in a series are long and complex or


lnt rn I punctuation or internal conjunctions, separate them by
ml olons.

115. Semicolons
115.1.

EE. Punctuations

Whil commas are used to connect dependent clauses to


independent clauses, semicolons (;) are used to connect closely
related independent clauses.

116. Colons

113. Periods
116.1.

113.1.

Periods (.) are used to end declarative sentences and indirect


questions.

113.2.

If the sentence ends With


I , only one period is
t"on
. an abb revla
used .

113.3.

When indicating initials or abbreviations, there should be no


spaces between periods.

113.4.

Periods are used for abbreviations (e.g., I.C.J.), but not for
acronyms (e.g., ASEAN).

117.Hyphens
117.1.

In a series of three or more elements, separate the elements by


commas(,) .

114.2.

When a conjunction joins the last two elements in a series, a


comma is placed before the conjunction (e.g., Math, English,
and Physics).

Use a hyphen ( -)
117.1.1. to connect continuing or inclusive numbers, such as
dates, times, and reference numbers;
117.1.2. to separate numbers that are not inclusive, such as
telephone numbers and social security numbers; or

114. Commas
114.1.

A colon (:) is used to introduce a list or an illustrative quotation,


amplification, or appositive.

117.1.3. to separate the elements of a compound word that is


ordinarily hyphenated in a dictionary or other
authoritative source, such as a wordbook;
117.2.

There should be no space before or after the hyphen.

118. Em Dash
118.1.

Use an em dash(-)

So

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL


118.1.1. to denote a sudden break in thought that causes an
abrupt change in sentence structure; or
118.1.2. to set apart an element added to give emphasis or
explanation by expanding a phrase occurring in the
main clause.

118.2.

Em dashes should be preceded and followed by a space.

118.3.

To avoid confusion, do not use more than a single em dash or,


in the proper case, a pair of em dashes in any given sentence.

119. Ellipses

EN ERAL RULES OF USAGE


11 .7.

119.8.

120.1.

Where only one letter w d


quoted sentence u ' or ' or punctuation is removed from a
an ellipsis. Be
squbare bracket "[ ]" instead of
space etween the brackets.

120.2.

When the first letter


from lower to upper

119.2.

Indicate the om1ss1on of a word or words within a quoted


passage by replacing the omitted text with an ellipsis.

119.3.

The general rule is that the quotation may end with a


punctuation mark even if some words in the original text are
thereby omitted (see Rule 109.1.3).

119.4.

Nevertheless, if it is important to show that a portion of the


passage has been omitted, indicate still the omission by an
ellipsis at the end of the quotation.

121.1.

To indicate the omission of a word or words at the end of a


quoted sentence, replace the omitted text with an ellipsis
followed by the final punctuation of the sentence as in (" .... ").

121.2.

Indicate the omission of a complete sentence within a quoted


text by replacing the omitted text with an ellipsis between the
final punctuation of the preceding quoted sentence and the first
word of the following sentence as in (" .... "). This may be used
in a single, continuous quotation or in a block quotation.

An ellipsis should not begin a quotation.

120. Brackets

An ellipsis is a group of three consecutive dots with a space on


both sides of the ellipsis, but no spaces in between the three
dots (" ... ").

119.6.

omitted passage consists of

p:

119.1.

119.5.

IF th

81

sentence must be changed

The ru les on
120.3.

120.4.

Substituted wo d
1
bracketed.
r s or etters in a quoted sentence should be
When quoting a passage signific
original should be followed,by
original.

t
u

.
0

.
found
the
erw1se left as m the

121. Parentheses

121.3.

Parentheses are
abbreviations.

also

used

to

. t d
m ro uce

acronyms

and

When parentheses are used to enclose


.
sentence, a punctuation is placed before the cloan Independent
smg parenthesis.

82

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

121.4.

When parentheses are used to enclose on ly part of a


or a phrase, the punctuation, if any, is placed after the closmg
parenthesis.

121.5.

If a fu ll sentence is quoted in parentheses, such as in


explanations or supplements attached to citations, periods are
placed both inside and outside the parentheses.
337 PHIL. CONST. art. III, 8 ("The right of the people,

including those employed in the public and private sectors,


to form uni ons, associations, or societies for purposes not
contrary to law shall not be abridged.").

FF. Other Rules

EN ERAL RU LES OF USAG E


wtird ly or othenvise fall short of our own standards of prop riety
.1 nd de orum. None of th ese makes him a criminal although he
111 ay look like a criminal."
122.4.
122.5.
122.6.

122.7.

122. Capitalization
122.1.

Quotations embedded in the text of a piece may begin with an


uppercase or lowercase letter, depending on the context.

