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SHIP

EFFICIENCY:
THE GUIDE
A comprehensive guide to ship
eco-efficiency technologies
and measures

www.fathomshipping.com

THE GUIDE : SPONSORS

The shipping industry


faces a new challenge

efficiency.

SUPPORTING PARTNERS

fathom

marine | energy | environment

Content
overview
Ship Efficiency: The Guide
Editors: Peter Lockley and Alison Jarabo-Martin

xiii.

Foreword
Jos Mara Figueres, Managing Partner, IJ Partners
Chairman of the Carbon War Room
President of the Republic of Costa Rica (94-98)

xvi.

IMOs work on ship efficiency


Andreas Chrysostomou, Chairman,
Marine Environmental Protection Committee

Supporting editors: Kunal Sharma and Jenny Hill


Review by: Flemming Sandstrom
Contributors: Jos Mara Figueres,
Andreas Chrysostomou, Tom Boardley,
BIMCO and Johan De Jong
Published by: Fathom
Design: Matblack

xviii.

Introduction to The Guide


The Fathom Team

xxii.

Outlook for shipping


Lloyds Register

xxiv.

Ship emission regulation


BIMCO

xxx.

A Framework for Energy Saving Device


(ESD) decision making
Propulsion and resistance related energy
saving: Framework for Decision Making
MARIN (Maritime Institute of Netherlands)

Technical chapters

First published in 2011 by Fathom.


Copyright 2011 Fathom Eco-Consultants Ltd.
This book is copyright under the Berne Convention.

Fathom
Beach House
89 Victoria Street
Windsor
Berkshire
UK
info@fathomshipping.com
www.fathomshipping.com

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may


be reproduced or stored or transmitted by any means
or in any form, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording, or any information storage
and retrieval system, without written permission
which should be sought from publishers.

Ship design

35

Propulsion

79

Machinery

107

Strategies

145

5 Scrubbers

164

The Directory

ISBN: 978-0-9568259-0-2
Images: Every effort has been made to trace
and contact the copyright holders of the images
reproduced in this book. However, the publishers
would be pleased, if informed, to correct any errors or
omissions in subsequent editions of this publication.

THE CONTENTS
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Detailed content
Technical chapters
1

Ship design

44

2.2

1.1

Operations

45

1.1.1

Larger ships

1.1.2 Optimisation of ballast and trim

10

1.2

12

1.2.1 Optimisation of hull dimensions

Technology

New hulls

Aft waterline extension (retrofit)

Skeg shape/trailing edge (retrofit)

13

1.2.2 Optimisation of hull openings

13

1.2.3 Shaft line arrangement

14

1.2.4 Bulbous bow

14

1.2.5 Optimisation of
propeller/hull interface

21

1.2.6 Lightweight construction

25

1.2.7 Air lubrication

28

1.2.8 Design speed reduction

Smaller engine (newbuild)

Engine de-rating (newbuild or retrofit)

79

Machinery

122

4.2

2.2.1 Propeller-rudder combinations

80

3.1

Technology

123

4.2.1 Hull surface coating

49

2.2.2 Advanced propeller blade sections

81

3.1.1 Main engine adjustments

129

49

2.2.3 Nozzles

Common Rail

4.2.2 Hull cleaning


(condition-based monitoring)

49

2.2.4 Winglets/Kappel propellers

Diesel-Electric Drive

133

4.2.3 Fuel additives

59

2.2.5 Propeller ducts

139

4.2.4 Engine lubricants

62

2.2.6 Propeller boss cap fins

Combined Diesel/electric and Diesel/


mechanical Drive (CODED)

141

4.2.5 Water emulsion fuel

64

2.2.7 Propeller modification

142

4.2.6 Catalysts

144

4.2.7 Biofuels

145

5 Scrubbers

146

5.1

148

5.1.1 Introduction

149

5.1.2 Regulatory background

150

5.1.3 Types of exhaust gas cleaningsystems

151

5.1.4 Selective Catalytic Reduction systems


(SCR)

152

5.1.5 CO2 removal

152

5.1.6 Operating considerations

153

5.1.7

Certification

154

5.2

Systems providers

Upgrades (retrofit)

