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A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE ON

DOMAINS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT AMONG THE


MOTHERS OF SELECTED RURAL AREAS OF VILLAGE
PANCHAYATAN, GAUTAM BUDH NAGAR, UTTAR PRADESH

RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO SNS&R,


SHARDA UNIVERSITY

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE


OF BASIC B.Sc. NURSING
BY
MISS. KINLEY CHODEN
MISS. KUMARI KOYAL
MR. KUNDAN KUMAR

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF


MR. DANI PHILIP
(HOD CUM ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR,
DEPT OF MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING)

SCHOOL OF NURSING SCIENCE AND RESERCH


BATCH 2012-2016

DECLARATION BY CANDIDATES

We hereby declare that this dissertation entitled A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO


ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE ON DOMAINS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT
AMONG THE MOTHERS OF SELECTED RURAL AREAS OF VILLAGE
PANCHAYATAN, GAUTAM BUDH NAGAR, UTTAR PRADESH is a
bonafide and genuine research work carried out by us under the guidance of Mr.
DANI PHILIP Hod Cum Associate Professor Of Medical Surgical Nursing SNS&R,
Sharda University at Greater Noida UP

Date:

Signature of the candidate

Place: Greater Noida

Miss. Kumari Koyal


Miss. Kinley Choden
Mr. Kundan Kumar

CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE

This is to certify that the project work entitled A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO


ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE ON DOMAINS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT
AMONG THE MOTHERS OF SELECTED RURAL AREAS OF VILLAGE
PANCHAYATAN, GAUTAM BUDH NAGAR, UTTAR PRADESH is a
bonafide research project carried out by B.Sc. Nursing 4thyear Batch 2012-2016 in
fulfillment of the requirement for the completion of B. Sc. Nursing course.

Date:

Signature of Guide

Place: Greater Noida

Mr. Dani Philip


HOD cum associate Professor
(Dept of Medical Surgical Nursing)
School of Nursing Science & Research
Sharda University Greater Noida, U.P

ii

ENDORSEMENT BY THE HOD AND PRINCIPAL/HEAD


OF INSTITUTION

This is to certify that the project work entitled A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO


ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE ON DOMAINS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT
AMONG THE MOTHERS OF SELECTED RURAL AREAS OF VILLAGE
PANCHAYATAN, GAUTAM BUDH NAGAR, UTTAR PRADESHis a bonafide
and genuine research project work done by Fourth year B.Sc Nursing students (5 th
Group) under the guidance of Mr. Dani Philip HOD cum associate Professor Dept.of
Medical Surgical Nursing ,School of Nursing Science& Research Sharda University
Greater Noida U.P

Signature and seal:

Signature and seal:

Ms. Kh. Linda Devi

Prof. Pauline Sharmila

HOD Cum Associate Professor

Principal

(Dept of Community Health Nursing)

School of Nursing Science &

School of Nursing Science &

Research Sharda University

Research

Sharda University

Date:

Date:

Place: Greater Noida

Place: Greater Noid

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, we express a deep sense of gratitude to Almighty God who has
been our constant guide to every step of our life. This project is a result of dedicated
effort of many people, teachers, advisors, family members, and friends who
continually added creative insights and critical thinking at every step of this project.
It is our privilege to be part of the institute & would like to express our sincere thanks
& gratitude to Mrs. Pauline Sharmila, Principal, School of Nursing Science &
Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida for her timely help, valuable suggestions
and guidance throughout the project work.
The present study has been undertaken under the inspiring and expert guidance of Mr.
Dani PhilIp, HOD CUM associate Prof. Dept of Medical Surgical Nursing, SNS&R
Sharda University. We express our heartfelt gratitude to her, for her keen interest and
sustained patience till the completion of the project. It is indeed a great honor and
privilege for us to be guided by her.
We indebted to the experts who contributed their valuable time and efforts in
validating the tool.
We also extend our sincere thanks to our class Coordinator Mrs. Sunita Kumari for
showing her interest in our project.
We take this opportunity to thank the entire teaching faculty of school of Nursing
Science & Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida U.P, for their insightful
comments and suggestions given during different stages of project work.
We thank all the respondents for their wholehearted participation in the project work,
without whom our project work would be an incomplete one.
Last but not the least our gratefulness is extended to all those who are directly or
indirectly helped in the completion of the project work.

iv

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER
NO.

TITLE

PAGE
NO.

INTRODUCTION

2-7

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

9-14

METHODOLOGY

16-21

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

23-34

DISCUSSION, CONCLSION, IMPLICATION,


LIMITATION & RECOMMENDATION

37-40

REFERENCES

41-43

ANNEXURES

45-68

LIST OF FIGURES

S.NO

4
5

CONTENT
SCHEMATIC PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH
DESIGN
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY
EDUCATION
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY
OCCUPATION
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY
INCOME

DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY TYPE


OF FAMILY

PAGE
NO.
17

26

26

27

27

28

DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY
7

MOTHERS KNOWLEDGE OF REARDING

28

CHILD DEVELOPMENT
8

DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY
OBSTERTICAL HISTORY
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY
KNOWLEDGE

vi

29

31

LIST OF TABLES

PAGE

S.NO

CONTENT

KNOWLEDGE CRITERIA OF MOTHERS ON

NO.
20

DOMAINS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT


2

24-25
DESCRIPTION OF DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES

ASPECT WISE MEAN KNOWLEDGE SCORES OF

30

RESPONDENT MOTHERS ON DOMAINS OF


CHILD DEVELOPMENT
4

CHI

SQUARE

VALUE

SHOWING

THE

ASSOCIATION OF KNOWLEDGE SCORE OF


MOTHERS WITH SELECTED VARIABLES

vii

32-33

LIST OF ANNEXURES
S.NO

CONTENT

PAGE
NO.

PERMISSION LETTER

45-46

CONSENT FORM

47

BLUE PRINT OF DISTRIBUTION OF ITEMS

48

STRUCTUREDKNOWLEDGE QUESTIONNAIRE

ANSWER KEY

MASTER DATA SHEET

49-65
66
67-68

viii

ABSTRACT
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE ON DOMAINS
OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT AMONG THE MOTHERS OF SELECTED
RURAL AREAS OF VILLAGE PANCHAYTAN, GAUTAM BUDH NAGAR,
UTTAR PRADESH

OBJECTIVES:
Assess the knowledge of mothers regarding domains of child development.
Find the association between the knowledge scores of mothers and selected
variables like age, education, monthly income, type of family, area of living
and source of information.

METHOD:
A descriptive study was developed based on a questionnaire on mothers of infant up
to 12 months of age.

RESULTS:
A study conducted on domains of child development assesses the mothers
knowledge of child development and level of knowledge.
In general, mothers were quite knowledgeable about the ordering of developmental
abilities relative to one another, but were less knowledgeable about the
developmental timing of abilities.
Mothers' knowledge regarding cognitive development was stronger than their
knowledge about sensory, moral, biological and social development. Over all the
mean percentage on domains of child development was 56.41%. The result of chisquare test shows there was no significance association between selected
demographic variables and knowledge scores of the mothers.

CONCLUSION:
The study concluded that mothers judgments about the developmental
milestones depended on their children's current developmental stage and the mothers
were less accurate at estimating the timing of milestones.
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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
All children are born to grow, to develop, to live, to love, and to articulate their
needs and feelings for their self-protection.