122.2.

A quotation used as an essential syntactic part of a sentence


should begin with a lowercase letter.

122.3.

In most cases, the Rule above means that a . quotation


introduced by "that" will not be capitalized, while one Introduced
as a free-standing sentence will be.

122.8.

122.9.

122.10.
Justice Cru z stated that, " [h] e may seem boorish or speak
crudely or sport tattoos or dress weirdly or otherwise fall short of
our own standards of propriety and decorum . N one of these
makes him a criminal although he may look like a criminal."
Justice Cruz stated, "He may seem boorish or speak crudely or
sport tattoos or dress weirdly or otherwise fall short of our own .
standards of propriety and deco rum. N one of these makes him a
criminal although he may look like a criminal. "
Justice C ruz reiterated the value of due process in Malmstedt:
"He may seem boorish or speak crudely or sport tattoos or dress

The words
Essay, Comment, Note, Work, or Paper
should be capitalized when referring to the written work itself.
When
to a specific part, section, or chapter of a written
work, capitalize Part, Section, or Chapter.
Words in a heading or title are capitalized, including the first
word
the word immediately following a colon (e.g., Holmes'
Ideological Influence: An Examination).
Articles, conjunctions, and propositions in a heading or title
should not be capital ized when they consist of four or fewer
unless they are used as the first word of the title or
or when they immediately follow a colon (e.g., The
H1story of Plea Bargaining and Criminal Prosecution).
nouns referring to people or groups ( e.g., the
Adm1mstrator or the Board, etc.) only when they identify specific
persons, officials, groups, or government offices.
Similarly, capitalize such phrases as "the Act " "the Code " "the
Executive," "the Senate," "the Congress," "the Petition,"
so
forth only when the reference is unambiguously identified.
phrases "the Court" and "the Constitution" should be
capitalized only when referring to the Philippine Supreme Court
and the current Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines.

122.11. Names of parts of a constitution or statute may be capitalized


when used as proper nouns, as in "First Amendment, " "Article
III, " or "Section 8 (e)."

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

84

EN ERAL RULES OF USAGE

123. Numerals
123.1.

The numbers zero to nine (0-9) are spelled out.

123.2.

The first word of any sentence must always be spelled out.


Thus, any number that begins a sentence must be spelled out.

123.3.

When a series includes numbers both less than 1.00 .and equal
to or greater than 1.00, numerals should be used untformly for
the whole series.

125. Symbols
125.1.

Spell out the words "Section" and " Paragraph " when they 1t
contained in the text; use their respective symbol forms (i. e.
and
when used in citations and footnote text. Nevertheles ,
the first word of any sentence must always be spel led out. Thus,
spell out the words "Section" and "Paragraph" when they begin
a sentence in the footnote text.

125.2.

When using a subd ivision symbol, put a space between the


symbol and the numeral corresponding to the subdivision cited
(e.g., ,114).

125.3.

The percentage, dollar, or peso symbols are used when the


numbers accompanying tem are in numeral form. Otherwise,
spell them out. They should be spelled out when the numbers
are spelled out. Also, spell out when these symbols begin a
sentence.

dollar.

125.4.

Do not insert a space between the (%), ($), and (P) symbols
and the corresponding number or amount.

Numerals must always be used when referring to sections or


subdivisions of statutes or other legal documents.

125.5.

TIP: Indicate the peso sign by applying the double strikethrough


function on the letter "P" in the fonts window.

123.4.

If the number includes a decimal point, use the numeral. Do not


spell out.

123.5.

When percentages or peso or other currency amounts _are


referred to, use numerals accompanied by the
symbol (%) (P) ($), except when the amounts are wtthm the
range of zero to (nine 0-9), in which case the whole amount
must be spelled out, including the word per cent, pesos, or

123.6.

H,

124. Ordinals
126. Italicization
124.1.

Ordinal numbers used in the text or footnote text must not be


indicated by superscripts (e.g., 4th, 27th, 43d).

124.2.

For ordinal numbers in the footnote text ending in the


two or three, use "2d" or "3d" and not "2nd" or "3rd." Spelling
out ordinals found in the text is advisable.

126.1.

Italicize words and phrases to indicate emphasis.

126.2.

Italicize non-English words and phrases except if they have


been incorporated into common English.

126.3.

Latin words and phrases are generally italicized unless they are
considered to be of common usage and are widely used in lega l
writing.

126.4.

Id is always italicized.

86

ATENEO LAW JOURNAL

126.5.

Letters representing hypothetical parties, places, or things are


also italicized for distinction.

126.6.

Mathematical expressions, like formulas and variables, are


italicized.