Newbuilds

65

2.2.8 Wing thrusters

65

2.2.9 Contra-rotating propellers

65

2.2.10 Pulling thrusters

Additional Propulsion Methods


Wind Power
71

2.2.11 Towing kites

71

2.2.12 Fixed sails

71

2.2.13 Flettner rotors

76

2.2.14 Traditional sailing ships


89

Main Engine Tuning

3.1.2 Advanced power management

Low loss power distribution (newbuild)

Variable speed electric power


generation
Speed control of pumps and fans
(power management systems

Enhanced power management

96

3.1.3 Hybrid Auxiliary Power

96

3.1.4 Waste Heat Recovery (WHR)

101

3.1.5 Reducing on-board power demand

Additional Propulsion Methods


Other

104

3.1.6 Solar power

107

Strategies

76

108

4.1

Operational

29

1.2.9 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

32

1.2.10 Aerodynamics of superstructure

35

Propulsion

36

2.1

Operations

109 4.1.1


37

2.1.1

Propeller monitoring and maintenance

112

4.1.2 Weather routing

37

2.1.2 Propeller coatings and paints

119

4.1.3 Increase cargo load factor

37

2.1.3 Propulsion efficiency monitoring


with condition-based maintenance

119

4.1.4 Energy saving awareness

121

4.1.5 Autopilot upgrade/adjustment

2.2.15 Batteries and fuel cells

Technological

Exhaust gas cleaning systems

Voyage optimisation
Slow steaming
Port turn-around time
Optimum berthing/virtual arrival

THE CONTENTS
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CHAPTER ONE | 1.1.1

Larger ships
As a first principle, increasing the size of the vessel
improves the efficiency of transport work, so uses
less fuel per tonne-kilometre.
Designing larger ships, subject to the constraints
of operations such as port and canal dimensions,
will improve efficiency so long as there is sufficient
transport demand to ensure they can be operated at
or near full capacity. For existing fleets, operators will
derive gains from deploying fewer, larger ships rather
than more, smaller ships where the nature of the
transport work allows.
The use of larger ships also reduces overhead costs.
Regression analysis of recently built ships show that
a 10% larger ship will give about 45% higher
transport efficiency.

SHIP DESIGN : OPERATIONS


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CHAPTER ONE | 1.1.2

Optimisation of
ballast and trim

UP TO

4%

FUEL SAVINGS

Ballast, cargo and bunker distribution and the


relationship between these are fundamental
to giving the modern ship its optimal position
in the water a crucial consideration in
optimising fuel efficiency.
Optimal position in the water can translate to
reduced resistance and bunker fuel savings are
there to be gained. There are a myriad of factors
that contribute towards the optimal positioning of
a vessel; including vessel type and size, design and
geometry, speed and weather conditions.
In order to compute the effect of these complex
variables a number of software packages are now
available that can perform calculations that allow
counter measures to be assessed and implemented
should the optimised ballast and trim not be realised.
Most recent software packages have real-time
response to voyage conditions.

Trim optimisation software packages can form part


of a suite of vessel monitoring systems that are in
place on-board a ship. The table below outlines
some of the companies and their stages of software
development and maturity. As ever, it important to
note that the bunker fuel savings claims are based
on information received from the company. Fathom
recommends that all ship owners, operators and
managers seek additional information to determine
the accuracy of fuel savings technology.
Abatement potential

<5% (Wrtsil 2008)

Provider

Product

Savings

Verification

Decision3

GreenSteam

24%;
depending on
vessel type

Independent vessel One fitted,


verification of 2.5% more orders

Eniram

Dynamic Trimming
Assistant (DTA)

16%;
claimed

35%
(container ship)

Force Technology

Seatrim

3%;
(ROI 16 months)

Sea trial completed In service,

vessels
unknown

Futureship (GL)

Eco-Assistant

15%

Testimonials
available

SHIP DESIGN : OPERATIONS


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Maturity

In service,
several ship
lines

Since
20092010

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CHAPTER ONE | 1.1.2

CHAPTER ONE | 1.1.2

Decision3 GreenSteam
GreenSteam is an on-board sensor that measures
the relationship between a vessels speed and power
consumption for propulsion to ensure that its position
in the water is optimised. This information is used to
ensure that the optimal settings of controls are being
used under various loading conditions.

