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Aug.

12, 1969

D. M. PATTON

' _

3,461,270

TUBULAR WELDING ELECTRODE

Filed Jan. 6. 1966

104-

INVENTOR.

DONALD M.PATTON

Iii/William; 8
ATTORNEYS ,

~I

3,461,270
3

alloys, or alloys of each other. One or more of the metal


additives are present in total amounts of from 1.0% to

of improved welds, particularly in out-of-position or pipe

2.5% of the total electrode weight. 1.5% to 2.0% is

preferred.
The metal ?ll is iron in powder form. Some of the iron

welding.
Another object of the invention is the provision of new

and improved ?uxing ingredients for tubular electrodes,


one of which ingredients is a hydrocarbon.

Another object of the invention is the provision of a


new and improved formulation for the ?uxing ingredients
of a tubular electrode which prevents the formulation of
a projection of the ?uxing ingredients on the end of the
iron.
The metal ?ll is present in amounts of from 4.0% to 10 tube greater than the length of the electric arc.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
12.0% of the total electrode weight. 7% to 9% is

may be alloyed with or combined with one or more of

the metal additives. Thus, the carbon of the metal addi


tives may be included as the carbon of powdered cast

preferred.

new and improved tubular electrode wherein a very short

welding arc may be employed.


Another object is a ?uxing ingredient ?ll for a tubular
aspect of the invention, the ?uxing ingredients also in- "
clude in addition to the hydrocarbon as above de?ned 15 steel electrode which enables the weight of the ?ll to be
less than 15% of the total weight of the electrode.
and as an essential and novel ingredient, a carbohydrate
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
in amounts of from 0.5% to 5.0% of the total electrode
new and improved tubular electrode which gives excellent
weight. 1.0% to 2.0% is preferred.
welds using relatively low welding current.
The carbohydrate has a prime function of providing
The invention may take physical form in certain ?ux
bulk to the ?uxing ingredient such that less of the metal
formulations associated with a tubular steel electrode
?ll, metal additives and slagging ingredients are required
member as shown in the accompanying drawing wherein
to completely and tightly ?ll the interior of the tubular
the sole ?gure shows a fragmentary portion of a length
electrode member such that less heat is required to melt
of a welding electrode with portions broken away to show
these ingredients. The carbohydrate performs a second
function of decomposing and burning in the heat of the 25 the construction thereof.
Referring now to the drawing wherein the showing is
arc to produce water vapor and carbon dioxide, both of
for the purpose of illustrating a preferred embodiment of
which are a gas and help to exclude the nitrogen of the
the invention only and not for the purpose of limiting
atmosphere from the vicinity of the arc. The carbohydrate same, the ?gure shows an electrode member 10 in the
is preferably in the form of cellulose and is thus light and
30 form of a hollow tube having on the inside thereof in
?uifyl
'
tightly compacted form ?uxing ingredients 11 com
In operation, the hydrocarbon appears to melt and coat
pounded in accordance with the present invention.
the particles of the other ?ux ingredients including the
The metal of the tube 10 may be as desired, but is
carbohydrate. This molten hydrocarbon serves as a heat
preferably a low carbon steel which may have the usual
conductor from the outer surface of the ?uxing ingredi
ents adjacent the inner walls of the tube radially inwardly. 35 trace or residual amounts of alloying agents such as
silicon, manganese and the like. If the metal of the tube
This inwardly conducted heat makes the hydrocarbon
contains substantial amounts of silicon, manganese or the
boil and/ or fractionate into a hydrocarbon gas and also
like, then the formulation of the ?uxing ingredients should
decomposes the cellulose into water vapor and carbon.
be appropriately adjusted.
This conduction of heat inwardly and the evolving of gas
The tube may be formed in any desired manner, but
on the inside of the tightly packed ?uxing ingredients 40
preferably is formed by providing: a ribbon having a U
tends to break up the tightly packed ?ux ingredients pre
In accordance with a somewhat limited but preferred ,

venting the formation of a projection of ?uxing ingredi


ents beyond the arcing end of the metal tube.
'

Some ofthe hydrocarbon, coated on the flux particles,

cross-sectional shape; ?lling the U with the ?uxing in


gredients and then bringing the upper ends of the legs of
the U into tight ?tting abutting relationship to form a

is carried into the weld pool where it continues to boil 45 seam 12. Obviously the ends of the U could be overlapped
if desired. Also after bringing the ends of the legs of the
producing a hydrocarbon in vaporous vform.
, Observing the arcing end of the electrode through a

U into tight ?tting abutting relationship, the entire elec

dark lens indicates that the hydrocarbon exudes through

trode may be drawn to size which results in a further com

pacting of the ?uxing ingredients .11.