(Alice Miller)
Back ground of the study
An infant is someone who becomes a child and then an adolescent, passing
through his parents lives and disappearing into an adult, a full fledge person, with a
life and a future all his own. No one can slow this process at any point in time. 1
The birth of an infant is one of the most awe-inspiring and emotional events
that can occur in ones life time. After nine months of anticipation and preparation,
the neonate arrives amid a flurry of excitement. Healthy and sturdy babies are likely
to evolve as physically and mentally strong adults with enhanced quality of human
resource development.2The health of a growing child is always a matter of great
concern to the parents. The physical health of a child is important because it is
associated with the mental and social development. 2
The child develops very fast in the infant stage. Growth is an essential feature
of life of a child that distinguishes him or her from an adult. In the postnatal life the
newborn infant reclines in a helpless manner with disorganized activity. As the age
advances he or she acquires better coordination of motor activity and reacts to his/ her
environment in a willful manner, until he blends into a fully integrated and
autonomous individual. The behavioral development of the child is a complex affair.
For a proper behavioral development, the child must be assured emotional and moral
stability- that is a home where he/ she will find bond of affection, regular discipline
and parents who accept him and are a model of balanced conduct. 3
Growth refers to measure of physical maturation evidenced by multiplication
of cells and increase of intracellular substances results in increase in the size of body
and its various organs measured in terms of centimeter, kilograms, etc. The
developmental milestones include motor development, sensory development,

psychosocial development, psychosexual development, spiritual development,


intellectual development, moral development, language development and play. 4
Development is a measure of functional or physiological maturation and
myelination of the nervous system. It signifies accomplishment of mental, emotional
and social abilities. It is rather difficult to assess development.5
Developmental milestone are a set of functional skills or age-specific tasks
that most children can do at a certain age range. Child development refers to how a
child becomes able to do more complex things as they get older. Although each
milestone has an age level, the actual age when a normally developing child reaches
that milestone can vary quite a bit.6
Parents are a childs first teacher and they play an important role in their
childs learning and development. Children who receive responsive and consistent
care giving early in life develop secure attachments to their parents/caregiver, which
helps with their growth and learning.7
Mothers play a fundamental role in child development during infancy. During
the first 12 months following birth, infants require about seven hours each day of
hands-on care giving such as physical caretaking, holding, playing and interacting, or
going on outings. These tasks are regularly performed by mothers. 8
Just as growth and development occur in the child, so also must the process of
development occur in the parents as they keep pace with his natural maturation.
During the first year of an infants life the parents must learn the cues, what the child
is trying to tell them, and then act on their observations. They must learn to observe
their infants behavior and to act toward fulfilling his needs. Some parents
unfortunately are not prepared to undergo the emotional development needed in
relation to their childs development. Nurses many times can interpret this process to
parents and thus alleviate much of their misunderstanding. Since an infant is not old
enough to tell how he feels, his parents should watch for signs and symptoms of
discomfort and illness.9
The young infant is completely dependent upon his environment, with crying
almost his only means of communication.10

Mothers are considered as the primary care givers and they can identify
various changes occurring in their children including the developmental delays. The
lifelong learning experience of becoming a mother starts when the mother-to-be is in
her progenitors womb, continues during childhood with the experience of being
raised by her parents, continues with the occurrence of pregnancy and having a baby,
and extends even further with the experience of
raising a child.

A study was conducted among sixty low-income adolescent mothers of


children ranging in age from birth to 28 months in Michigan, USA, in 2002, to find
out their knowledge regarding domains of child development. The mothers were
asked to estimate the ages at which children are first able to engage in specific
activities in cognitive, language, motor, play, and social development. The results
showed that mothers were quite knowledgeable about the ordering of developmental
abilities relative to one another, but were less knowledgeable about the
developmental timing of abilities. With respect

to timing, mothers tended

to underestimate the onset of all developmental abilities. That is, mothers predicted
that children's developmental abilities would appear earlier than they actually do.

During the clinical postings, the researcher found that many infants were
admitted in reference to global developmental delay. The reason behind this was that
mainly the caregivers did not have adequate knowledge on growth and development
and they were ignorant about milestone achievements. So the researcher felt that there
is an essential need to assess the mothers knowledge regarding the domains of child
development and to provide information to mother since they are the primary
caregivers.11

Need for the study


Growth and development is a continuous process. As a child develops, he or
she adds to the skills already acquired and the new skills become the basis for further
achievement and mastery of skills. Most children follow a similar pattern. Also, one
stage of development lays the foundation for the next stage of development. 12
Child development refers to the biological and psychological and emotional
changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the
individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.13
Growth and development are so closely interrelated that it is virtually not
possible to separate one from the other. These terms are either used together or denote
synonymous meaning. They represent two different aspects: quantity (growth) and
quality (development).14
Infants constitute 2.92 percent of the population of India. As 30% of them are
underweight (below 2.5kg) and 1/3rd of them premature (less than 37 weeks), they are
even more prone to develop various health problems like infections. The vulnerable
status of infants and additional problems in countries like India warrant special
attention to infant health. 15
The period of growth and development extends throughout the life cycle;
however, the period in which the principal changes occur is from conception to the
end of adolescence. It is important for the health workers to understand this early
period as well as the total life cycle of an individual and understand the behavior of
parents and other adults who provide care for the child. 16
Thus the investigator felt the need to educate antenatal mothers on
developmental milestones so that mothers can incorporate this knowledge in care and
in identification of developmental delay in their children.

Statement of the problem


"A descriptive study to assess the knowledge on domains of child development
among the mothers of infants up to 12 months in selected village Panchayatan of
Gautam Budh Nagar District, Uttar Pradesh.

Objectives
The objectives of the study were to.
Assess the knowledge of mothers regarding domains of child development.
Find an association between the knowledge scores of mothers and selected
demographic variables like age, education, monthly income, type of family,
occupation, knowledge related to growth and development and obstetrical
history.

Hypothesis
The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance.
H1: There will be a significant association between mothers knowledge level
on domains of child development and variables like age, education,
occupation, monthly income, type of family, previous knowledge and
obstetrical history.

Assumptions
The study assumed that.

Mothers will have some knowledge on domains of child development.

The selected demographic variables have an influence on mothers knowledge.

Variables
Primary outcome Variable
Knowledge of mothers regarding the domains of child development.

Demographic variable
Age of mother, education, monthly income, type of family, occupation, knowledge
related to growth and development, obstetrical history.

Operational definition of terms


1. Knowledge
Knowledge is a detailed familiarity with, or understanding of, a person, thing or
situation. It can include facts and information, as well as understanding that are
gained through experience, education or reasoning.
Stanley C
In this study, knowledge refers to the correct responses made by the mothers to the
knowledge questionnaire on domains of child development administered to them and
expressed in terms of knowledge scores.

2. Domains of child development:


There are different developmental domains of children which all relate to each other.
In this study, the researcher assesses the mothers knowledge regarding biological,
sensory, social, cognitive and moral domains of child development up to the age of 12
months.

4. Mothers
A women in relation to a child or children to whom she has given birth.
Oxford Dictionary
In this study, it refers to mothers who have a child up to 12 months of age.

Delimitations
The study was delimited to mothers who have a child up to 12 months of age
staying in Panchayatan area.

Summary
This chapter dealt with the background and need for the study, statement of the
problem, objectives, assumptions, definition of terms, variables under study,
hypotheses and delimitations of the study.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A review of literature is one of the most important steps in the research
process. It is an account of what is already known about a particular phenomenon.
The main purpose of literature review is to convey to the readers about the work
already done the knowledge and ideas that have been already established on a
particular topic of research.17

Review of literature for the present study is organized in the following divisions;
Section I: Related to normal growth and development of an infant
Section II: Related to Mothers knowledge on domains of child development

1. Related to growth and development of infant.


A Cross Sectional Study conducted on Global Developmental Delay and Its
Determinants Among Urban Infants and Toddlers at JN Medical College, Aligarh,
India on 468 (243 boys and 225 girls) children aged 01 years children.
Developmental screening was performed for each child and found that, 7.1% of the
children screened positive for global developmental delay. Maximum delay was
observed in the 012 months age group (7.0%). Under nutrition and prematurity were
the two most prevalent etiological diagnoses (21% each). Stunting and maternal
illiteracy were the micro environmental predictors on stepwise binary logistic
regression while prematurity and a history of seizures emerged significant biological
predictors. The study concluded that, developmental delay can be predicted by
specific biological and environmental factors which would help in initiating
appropriate interventions.18

