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Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp: (289-295), Month: January - March 2015, Available at: www.researchpublish.com

1

3

T.RAVI SEKHAR, 4Y.DAVID SAMSON, 5N.AVINASH

1,2,3,4

Lendi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jonnada, Vizianagaram, India

Abstract: This paper deals with speed control of separately excited DC motor control in a high performance

manner. There are four different parts of control of DC motors used in this project. Using chopper as a converter

the speed of DC motor is controllable. The chopper firing circuit gets signal from controller and then by supplying

variable voltage to the armature of the motor the desired speed chopper is achieved. There are two different types

of control loops, current controller and speed controller. The controller used is Proportional-Integral type. Using

this controller the delay is removed and fast control is achieved. Separately excited DC motor is designed . The

current and speed controller is designed and in order to get stable and high speed control of DC motor. The

simulation of model is done and analyzed in MATLAB (Simulink) under varying speed and torque condition.

Keywords: chopper circuit, DC motors, open and closed loops, MATLAB (SIMULINK).

1.

INTRODUCTION

An electrical drive consists of electric motors, power controller and energy transmitting shaft. In modern electric drive

system power electronic converters are used as power controller. Electric drives are mainly of two types: DC drives and

AC drives. They differ from each other in this way that the power supply in DC drives is provided by DC motor and

power supply in AC drives is provided by AC motor. DC drives are widely used in applications requiring adjustable speed

control, frequent starting, good speed regulation, braking and reversing. Some important applications are paper mills,

rolling mills, mine winders, hoists , printing presses, machine tools, traction, textile mills, excavators and cranes.. For

industrial applications development of high performance motor drives are very essential. DC drives are less costly and

less complex than AC drives . DC motors are used extensively in adjustable speed drives and position control system. The

speed of DC motors can be adjusted above or below rated speed. Their speed above rated speed are controlled by field

flux control and speed below rated speed is controlled by armature voltage. DC motors are widely used in industry

because of its low cost, less complex control structure and wide range of speed and torque. There are various methods of

speed control of DC drives armature voltage control, field flux control and armature resistance control. For controlling

the speed and current of DC motor, speed and current controllers are used. The main work of controller is to minimize the

error and the error is calculated by comparing output value with the set point. This paper mainly deals with controlling

DC motor speed using Chopper as power converter and PI as speed and current controller.

2.

INTRODUCTION TO CHOPPERS

A chopper is a static power electronic device which converts fixed dc input voltage to a variable dc output voltage. It can

be step up or step down. Chopper systems offer smooth control, high efficiency, faster response and regeneration facility.

The power semiconductor devices used for a chopper circuit can be force commutated thyristor, BJT, MOSFET, IGBT

and GTO. Among above switches IGBT and GTO are widely used. These devices are generally represented by a switch.

When the switch is OFF, no current will flow. Current flows through the load when switch is ON.

A chopper is a "on" or "off" semiconductor switch which is so high in speed. It connects source to load and disconnect the

load from source at a fast speed. As shown in Fig1. During the period Ton, chopper is on and load voltage is equal to

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Research Publish Journals

Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp: (289-295), Month: January - March 2015, Available at: www.researchpublish.com

source voltage Vs. During the period Toff, load voltage is zero and chopper is off. In this manner, a chopped dc voltage is

produced at the load terminals

.

Figure 1. Chopper circuit and voltage and current waveforms

Average Voltage,

Vo = (Ton/ (Ton+Toff))*Vs

(1)

= (Ton/T)*Vs

= aVs

Ton=on-time.

Toff=off-time.

T=Ton+Toff = Chopping period.

a=Ton/Toff.

Separately excited dc motor has field and armature winding with separate supply voltage. Field winding supplies field

flux to armature. When DC voltage is applied to motor, current is fed to the armature winding through brushes and

commutator. Since rotor is placed in magnetic field and it is carrying current also. So motor will develops a back emf and

a torque to balance load torque at particular speed.

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Research Publish Journals

Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp: (289-295), Month: January - March 2015, Available at: www.researchpublish.com

When a separately excited dc motor is excited by a field current If of and an armature current Ia of flows in the circuit, the

motor develops a back EMF and a torque to balance the load torque at a particular speed. The field current If is

independent of the armature current Ia. Each winding is supplied separately. Any change in the armature current has no

effect on the field current . The If is generally much less than the Ia.

Suppose Va is the armature voltage in volt, Ia is the armature current in ampere,Eg is the motor back emf in volt, La is the

armature inductance in Henry,Ra is the armature resistance in ohm.

The armature equation is shown below:

Va= Eg + Ia Ra + La dIa/dt

The torque equation is given by :

Now, from the above equation it is clear that speed of DC motor depends on applied voltage, armature current, armature

resistance and field flux. So, there are three ways of controlling speed of DC motor armature voltage control, armature

resistance control and field flux control .

4.

An electrical DC drive is a combination of controller, converter and DC motor. Here we are using chopper as a converter.

