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Introduction to

Offshore Pipelines and Risers

2008

Jaeyoung Lee, P.E.

Introduction to Offshore Pipelines and Risers

PREFACE
This lecture note is prepared to introduce how to design and install offshore
petroleum pipelines and risers including terminologies, general requirements, key
considerations, etc. The authors nearly twenty years of experience on offshore
pipelines and risers along with the enthusiasm to share his knowledge have aided
the preparation of this note. Readers are encouraged to refer to the references
listed at the end of each section for more information.
Unlike other text books, many pictures and illustrations are enclosed in this note to
assist the readers understanding. It should be noted that some pictures and
contents are borrowed from other companies websites and brochures. Even
though the exact sources are quoted and listed in the references, please use this
note for engineering education purposes only.

2008
Jaeyoung Lee, P.E.

-4TABLE OF CONTENTS
1

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 5

REGULATIONS AND PIPELINE PERMITS.................................................................... 13

PIPELINE ROUTE SELECTION AND SURVEY............................................................. 17

DESIGN PROCEDURES AND DESIGN CODES ........................................................... 25

FLOW ASSURANCE....................................................................................................... 35

UMBILICAL LINE ............................................................................................................ 39

PIPE MATERIAL SELECTION ........................................................................................ 45

PIPE COATINGS ............................................................................................................ 61

PIPE WALL THICKNESS DESIGN ................................................................................. 71

10

THERMAL EXPANSION DESIGN .................................................................................. 83

11

PIPELINE ON-BOTTOM STABILITY DESIGN ............................................................... 89

12

PIPELINE FREE SPAN ANALYSIS ................................................................................ 93

13

CATHODIC PROTECTION DESIGN .............................................................................. 96

14

PIPELINE INSTALLATION............................................................................................ 101

15

SUBSEA TIE-IN METHODS ......................................................................................... 113

16

UNDERWATER WORKS .............................................................................................. 127

17

OFFSHORE PIPELINE WELDING ............................................................................... 129

18

PIPELINE PROTECTION TRENCHING AND BURIAL ............................................. 135

19

PIPELINE SHORE APPROACH AND HDD.................................................................. 143

20

RISER TYPES ............................................................................................................... 147

21

RISER DESIGNS .......................................................................................................... 151

22

COMMISSIONING AND PIGGING ............................................................................... 155

23

INSPECTION ................................................................................................................ 161

24

PIPELINE REPAIR ........................................................................................................ 165

DEFINITIONS ........................................................................................................................ 173

-5-

INTRODUCTION
Deepwater means water depths greater than 1,000 ft or 305 m by US MMS (Minerals
Management Service) definition. Deepwater developments outrun the onshore and
shallow water field developments. The reasons are:

Limited onshore gas/oil sources (reservoirs)

Relatively larger (~20 times (oil) and 8 times (gas)) offshore reservoirs than onshore

More investment cost (>~20 times) but more returns

Improved geology survey and E&P technologies

A total of 175,000 km (108,740 mi.) or 4.4 times of the earths circumference of subsea
pipelines have been installed. The deepest flowline installed is 2,743 m (9,000 ft) in the
Gulf of Mexico (GOM). The longest oil subsea tieback flowline length is 43.4 miles (69.8
km) from the Shells Penguin A-E and the longest gas subsea tieback flowline length is
74.6 miles (120 km) of Norsk Hydros Ormen Lange, by 2006 [1]. The deepwater
flowlines are getting high pressures and high temperatures (HP/HT). Currently, subsea
systems of 15,000 psi and 350oF (177oC) have been developed. By the year 2005,
Statoils Kristin Field in Norway holds the HP/HT record of 3,212 psi (911 bar) and 333oF
(167oC), in 1,066 ft of water.
The deepwater exploration and production (E&P) is currently very active in West Africa
which occupies approximately 40% of the world E&P (see Figure 1.1).
Figure 1.1 Worldwide Deepwater Exploration and Production [1]

North Sea
3%

North America
25%

Africa
40%

Asia
10%

Australasia
2%

Latin America
20%

-6Offshore field development normally requires four elements as below and as shown in
Figure 1.2. Each element (system) is briefly described in the following sub-sections.

