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Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory!

P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510

per cell near 90 degrees to minimize the necessary aperture

The transverse emittance in the FNAL Booster grows at in the machine, it is reasonable to ask whether this effect

high beam intensity, in a time less than 100 turns. We is important for weaker intensity beams found in circular

examine the possible contributions to the fast emittance machines. In particular, this question was raised with re-

growth from coherent instability of the beam envelope. gards to the Fermilab Booster, both in its present state

Theoretical analysis, through the use of envelope equa- and after the upgrade in injected energy from the linac[5].

tions, is employed to predict the dependence of envelope We review below the standard derivation of rms trans-

instability on the peak current the Booster beam. These verse beam envelope equation, and extend it to include

predictions are compared to the results of multi-particle the effects of design orbit curvature, momentum spread

tracking calculations. and dispersion. The envelope equation obtained is then

analyzed for its stability properties under perturbation.

This technique is used to examine the Fermilab Booster to

Introduction determine possible problems with envelope instability.

The intensity limit for operation of low energy proton

synchrotrons is often determined by the space charge tune

shift[l], which can drive individual particle tunes from the

The Envelope Equation and

operating point onto a significant machine resonance. In Instability

this way a relatively small tune shift (usually a few percent)

can cause the emittance of a synchrotron beam to grow The first envelope equations for describing beam propa-

significantly. Experimentally, this effect manifests itself gation including the effects of space charge self-forces were

by a linear asymptotic growth of the emittance with peak derived by Kapchinskij and Vladimirskij[6] using K-V dis-

beam current. This type of behavior has been observed in tribution function.

experimental studies of the Fermilab Booster[2]. Sacherer generalized the treatment by concentrating on

In contrast to scenario described above, linear transport the evolution of the rms envelopes[7]. This approach is

allows much higher intensity beams to propagate without equivalent to following the second moments of the Vlasov

degradation of the beam emittance, as the beam travels equation for the four-dimensional transverse phase space of

much shorter distances in general, and does not encounter the beam. Assuming no z-y coupling, the second moments

the periodic resonance-driving defects found in a circular in the (z,p=) plane, where p, f z’, satisfy the following

machine. The limits of stable beam propagation in a lin- equations:

ear focusing channel have been demonstrated experimen-

tally by Tiefenback, et al. [3] at LBL. It was found that as ;T = 2w (1)

long as the bare phase advance per cell uc did not exceed Zg= -x(%)22 + tFz + z (2)

approximately 90 degrees, the beam emittance was sta-

-Y=

P -2K(z)zp, + 2pz3.z

ble up to very high intensities. At phase advances above (3)

90 degrees, however, it was verified that instability of the

beam envelope caused emittance growth in the transmit- where rz is the beam’s space charge self force divided by

ted beam. This result is in agreement with the theoretical P2ymc2. The term p,Fz is related to rms emittance by

predictions of Boffman, Laslett, Smith and Haber[4]. As

Zrm* = &qqg$ (4)

‘Present address: UCLA Dept. of Physics, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los

Angeles, CA 90024

tOpmated by the Universities Research Association under con- In addition, if the beam spatial density has elliptical sym-

tract with the U. S. Department of Energy metry, the term zF, depends only on the rms beam di-

0-7803-0135-8/!?1$01.00@IEEE 1779

PAC 1991

mensions X E &? and &’ z J- 3, where the vertical emittance is of course unchanged.

The perturbed envelope equations that are used to test

XQ for envelope instability are:

xF’,= x+y (5)

= (X-QSY

1 q 0; 3E2

where Q = 1/(1ep3r3) with 10 N 31 MA for protons. and ax”+[K(Z)+--p+;p+~+(x +&y)216*

+ Y)2

the rms envelope equations are (12)

X” + K(%)X = $ + y&y (6) SY"+ [-K(z) -I-3f;

y* : (X +Qy),lbY =

(X

-Q6x

+ YJ2

(13)

Y” - K(%)Y = 5 + A-- (7) perturb the terms inside the emittance expression.

x+Y We now apply the analysis on Fermilab Booster[lO]

The K-V envelope equations in rms form are contained in

(cry0 = 102” and ~~0 = 100.5’) and check the predictions

Eqs. 6 - 7 as a special case. with the results of multiparticle tracking using computer

The eigenvalues obtained by perturbation analysis on code teapot[ll]. Results from the envelope instability cal-

Eqs. 6 - 7 tell the stability of envelope mismatches. When- culation are shown in Fig. 2 for cases with and without

ever eigenvalues move off of the unit circle on the complex momentum spread. The rms emittance is taken to be

plane, envelope instability occurs. The instabilities start

when two eigenvalues collide on the unit circle. Necessary 20 I’ ” I ’ ” ! ’ ” ! ’ ”

condition for envelope instability is that at least one of the

bare phase advances per cell 00 > 90 degrees.

Circular Machines

The major changes to beam behavior in circular ma-

chines which have relevance to deriving envelope equations

are due to curvature focusing, and to the presence of mo-

E 4

mentum dispersion[8].

Following Sacherer’s analysis and ignoring the chromatic

nature of the focusing we arrive at the equation fo:r the rms 0

horizontal beam size X in a circular machine 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000

-- Peak Beam Current (mA)

x+y x3 PX P

Figure 1: Emittance Growth vs. Beam Current

The self-force term takes the same form as before, imply-

ing the assumption that the overall beam density still has 2.5~ mm-mrad in both dimensions. The maximum op-

elliptical symmetry. We then follow the standard way of erating peak current is 570 mA, assuming bunching factor

describing off-momentum orbits in accelerators, splitting B = 0.35 at 200 MeV injection energy. Instability onset

the motion into a betatron component xp (the quantity occurs at approximately twice this current, assuming con-

we have simply termed x to this point) and a disper- stant emittance. With momentum spread bP = 1.5 x 10m3

sion component r~(Ap/p), i.e. x = x:p + q(Ap/l?). This it is down to less than 600 mA, which is right on the as-

approach is approximate in the presence of space charge sumed maximum operating current. This parametric res-

forces, which introduce coupling that prevents the simple onance has a large growth rate (- 15 percent/cell), which

decomposition. In this approximation the rms beam size is peaks at 1.2 A.