The basic principle behind DC motor speed control is that the output speed of DC motor can be varied by controlling

armature voltage keeping field voltage constant for speed below and up to rated speed . The output speed is compared

with the reference speed and error signal is then fed to speed controller. If there is a difference in the reference speed and

the feedback speed, Controller output will vary. The output of the speed controller is the control voltage Eg that controls

the operation duty cycle of converter. The converter output gives the required voltage V to bring motor speed back to the

desired speed. The Reference speed is provided through a potential divider because it is linearly related to the speed of the

DC motor. Now the output speed of motor is measured by Tacho-generator. The tacho voltage we will get from the tacho

generator contains ripple and it will not be perfectly dc. So, we require a filter with a gain to bring Tacho output back to

controller level. The basic block diagram for DC motor speed control is shown below :

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Research Publish Journals

Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp: (289-295), Month: January - March 2015, Available at: www.researchpublish.com

The controller used in a closed loop model of DC motor provides a very easy and common technique of keeping motor

speed at any desired set-point speed under changing load conditions. This controller can also be used to keep the speed at

the set-point value when the set-point is ramping up or down at a defined rate. In this closed loop speed controller, a

voltage signal is obtained from the Tacho-generator attached to the rotor which is proportional to the motor speed is fed

back to the input where signal is subtracted from the set-point speed to produce an error signal. This error signal is then

fed to controller to make the motor run at the desired set-point speed. If the error speed is negative, this means the motor

is running slow so that the controller output should be increased and vice-versa .There are different types of controller

available and its selection is also an important work .Some of the controllers which are most widely used are

proportional controller ,onoff controller, integral controller, derivative controller and PID controller. In proportional

controller error speed is proportional to the measured output. This controller has the limited use and can never force the

motor to run exactly at the set point speed. Therefore an improvement is required for correction in the output. In PI

controller, the proportional term does the job of fast correction and the integral term takes finite time to act and makes the

steady state error zero. In derivative approach further refinement is done. This controller will allow the rate of change of

error speed to apply an additional correction to the output drive. It can be used to give a very fast response to sudden

changes in motor speed. In simple PID controllers it becomes very difficult to generate a derivative term in the output that

has any significant effect on speed of motor. It can be deployed to reduce the rapid speed oscillation caused by high

proportional gain. Therefore, in many controllers, it is not used. The derivative action causes the noise (random error) in

the main signal to be amplified and reflected in the controller output. Hence the most suitable controller for speed control

is PI type controller.

In this paper the speed control of D.C.MOTOR is done by using current controller and speed controller. In the open loop

model the output speed is uncontrolled as shown in below fig.

Page | 292

Research Publish Journals

Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp: (289-295), Month: January - March 2015, Available at: www.researchpublish.com

Specifications of elements used in open loop model:

ELEMENTS

D.C.Voltage source

Pulse Generator:

Amplitude

Period

Pulse Width (% of period)

D.C.MOTOR:

Field

TORQUE

RATINGS

280v

10

2e-3

50

5H.P. 500V 1750RPM

300v

5 N-M

Figure 5. Armature current waveform

In the open loop model of speed control of separately excited D.C.Motor for the machine the output speed is more than

120rad/sec, and the armature current is observed to be above the rated value. These two parameters can be controlled by

using closed loop model.

Page | 293

Research Publish Journals

Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp: (289-295), Month: January - March 2015, Available at: www.researchpublish.com

For the same ratings of the machine as in case of open loop model, the controlled output is as shown below:

Page | 294

Research Publish Journals

Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp: (289-295), Month: January - March 2015, Available at: www.researchpublish.com

6.

CONCLUSION

The speed of a dc motor has been successfully controlled by using Chopper as a converter and Proportional-Integral type

Speed and Current controller based on the closed loop model of DC motor. Initially a simplified closed loop model for

speed control of DC motor is considered and requirement of current controller is studied. Then a generalized modelling of

dc motor is done. After that a complete layout of DC drive system is obtained. Then designing of current and speed

controller is done. Now the simulation is done in MATLAB under varying load condition, varying reference speed

condition and varying input voltage. The results are also studied and analyzed under above mentioned conditions. The

model shows good results under all conditions employed during simulation.

Since, the simulation of speed control of DC motor has been done. We can also implement it in hardware to observe

actual feasibility. Here speed control of DC motor is done for rated and below rated speed. We can also control the speed

of DC motor above rated speed and this can be done by field flux control.

REFERENCES

[1]

SIMULINK, Model-based and system-based design using Simulink, Maths works, Inc, Natick, MA, 2000.

[2]

[3]

Amir Faizy, Shailendra Kumar, DC motor control using chopper, NIT Rourkela 2011.

[4]

Bose B.K., Power electronics and motor drives recent technology advances, Proceedings of the IEEE

International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, IEEE, 2002, p 22-25.

[5]

Saffet Ayasun, Gultekin Karbeyaz, DC motor speed control methods using MATLAB/SIMULINK and their

integration into undergraduate courses, 2008.

[6]

Chinnaiyan V. Kumar, Jerome Joritha, Karpagam, J. S.Sheikh Mohammed, Design and Implementation of High

Power DC-DC converter and speed control of dc motor using TMS 320F240DSP, Proceedings of India

International Conference on Power Electronics, 2006.

[7]

Rashid, M.H., Power Electronics, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1993.

[8]

Ogata, K., Modern Control Engineering. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.

[9]

Dubey, G.K., Fundamentals of Electrical Drives. New Delhi, Narosa Publishing House, 2009

Page | 295

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