Force Technology Seatrim


Seatrim is effectively an extension to FORCEs
more in-depth vessel trim tests and trim calculation
technologies. The Copenhagen-based company
has developed a fast and efficient procedure for
performing trim assignment tests that will evaluate
the approximate gains on a vessel free of charge prior
to starting a trim test assignment.

GreenSteam effectively reacts dynamically to


changes in the ships condition and environment,
continually giving new settings for trim and propeller
RPM through a data feed supplied to a user interface
on the bridge.
According to the company, the system has been tested
on one Norden A/S vessel and revealed verified fuel
savings of 2.5% as compared to eight sister vessels.
Ship types

tankers; others unknown

Fitting
Claimed saving

at sea
up to 4%

Verified saving
Other info
Included in Nordic Cleantech 50 in 2009.
www.decision3.com
Fathom comment:
Although this technology is relatively
new and has low take-up to date, it has
demonstrated a worthwhile fuel saving.

2.5%

Eniram Dynamic Trimming Assistant (DTA)


The Eniram Dynamic Trimming Assistant (DTA) is
described by the company as a real-time vessel-based
decision support system for monitoring and optimising
the vessel trim. DTA is described by the company as
easy to use and install with an intuitive graphical user
interface designed especially for seafarers. The vessels
overall trim can be seen by the user at one glance and
appropriate ballast adjustments can be made.
We can assess that this is a technology with steady
and growing take-up and good customer satisfaction
with real savings being achieved, although Fathom
was unable to verified the claimed savings.
Ship types


Fitting

Large commercial vessels


including cruise ships,
freight carriers and tankers
at sea

Claimed saving
16% for all ship types

A vessel saved 1,000 tonnes of fuel,

approximately 3,000 tonnes of CO2,

approximately 300,000 per year.
ROI

Stated to be <12 months


(many customers <6 months)

Case studies
Carnival Cruise Lines (saving of 200 tonnes of fuel /
$100,000 per ship per year), Hamburg Sud (saving of
35% fuel / $4million per year, ROI <12 months).
Awards
Red Herring 10 finalist, Seatrade Awards 10 finalist,
Nordic Tech Tour 10 shortlisted, Seatrade Insider Cruise
Awards shortlisted, Cleantech Connect, shortlisted.

Following the trim test, this information is then used


in a relatively simple computer program that requires
pre-sailing input of draught forward and aft and
planned vessel speed. The program then advises about
the trim situation and advises if the trim is optimised.
If not, quick guidance on where optimal trim can
be found is given and the user can employ cargo or
ballast water to adapt trim before leaving.
Crucially, it does not provide real-time trim
analysis once at sea.
Particularly large fuel savings can be achieved with
vessels with large bulbous bows operating at light
loading conditions.
Ship types

none specified

Fitting

at sea

Claimed saving

Cost

up to 3%
with data to support
free of charge add-on to trim tests
and trim calculations performed
by FORCE Technology

www.forcetechnology.com
Fathom comment:
Force is a credible company specialist in
complex vessel calculations and the product
is free! However, the application is limited
as it is pre-voyage only, rather than realtime measures.

www.eniram.fi
Fathom comment:
This is a technology with steady and growing
take-up and good customer satisfaction with
real savings being achieved. Case studies are
available that show examples of potential
savings.
SHIP DESIGN : OPERATIONS
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FutureShip (GL) Eco-Assistant


Eco-Assistant is a software package used to determine
the optimum trim of the vessel based on parameters
including speed, displacement and water depth in
various operating conditions. Trim optimisation
is particularly effective for vessels with a diverse
operating profile (such as speed, displacement).
The effectiveness increases with capability to change
trim through load or water ballast distribution. It also
assesses shallow water effects in order to optimise trim.
Ship types
Fitting time

all
varies with the type
of service chosen

Claimed saving

15%

ROI

a few months

Cost

from 55,000

Testimonials
Numerous reference applications are available
for projects in Europe, Asia, and the US.
Note
FutureShip was recently acquired by Germanischer
Lloyd, but the products continue to be marketed under
the FutureShip brand as well as directly by GL.
www.futureship.net
Fathom comment:
FutureShip offers a relatively low-cost
technology with good ROI that is applicable
on all vessel types.

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