Subsea System

Flowline/Pipeline/Riser System

Fixed/Floating Structures

Topside Processing System

Figure 1.2 Offshore Field Development Components

Processing
Subsea

Fixed/Floating
Structures

FL/PL/Riser

If the wellhead is located on the seafloor, it is called a wet tree; if the wellhead is located
on the surface structure, it is called a dry tree. Wet trees are commonly used for subsea
tiebacks using long flowlines to save cycle time (sanction to first production). Dry trees
are useful for top tension risers (TTRs) or fixed platform risers and provide reliable well
control system, low workover cost, and better maintenance.

-7-

1.1

Subsea System
The subsea system can be broken into three parts as follows:

Wellhead

Controls

Flowline Connection
Figure 1.1.1 Subsea System

Controls
Wellhead

Mudline

Drilling casing

Flowline
Connection
Wellhead

Wellhead (typically 28-in. diameter) is a topside structure of the drilling casing (typically
36-in. diameter) above the mudline, which is used to mount a Christmas tree (control
panel with valves).
The control system includes a subsea control module (SCM), umbilical termination
assembly (UTA), flying leads, and sensors. SCM is a retrievable component used to
control chokes, valves, and monitor pressure, temperature, position sensing devices,
etc. that is mounted on the tree and/or manifold. UTA allows the use of flying leads to
control equipment. Flying leads connect UTAs to subsea trees. Sensors include sand
detectors, erosion detectors, pig detectors, etc.
For details on flowline connection, please see Subsea Tie-in Methods in Section 15.

-81.2

Flowline/Pipeline/Riser System
Oil was transported by wooden barrels until 1870s. As the volume
was increased, the product was transported by tank cars or trains
and eventually by pipelines. Although oil is sometimes shipped in 55
(US) gallon drums, the measurement of oil in barrels is based on 42
(US) gallon wooden barrels of the 1870s.
Flowlines transport unprocessed fluid crude oil or gas. The conveyed fluid can be a
multi-phase fluid possibly with paraffin, asphaltene, and other solids like sand, etc. The
flowline is sometimes called a production line or import line. Most deepwater
flowlines carry very high pressure and high temperature (HP/HT) fluid.
Pipelines transport processed oil or gas. The conveyed fluid is a single phase fluid after
separation from oil, gas, water, and other solids. The pipeline is also called an export
line. The pipeline has moderately low (ambient) temperature and low pressure just
enough to export the fluid to the destination. Generally, the size of the pipeline is greater
than the flowline.
It is important to distinguish between flowlines and pipelines since the required design
code is different. In America, the flowline is called a DOI line since flowlines are
regulated by the Department of Interior (DOI 30 CFR Part 250: Code of Federal
Regulations). And the pipeline is called a DOT line since pipelines are regulated by the
Department of Transportation (DOT 49 CFR Part 195 for oil and Part 192 for gas).

