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List of dodecaphonic and serial compositions

List of pieces that use serialism

Further information: Serialism and Twelve-tone technique

Organized by composer:
Tadeusz Baird
Cassazione per orchestra (1956)
String Quartet (1957)
Four Essays (1958)
Erotyki (1961)
Jean Barraqu
au del du hasard (premier Commentaire de Aranchi du hasard et du Temps Restitu") for four
instrumental groups and one vocal group (195859)
Chant aprs Chant for six percussionists, voice and piano (196566)
Concerto for six instrumental groups and two solo instruments (vibraphone and clarinet) (196268)
tude for 3-track tape (195253)
Squence for voice, percussion and chamber ensemble (195055)
Sonata for Piano (195052)
Le Temps Restitu for soprano, chorus and orchestra (195668)
Pierre Boulez
Anthmes, for violin solo (1991/94)
Anthmes II, for violin and live electronics (1997)
Cummings ist der Dichter, for chorus and ensemble (1970/1986)
Drive 1, for six instruments (1984)
Drive 2, for eleven instruments (1988/2002/2006)
Domaines, for clarinet solo or for clarinet and six instrumental groups (1968)
tudes (2), musique concrte (195152)

for ute, clarinet, and trumpet (197172)

for ute, clarinet, trumpet, harp, vibraphone, violin, viola, cello, and electronics (197374)
version for vibraphone and electronics (1986)
for solo MIDI ute, two shadow utes, chamber orchestra, and electronics (199193)
version for vibraphone and electronics (1986)

Figures-doubles-prismes, for orchestra (195758/1964/1968)

Improvispour le Dr. K, for ute, clarinet, piano, violin, and cello (1969; revised 2005)
Incises, for piano (1994/2001)


Livre, for string quartet (1948); two movements reworked for string orchestra (1968/1989)
Le marteau sans matre (195557)
Messagesquisse, for solo cello and six cellos (1976)
for piano (1945)
for orchestra (1978- )
Posie pour pouvoir, for tape and 3 orchestras (1955/58, withdrawn)
Polyphonie X (195051)
Sonata No. 1, for piano (1946)
Sonata No. 2, for piano (194748)
Sonata No. 3, for piano (195863, unnished)
Pli selon pli (195762)
Rpons, for six soloists, chamber orchestra, and live electronics (198184)
Rituel in Memoriam Bruno Maderna, for large chamber ensemble in eight groups (197475)
Sonatine, for ute and piano (1946)
Structures, book I for two pianos (1952)
Structures, book II for two pianos (1961)
Sur incises, for 3 pianos, 3 harps, and 3 mallet percussion instruments (1996/1998)
John Cage
First Construction (in Metal) for percussion ensemble (1939)[1]
Five Songs (1938)[1]
Metamorphosis (1938)[1]
Two Pieces for Piano (c. 1935)[1]
Jacques Calonne
Orbes for orchestra (1965) [2]
Benjamin Frankel
Film score for The Prisoner (1955, starring Alec Guinness)[3]
Alexander Goehr
Piano Sonata (1952)[4]
The Deluge (1958)[4]
Karel Goeyvaerts
Nummer 1, Sonata for two pianos (195051)
Nummer 2, for thirteen instruments (1951)
Nummer 3 met gestreken en geslagen tonen, for chamber ensemble (1952)
Nummer 4 met dode tonen, electronic music (1952)
Nummer 5 met zuivere tonen, electronic music (1953)
Nummer 6 met 180 klankvoorwerpen (1954)
Nummer 7 met convergerende en divergerende niveaus, electronic music (1955)
Ernest Gold
Score for On the Beach (1959)[5]
Jerry Goldsmith