A study published on screening for psychological development among infants


in an urban slum of Delhi on 202 infants and their mothers. Psychosocial
Development Screening Test developed by Indian Council of Medical Research was
used to assess the development status of infants, and mothers were interviewed for
socio-demographic details and found that Infants who achieved milestones in time
were 92.5% for personal skills, 91.8% for hearing language and concept development
and 90.6% for gross motor milestones, respectively. The study concluded that

screening for psychosocial development of infants living in urban slums is necessary


for early detection and intervention.19

A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the factors influencing the


psychosocial development among 202 infants and their mothers using Psychosocial
Development Screening Test. The results revealed that infants who achieved
milestones in time were 92.5% for personal skills, 91.8% for hearing language and
concept development and 90.6% for gross motor milestones, respectively. These
percentages were lower for Vision and fine motor (88.6) and social skills (81.4). Sex
of the infant and socioeconomic status of their families significantly influences the
few domains of development. Other factors like age of the infant, literacy of their
mothers were not significantly influencing the development of infants. The study
concluded that screening for psychosocial development of infants living in urban
slums is necessary for early detection and intervention.20
A study was conducted to assess the relationship between growth and
neurodevelopment during early childhood from birth-18 months by administration of
an adapted version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Second Edition,
1993) at 6, 24 and 36 months. The result revealed that birth size was significantly
associated with child development at 6 and 24 months. Gains in length and weight
during the first 24 months were positively associated with child development, whereas
growth from 24 to 36 months age was not associated with child development at 36
months. The study concluded that small size at birth and poor physical growth during
the first 24 months are related to neurodevelopment delays. 21
Psychomotor development was assessed in 1476 infants from four different
levels of urbanization in and around Lahore, Pakistan. Development was assessed
monthly at birth to 24 months of age by using a set of 10 milestones selected from the
Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Developmental Screening Inventory.
The psychomotor development of children in the upper middle (Um) class was
consistent with reference population groups in Europe and North America hence this
group was used as control. There was significant delay in the psychomotor
development of infants belonging to the poorer areas compared to the upper middle
class. Infants in the poorer areas were, on average about 3 months, delayed in their

10

walking and fine motor activity (building a tower of 3 cubes) in comparison with the
upper middle class. Observed disturbance in psychomotor development at an early
age may affect the abilities and achievements in later life. 22

2. Mothers knowledge on domains of child development


A descriptive study was conducted by Tamis, Catherine, Dhannon and
Spellman among sixty-four mothers of children ranging in age from 6 to 58 months in
the USA, to assess their knowledge about childrens play and language development.
Mothers' knowledge about language development was stronger than their knowledge
about play, suggesting that maternal knowledge about developmental domains is
differentiated and specific. The study concluded that mothers' judgments about the
developmental milestones depended on their children's current developmental stage
and the mothers were less accurate at estimating the timing of milestones that their
children had mastered many months earlier.23
In a study conducted on Mothers Knowledge of infant development in a
developing country. Child care, health and development shown that mothers believed
that most developmental skills and activities should occur at later than normative ages
and most mothers did not know that sight 52%, vocalization 79%, social smiling 59%
and overall brain development 68% (Child growth and development) begins in the
early months of life. These results illustrate the degree to which caregivers may be
lacking information on early childhood development and that caregiver knowledge
needs to be further investigated so that culture-specific and effective interventions can
be planned.24
A study conducted on maternal knowledge of child development has been
shown to affect how mothers raise their children and the environments they provide.
This study examines maternal knowledge of child development and whether level of
knowledge varies by content area. Overall, women correctly answered 65% of the
criterion-referenced knowledge questions. Mothers lacked the most knowledge about
infant sleep patterns and developmental ability of six month-old infants. Maternal
education, race, number of children, and assistance with childcare were significantly
related to maternal knowledge. Identifying gaps in maternal knowledge and
characteristics that correspond to knowledge deficits provides insight into how best to
tailor educational interventions for mothers. 25
11

A study conducted on Low-income adolescent mothers' knowledge about


domains of child development sixty low-income adolescent mothers of children
ranging in age from birth to 28 months were asked to estimate the ages at which
children are first able to engage in specific activities in cognitive, language, motor,
play, and social development. In general, mothers were quite knowledgeable about
the ordering of developmental abilities relative to one another, but were less
knowledgeable about the developmental timing of abilities. With respect to timing,
mothers tended to underestimate the onset of all developmental abilities. That is,
mothers predicted that children's developmental abilities would appear earlier than
they actually do. Mothers' knowledge about cognitive, language, and motor abilities
was stronger than their knowledge about abilities in play and social development.
Across domains, mothers were accurate at estimating the ages of abilities that emerge
in the first year than those occurring during children's second and third years.
Findings are discussed with respect to societal emphases on different domains of
development, and the potential implications of unrealistic expectations for adolescent
parenting.26
A study was conducted to assess the knowledge of mothers regarding play and
language development in children. Sixty-four mothers of children ranging in age
from six to 58 months were asked to determine, for pairings of play and language
items, which item was more advanced developmentally. This procedure was repeated
within two weeks. In general, mothers' orderings of play and language items matched
those established in the developmental literature and were stable over the short term.
Finally, mothers' judgments about the developmental milestones depended on their
children's current developmental stage. Mothers were less accurate at estimating the
timing of milestones that their children had mastered many months earlier, supporting
the view that mothers' knowledge was informed by their children's recent rather than
past achievements in specific areas.27
Study was conducted to assess the knowledge of mothers regarding play and
language development in children. Sixty-four mothers of children ranging in age
from six to 58 months were asked to determine, for pairings of play and language
items, which item was more advanced developmentally. This procedure was repeated
within two weeks. In general, mothers' orderings of play and language items matched
those established in the developmental literature and were stable over the short term.
12

Finally, mothers' judgments about the developmental milestones depended on their


children's current developmental stage. Mothers were less accurate at estimating the
timing of milestones that their children had mastered many months earlier, supporting
the view that mothers' knowledge was informed by their children's recent rather than
past achievements in specific areas.28

A study conducted on the adolescent mothers of eight to 14 month- old infants


regarding knowledge of child development and expectations for their own infants
gave fewer correct responses on the developmental milestone survey and were less
accurate in predicting whether or not their infants would pass Bayle items than adult
mothers of same-aged infants. Adolescent mothers were more likely to underestimate
their infants performance, if the mothers received lower scores on the Developmental
milestone survey, especially if they were likely to guess too young an age when they
missed Developmental milestone survey items. Adult mothers, on other hand, were
more likely to underestimate their infants performance if the mothers were likely to
guess late from their own infant and too soon from the average infant. These mothers
may fail to encourage their infants development and may perceive their infant as less
competent than other infants because of these expectations.29
A study conducted on knowledge of child development and caretaking
attitude, compared 45 pregnant adolescents, 39 parenting adolescents, and 45 nonpregnant adolescents on knowledge of child development and attitudes toward
caretaking. Pregnant and parenting adolescents were more realistic about
developmental milestones than non-pregnant adolescents. Parenting adolescents
demonstrated more positive attitudes toward caretaking than the other two groups.
Implications of a negative relationship between attitudes toward caretaking and
psychosocial functioning are explored. The importance of targeting individual
differences in adolescents' responses to the stressors of pregnancy and parenting is
underscored.30

Summary
This chapter dealt with the review of literature related to prevalence of developmental
and behavioral problems in children, mothers knowledge on domains of child
development and educational materials to improve knowledge.
13

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

15

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter describes the methodology adopted to gather valid and reliable
data for the study. It deals with a brief description of research approach, research
design, research setting, population, sample and sampling techniques, data collection
tools, data collection procedures and plans for data analysis.

Research approach
The present study was aimed to assess the existing knowledge of mothers regarding
domains of child development. To achieve this objective, survey approach was used.

Research design
A descriptive design was used in this study to assess the knowledge on domains of
child development among the mothers who have children up to 12 months of age

Research setting
The present study was conducted at village Panchayatan, Gautam Budh Nagar,
adopted by the Community Medicine Department of School of Medical science and
Research, Sharda University.

Population
The population consisting of all mothers having a child in the age group of up to 12
months of age who are staying in village Panchayatan,Gautam Budh Nagar.

Sample and sample size


The sample of the present study consists of the mothers with a child up to 12 months
of age who meet the sampling criteria and are 40 in number.

16

Fig: 1. Schematic representation of research design

Purpose: To assess the knowledge on domains of child


development among the mothers of infant up to 12 months of
age.

Study setting: Village Panchayatan, Gautam Budh Nagar


District, Uttar Pradesh

Target population: All the mothers of infants up to 12 months of


age.

Sample and Sampling technique

40 mothers of infants
up to 12 months age

Purposive Sampling

Data collection instruments


1. Demographic variables
2. Structured knowledge questionnaire

Data analysis: Frequency percentage,


mean, ,standard deviation, and chisquare distribution.

17

Reports

Sampling criteria

Inclusion criteria:
The following criteria are set for the selection of sample:
Mothers:

Who have a child of up to 12 months of age.

Who are able to read and understand Hindi.