the seam of the tubular electrode, exudes from the lower
The outer diameter of the electrode is preferably 0.078
end of the electrode, changes to a gas and then combines 50
inch and the wall thickness is approximately 0.020 inch.
with the oxygen of the atmosphere to form water vapor,
This leaves a center opening having a diameter of ap
carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. In addition, as
proximately 0.038 inch which internal diameter is ap
above pointed out, the cellulose decomposes into water
proximately the minimum diameter which can be success
vapor and the carbon combines with the oxygen of the
atmosphere to produce carbon monoxide and carbon di 55 fully obtained in high production with the stated wall
oxide, =all of which are gases and act to exclude the atmos

phere and particularly the nitrogen from the vicinity of


the weld pool.

thickness.
It is to be noted that if this diameter were ?lled 100%
with iron powder, the minimum weight of ?ll which can

be made to ?ll the opening would bev approximately 21%


There are obviously many hundreds of hydrocarbons
60 of the total weight of the electrode. If only slagging agents
available which will probably work, but inasmuch as cost
in workable proportions were employed, then the mini
is always a factor in welding electrodes, it is preferred to
mum weight of ?ll is approximately 18% of the total
use hydrocarbons which are readily obtainable and which
weight of the electrode. Using the present invention, par
have the lowest cost. Of the various hydrocarbons known,

ticularly with the high bulk factor of the carbohydrates,

carnauba wax and polyalkylene-glycol or carbowax are 65


the weight of the ?uxing ingredients can be reduced to less

preferred.

The principal object of the invention is the provision of


a new and improved tubular welding electrode having

than 15 % of the total weight of the electrode.


It will be appreciated that the heat required to melt the
?ll must be conducted from the hot metal of the electrode

improved air excluding characteristics.


member 10 or from the hot gases surrounding any pro
Another object of the invention is the provision of a 70 jection of the ?uxing ingredient 11 beyond the end of the
new and improved tubular electrode which gives im
electrode metal during the welding operation. Using the
proved weld beads.
present invention, it will be noted that there is a sub
Still another object of the invention vis the provision of
stantial reduction in the weight of the ?uxing ingredients
a new and improved formulation for the ?uxing ingredi
which must be melted and thus less heat is required to
ents of a tubular electrode which enables the obtaining 75 melt o?? the electrode and a lesser current can be employed

3,461,270

while still having a manageable weld pool. This is par

and/ or fractionates into other volatile hydrocarbons, and


does not contain nitrogen, sulphur or phosphorus.
2. The electrode of claim 1 wherein the improvement
includes a carbohydrate.
3. The electrode of claim 1 wherein the hydrocarbon is
present in amounts of from 0.30% to 1.0%.
4. The electrode of claim 1 wherein the improvement
includes a carbohydrate in amounts of from 0.5% to

ticularly important where shorting of the electrode end


to the weld pool periodically occurs such as when a drop
of metal transfers from the end of the metal tube to the
weld pool. During this instant, no arc is present and a
lesser amount of heat is generated.
While flux ingredients of from 13% to the total weight
of the electrode are preferred, the invention contemplates
a ?ll of from 10% to 15%.

5.0%.
The various classes of fluxing ingredients may be pres 10
5. The electrode of claim 3 wherein the improvement
ent in accordance with the invention in the following
includes a carbohydrate in amounts of from 1.0% to
ranges:
2.0%.
6. A Welding electrode comprised of a tubular steel
Maximum range
Preferred range
member having on the inside thereof:
15
(A) metal additives selected from the class consisting
Metal additive ________ __

1. 0

2. 5

1. 5

2. 0

Metal ?ll ________ ._

___

4. 0

12.0

7. 0

9. 0

Slagging agent_.___

_.

8. 0

7. 0

4. 0

5. 0

Hydrocarbon. ._
___
Carbohydrate ________ __

0. 10
0. 5

10. 0
5. 0

0. 3O
1. 0

1. 0
2. 0

of aluminum, carbon, manganese, silicon, titanium

20

(C) slagging agents selected from the class consisting


of oxides of aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium,
manganese, silicon, titanium and zirconium, the
silicates of aluminum, potassium, sodium and zir

A speci?c formulation is as follows:


A

Metal additive:
Ferro titanium (40% Ti) __________________ __

. 60

4. 62

25

Silico manganese (20% Si 68% Mn 1.5% 0


Hal. Fe ________________________________ ..

.20

1. 54

Ferro manganese (80% Mn 56% G Bal. Fe)-

. 30

2. 31

Zirconium silicon (40% Zr 50% Si) ________ --

. 20

1. 54

Iron powder ______________________________ __

3. 95

30. 65

Cast iron powder (4% C Bal. Fe) _________ __

2. 20

17. 10

Iron oxide (Fe3O4) ____ __

1. 20

8. 50

. 30
. 60

2. 31
4. 62

Carbon(see metal ?ll).

Metal ?ll:

slagging agents:

Manganese ore (Mn 0)


Rutile (Ti0z)___-_____
Limestone (02.003). _

. 15
. 40

3.08

Sodium silicate (N a0 SIO2)_____

. 10

0. 077

Mica (50% SiOz 9% K20 4% H2O)


Calcium ?uoride (CaFz) ____________ _.

. 15

1. 15

____

. 725

5. 63

Potassium silico ?uoride (KzSiFa) ________ __

. 10

0. 077

Carnauba wax ____________________________ . _

. 20

1. 54

Polyethylene glycol (Carbowax 20M)_

. 25

1. 93

Hydrocarbon:

Carbohydrate:

Alphacellulose ____________________________ ..

. 50

3. 85

Cellulose ____ __

. 90

6. 94

30

1. 15

Zirconium oxide (ZIOz) ____ __

and zirconium either as elements, ferro alloys or


alloys of each other in amounts of 1.0% to 2.50%;
(B) a metal ?ll consisting of iron in powder form in
total amounts of from 4.0% to 12.0%;

conium and the complex silicates as found in certain


clays and the halides or complex halides of the
alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, silicon and alumi
num, such slagging agents being present in such pro
portions to give a freezing temperature less than the
freezing temperature of molten steel in amounts of
from 3.0% to 7.0%; and,
(D) a hydrocarbon in amounts of from 0.10% to 10%
which is
when further heated will vaporize into a gas and/ or
fractionate into other volatile hydrocarbons hav
ing a smaller molecular weight and,
which do not contain nitrogen, sulphur or phos

phorus.

7. The electrode of claim 6 wherein said ingredients


also include a carbohydrate in amounts of from 0.5% to

5.0%.

8. The electrode of claim 6 wherein the hydrocarbon


is present in amounts of from 0.30% to 1.0%.
9. The electrode of claim 8 wherein the ingredients in
APercent of total electrode weight; B-Percent of ?ux mix.
45 clude a carbohydrate in amounts of from 1.0% to 2.0%.
These ingredients are all ?nely ground, thoroughly
10. A welding electrode comprised of a tubular steel
mixed, placed in a U-shaped ribbon and the ends of the
member having on the inside thereof: a metal additive
legs of the U brought into abutting engagement. The re
selected from the class consisting of aluminum, carbon,
sulting ?lled tube is then passed through a sizing die which
manganese, silicon, titanium and zirconium either as ele
reduces the diameter of the inner opening and tightly
ments, ferro alloys or alloys of each other in amounts of
packs the flux ingredients. Welding currents of 150-225
1.5% to 2.5%; a metal ?ll consisting of iron in powder
amperes are preferred.
form in total amounts of from 7.0% to 9.0%; slagging
This ?ux formulation has been found particularly of
agents selected from the class consisting of oxides of
Electrode ____________________________________ .,_

86. 975 __________ _

100. 00

100. 00

bene?t in out-of-position welding and particularly in the


welding of pipe in the ?eld. It produces weld beads having
improved characteristics and the necessary ductility and
strength required for such demanding uses.
It will be noted that the carbowax and carnauba wax

have melting temperatures of 55-60 C. and 83-87 C.

respectively.
In the claims, all weights are given as percents of the
total electrode weight.
The invention has been described with reference to a

aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, silicon,


55

titanium and zirconium, the silicates of aluminum,.potas


sium, sodium and zirconium and the complex silicates as
found in certain clays and the halides or complex halides

of the alkaline metals, alkaline earth metals, silicon and


aluminum, such slagging agents being in such proportions
to give a freezing temperature less than the freezing tem
perature of molten steel in amounts of from 4.0% to
5.0% and a hydrocarbon in amounts of from 0.30% to

1.0% which is:


when further heated will vaporize or fractionate into
ations will occur to others upon a reading and understand 65
other volatile hydrocarbons having a smaller molecu
ing of this speci?cation and it is my intention to include all
lar weight and,
such modi?cations insofar as they come within the scope
which do not contain nitrogen, sulphur or phosphorus
of the appended claims.
11. The electrode of claim 10 wherein said ingredients
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
also include a carbohydrate in amounts of from 1.0% to
1. An arc welding electrode comprised of elongated 70 2.0%.
tubular steel member having on the inside thereof, in
12. An arc welding electrode comprised of a, hollow
addition to the usual ?uxing ingredients, a hydrocarbon
steel tube formed by bringing the ends of the legs of a
?uxing ingredient in an amount within the range of 0.10%
U-shaped ribbon into abutting engagement with the size
to 10%, having the following characteristics: when heated
of the opening of the tube being the minimum possible
to a temperature above 100 C., vaporizes into a gas 75 with the wall thickness of the tube, said tube having on

preferred embodiment. Obviously, modi?cations and alter

3,461,276
7

the inside thereof a mixture of powdered metals and


powdered nonmetallic slag forming ingredients together

2,761,796
1,751,668

with a hydrocarbon and su?icient carbohydrate that the

' 2,102,891

's

12/1937

UNITED STATES PATENTS


4/1951
3/1953

Faulkner _________ __ 219-146

Weight of the ?ll does not exceed 15% of the total Weight
of the electrode.
5 JOSEPH V. TRUHE, Primary Examiner
References Cited
B. A. STERN, Assistant Examiner
2,547,771
2,631,952

9/ 19561 Wasserman __'_____ 219146 X


3/1930 Taylor ____________ __ 219--74

Pessel _____________ __ 148-24


29_191; 148-24
Williams ________ __ 148-24 X 10

US. Cl. X.R_