Freud (1962)[5]
Planet of the Apes (1968)
The Illustrated Man (1969)
Music for Orchestra (1969)
Christus Apollo (1970)
The Mephisto Waltz (1971)
Escape from the Planet of the Apes (1971)
Wojciech Kilar
Ri 62 (1962)
Gottfried Michael Koenig
Zwei Klavierstcke, for piano solo (1957)
Quintet for Woodwinds, for ute, oboe, cor anglais, clarinet, and bassoon (195859)
String Quartet 1959 (1959)
Ernst Krenek
String Quartet No. 6 (for example)
Witold Lutosawski
Symphony No. 1 (1947)
Five Songs to Words by Kazimiera Iakowiczwna for soprano and piano (1957); Arrangement with Orchestra (1958)
Musique funbre (1958)
Trois pomes d'Henri Michaux (1963)
Livre pour orchestre (1968)
Cello Concerto (1970)
Mi-parti (1976)
Grave: Metamorphoses for Cello and Piano (1981)
Symphony No. 3 (1983)
Johnny Mandel
Point Blank (1967)[5]
Luigi Nono
Canti per tredeci, 13 instruments, (195455)
Il canto sospeso (195556)
Cori di Didone, for chorus and percussion (1958)
Diario polacco: Composizione no. 2 (195859)
Due espressioni, for orchestra (1953)
Incontri, for 24 instruments (1955)
Polifonicamonodiaritmica, for seven instrumentalists (1951)
Varianti, for violin, woodwinds, and strings (1957)
Krzysztof Penderecki
St Luke Passion (Penderecki) (1966)
Henri Pousseur
Apostrophe et six Rexions for piano (196466)


Aquarius-Mmorial (in memoriam Karel Goeyvaerts)

I. Les Litanies d'Icare for piano (1994)

II. Danseurs Gnidiens cherchant la Perle clmentine for chamber orchestra (1998)
III. Les Fouilles de Jruzona for orchestra (1995)
IV. Icare au Jardin du Verseau for piano and chamber orchestra (1999)
La Guirlande de Pierre for soprano, baritone and piano (1997)

At Moonlight, Dowlands Shadow passes along Ginkaku-Ji for shakuhachi, shamisen, and koto (1989)
Ballade berlinoise for piano solo (1977)
Canines for voice and piano (1980)
Caractres for piano (1961)
Chroniques berlinoises for piano and string quartet with baritone ad lib. (1975)
Chroniques canines for two pianos with soprano ad lib (1984)
Chroniques illustres for large orchestra with baritone ad lib. (1976)
Couleurs croises for large orchestra (1967)
Crosses of Crossed Colors for vocal soloist, two to ve pianos, six tape-recorder operators, two turntablists,
and two radio operators (1970)
Dclarations d'Orage for reciter, soprano, baritone, three improvising instruments (alto saxophone, tuba,
synthesizer), large orchestra and tape (198889)
Dichterliebesreigentraum for soprano, baritone, two solo pianos, choir and orchestra (199293)
Les phmrides d'Icare 2 for a soloist, three-part concertino, and four instrumental quartets (1970)
Die Erprobung des Petrus Hebracus chamber opera in three acts, libretto by Lo Wintgens after Michel
Butor (1974). Several satellite works are related to this opera:
Flexions IV for viola solo (1980)
Humeurs du Futur quotidien for two reciters and chamber orchestra (1978)
Les Icare africains for solo voices, ad lib. choir, and orchestra (2002)
Leons d'Enfer music theatre for 2 actors, 3 singers, 7 instruments, tape, and live electronics; texts by
Arthur Rimbaud and Michel Butor (199091)
Madrigal I for clarinet (1958)
Madrigal II for 4 early instruments (ute, violin, viola da gamba, harpsichord) (1961)
Madrigal III for clarinet, violin, cello, 2 percussionists, and piano (1962)
Mnmosyne monody solo voice or instrument, or unison choir (1968)
Mnmosyne II for variable media (1969)
Mobile for two pianos (195758)
Navigations for harp (2000)
Ode for string quartet (196061)
La Paganania for solo violin (1982)
La Paganania seconda for solo cello (1982)
Paraboles-Mix electronic music (1972)
Pdigre for female voice and seven instruments (1980)
Phonmes pour Cathy for mezzo-soprano solo (1966)
Prospection for three pianos tuned in sixths of a tone (195253)
Quintette la memoire d'Anton Webern for clarinet, bass clarinet, violin, cello, and piano (1955)
Rimes pour direntes sources sonores for orchestra and tape (1958)
Scambi electronic music (1957)
Sismogrammes electronic music (1954)
Seize Paysages plantaires ethno-electroacoustical music (2000)

Sept Versets des Psaumes de la Pnitence for four vocal soloists or mixed choir (1950)
Symphonies 15 Solistes (195455)
Tales and Songs from the Bible of Hell four singers with real-time electronic transformation and prerecorded 4 track tape (1979)
Trois Visages Lige electronic music (1961)
Votre Faust (196068), opera for ve actors, four singers, twelve instruments, and electronic music, libretto by Michel Butor. Plus related satellite works:

Miroir de Votre Faust (Caractres II) for solo piano and (optional) soprano (196465),
Jeu de Miroirs de Votre Faust for piano, soprano and tape (196465)
Echos de Votre Faust for mezzo-soprano, ute, cello, and piano (196169),
Les Ruines de Jruzona for mixed choir and rhythm section (1978),
La Passion selon Guignol for amplied vocal quartet and orchestra (1981),
Parade de Votre Faust for orchestra (1974)
Aiguillages au carrefour des immortels for 16 or 17 instruments (2002)
Il sogno di Leporello: Parade 2 (de Votre Faust) for orchestra (2005)

Vue sur les Jardins interdits for saxophone quartet (1973)

Mikls Rzsa
King of Kings (1961)[5]
David Shire
The Taking of Pelham One Two Three (1974)[5]
Karlheinz Stockhausen
Adieu, for wind quintet (ute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and horn), Nr. 21 (1966)
Alphabet fr Lige, Nr. 36 (1972)
Am Himmel wandre ich (In the Sky I Am Walking, American Indian Songs), Nr. 36 (1972)
Amour, 5 pieces for clarinet, ute, or saxophone Nr. 44 (1976)
Atmen gibt das Leben, choral opera with orchestra (or orchestra on tape), Nr. 39 (1974/7677)
Aus den sieben Tagen (From the Seven Days), 15 texts for intuitive music (performable separately), Nr.
26 (1968)
Bassetsu-Trio, for basset horn, trumpet, and trombone, Nr. 3. ex 70 (1997). Arranged from Mittwoch
aus Licht, scene 4: Michaelion
Carr, for 4 orchestras and choirs, Nr. 10 (195960)
Dr KSextett, for ute, bass clarinet, percussionist (tubular chimes and vibraphone), piano, viola, and
cello, Nr. 28 (196869)
Etude, musique concrte, Nr. 1/5 (1952)
Europa-Gruss, Nr. 72 (1992/2002)
Expo, for 3 players or singers with 3 short-wave receivers, Nr. 31 (196970)
Formel, for small orchestra, Nr. 1 /6 (1951)
Fresco, for 4 orchestral groups, Nr. 29 (1969)
Fr kommende Zeiten, 17 texts for intuitive music, Nr. 33 (196870)
Gesang der Jnglinge, electronic and concrete music, Nr. 8 (195556)
Gruppen, for 3 orchestras, Nr. 6 (195557)
Harlekin, for clarinet, Nr. 42 (1975)
Der kleine Harlekin, for clarinet, Nr. 42 (1975)
Helikopter-Streichquartett, for string quartet and 4 helicopters, Nr. 69 (199293) [Scene 3 of Mittwoch
aus Licht]


Herbstmusik, musical theatre for 4 performers, Nr. 40 (1974)
Laub und Regen, duet for clarinet and viola, Nr. 40
Hymnen, 4-channel electronic and concrete music (also version with soloists, and Third Region with
orchestra), Nr. 22 (196667)
In Freundschaft, for clarinet (and versions for most other instruments), Nr. 46 (1977)
Inori, adorations for 1 or 2 soloists and large orchestra, Nr. 38 (197374)
Vortrag ber HU, for a singer, Nr. 38 (1974)
Jubilum, for orchestra, Nr. 45 (1977)
Klang (Sound, the 24 Hours of the Day), Nr. 81 (20042007)
First Hour: Himmelfahrt (Ascension), for organ (or synthesizer), soprano, and tenor, Nr. 81 (2004
Second Hour: Freude (Joy), for 2 harps, Nr. 82 (2005)
Third Hour: Natrliche Dauern 124 (Natural Durations 124), for piano, Nr. 83 (200506)
Fourth Hour: Himmels-Tur (Heavens Door), for a percussionist and a little girl, Nr. 84 (2005)
Fifth Hour: Harmonien (Harmonies), Nr. 85, versions for:
bass clarinet, Nr. 85.1 (2006)
ute, Nr. 85.2 (2006)
trumpet, Nr. 85.3 (2006)
Sixth Hour: Schnheit (Beauty), for ute, bass clarinet, and trumpet, Nr. 86 (2006)
Seventh Hour: Balance, for ute, English horn, and bass clarinet, Nr. 87 (2007)
Eighth Hour: Glck (Bliss), for oboe, English horn, and bassoon, Nr. 88 (2007)
Ninth Hour: Honung (Hope), for violin, viola, and cello, Nr. 89 (2007)
Tenth Hour: Glanz (Brilliance), for oboe, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet, trombone, tuba, and viola, Nr.
90 (2007)
Eleventh Hour: Treue (Fidelity), for E-at clarinet, basset horn, and bass clarinet, Nr. 91 (2007)
Twelfth Hour: Erwachen (Awakening), for soprano saxophone, trumpet, and cello, Nr. 92 (2007)
Thirteenth Hour: Cosmic Pulses, electronic music, Nr. 93 (200607)
Fourteenth Hour: Havona, for bass voice and electronic music, Nr. 94 (2007)
Fifteenth Hour: Orvonton, for baritone and electronic music, Nr. 95 (2007)
Sixteenth Hour: Uversa, for basset-horn and electronic music, Nr. 96 (2007)
Seventeenth Hour: Nebadon, for horn and electronic music, Nr. 97 (2007)
Eighteenth Hour: Jerusem, for tenor and electronic music, Nr. 98 (2007)
Nineteenth Hour: Urantia, for soprano and electronic music, Nr. 99 (2007)
Twentieth Hour: Edentia, for soprano saxophone and electronic music, Nr. 100 (2007)
Twenty-rst Hour: Paradies (Paradise), for ute and electronic music, Nr. 101 (2007)