-9-

1.3

Fixed/Floating Structures
The transported crude fluids are normally treated by topside processing facility at the
water surface, before being sent to the onshore refinery facilities. If the water depth is
relatively shallow, the surface structure can be fixed on the sea floor. If the water depth
is relatively deep, the floating structures moored by tendons or chains are recommended
(see Figure 1.3.1).
Fixed platforms, steel jacket or concrete gravity platform, are installed in up to 1,353 ft
water depth (Shell Bullwinkle). Four (4) compliant piled towers (CPTs) have been
installed worldwide in water depths 1,000 ft to 1,754 ft. It is known that the material and
fabrication costs for CPT are lower but the design cost is higher than conventional fixed
jacket platform.
Tension leg platforms (TLPs) have been installed in water depths 482 ft to 4,674 ft
(ConocoPhillips Magnolia).
Spar also called DDCV (deep draft caisson vessel), DDF (deep draft floater), or SCF
(single column floater) is originally invented by Deep Oil Technology (later changed to
Spar International, a consortium between Aker Maritime (later Technip) and J. Ray
McDermott (later FloaTEC)). Total 16 spars, including 15 in GOM, have been installed
worldwide in water depths 1,950 ft to 5,610 ft (Dominions Devils Tower).
Semi-Floating Production Systems (semi-FPSs) or semi-submersibles have been
installed in water depths ranging from 262 ft to 7,920 ft (Anadarkos Independence Hub).
Floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) has advantages for moderate
environment with no local markets for the product, no pipeline infra areas, and short life
fields. No FPSO has been installed in GOM, even though its permit has been approved
by MMS. FPSOs have been installed in water depths between 66 ft to 4,796 ft (Chevron
Agbami).
Floating structure types should be selected based on water depth, metocean data,
topside equipment requirements, fabrication schedule, and work-over frequencies.
Table 1.3.1 shows total number of deepwater surface structures installed worldwide by
2006. Subsea tieback means that the production lines are connected to the existing
subsea or surface facilities, without building a new surface structure. The advantages of
the subsea tiebacks are lower capital cost and shorter cycle time by 70% (sanction to
first production) compared to implementing new surface structure.

- 10 Table 1.3.1 Number of Surface Structures Worldwide [2]


Structure Types

No. of
Structures

Fixed Platforms (WD>1,000)

~6,000

Water Depths
(ft)
40 - 1,353

Compliant Towers

1,000 1,754

TLPs

23

482 - 4,674

Spars

16

1,950 - 5,610

Semi-FPSs (Semi-submersibles)

43

262 7,920

FPSOs

148

66 4,796

3,622

49 7,600

Subsea Tiebacks

Figure 1.3.1 Fixed & Floating Structures [3]

Fixed Platform

Compliant Tower
TLP

Mini-TLP

Spar

Semi-FPS

FPSO

- 11 -

1.4

Topside Processing System


As mentioned earlier, the crude is normally treated by topside processing facilities before
being sent to the onshore. Due to space and weight limit on the platform deck, topside
processing facility is required to be compact, so its design is more complicated than that
of an onshore process facility.
Requirements on topside processing systems depend on well conditions and future
extension plan. General topside processing systems required for typical deepwater field
developments are:

Well control unit

Hydraulic power unit (HPU)

Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Control valves

Multiphase meter

Umbilical termination panel

Crude oil separation

Emulsion breaking

Pumping and metering system

Heat exchanger (crude to crude and gas)

Electric heater

Gas compression

Condensate stabilization unit

Subsea chemical injection package

Pigging launcher and receiver

Pigging pump, etc.

- 12 References
[1]

SUT (Society for Underwater Technology) Subsea Tieback (SSTB) Workshop,


Galveston, Texas, 2007

[2]

2006 Deepwater Solutions & Records for Concept Selection, Offshore Magazine
Poster

[3]

www.mms.gov, Minerals Management Service website, U.S. Department of the


Interior

[4]

Offshore Engineering - An Introduction, Angus Mather, Witherby & Company


Limited, 1995

[5]

Offshore Pipeline Design, Analysis and Methods, Mouselli, A.H., Penn Well
Books, 1981

[6]

Offshore Pipelines, Guo, Boyun, et. al, Elsevier, 2005

[7]

Pipelines and Risers, Bai, Y., Elsevier, 2001

[8]

Deepwater Petroleum Exploration and Production, Leffler, W.L., et. al., Penn
Well Books, 2003

[9]

Petroleum Production Systems, Economides, Michael, et. al., Prentice Hall


Petroleum Engineering Series

- 13 -

REGULATIONS AND PIPELINE PERMITS


Prior to conducting drilling operations, the operator is required to submit and obtain
approval for an Application for Permit to Drill (APD) from the authorities. The APD
requires detailed information about the drilling program for evaluation with respect to
operational safety and pollution prevention measures. