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DEST for CSS & TA (2000 keys 15 minutes)

I am a very old man. How old I do not know. It is possible I am a hundred,maybe more. I cannot tell
because I have never aged as other men do so far as I can remember, I have always been a man of
about thirty. I appear today as I did forty years ago. Yet, I feel that I cannot go on living forever.
Someday I will die the real death from which there is no escape. I do not know why I should fear
death. I who have died two times and am still alive, I have never told this story. I know the human
mind will not believe what it cannot understand. I cannot explain what happened to me. I can only
tell of the ten years my dead body lay undiscovered in an Arizona cave. My name is John Carter. I am
from the state of Virginia. At the close of the Civil War I found myself without a home, without
money and without work. I decided the best plan was to search for gold in the great deserts of the
American South west. I spent almost a year searching for gold with another former soldier,
Captain James Powell, also of Virginia. We were extremely lucky. In the winter of eighteen sixty-five
we found rocks that held gold. Powell was trained as a mining engineer. He said we had uncovered
over a million dollars worth of gold in only three months. But the work was slow with only two men
and not much equipment. So we decided Powell should go to the nearest settlement to seek
equipment and men to help us with the work. On March third, eighteen sixty-six, Powell said goodbye. He rode his horse down the mountain toward the valley. I followed his progress for several
hours. The morning Powell left was like all mornings in the deserts of the great Southwest -- clear
and beautiful. Not much later I looked across the valley. I was surprised to see three riders in the
same place where I had last seen my friend. After watching for some time, I decided the three riders
must be hostile Indians. Powell, I knew, was well armed and an experienced soldier. But I knew he
would need my aid.

Keesh lived at the edge of the polar sea. He had seen thirteen suns in the Eskimo way of keeping
time. Among the Eskimos, the sun each winter leaves the land in darkness. And the next year, a new
sun returns, so it might be warm again. The father of Keesh had been a brave man. But he had died
hunting for food. Keesh was his only son. Keesh lived along with his mother, lkeega. One
night, the village council met in the big igloo of Klosh-Kwan, the chief. Keesh was
there with the others. He listened, then waited for silence. He said, "It is true that
you give us some meat. But it is often old and tough meat, and has many bones."
The hunters were surprised. This was a child speaking against them. A child talking like a grown man!
Keesh said, "My father, Bok, was a great hunter. It is said that Bok brought home more meat than
any of the two best hunters. And that he divided the meat so that all got an equal share. "Naah!
Naah!" the hunters cried. "Put the child out! Send him to bed. He should not talk to graybeards
this way!" Keesh waited until the noise stopped. "You have a wife, Ughgluk,"
he said. "And you speak for her. My mother has no one but me. So I speak. As I say, Bok hunted
greatly, but is now dead. It is only fair then that my mother, who was his wife, and I, his son, should
have meat when the tribe has meat. I, Keesh, son of Bok, have spoken."Again, there was a great
noise in the igloo. The council ordered Keesh to bed. It even talked of giving him no food.
Keesh jumped to his feet. "Hear me!" he cried. "Never shall I speak in the council igloo again. I shall
go hunt meat like my father, Bok."There was much laughter when Keesh spoke of hunting. The
laughter followed Keesh as he left the council meeting. The next day, Keesh started out for the
shore, where the land meets the ice. Those who watched saw that he carried his bow and many
arrows. Across his shoulder was his father's big hunting spear. Again there was laughter. One day
passed, then a second. On the third