Who are willing to participate in the study and available at the time of study.

Exclusion criteria:
Mothers:

Who are not willing to participate in the study and not available at the time of
data collection.

Sampling technique
Non probability purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the study
samples.

Data collection technique


The study was aimed to assess the mothers knowledge regarding domains of
child development. Demographic data and knowledge level are assessed by
administering Part A and Part B of the tool to the mothers.

Ethical considerations
For collecting data, following steps were taken in terms of ethical clearance

Formal administrative permission from the Principal, School of Nursing


Science and Research, Sharda University was obtained.

Permission was also obtained from the Sarpanch of village Panchayatan


,Gautam Budh Nagar.

Informed consent was taken from samples prior to study.

18

Description of data collection instrument with content validity of the


tool
The steps adopted for the development of the tools are:
Review of research and non-research literatures
Opinions and suggestions from the guide, co-guide and experts
The tools used were:
Tool 1: Demographic data
Tool 2: Structured knowledge questionnaire on domains of child development

Development and description of tool


Tool 1: Demographic data
The purpose of the tool was to identify the profile of the mother. The final tool
consists of nine items such as name of the mother, age of mother, age of the child,
education, occupation, monthly income, type of family, previous information and
obstetrical history of the mother.

Tool 2: Structured knowledge questionnaire


The structured knowledge questionnaire was developed to determine the
knowledge of mothers regarding domains of child development. Based on the
literature review a blue print was developed and the items were constructed as per the
blue print. The areas included were -biological, sensory, social, cognitive and moral
development of the child.
The questionnaire included 30 items of MCQ type questions and each item
had 3 distracters and one correct answer. The respondents were requested to choose
the most correct answer and put a tick mark () in the square box provided against the
best possible answer. Each correct answer carried a score of one and each wrong
answer carried a score of zero. The scores were categorized arbitrarily as in the
following table,

19

Score Range

Criteria

24-30

Excellent

16-23

Good

8-15

Average

7 and below

Poor

Table 1: knowledge criteria of mothers on domains of child development.

Content validity of the tool


Content validity of the tool is obtained by giving the tools to seven experts
along with the blueprint, objectives, and criteria checklist. The experts were from the
field of Pediatric Medicine community medicine and Child Health Nursing
Department. The experts are given a criteria checklist and requested to give their
opinion and suggestions regarding the relevancy, accuracy and appropriateness of the
items.

Tool 1: Demographic data


The total items present in the tool are 9. Which includes name of the mother, age of
mother, age of the child, education, occupation, monthly income, type of family,
previous information and obstetrical history of the mother.
Tool 2: Structured knowledge Questionnaire
The total items present in the tool are 32.Which is categorized into five domains like
biological, sensory, social, cognitive and moral domains of child development.

Procedure for data collection

Formal administrative permission from the Principal, School of Nursing


Science and Research, Shard University.

Permission was also obtained from Sarpanch of village Panchayatan,Gautam


Budh Nagar District, Uttar Pradesh.

Informed consent was taken from samples prior to study.

20

For collecting the data, following steps were taken.


The data was collected on 5th July 2016. Structured knowledge questionnaires were
administered to mothers who had a child between the ages of 0-12 month from
village Panchaytan, Gautam Budh Nagar District, Uttar Pradesh.

Plan for data analysis


The plan for data analysis was developed with the opinion of guide. Based on
objectives and hypothesis to be tested it is planned to use descriptive statistics using
mean, mode, standard deviation.
Descriptive statistics in terms of frequencies and percentage is used to analyze
sample characteristics and knowledge level. Chi square test is use to find the
association between knowledge and selected demographic variables.

Summary
This chapter dealt with the research methodology adopted for the study and includes
the description of research approach, design, setting, sample, sampling techniques,
data collection techniques, development and description of tools, plan for data
analysis.

21

CHAPTER IV

22

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

In order to find a meaningful answer to the research questions, the collected


data must be processed, analyzed in some orderly coherent fashion, so that patterns
and relationships can be discussed.
Analysis is the categorizing, ordering, manipulating and summarizing of data
to obtain answers to research questions. The interpretation of tabulated data can bring
light to the real meaning and effectiveness of the findings.
The analysis is a process of organizing and synthesizing data in such a way that
research question can be answered and hypothesis tested. (Polit & Hungler)

The analysis is based on the following objectives of the study:


Assess the knowledge of mothers regarding domains of child development.
Find the association between the knowledge scores of mothers and selected
variables like age, education, monthly income, type of family, occupation,
knowledge related to growth and development, obstetrical history.

ORGANISTATION AND PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS


The substantive summary of the analysis are presented under the following headings.
Section 1

: Finding related to Demographic variables

Section 2

: Finding related to overall and aspect wise knowledge scores of


respondent.

Section 3

: Finding related to association between knowledge of mother


regarding domains of

child development selected demographic

variables.

23

Section 1: Description of demographic variables.


Table 2: Frequency and percentage distribution knowledge of mother regarding
domains of child development selected demographic variables.

Sample
No
1.

2.

3.

4.

Demographic variables

Frequency

Percentag
e

Age of the mother (in years):


a. Below 20

17.5%

b. 21-35

33

82.5%

c. 36-40

0%

d. Above40

0%

a. No formal education

21

52.5%

b. Primary school

0%

c. Middle school

2.5%

d. High school

2.5%

e. Intermediate

17

42.5%

f. Diploma/undergraduate/postgraduate

0%

a. House wife

40

100%

b. Self employed

0%

c. Private job

0%

d. Government job

0%

Education.

Occupation.

Total monthly income in Rupees.


a.

Less than 5000

0%

b.

5001-10000

12.5%

c. 10001-15000

31

77.5%

d.

10%

Above 15001

24

5.

6.

7.

Type of family.
a. Nuclear

34

85%

b. Joint

15%

c. Extended

0%

Any previous exposure on knowledge related to growth and


development of a child.
a. Yes

38

95%

b. No

5%

a. Primigravida

17.5%

b. Multigravida

33

82.5%

The obstetrical history of the mother.

N=40
The table 2- show that the maximum number of subject 33(82.5%) belong to
the age group of 21-35 years, 7(17.5%) belong to the age group below 20 years with
regard to education, most of the response no formal education 21(52.5%) ,were
Intermediate 17(42.5%),were middle school 1(2.5%), and High school 1(2.5%).In
context of occupation every woman housewife 40(100%). With regards to monthly
family income most of respondent 31(77.5%) are earning 10001-15000 per month,
5(12.5%) respondents monthly family income is between5001-10000 per month.
Respondent are earning more than 15001 per month wheres only 4 (10%). In context
type of family Nuclear 34(85%) , belong to the joint family 6(15%),with regarded to
any previous exposure on knowledge related to growth and development of a child
YES 38(95%). and NO 2(5%). in context of the obstetrical history of the mothers
33(82.5%) multigravida mothers and 7(17.5%) primigravida mothers.

25

List of graphs for demographic variables.

90
87.5%

80
70
60
50

<20 yrs

40

21 - 35 yrs

30

36 - 40 yrs

20

12.5%

>40 yrs

10
0%

0%
<20 yrs

21 - 35 yrs

36 - 40 yrs

>40 yrs

Figure 2: Bar graph showing percentage distribution of subject according to their age.

60.00%

52.50%

NFE

50.00%

PS

42.50%

MS

40.00%

HS

30.00%

I
20.00%
D/UG
10.00%
0%

2.50%

2.50%

MS

HS

0%

0.00%
NFE

PS

D/UG

Figure 3: Cone graph showing distribution of subject according to education of the


mother. . (NFE= No formal education, PS= Primary school, MS= Middle school, HS
= High school, I = intermediate, D/UG= Diploma, under/graduate)

26

100%
100%
80%
60%
40%

Housewife
self employed

20%

0%

0%

0%

private job
0%

Govermment job

Figure 4: Bar graph showing percentage distribution of subject according to


occupation.

77.50%

80%

70%
60%
<5000

50%

50001-1000
40%

10001-15000

30%

>150001

20%
10%

12.50%

10%

0%

0%
<5000

50001-1000

10001-15000

>150001

Figure 5: Cone graph showing percentage distribution of subjects according to


income.

27

90
85%

80
70
60
50

nuclear

40

joint

30

extended

20

15%

10

0%

nuclear

joint
extended

Figure 6: Histogram showing percentage distribution of subjects according to the


family.

NO
5%

Yes
YES
95%

No

Figure 7: Pie chart showing percentage distribution of subjects according to the


knowledge related to growth and development.

28

90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
82.50%

50.00%

Primigravida

40.00%

Multigravida

30.00%
20.00%

10.00%

17.50%

0.00%
Primigravida
Multigravida

Figure 8: Bar diagram showing percentage distribution of subjects according to the


obstetrical history of the mother.

29

Section 2: Overall and aspect wise knowledge scores of mothers.


Table 3: Aspect wise mean knowledge scores of respondent mothers on domains
of child development along with its mean and standard deviation

Total

S.

Knowledge Aspects

no

Ques
tions

General knowledge regarding


biological development.

Knowledge regarding sensory

Max
Score

Knowledge Response
Mean

Mean
(%)

SD

4.57

57.12

1.63123

3.18

52.83

1.63

3.2

53.33

1.68

3.35

67.0

1.29

2.62

52.4

1.4266

16.92

56.41

development.

Knowledge regarding social


development.

Knowledge regarding cognitive


development.

Knowledge regarding moral


development.

Total

30

30

30

4.626

70.00%

60.00%

67.00%
57.12%

52.83%

53.33%

52.40%

50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
General
knowledge Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge
knowledge
regarding
regarding
regarding
regarding
regarding
sensory
social
Congitive
Moral
Biological Development development development development
Developmen

Figure 9: Aspect wise mean knowledge scores of mothers.


Table 3: Depicts the aspect wise Mean Knowledge of mothers on Domains of child
development. The results shows that highest mean 67.0% was seen in knowledge
regarding cognitive development, 57.12 % in general knowledge regarding Biological
development, 53.33% in knowledge regarding Social development, 52.83 percent in
knowledge regarding Sensory development, and 52.4% in knowledge regarding Moral
development. The Overall Mean % is 56.41% with SD 4.626 for Knowledge.

31

Section 3: Association between knowledge of mothers on domains of


child development demographic variables.
Table 4: chi squares value showing the association of knowledge score of
mothers with selected variables.

N=40

Chi-square
Variables

Level of Knowledge

value(0.05)

Signific
ance

Below

Above

Median

Median
= 2.32*

Age of the mother


Below 20

(df=3

21-35

15

18

tv: 7.815)

36-40

Above 40

No formal education

15

Primary school

Middle school

(df=5

High school

tv: 11.070)

Intermediate

10

Housewife

16

24

Self employed

Private job

(df=7

Government job

tv: 14.067)

NS

Education

Diploma/undergradu
ate, -postgraduate

= 1.48*

NS

Occupation

32

= 0*

NS

Total monthly income in rupees


Less than 5000

5001-10000

10001-15000

11

20

Above 15000

14

22

= 1.24*

NS
(df=3
tv: 7.815)

Type of family
Nuclear

= 0.17*

NS
Joint

Extended

Knowledge related to growth and development


of child
Yes
15
22
No

(df=2
tv: 5.991)

0.058*

NS

(df=1
3.841)
Obstetrical history of the mother
Primigravida

Multigravida

14

19

= 0.41*

NS
(df=1
tv: 3.841)

Table 4; shows that there is no association between knowledge scores with selected
demographic variables.
(* = chi square, NS = Not significant)
(tv=table value, df= degrees of freedom)

33

Summary
This chapter dealt with the analysis and interpretation of the data collected
from 40 mothers on Domains of child development in selected village Panchayatan of
Gautam Budh District, Uttar-Pradesh. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were
used for analysis. Different graphs and figures were used to present the data.
The statistics employed were Mean, standard deviation, and chi square
analysis. The result of analysis revealed that the mother had inadequate knowledge
regarding domains of child development. The result shows there was no significance
association between selected demographic variables and knowledge scores of the
mothers.

34

CHAPTER V
DISCUSSIONS, IMPLICATIONS,
LIMITATIONS,
RECOMMENDTIONS
&CONCLUSION

36

DISCUSSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, LIMITATIONS,


RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

Discussions
This chapter deals with discussion of the study with the appropriate review of
literature, statistical analysis and findings of the study based on objective of the
research study. A report of findings is never sufficient to convey their significance.
The meaning that researchers give to the results plays a rightful and important role in
the report. The discussion section is devoted to a thoughtful and insightful analysis of
the findings, leading to a discussion of their clinical and theoretical utility.
The present study is focused on to assess the knowledge on domains of child
development among the mothers of infants up to 12 months of age.

Descriptive Research design was used to conduct the study which is a type of
non-experimental approach. The target population for the study was selected from
village Panchayatan,Gautam Budh Nagar District, Uttar Pradesh. This population was
selected by purposive sampling technique which is a type of non-probability sampling
technique. The total samples under the study were 40 mothers of infant up to 12
months of age. The data collection was made through structured knowledge
questionnaire and demographic variables to assess the knowledge of mothers .The
findings of the study have been discussed with reference to the objectives and with
findings of other studies as under,
1. Demographic profile of mothers of infants up to 12 months of age.
2. Knowledge level of mothers of infants regarding the domains of development
3. Association between knowledge and attitude with selected demographic variable.

37

1. Demographic profile of mothers of infant up to 12 months of age.


The maximum number of subject 33(82.5%) were under the age group of 2135 year, 7(17.5%) majority belongs to the age group below 20 year. With regard to
education, most of the response for no formal education were 21(52.5%) ,were
intimidates 17(42.5%),were middle school 1(2.5%), and high school 1(2.5%).In
context to occupation every woman housewife constitute 40(100%). With regards to
monthly family income most of respondent 31(77.5%) are earning 10001-15000 per
month, 5(12.5%) respondents monthly family income is between 5001-10000 per
month. Respondent who earns more than 15001 per month where only 4 (10%). In
context to type of family 34(85%) falls under nuclear, 6(15%),belong to the joint
family. With regard to any previous exposure on knowledge related to growth and
development of a child 38(95%) subjects falls under YES category and

2(5%)

subjects under NO category. In context of the obstetrical history 33(82.5%) were


multigravida mothers and 7(17.5%) were primigravida mothers.

2. Knowledge level of mothers of infants regarding the domains of


development
The results which shows the highest mean 67.0%

was seen in knowledge

regarding cognitive development, 57.12% in general knowledge regarding Biological


development, 53.33% in knowledge regarding Social development, 52.83%

in

knowledge regarding Sensory development, and 52.4 % in knowledge regarding Moral


development. The Overall Mean % is 56.41 % with SD 4.626 for Knowledge.

3. Association between knowledge with selected demographic


variables.
Among demographic variables analyzed in the study like , name of the mother,
age of mother, age of the child, education, occupation, monthly income, type of
family, previous information and obstetrical history of the mother There was no
significant association between knowledge level of mothers with regard to
demographic variables.

38

Implication of the study


The findings of the study have several implications for nursing education,
nursing practice and nursing research. The implications which have made in the
present study are of vital concern to the professional nurse practitioners, nursing
instructors, nursing administrators and nursing researchers.

Nursing education:
Nurse as professional are committed to the development and implementation of
practice standard through ongoing acquisition critical application and evaluation of
relevant attitudes, skill and judgment of nurse are accountable and responsible for
their practice.

Nursing practice:
The finding of the study reveals that there is a need for understanding the needs
of nursing staffs, with various kinds of stress and maladjustment in working area.
Similarly the teachers working in college needs to focus on handling the stress in
working area. The staffs working in nursing colleges needs to provide counseling for
the students to handle their problem. In-service education regarding domains of child
development should be given to all the mothers.

Nursing administration
The concept of extended and expanded role of nurse offers many
opportunities for a nurse administrator to improve the living standard of women. The
nurse administrator should co-ordinate her work along with the preventive, creative
and rehabilitative aspect of care. The nursing administrators at various level of health
care delivery system should focus their attention to make public conscious about
domains of child development.

Nursing research
One of the main aims of the nursing research is to contribute knowledge to the
body of the nursing, to expand and broaden the scope of nursing. This is possible only
if nurses are taking initiative to conduct further research. The present study is just an
initial attempt and it will encourage and motivate health personal should know to do
many more research studies in this areas. The researcher can explore similar study in
39

various aspects on developmental milestones and their by enhancing improvement in


society. There is a need for extensive research regarding

Limitations of the study:


This study is limited to only for those living in village Panchayatan Gautam
Budh Nagar
This study is limited to mothers of infants up to 12 months of age.
This study is limited to only rural area.
This study is limited to only who are able to read and understand Hindi.