X = X2 + 72~2 where ui = (A~/P)~, and the horizontal The tracking was done with 4000 macro particles with

F - Gaussian density distribution and chromaticity of the ring

emittance takes the functional form

was set to zero by tuning the sextupoles. DC beam was

x2 [ 2 + u,(Xq’ - X’7jq2] (9)

assumed and the number of space charge kicks used was

E: = x2 _ 772g; fz

12. In Fig. 1, the rms emittance growth after about one

The other term on the right hand side of Eq. 8 is also easily turn is plotted as a function of beam current for both the

obtained with the approximation. A new set of envelope cases of with and without momentum spread. We notice

equations then follow: that first of all the emittance growth starts at much lower

beam intensity (- 500mA) compared to the predicted rms

X” + [K(z) + -j - j($)2,x = g+ envelope instability threshold and increases gradually with

$$‘O)

beam current. Secondly, in both cases, emittance growth

Ey2 starts at much lower beam intensity than the envelope in-

y”- K(%)Y = y3+ stability threshold. The amount of emittance growth pre-

1780

PAC 1991

negligible even at the maximum operating beam intensity

and could not have been responsible for the fast emittance

growth observed. The treatment to include momentum

spread failed to give reasonable description and simulation

results suggest minimal effect of momentum spread.

References

PI L.J. Laslett, “On Intensity Limitations Imposed by

Transverse Space-Charge Effects in Circular Particle

Accelerators”, in Proceedings of the 1963 Summer

Study on Storage Rings, Accelerators, and Experi-

0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800

mentation at Super-High Energies, 324, Brookhaven

Beam Current (mA) National Laboratory, 1963 (BNL 7534).

Figure 2: Instability Growth Rate vs Peak Beam Current PI Y. Chao, J. Crisp, S. Holmes, J. Lackey, W. Merz,

“Improving the Fermilab Booster Emittance” , Pro-

ceedings of the 1988 European Particle Accelerator

dieted by the non-linear field energy theory[9] is negligi- Conference, 663 (World Scientific, London, 1989).

ble compared to the growth observed in the simulation,

thus not countable. However, the current at which emit- [31 M.G. Tiefenback and D. Keefe, “Measurement of Sta-

tance growth occurs corresponds to when the maximum bility Limits of a Space-Charge-Dominated Ion Beam

tune shift pushes the individual particles’ phase advance in a Long A.G. Transport Channel,” IEEE Tkans.

to below 90’. This seems to suggest that it is the fourth Nucl. Sci. NS-32,2483 (1985). Also M.G. Tiefenback,

order resonance driven by the space charge force, which is Space-Charge Limits on the Transport of Ions Beam

exactly what drives the envelope instability. The fact that in a Long Alternating Gradient System,” LBL-22465,

the emittance can change a noticeable amount in just one PhD. Thesis, UC-Berkeley (1986).

cell makes us believe that the simple perturbation method PI I. Hoffman, L.J. Laslett, L. Smith, and I. Haber, ‘Sta-

used in the calculation of envelope instability is not ap- bility of the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) Distribu-

propriate. Nonetheless, it does predict the point where a tion in a Long Periodic Transport Channel”, Particle

significant emittance growth occurs. The contribution of Accelerators 13, 145 (1983).

the above to the emittance growth is however very small

for the Fermilab booster even at maximum operating cur- 151F. Mills and J. MacLachlan, private communication,

rent, thus cannot be the cause of the observed explosive and C. Celata and L.J. Laslett, “Envelope Instability

emittance growth. Status Report”, unpublished.

In the case including momentum spread, nothing signif-

Fl I.M. Kapchinskij and V.V. Vladimirskij, “Limitations

icantly different was observed. Chromaticity was seen to of Proton Beam Current in a Strong Focusing Linear

play little role. We have to point out however that the sim- Accelerator Associated with the Beam Space Charge”,

ulation does not include any external impedance or field in Proc. of the Second int. Conf. on High Energy Act.

errors. The failure in this case again points to the fault and Inst.“, 274, CERN (1959).

of the way perturbation was done, i.e. keeping the emit-

tance as a known function while perturbing the envelope L71F.J. Sacherer, “ RMS Envelope Equation With Space

equation. The effect of momentum spread, if any, is to in- Charge”, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-18, 1105 (1971).

troduce more incoherence and seen to reduce the emittance

growth slightly. PI P. Zhou and J.B. Rosenzweig, “Envelope instability in

low-energy proton synchrotrons”, Nucl. Znstr. Meth.

A297, 24 (1990).

1989 U.S. Particle Accelerator Summer School notes

The treatment of the envelope instability in circular ma- (unpublished book draft).

chines is a limited success. While it does not predict the

exact onset of emittance growth, it does point to the in- PI E.L. Hubbard, Ed. “Booster Synchrotron”, Fermilab

Publication FN-405 (Fermilab, 1973).

tensity of significant emittance growth. The former seems,

as suggested by simulation, to be determined by when the Pll L. Schachinger and R. Talman, “TEAPOT: A Thin-

particles with maximum tune shift, instead of the coherent Element Accelerator Program for Optics and Track-

moment, hit the fourth order resonance. In the case of Fer- ing”, Particle Accelerators, 22, 35 (1987)

milab booster, the emittance growth due to this process is

1781

PAC 1991

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