The Book of Revelation, often known simply as Revelation or the Apocalypse, is the final book of the
New Testament and occupies a central part in Christian eschatology. Written in Greek, its title is
derived from the first word of the text, Apocalypse, meaning "unveiling" or "revelation". The author
of the work identifies himself in the text as "John" and says that he was on Patmos, an
island in the Aegean, when he was instructed by a heavenly figure to write down the contents of a
vision. This John is traditionally supposed to be John the Apostle, although some historical-critical
scholarship rejected this view. Recent scholarship has suggested other possibilities including a
putative figure given the name John of Patmos. Most modern scholars believe it was written around
AD 95, with some believing it dates from around AD 70. The book spans three literary genres:
epistolary, apocalyptic, and prophetic. It begins with an epistolary address to the reader followed by
an apocalyptic description of a complex series of events derived from prophetic visions which the
author has seen. These include the appearance of a number of figures and images which have
become important in Christian eschatology, such as the Whore of Babylon and the Beast, and
culminate in the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. The obscure and extravagant imagery has
led to a wide variety of interpretations: historicist interpretations see in Revelation
a broad view of history; preterist interpretations treat Revelation as mostly referring to the events of
the apostolic era (1st century), orat the latestthe fall of the Roman Empire; futurists believe that
Revelation describes future events; and idealist or symbolic interpretations consider that Revelation
does not refer to actual people or events, but is an allegory of the spiritual path and the ongoing
struggle between good and evil. More recent methods of scholarship, such as textual criticism, have
been influential in suggesting that John the Apostle.

India is bounded to the southwest by the Arabian Sea, to the southeast by the Bay of Bengal and the
Indian Ocean to the south. Kanyakumari constitutes the southern tip of the Indian peninsula, which
narrows before ending in the Indian Ocean. The southernmost part of India is Indira Point in the
Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Maldives, Sri Lanka and Indonesia are island nations to the
south of India with Sri Lanka separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by Palk Strait
and the Gulf of Mannar. The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of 12
nautical miles (13.8 mi; 22.2 km) measured from the appropriate baseline. The northern frontiers of
India are defined largely by the Himalayan mountain range where its political boundaries with China,
Bhutan, and Nepal lie. Its western borders with Pakistan lie in the Punjab Plain and the Thar desert.
In the far northeast, the Chin Hills and Kachin Hills, deeply forested mountainous
regions, separate India from Burma while its political border with Bangladesh is defined by the
watershed region of the Khasi hills and Mizo Hills. The Ganges is the longest river originating in India
and forms the IndoGangetic Plain. The Ganges-Brahmaputra system occupies most of northern,
central and eastern India, while the Deccan Plateau occupies most of southern India. Along its
western frontier is the Thar Desert. Officially, India's highest point is K2 at 8,611 m (28,251 ft),
though it lies in Gilgit-Baltistan, part of the disputed Kashmir region. Kanchenjunga in Sikkim
at 8,598 m (28,209 ft) is the highest point within India's current geographic boundaries. Climate
across India ranges from equatorial in the far south, to Alpine in the upper reaches of the Himalayas.
Based on the Koppen system, India hosts six major climatic subtypes, ranging from arid desert in the
west, Alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, and humid tropical regions supporting rainforests in
the southwest and the island territories.

Candidates from various political parties won the 2003 assembly elections and became MLAs. Since
the total number of MLAs in the Legislative Assembly is 68, a political party would have needed to

have more than 34 MLAs in order to gain a majority. The Indian National Congress with 43 MLAs had
the majority and it became the ruling party. All other MLAs became the opposition. In this case,
Bharatiya Janata Party was the major opposition party, since it had the largest number of MLAs after
the Indian National Congress. Among the opposition were other parties, including those who had
been elected as independent candidates. After the elections, the MLAs belonging to the ruling party
will elect their leader who will become the chief minister. In this case, the Congress Party MLAs
chose Shri Virbhadra Singh as their leader and he became the chief minister. The chief minister then
selects other people as ministers. After the elections, it is the Governor of the state who appoints
the chief minister and other ministers. The chief minister and other ministers have the responsibility
of running various government departments or ministries. The government can also decide to make
new laws for the state regarding sanitation and health facilities. For example, it may make it
compulsory for municipal corporations to ensure that there are adequate toilets in every urban
area. It may also ensure that a health worker is appointed in every village. This act of making laws on
certain issues is done in the Legislative Assembly of each state. The various government
departments then implement these laws. Laws for the entire country are made in the Parliament.
You will read more about the Parliament next year. In a democracy, it is the people who elect their
representatives as Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) and, thus, it is the people who have
the main authority. The ruling party members then form the government and some members are
appointed ministers. We will read about this further.

A weekly market is so called because it is held on a specific day of the week. Weekly markets do not
have permanent shops. Traders set up shops for the day and then close them up in the evening.
Then they may set up at a different place the next day. There are thousands of such markets in India.
People come here for their everyday requirements. Many things in weekly markets are available at
cheaper rates. This is because when shops are in permanent buildings, they incur a lot of
expenditure they have to pay rent, electricity, fees to the government. They also have to pay
wages to their workers. These shop owners store the things they sell at home. Most of them are
helped by their family members and, hence, do not need to hire workers. Weekly markets also
have a large number of shops selling the same goods which means there is competition among
them. If some trader were to charge a high price, people would move to another shop where the
same thing may be available more cheaply or where the buyer can bargain and bring the price down.
One of the advantages of weekly markets is that most things you need are available at one place.
Whether you want vegetables, groceries or cloth items, utensils all of them can be found here. You
do not have to go to different areas to buy different things. People also prefer going to a market
where they have a choice and a variety of goods. We have seen that the weekly markets offer a
variety of goods. However, we also buy things from other kinds of markets. There are many
shops that sell goods and services in our neighborhood. We may buy milk from the dairy, groceries
from departmental stores, stationery from other shops. Many of these are permanent shops, while
others are roadside stalls such as that of the vegetable hawker etc. Shops in the neighborhood are
useful in many ways. They are near our home and we can go there on any day of the week. Usually,
the buyer and seller know each other and these shops also provide goods on credit.

There was a girl named Vallirem who was called Valli for short. She was eight years old and very
curious about things. Her favorite pastime was standing in the front doorway of her house, watching
what was happening in the street outside. There were no playmates of her own age on her street,
and this was about all she had to do. But for Valli, standing at the front door was every bit as
enjoyable as any of the elaborate games other children played. Watching the street gave her many
new unusual experiences. The most fascinating thing of all was the bus that travelled between her
village and the nearest town. It passed through her street each hour, once going to the town and

once coming back. The sight of the bus, filled each time with a new set of passengers, was a source
of unending joy for Valli. Day after day she watched the bus, and gradually a tiny wish crept
into her head and grew there: she wanted to ride on that bus, even if just once. This wish became
stronger and stronger, until it was an overwhelming desire. Valli would stare wistfully at the people
who got on or off the bus when it stopped at the street corner. Their faces would kindle in
her longings, dreams, and hopes. If one of her friends happened to ride the us and tried to describe
the sights of the town to her, Valli would be too jealous to listen and would shout, in English:
Proud! Proud! Neither she nor her friends really understood the meaning of the word, but they
used it often as a slang expression of disapproval. Over many days and months
Valli listened carefully to conversations between her neighbors and people who regularly used the
bus, and she also asked a few discreet questions here and there. This way she picked up various
small details about the bus journey. The town was six miles from her village. The fare was thirty
paisa one way which is almost nothing at all, she heard one well-dressed man say, but to Valli,
who scarcely saw that much money from one month to the next, it seemed a fortune.

Counseling and creating awareness among people about
reproductive organs, adolescence and associated changes, safe and
hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS,
etc., is the primary step towards reproductive health.
Providing medical facilities and care to the problems like menstrual
irregularities, pregnancy related aspects, delivery, medical termination of
pregnancy, STDs, birth control, infertility, post natal child and maternal
management is another important aspect of the Reproductive and Child
Health Care programmers. An overall improvement in reproductive health
has taken place in our country as indicated by reduced maternal and infant
mortality rates, early detection and cure of STDs, assistance to infertile
couples, etc. Improved health facilities and better living conditions
promoted an explosive growth of population.
Such a growth necessitated intense propagation of contraceptive
methods. Various contraceptive options are available now such as natural,
traditional, barrier, IUDs, pills, injectables, implants and surgical methods.
Though contraceptives are not regular requirements for reproductive
health, one is forced to use them to avoid pregnancy or to delay or space
pregnancy. Medical termination of pregnancy is legalized in our country.
MTP is generally performed to get rid of unwanted pregnancy due to rapes,
casual relationship, etc., as also in cases when the continuation of
pregnancy could be harmful or even fatal to either the mother, or the fetus
or both. Diseases or infections transmitted through sexual intercourse are
called Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Pelvic Inflammatory
Diseases (PIDs), still birth, infertility are some of the complications of them.
Early detection facilitate better cure of these diseases. Avoiding sexual
intercourse with unknown/multiple partners, use of condoms during coitus
are some of the simple precautions to avoid contracting STDs. Various
methods are now available to help such couples.