Recommendations:
On the basis of findings of study, it is recommended that:
A study can be replicated on a larger sample thereby findings can be
generalized for larger population.
A study can also be conducted among other group.
A study can also be conducted in urban community.

Conclusion
There were meaningful gaps in knowledge of when infants between the ages
of birth and 12 months achieve physical, emotional, cognitive and social milestones.
Gaps in knowledge of infant development existed among the mothers. Thus the
investigators felt the need to educate antenatal mothers on developmental milestones
so that mothers can incorporate this knowledge in care and in identification of
developmental delay in their children

40

List of references
1. Marlow R Dorothy; Text book of Pediatric Nursing: 5th Edition; WB Saunders
Publishers; Philadelphia; 1988; 2nd chapter; Page no.335.
2. Singh and Jacob; Pediatric Nursing; 2nd Edition; N B brothers Publishers; Indore;
2003;Chapter 3rd; Page no. 1-13, 66-92.
3. Park K; Textbook of preventive and social medicine; 19th Edition; Bhanot
publisher; Jabalpur; 2007; Page no.391, 402.
4.

Redding A Barbara et al; The text book of pediatric nursing: 6th Edition. New
Delhi: Elsevier Publisher; 2007; Page no. 163-64, 573.

5. Chellappa MJ; Pediatric nursing; 2nd Edition;Bangalore; Prithvi Book Agency;


1995; Page no. 11-12.
6. Neil

Salkind;

Child

Development;6th

Edition;

Rinchart

and

Winston

Publisher;Philadelphia; 2002;Page No. 204.


7. Early Childhood Learning Division, Department of Education [Internet]. New
foundland and Labrador; 2011. http://www.ed.gov.nl.ca/edu/earlychildhood/
literature_review.pdf
8. Akai Elizabeth Carol: Enhancing Parenting During infancy [internet]. Indiana;
2005. http://www.etd.nd.edu/ETD-db/theses/available/etd.../AkaiC112005.pdf
9. Scipien M Gladys, et al; Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing; McGraw hill Book
Company, a blakiston publication; 1979; Page no. 115.
10. R Alfredo, et al: The Review of care, education and child development indicators
in early childhood [Internet].United Nations. United Nations Educational,
Scientific

and

Cultural

Organization;

2010

[Cited

September

2010].

http://www.unesdoc.unesco.org/images/ 0021/002157/215729e.pdf
11. Jacqueline Shannon,et al;low-income adolescent mothers knowledge about
domains of child development;New York University;2002;
12. Human Growth and Development-A Matter of Principles [Internet]. Virginia:
Virginia cooperative Extension; 2009[Cited 2009 May 1].
http://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/350/350-053/350-053.html
13. .Chellappa

MJ.;Text

Bangalore;1995; Page

book

of

Pediatric

nursing;Prithvi

Book

Agency;

no. 11-12.

14. Annual Report 2007-08. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of M \
India. URL:http://mohfw.nic.in/NRHM/State%20Files/.
41

15. Ertem IO,et.al.;Mothers Knowledge of young child development in a


developing country.

Child care, health and development;2007 November;

33(6):728-737.
16. Marlow DR,et al;Text book of Paediatric Nursing; 6th Edition;W.B.Saunders
Publishers; Philadelphia;2004;Page No.163-182.
17. Suresh K Sharma; Nursing, Research and Statistics; 2nd Edidtion; Elsevier
Publisher; New Delhi; 2010; Chapter 5; Page No.101.
18. Sandeep Sachdeva,et al; Global Development Delay and its Determinants
Among Urban Infants and Toddlers;A Cross Sectional study;Indian Journal of
Paediatrics.(2010)
19. Meenakshi Malik, et al. Screening for Psychosocial Development Among
Infants in an Urban Slum of Delhi. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. (2007). 74(9) :
841-845.
20. Pradhan SK,et al; Screening for psychosocial development among infants in an
urban slum of Delhi; Indian Journal of Paediatrics 2007 Sep;
21. Kuklina EV,et al.;Early childhood growth and development in rural Guatemala.
Early Human Development 2006 Jul; 82 (7): 425-33
22. Yaqoob M,et al;Early child health in Lahore, Pakistan; XII- Milestones. Acta
Paediatr Suppl 1993 Aug; 82 (3): 151-7.
23. Child development: infant social development research study 19th Oct 2008.
24. DG Dogan , et.al. Mothers Knowledge of young child development in a
developing country.

Child care, health and development. 2007 November;

33(6):728-737.
25. Reich Stephanie. What do mothers know? Maternal knowledge of child
\development .Infant Mental Health Journal. 2005 March/April; 26(2): 143-156.
26. S Catherine, et al. Low-income adolescent mothers' knowledge about domains
of child development. Infant Mental Health Journal, 2002 February; 23: 88-103.
Available from:
27. Bornstein H Marc,et al. Developmental Psychology. 1998 January;
28. LeMondaTamis, et al. Developmental Psychology. 1998 January; 34(1):
29. Katherine .et.al. Adolescent mothers knowledge of child development. Journal
of Youth and Adolescence. 1996 October ; ( 5). 651-666.
42

30. Stern, et al. Knowledge of child development and caretaking attitudes: A


comparison of pregnant, parenting, and non-pregnant adolescents. Family
Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. 1992 July;
41(3): 297-302.

43

ANNEXURES

44

45

46

ANNEXURE-B

COPY OF THE CONSENT FORM


I am willing to participate in the study conducted by Miss.Kumari Koyal, Miss.
Kinley Choden, Mr. Kundan Kumar IVth year B.Sc. Nursing student of School of
Nursing Science and Research, Sharda University Greater Noida, conducting A
descriptive study to assess the knowledge on domains of child development among
the mothers in selected village of Gautam Budh Nagar, District, Uttar Pradesh.
I will also co-operate with the investigator in providing necessary information. I
was explained that the information provided by me would be kept in confidential
and used only for above mentioned study purpose.

Signature of the Investigator

Signature of the Participant

Date:
Place:

47

ANNEXURE-C
BLUE PRINT OF DISTRIBUTION OF ITEMS
Based on the literature review a blue print was developed and the items were
constructed as per the blue print. The areas included were -biological, sensory, social,
cognitive and moral development of the child.
The biological development consist of 8 items, sensory development consist of
6 items, social development consist of 6 items, cognitive development consist of 5
items and moral development consist of 5 items.

48

ANNEXURE-D
APPENDIX
Knowledge questionnaire on domains of child development
Date:

Code No.:

Dear Participants,
Instructions: please read every statement carefully and indicate the response that you
choose by placing a tick ( ) mark in the appropriate space given. Kindly answer
honestly as this will help us in analysis of data.
Part-A
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE
1. Name of the mother
2. Age of the mother (in years):
a. Below 20
b. 21-35
c. 36-40
d. Above 40
3. Age of your child (in months):
4. Education:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

No formal education
Primary school
Middle school
High school
Intermediate
Diploma/undergraduate/postgraduate

5. Occupation
a.
b.
c.
d.

Housewife
Self employed
Private job
Government job

49

6.Total monthly income in Rupees.


a.
b.
c.
d.