Klavierstcke IIV, Nr. 2 (1952)

Klavierstcke VX, Nr. 4 (195455/61)
Klavierstck XI, Nr. 7 (1956)
Klavierstck XII, ex Nr. 49 (1979/83)
Klavierstck XIII, Nr. 51 (1981)
Klavierstck XIV, ex Nr. 57 (1984)
Synthi-Fou (Klavierstck XV), ex Nr. 61
Klavierstck XVI, Nr. 63 (1995)
Klavierstck XVII, 7 ex Nr. 64 (1994/99)
Klavierstck XVIII, Nr. 73 (2004)
Klavierstck XIX, Nr. 80 (2001/2003)

Kontakte (Contacts), for electronic sounds, Nr. 12 (195860)

Kontakte, for electronic sounds, piano, and percussion, Nr. 12 (195860)

Originale, musical theatre with Kontakte, Nr. 12 (1961)
Kontra-Punkte (Counter-Points), for 10 instruments, Nr. 1 (195253)
Kreuzspiel, for oboe, bass clarinet, piano, and 3 percussionists, Nr. 1/7 (1951)
Kurzwellen, for 6 players with live electronics, plus sound director, Nr. 25 (1968)
Licht, Nr. 4780 (19772003)
Licht-Ruf, Nr. 67 (1995)
Litanei 97, Nr. 74 (1997)
Mantra, for 2 pianists (with wood blocks and antique cymbals) and electronics, Nr. 32 (1970)
Mikrophonie I, for tamtam (2 players), 2 microphones, 2 lters with potentiometers, and 4 pair of loudspeakers, Nr. 15 (1964)
Mikrophonie II, for 12 voices, Hammond organ (or synthesizer), 4 ring modulators, and tape, Nr. 17
Mixtur, for orchestra, 4 sinewave generators, and 4 ring-modulators, Nr. 16 (1964)
Musik im Bauch, for 6 percussionists and music boxes, Nr. 41 (1975)
Momente, for soprano solo, 4 choirs, and 13 instrumentalists, Nr. 13 (196264/69)
Oktophonie (1990/91) electronic music of Tuesday from Light
Plus-Minus, 2 x 7 pages for realization, Nr. 14 (1963)
Pole, for 2 players or singers with 2 short-wave radios, Nr. 30 (196970)
Prozession, for 6 players with live electronics, Nr. 23 (1967)
Punkte (Points), for orchestra, Nr. (1952/62/66/93)
Quitt (Even), for alto ute, clarinet, and trumpet, Nr. 1 ex 59 (1989)
Refrain, for piano (+ 3 woodblocks), vibraphone (+ 3 alpine cowbells and keyboard glockenspiel), and
celesta (+ 3 antique cymbals), Nr. 11 (1959)
Rotary Wind Quintet, for ute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and horn, Nr. 70 (1997)
Schlagtrio (Percussive Trio) [originally Schlagquartett], for piano and 2 x 3 [originally 3 x 2] timpani,
Nr. (1952)
Sirius, electronic music with trumpet, soprano, bass clarinet, and bass voice, Nr. 43 (197577)
Solo, for a melody instrument and feedback (live electronics with 4 technicians, 4 pair of loudspeakers),
Nr. 19 (196566)
Spiel (Play), for orchestra, Nr. (1952)
Spiral, for a soloist with short-wave receiver and live electronics with sound director, Nr. 27 (1968)
Sternklang (Star Sound), park music for ve groups, Nr. 34 (1971)
Stimmung (Tuning), for 6 vocalists, Nr. 24 (1968)
Stop, for small orchestra in 6 groups, Nr. 18 (1965)
Strahlen (Rays), for a percussionist and ten-channel sound recording, Nr. 80 (2002)
Studie I, electronic music, Nr. 3/I (1953)
Studie II, electronic music, Nr. 3/II (1954)
Sukat, for alto ute and basset-horn, Nr. 2 ex 60 (1989)
Telemusik, electronic and concrete music, Nr. 20 (1966)
Thinki, for ute, Nr. 1 ex 70 (1997)
Tierkreis (Zodiac), 12 melodies of the star signs, for a melody and/or chording instrument, Nr. 41
Trans, for orchestra and tape, Nr. 35 (1971)
Traum-Formel (Dream Formula), for basset-horn, Nr. 51 (1981)
Trumpetent (aka Trompetent), for 4 trumpeters, Nr. 73 (1995)
Trin, for Tr (door), rin, and speaker (versions in German and English), with electronics (2006)