New seed varieties of wheat (Mexico) Andric (Philippines) known as
high yielding varieties (HYVs) were available for cultivation by mid-1960s.
India took advantage of this and introduced package technology comprising
HYVs, along with chemical fertilizers in irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana,

Western Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. Assured supply of

soil moisture through irrigation was a basic pre-requisite for the success of
this new agricultural technology. This strategy of agricultural development
paid dividends instantly and increased the food grains production at very
fast rate. This spurt of agricultural growth came to be known as Green
This also gave fillip to the development of a large number of agroinputs,
agro-processing industries and small-scale industries. This strategy
of agricultural development made the country self-reliant in food grain
production. But green revolution was initially confined to irrigated areas
only. This led to regional disparities in agricultural development in the
country till the seventies, after which the technology spread to the Eastern
and Central parts of the country. The Planning Commission of India
focused its attention on the problems of agriculture in rained areas in
1980s. It initiated agro-climatic planning in 1988 to induce regionally
balanced agricultural development in the country.
It also emphasized the need for diversification of agriculture and
harnessing of resources for development of dairy farming, poultry,
horticulture, livestock rearing and aquaculture. Initiation of the policy of
liberalization and free market economy in 1990s is likely to influence the
course of development of Indian agriculture. Lack of development of rural
infrastructure, withdrawal of subsidies and price support, and impediments
in availing of the rural credits may lead to inter-regional and inter-personal
disparities in rural areas. There has been a significant increase in
agricultural output during fifty years.

We cannot understand the power of rumors and prophecies in history
by checking whether they are factually correct or not. We need to see what
they reflect about the minds of people who believed them their fears and
apprehensions, their faiths and convictions. Rumors circulate only when
they resonate with the deeper fears and suspicions of people. The rumors
in 1857 begin to make sense when seen in the context of the policies the
British pursued from the late 1820. As you know, under the leadership of
Governor General Lord William Bentinck, the British adopted policies aimed
at reforming Indian society by introducing Western education, Western
ideas and Western institutions. With the cooperation of sections of Indian
society they set up English-medium schools, colleges and universities
which taught Western sciences and the liberal arts.
The British established laws to abolish customs like sati and to
permit the remarriage of Hindu widows. On a variety of pleas, like
misgovernment and the refusal to recognize adoption, the British annexed
not only Awadh, but many other kingdoms and principalities like Jhansi and
Satara. Once these territories were annexed, the British introduced their
own system of administration, their own laws and their own methods of
land settlement and land revenue collection. The cumulative impact of all
this on the people of North India was profound. It seemed to the people that
all that they cherished and held sacred from kings and socio-religious
customs to patterns of landholding and revenue payment was being
destroyed and replaced by a system that was more impersonal, alien and
oppressive. This perception was aggravated by the activities of Christian

missionaries. In such a situation of uncertainty, rumors spread with

remarkable swiftness. To explore the basis of the revolt of 1857 in some
detail, let us look at Awadh, one of the major centers where the drama of
1857 unfolded. Governor General Lord Dalhousie described the kingdom of

Now, to have a comprehensive idea of the total flow of production in the
economy, we need to have a quantitative measure of the aggregate level of final
goods produced in the economy. However, in order to get a quantitative
assessment a measure of the total final goods and services produced in the
economy it is obvious that we need a common measuring rod. We cannot add
meters of cloth produced to tones of rice or number of automobiles or machines.
Our common measuring rod is money. Since each of these commodities is
produced for sale, the sum total of the monetary value of these diverse
commodities gives us a measure of final output. But why are we to measure final
goods only? Surely intermediate goods are crucial inputs to any production process
and a significant part of our manpower and capital stock are engaged in production
of these goods.
However, since we are dealing with value of output, we should realize that
the value of the final goods already includes the value of the intermediate goods
that have entered into their production as inputs. Counting them separately will
lead to the error of double counting. Whereas considering intermediate goods may
give a fuller description of total economic activity, counting them will highly
exaggerate the final value of our economic activity. At this stage it is important to
introduce the concepts of stokes and flows. Often we hear statement like the
average salary of someone is Rs 10,000 or the output of the steel industry is so
many tones or so many rupees in value.
But these are incomplete statements because it is not clear whether the
income which is being referred to be yearly or monthly or daily income and surely
that makes a huge difference. Sometimes, when the context is familiar, we assume
that the time period is known and therefore do not mention it. But inherent in all
such statements is a definite period of time. Otherwise such statements are
meaningless. Thus income, or output, or profits are concepts.