Less than 5000


5001-10000
10001-15000
Above 15001

7. Type of family:
a. Nuclear
b. Joint
c. Extended

8. Any previous exposure on knowledge related to growth and development of a


child:
a. Yes
b. No
If yes, then specify

9. The obstetrical history of the mother(gravidity and parity)?


a. Primigravida
b. Multigravida
c. Grand multigravida

PART-B
KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONNAIRE ON DOMAINS OF CHILD
DEVELOPMENT (ENGLISH)
Instruction:
You are requested to read each question given below carefully and select the best
answer from the options given. Encircle the alphabet against the answer you choose
for each question. Please answer all the items

50

Biological development
1. What is the ideal birth weight of the new born baby?
a. below 2.5kg
b. 2.5 3.9 kg
c. 4.0 -4.5kg
d. above 4.5kg
2. The following factors may influence the growth and development of a child
EXCEPT
a. Climate
b. Income
c. Nutrition
d. Heredity
3. Which of the following developmental milestones would the mother expect her one
month old infant to perform?
a. Smiling and laughing aloud
b. Rolling from back to side
c. Holding a rattle briefly
d. Turning the head from side to side
4. The age in months at which the child should attain head control is
a. 0-2
b. 3-6
c. 7-9
d. 10-12
5. Infants stands without support at :
a. 6-7 months
b. 8-9 months
c. 10-11 months
d. 12 months
6. In which month the head circumference and chest circumference is same?
a. 4-6
b. 7-8
c. 9-10
d. 11-12

51

7. Why growth monitoring is more important during infancy?


a. Assure adequate height & weight
b. To detect malnutrition
c. To detect delayed milestones
d. All the above
8,The normal length of the infant at one year of age is
a. 21-40cm
b. 41-60cm
c. 61-80cm
d. 81-100 cm

Sensory development
9. At what age the baby begin to see objects within a short distance?
a. From birth
b. 1 month
c. 2 months
d. 3 months
10. The age in months at which the baby begins to imitate the sounds of others is
a. 5-6
b. 7-8
c. 9-10
d. 11-12
11. At what age (in months) separation anxiety occurs in the infancy?
a. 2-3
b. 4-6
c. 7-9
d. 10-12
12. When does the baby have good color vision?
a. 0-1
b. 2-3
c. 4-5
d. 6-8
13. Which among the following can stimulate baby through touch EXCEPT?
a. Household objects.
b. Sleep
c. Toys
d. Massage
52

14. How do you develop the sense of touch to the new born infants?
a. Skin to skin contact.
b. Touching the babys cheek.
c. Stroke the palm.
d. All of the above.

Social development
15. Which of the following statement is related to social development during infancy,
EXCEPT?
a. Finger feeds themselves
b. Raises arm to be picked up
c. Defend territory
d. Recognizes mom and dad.
16. The age in months at which the baby recognizes the mother
a. 0-1
b. 2-4
c. 5-6
d. 7-8
17. The age in months at which the baby smiles at others is
a. 2-4
b. 5-7
c. 8-10
d. 11-13
18. The age in months at which the children start sharing their toys with their friends
a. 6
b. 12
c. 24
d. 36 and above
19. The age in months during which the child shows interest in their own mirror
images
a. Birth-3months.
b. 4-6 months
c. 7-12 months
d. 1 year and above
20. Between the ages of 3-6 months, the baby possesses the following characteristics
,except:
a. Enjoy looking at other babies.
b. Play games like peek-a-boo
c. Reconize the faces.
d. Cry when upset and seek comfort
53

Cognitive development
21. Cognitive processes involves the following, EXCEPT:
a. Thought process
b. Problem solving
c. Physical growth
d. Exploration
22. At what age (in months) the child begins to understand simple phrases and
commands supported by gestures like give it to mummy or wave bye-bye to daddy?
a. 2-5
b. 6-9
c. 10-13
d. 14-17
23. Which of the following statement is not related to cognitive development during
infancy?
a. Turns head towards the sounds
b. opens mouth for spoon
c. responds to own name
d. Demonstrates an understanding of shapes
24. At what age (in months ) the baby knows his name?
a. 2-4
b. 5-7
c. 8-9
d. 10-12
25. Infant may speak two or more words with meaning and indicates no by shaking
head at
a. 5-6 month
b. 7-8 month
c. 9-10 month
d. 11-12month

Moral development
26. What is meant by moral development?
a. Development of proper attitudes and behaviors towards the society
b. Development of the human mind
c. Ability to store, retain, and recall information and experiences
d. Development of nervous system

54

27. Which among the following factor does not influence the moral development of a
child?
a. Culture
b. Sickness
c. Family.
d. Peer group.
28.which of the following months does the child show preference for certain toys and
people?
a. Birth to 3 months
b. 4-7 months.
c. 8-12months
d. 13-15months.
29. The important moral development seen among the infant is:
a. Sense of right and wrong.
b. Sense of should and should not.
c. Internalize family values.
d. All of the above.
30. Most common moral development seen among infants less than 3 months is:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Communicate using sounds


Communicate emotions like happiness and anger
Begins to smile intentionally
S how preference for certain toys and people.

55

fnUkkWd &
dzekWd &
fiz; izfrHkkfx;ksa &
i;k funsl
Z ksa dks /;ku iwoZd i<sAa ,oa mi;qDr LFkku ij lgh dk fukku yxk
dj viuh izfrfdz;k nsA mRrj bekunkjh ls nsa rkdh gesa fokysk.k dh izfd;k esa
lgk;rk iznku gksA

(v) - 20 lky ls de&


(c) - 21 ls 35 lky &
(l) - 36 ls 40 lky &
(n) - 40 lky ls T;knk&

(v) - dksbZ vkSipkfjd fk{kk ugh &


(c) - izkFkfed fon;ky; &
(l) - ek/;fed fon;ky; &
(n) - mPp fon;ky; &
(;) - e/;e &
(j) - fMIyksek iwoLZ ukrd ZLukrdksRrj &

56

(v) - x`fg.kh &


(c) - Lo fu;ksftr &
(l) - IkzkbosV ukSdjh &
(n) - ljdkjh ukSdjh &

(v) - 5000 ls de &


(c) - 5001 ls 10000 &
(l) - 10001 ls 15000 &
(n) - 15001 ls T;knk &

(v) - UkkfHkdh; &


(c) - Lka;qDr &
(l) - foLrkfjr &

(v) - gkW
(c) - ugh

(v) izkbZejhxzsfoMkA
(c) eYVhiyxzsfoMkA

57

1 tUe ds le; cPps dk otu fdruk gksrk gSA


(v) - 2.5 fdyks xzke ls deA
(c) - 2.5 ls 3.9 fdyks xzkeA
(l) - 4 ls 4.5 fdyks xzkeA
(n) - 4.5 fdyks xzke ls vf/kdA

2 fuEufyf[kr dkjdksa es ls dkSu lk dkjd cPps ds fodkl dks izHkkfor dj ldrk gSA
(v) tyok;q
(c) - vkenuhA
(l) - iksk.kA
(n) - vkuqokafkdrkA

3 fuEufyf[kr es lss dkSu lk y{k.k ekW dks ,d lky ds cPps es ns[kuk pkfg,A
(v) - cPpk glrk vkSj eqLdqjkrk gSA
(c) - cPpk ihNs ls fdukjs dh vksj eqMrk gSA
(l) - ,d pht dks id ds j[kuk
(n) - cPpk viuh xnZu dks ?kqekrk gS ,d rjQ ls nwljh rjQA

4 fdl ekg es cPpk vids flj ij fu;arz.k ik ysrk gA


(v) - 0 ls 2 ekg
(c) - 3 ls 6 ekg
(l) - 7 ls 9 ekg
(n) 10 ls 12 ekg

58

5. fdl ekg es cPpk fcuk leFkZu ds [kMk gksrk gSA


(v) - 6 ls 7 ekg
(c) - 8 ls 9 ekg
(l) - 10 ls 11 ekg
(n) - 12 ekg esA

6 fdl ekg es flj dh ifjf/k vkSj Nkrh dh ifjf/k leku gksrh gSA
(v) - 4 ls 6 ekg
(c) - 7 ls 8 ekg
(l) - 9 ls 10 ekg
(n) - 11 ls 12 ekg

7 cPkiu es fodkl dh nj ukiuk D;ks vo;d gksrk gSA


(v) - Ik;kZIr yEckbZ ,oa otu ns[kus ds fy, A
(c) - dqiksk.k dk irk yxkus ds fy,A
(l) - ekbyLVksu es gqbZ nsjh dk irk yxkus ds fy,A
(n) - mi;ZqDr lHkhA
8 ,d lky dh mez es fkkq dh lkekU; yEckbZ gksrh gS
(v) - 21 ls 40 ls0eh0A
(c) - 41 ls 60 ls0eh0A
(l) - 61 ls 80 ls0eh0A
(n) - 81 ls 100 ls0eh0A

59

9 fdl mez es CkPps dks ,d NksVh nwjh ds Hkhrj oLrq,as fn[kkbZ nsuh kq# gksrh gSA
(v) - tUe lsA
(c) - 1 ekgA
(l) - 2 ekgA
(n) - 3 ekgA