Unsichtbare Chre, 16-channel recording of a cappella choir, for 8-channel playback, ex Nr. 79 (1979)
Vibra-Elufa, for vibraphone, Nr. 9 ex 64 (2003)
Xi, for a melody instrument with microtones, Nr. 1 ex 55 (1986)
Ylem, for 19 players, Nr. 37 (1972)
Ypsilon, for a melody instrument with microtones, Nr. 2 ex 59 (1989)
Zeitmae (Time Measures), for oboe, ute, cor anglais, clarinet, and bassoon, Nr. 5 (195556)
Zyklus (Cycle), for a percussionist, Nr. 9 (1959)
Gilles Tremblay
Cantique de dures (1960)[6]
Egon Wellesz
Symphony No. 5, Op. 75 (195556)

List of musical pieces composed in the twelve-tone technique

Second Viennese School
Alban Berg

Kammerkonzert, for piano, violin, and winds (192325)

Lyrische Suite, for string quartet (1925/26)
Der Wein, concert aria for soprano and orchestra after a poem by Charles Baudelaire (1929)
Lulu, opera after Die Bchse der Pandora by Frank Wedekind (192835)
Violinkonzert, for violin and orchestra (1935)

Hanns Eisler
Palmstrm, song cycle op. 5 (1923/24)
Zeitungsausschnitte (Newspaper Clippings), song cycle op. 11 (1926)
Regen (1940)[5]
Arnold Schoenberg

Waltz from 5 Klavierstcke, op. 23

Serenade, op. 24
Suite for Piano, op. 25
Wind Quintet, op. 26
Four Pieces for mixed voices, op. 27
Suite for piano, piccolo clarinet, clarinet, bass clarinet, violin, viola, and cello, op. 29
String Quartet No. 3, op. 30
Variations for Orchestra, op. 31
Von heute auf morgen, op. 32
Klavierstck, op. 33a[7]
Klavierstck, op. 33b
Moses und Aron (incomplete)
Begleitmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene [Accompanying music to a lm scene], op. 34
Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, op. 36
String Quartet No. 4, op. 37
Concerto for Piano & Orchestra, op. 42
String Trio, op. 45
A Survivor from Warsaw, op. 46
Fantasy for Violin & Piano, op. 47
Sehr langsam and Rasch, aber leicht, from op. 19

Anton Webern

Three Lieder, for voice, E at clarinet and guitar, op. 18 (1925)

Two Lieder, for mixed choir, celesta, guitar, violin, clarinet and bass clarinet, op. 19 (1926)
String Trio, op. 20 (1927)
Symphony, op. 21 (1928)
Quartet for violin, clarinet, tenor saxophone and piano, op. 22 (1930)
Three Songs on Hildegard Jone's Viae inviae, for voice and piano, op. 23 (1934)
Concerto for ute, oboe, clarinet, horn, trumpet, violin, viola and piano, op. 24 (1934)
Three Lieder on texts by Hildegard Jone, for voice and piano, op. 25 (193435)
Das Augenlicht, for mixed choir and orchestra, on a text by Hildegard Jone, op. 26 (1935)
Variations, for solo piano, op. 27 (1936)
String Quartet, op. 28 (193738) - the tone row of this piece is based around the BACH motif
Cantata No. 1, for soprano, mixed choir and orchestra, op. 29 (193839)
Variations, for orchestra, op. 30 (1940)
Cantata No. 2, for soprano, bass, choir and orchestra, op. 31 (194143)

Milton Babbitt
Virtually all published works after 1947
John Cage
Sonata for Clarinet (1933)
Carlos Chvez
Soli II for wind quintet (1961)[8]
Variations for Violin and Piano (1961)[8]
Luigi Dallapiccola
Virtually all published works after 1942
Benjamin Frankel
Film score for The Curse of the Werewolf (1961)[9][5]
His 8 symphonies (see e.g. the article on Symphony No.1 (Op.33, 1958)) either use the twelve-tone
technique, or serial techniques with other kinds of rows, or both[10]
Lou Harrison
Rapunzel (1952)
Symphony on G (1952)
Josef Matthias Hauer
All works written after August 1919 (though the twelve-tone technique used is not Schoenbergs system)
Zwlftonspiele (approximately one thousand works) (after 1940)
Ernst Krenek
Karl V
Ron Jarzombek and Alex Webster (performing as part of the band Blotted Science)
The Machinations of Dementia (2007)[11]
Luigi Nono
Composizione no.1, for orchestra (1951)
Variazioni canoniche sulla serie dellop. 41 di A. Schnberg, for chamber orchestra (1950)



Leonard Rosenman
The Cobweb (1955)[5]
Roger Sessions
Virtually all published works after 1953 (exceptions include his Mass, and the twelve-tone technique used
rarely follows Schoenbergs system)
Karlheinz Stockhausen
Drei Lieder for alto voice and chamber orchestra, Nr. 1/10 (1950)
Sonatine, for violin and piano, Nr. (1951)
Igor Stravinsky, works from 1952 forward:[12]
Cantata (1952)
Three Songs From Shakespeare (1953)
In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954)
Agon (1957)
Threni (1958)
Movements for Piano and Orchestra (195859)
A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer (1961)
The Flood (1962)
The Dove Descending Breaks the Air (1962)
Variations: Aldous Huxley in memoriam (196364)
Requiem Canticles (1966)
Van der Graaf Generator
After the Flood (1970, from the album The Least We Can Do Is Wave to Each Other) - includes a twelve
tone piece arranged by David Jackson[13]
Charles Wuorinen
Most mature works

See also
List of atonal compositions
List of tone rows and series

[2] Jacques Calonne, Aspects d'un resume (Apropos d' Orbes pour orchestre)", Revue d'Esthetique 21 (1968), nos. 24
(Musiques nouvelles): 59-103.
[3] Dimitri Kennaway, notes for recording, Naxos 8.557850, his [Frankels] rst published experimentation with serial technique
[4] Gagn (2012), p.116.
[5] Nicole V. Gagn, Historical Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Classical Music, Historical Dictionaries of Literature
and the Arts (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2012): 98. ISBN 978-0-8108-6765-9.
[6] Gilles Tremblay, Note pour Cantique de dures, Revue d'esthetique 21 (1968), nos. 24 (Musiques nouvelles): 5158.


[7] Horace Reisberg, The Vertical Dimension in Twentieth Century Music, Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music, edited by
Gary Wittlich, 36272, citation on 37071 (Englewood Clis, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1975). ISBN 0-13-049346-5.
[8] Robert L. Parker, Carlos Chvezs Opus Ultimum: The Unnished Cello Concerto. American Music 11, no. 4 (Winter
1993): 47387. Citation on p. 479.
[9] Dimitri Kennaway, notes for recording, Naxos 8.557850, credited with being the rst British feature lm score to employ
the method [twelve-tone serialism] almost entirely.
[10] British Library Frankel Biography - Middle Years
[11] "Ron Jarzombek - Frequently Asked Questions", Q. What is 'The Circle Of 12 Tones?"
[12] Joseph N. Straus, Stravinskys Late Music, Cambridge Studies in Music Theory and Analysis (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2001), 4. ISBN 0-521-80220-2 (cloth) ISBN 0-521-60288-2.
[13] Christopulos, Jim; Smart, Phil (2005). Van der Graaf Generator The Book. Phil and Jim Publishers. p. 58. ISBN




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