Our country India, the land of Gods, is respected in the world for her
mythological culture. The mythological thinking, the deep belief in almighty
and religious nature has made the Indians well cultured. But, sadly there
are some of the stained systems in our country which are the black spots in
our image.
Dowry system is one of those much discussed systems. Although it is
one of the most hated systems surprisingly it is growing day by day. Nowa-days
this problem has created a lot of hue and cry in our country. This
increasing system is a growing injustice to our society and morals. It should
be immediately stopped.
Marriage is one of the most sacred and holy ceremonies in our
society. But the horror of the dowry system has made this ceremony one of
the feared institutions. In ancient Indian society there was no question of
the dowry in marriages. It was considered to be a sin.
The bride-groom was voluntarily presented with some useful gifts

which were not demanded at all. In some cases bride's father was offered
money to allow her to marry a young man. Because the bride was
considered to be a virtuous arid the suitable one, But the whole situation
has altered.
Nobody bothers to approach a girl's parents for her marriage. The
parents of the girl desperately move in search of a suitable groom for her
now. They persuade the groom's parents and show them the temptation of
money and dowry. Through these unfair means they get the consent of the
groom's parents for his marriage.
Thus begins the clandestine atmosphere of dowry. The groom's father
continues to place a series of demands before the bride's father. He strongly
asserts that these demands must be fulfilled before marriage. Otherwise he
can never consent to his son's marriage. The demands include refrigerator,
color television, motor cycle or car, ornaments of pure gold of sizeable
quantity, money and plots of land in the capital area. In some case bride
grooms are demanding money for their education and for constructing

The main occupation of the people in our country is farming. We
depend on rainwater to grow crops. It does not rain regularly throughout
the year. We do not receive the same amount of rainfall in all parts of the
Thus we cannot depend only upon rainfall to grow our crops. We
must make other arrangements to water the fields at the proper time.
Irrigation is one of the important ways to do it. Canals, wells and tanks are
three important means of irrigation. Today, India has one of the largest
irrigation systems in the world.
The canal is the most important source of irrigation in India.
Channels are dug to build canals. River-water is diverted into these canals.
The canals can take river-water to the far-off fields, where there is not
enough water. At some places, the river-water has to be stored. We can
build a barrier of cement and steel to block the flow of river-water. This is
called a dam. A huge lake is created behind the dam. The water from the
lake can regulate the flow of water in the river. The water from such lakes
can also be diverted to the canals for irrigation. Punjab, Haryana, West
Bengal and Tamil Nadu have a good network of canals.
Dams also help in the production of electricity. When water from the
lake behind the dam is made to fall from a high point, it is used to turn
turbines which produce electricity. The dam also helps to control floods in
the river. A project which helps to provide water for irrigation, produces
electricity and controls floods in the river is called a multipurpose project.
our government has built a number of multipurpose projects. Some
of them are shown on the map. Find out the names of the others dams and
the rivers they are built on. When it rains, some water seeps through the
soil and goes deep into the ground. We can reach this underground water
through wells. Where the water is not too deep, we normally use the
Persian wheel to draw out this water. Deep tube wells have to be bored
when the water is at a great depth.

Some books, particularly those with shorter runs will be printed on
sheet-fed offset presses, but most books are now printed on web presses,
which are fed by a continuous roll of paper, and can consequently print
more copies in a shorter time. As the production line circulates, a complete
"book" is collected together in one stack, next to another, and another.
A web press carries out the folding itself, delivering bundles of
signatures (sections) ready to go into the gathering line. Notice that when
the book is being printed it is being printed one (or two) signatures at a
time, not one complete book at a time. Excess numbers are printed to
make up for any spoilage due to "make-readies" or test pages to assure
final print quality.
A make-ready is the preparatory work carried out by the pressmen to
get the printing press up to the required quality of impression. Included in
make-ready is the time taken to mount the plate onto the machine, clean up
any mess from the previous job, and get the press up to speed. As soon as
the pressman decides that the printing is correct, all the make-ready sheets
will be discarded, and the press will start making books. Similar make
readies take place in the folding and binding areas, each involving spoilage
of paper.
After the signatures are folded and gathered, they move into
the bindery. In the middle of last century there were still many trade binders
stand-alone binding companies which did no printing, specializing in
binding alone. At that time, because of the dominance of letterpress
printing, typesetting and printing took place in one location, and binding in a
different factory. When type was all metal, a typical book's worth of type
would be bulky, fragile and heavy. The less it was moved in this condition
the better: so printing would be carried out in the same location as the
typesetting. Printed sheets on the other hand could easily be moved. Now,
because of increasing computerization of preparing a book for the printer.

Businesses that have gone public are subject to regulations
concerning their internal governance, such as how executive officers'
compensation is determined, and when and how information is disclosed to
shareholders and to the public. In the United States, these regulations are
primarily implemented and enforced by the United States Securities and
Exchange Commission. Other Western nations have comparable
regulatory bodies. The regulations are implemented and enforced by the
China Securities Regulation Commission in China. In Singapore, the
regulation authority is the Monetary Authority of Singapore, and in Hong
Kong, it is the Securities and Futures Commission. The proliferation and
increasing complexity of the laws governing business have forced
increasing specialization in corporate law. It is not unheard of for certain
kinds of corporate transactions to require a team of five to ten attorneys
due to sprawling regulation.
Commercial law spans general corporate law, employment and labor
law, health-care law, securities law, mergers and acquisitions, tax law,
employee benefit plans, food and drug regulation, intellectual property law
on copyrights, patents, trademarks and such, telecommunications law, and

more. Other types of capital sourcing includes crowd sourcing on the

internet, venture capital, bank loans and debentures. Businesses often
have important "intellectual property" that needs protection from
competitors for the company to stay profitable. This could require patents,
copyrights, trademarks or preservation of trade secrets. Most businesses
have names, logos and similar branding techniques that could benefit from
trade marking. Patents and copyrights in the United States are largely
governed by federal law, while trade secrets and trade marking are mostly
a matter of state law. A business needs protection in every jurisdiction in
which they are concerned about competitors. Many countries are
signatories to international treaties concerning intellectual property.

This article specifies that except for Defense, Foreign Affairs, Finance
and Communications, (matters specified in the instrument of accession)
the Indian Parliament needs the State Government's concurrence for
applying all other laws. Thus the state's residents lived under a separate
set of laws, including those related to citizenship, ownership of property,
and fundamental rights, as compared to other Indians.
Similar protections for unique status exist in tribal areas of India
including those in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Andaman &
Nicobar Islands and Nagaland however it is only for the state of Jammu
and Kashmir that the accession of the state to India is still a matter of
dispute between India and Pakistan still on the agenda of the UN Security
Council and where the Government of India vide 1974 Indira-Sheikh
accord committed itself to keeping the relationship between the Union and
Jammu and Kashmir State within the ambit of this article .
The 1974 Indira-Sheikh accord mentions that "The State of Jammu
and Kashmir which is a constituent unit of the Union of India, shall, in its
relation with the Union, continue to be governed by Article 370 of the
Constitution of India".
In notifications issued as far back as 1927 and 1932, the state
created various categories of residents with some being called
permanent residents with special rights. Though the law did not
discriminate between female and male PRs, an administrative rule thanks
to in-built patriarchy or misogyny made it clear that women could remain
PRs only till marriage. After that they had to seek a fresh right to remain
PRs. And if a woman married someone who wasnt a Kashmiri PR, she
automatically lost her own PR status. In 2004, the state high court, in the
case of State of J&K vs Sawhney, declared that there was no provision in
the existing law dealing with the status of a female PR who married a nonresident.
The provision of women losing their PR status after marrying
outside the state,