10 og mez ftlesa cPpk nwljksa dh vkokt dh udy djuk izjEHk djrk gSA
(v) - 5 ls 6 ekg esA
(c) - 7 ls 8 ekg esA
(l) - 9 ls 10 ekg esA
(n) - 11 ls 12 ekg esA

11 fdl mez ds cPps dks nwj gksus ij ?kcjkgV gksrh gSA


(v) - 2 ls 3 ekg esA
(c) - 4 ls 6 ekg esA
(l) - 7 ls 9 ekg esA
(n) - 10 ls 12 ekg esA

12 fdl mez es cPps dh jax n`fV vPNh gksrh gSA


(v) - 0 ls 1 ekg esA
(c) - 2 ls 3 ekg esA
(l) - 4 ls 5 ekg esA
(n) - 6 ls 8 ekg esA

60

13 bues ls D;k Pkhts LikZ dks NksM dj cPps dks izkRs lkfgr dj ldrh gSA
(v) -?kjsyw oLrq,aAs
(c) - uhUn A
(l) - f[kykSukA
(n) - elktA

14 vki cPps es LikZ dh Hkkouk dSls fodflr djksxsA


(v) - Ropk LikZA
(c) - fkkq ds xkyks dks NqukA
(l) - gFksyh ls LVksdA
(n) - mi;ZqDr lHkhA

15 bues ls dkSu lk dFku cPps ds lkekftd fodkl ls lECkfU/kr gSA


(v) - vius gkFkks ls [kkukA
(c) - mBus ds fy, vius gkFkksa dks mBkukA
(l) vius LFkku dh ns[kHkky djuk
(n) - vius ekrk firk dks cpkukA

16 fdl mez es cPpk viuh ekW dks igpkurk gSA


(v) - 0 ls 1 ekg esA
(c) - 2 ls 4 ekg esA
(l) - 5 ls 6 ekg esA
(n) - 7 ls 8 ekg esA

61

17 fdl mez es cPpk nwljs dks ns[k dj glrk gSA


(v) - 2 ls 4 ekg esA
(c) - 5 ls 7 ekg esA
(l) - 8 ls 10 ekg esA
(n) - 11 ls 13 ekg esA

18 fdl mez es cPpk nwljs dks vius f[kykSus nsuk kq: djrk gSA
(v) - 6 ekg esA
(c) - 12 ekg esA
(l) - 24 ekg esA
(n) - 36 ekg ;k mlls T;knkA

19 fdl mez es cPpk niZ.k es viuh :fp fn[kkrk gSA


(v) - tUe ls 3 ekg esA
(c) - 4 ls 6 ekg esA
(l) - 7 ls 12 ekg esA
(n) - 1 lky ;k mlls tknkA

20 2 ls 6 ekg es cPps ds ikl blds vykok fokskrk,sa gksrh gSA


(v) - nwljs cPpks dks ns[kukA
(c) - cPps dk ckWy mBkus okyk [ksy [ksyuk
(l) - psgjk igpkuukA
(n) - ijskkuh ds le; jksuk ,oa vkjke dh rykl djukA

62

21 laKkukRed izfdz;kvksa es bls NksM dj vkrk gSA


(v) - lkspus dh izfdz;kA
(c) - leL;ksa dks lqy>kukA
(l) - kkjhfjd fodklA
(n) - vuosk.kA

22 fdl mez ds cPpk lkekU; dFku tSls & ekW dks nsuk ,oa firk dks VkVk djuk le>rk
gSA
(v) - 2 ls 5 ekg esA
(c) - 6 ls 9 ekg esA
(l) - 10 ls 13 ekg esA
(n) - 14 ls 17 ekg esA

23 bues ls D;k cpiu es laKkukRed fodkl ls lEcfU/kr ugh gSA


(v) - vkokt dh rjQ viuk eqgW ?kqekukA
(c) - pEep ds fy,s viuk eqgW [kksyukA
(l) - vius uke ds fy, tokc nsukA
(n) - fdlh ds vkdkj dks ns[k ds nkZukA
24 fdl ekg es cPpk vius uke dks tkurk gSA
(v) - 2 ls 4 ekg esA
(c) - 5 ls 7 ekg esA
(l) - 8 ls 9 ekg esA
(n) - 10 ls 12 ekg esA

63

25 cPpk fdl ekg es nks ;k nks ls vf/kd kCn vFkZ ds lkFk cksyrk gS vkSj ugh dks flj ds
fgykus ls nkZrk gSA
(v) - 5 ls 6 ekg esA
(c) - 7 ls 8 ekg esA
(l) - 9 ls 10 ekg esA
(n) - 11 ls 12 ekg esA

26 uSfrd fodkl ls vki D;k le>rs gksA


(v) - Lkekt ds izfr mfpr O;ogkj dk fodklA
(c) - Ekuq; ds fnekx dk fodklA
(l) - Tkkudkjh ,oa vuqHkoksa dks ;kn ,oa cuk;s j[kus dh {kerkA
(n) - rafrzdk rarz dk fodklA

27 bues ls dkSu cPps ds uSfrd fodkl dks izHkkfor ugh djrk gS


(v) - laLd`fr
(c) - jksx
(l) - ifjokj
(n) - lkfFk;ksa ds lewg

28 bues ls dkSu ls ekg esa cPpk f[kykSuksa vkSj yksxksa ds fy, :fp fn[kkrk gSA
(v) - tUe ls 3 ekg esA
(c) - 4 ls 7 ekg esA
(l) - 8 ls 12 ekg esA
(n) - 13 ls 15 ekg esA

64

29 lcls egRoiw.kZ uSfrzd fodkl cPpksa essa fn[kkbZ fn;k tkrk gSA
(v) - Lkgh ,oa xyr dh HkkoukA
(c) - D;k djuk vkSj D;k u djus dh HkkoukA
(l) - Ikfjokfjd ewY;ksa dh igpkuA
(n) - bues ls lHkhA

30 rhu ekg rd cPpksa es ns[ks tkus okyk lcls lkekU; uSfrzd fodkl gSA
(v) - vkokt dk iz;ksx djds ckr djukA
(c) - [kqfk;ksa ,oa dzk/s k dks ckrksa ls nkZukA
(l) - Tkkucw> ds glus dh kq:okr djukA
(n) - cPpksa ds f[kykSuksa vkSj yksxksa ds izfr :fp fn[kkukA

65

Key Answers for Structured knowledge questionnaire


Right response =1 mark
Wrong response =0 mark

ANSWER KEY

S.NO.

KEY

S.NO.

KEY

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

10

25

11

26

12

27

13

28

14

29

15

30

66

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6

Q7

Q8

Total

Q9

Q10

Q11

Q12

Q13

Q14

Total

Q15

Q16

Q17

Q18

Q19

Q20

Total

Q21

Q22

Q23

Q24

Q25

Total

Q26

Q27

Q28

Q29

Q30

Total

TOTAL

S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
S13
S14
S15
S16
S17
S18
S19
S20
S21
S22
S23
S24
S25
S26
S27
S28
S29
S30
S31
S32
S33
S34
S35
S36
S37
S38
S39
S40

Q1

MASTER SHEET FOR KNOWLEDGE SCORES

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0

1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1

1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1

2
5
5
4
3
1
5
4
4
5
2
7
6
6
4
4
4
5
3
6
4
7
5
5
4
5
5
1
6
2
6
7
2
5
7
7
5
4
6
5

0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1

0
1
3
0
0
2
3
6
5
2
3
6
2
4
3
2
4
3
3
2
6
3
1
6
4
5
6
3
4
2
4
4
3
3
2
3
2
4
4
4

1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1

0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

1
3
1
2
1
1
2
3
6
5
4
3
4
2
2
6
5
2
5
3
4
3
0
2
5
5
3
5
5
5
2
1
2
6
5
5
2
3
1
3

1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1

0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

2
4
1
2
2
2
3
2
3
4
5
5
4
5
2
2
5
5
2
4
2
2
3
4
5
5
2
5
4
5
5
3
2
2
4
5
4
3
3
2

0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0

1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1

0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
0
2
0
1
2
0
0
5
3
4
3
0
2
2
4
1
2
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
3
5
2
3
2
2
4
3
2
4
3

7
15
10
10
6
7
15
15
18
21
17
25
19
17
13
16
22
16
15
19
20
17
13
21
22
24
19
18
23
17
22
17
12
18
20
24
16
16
18
17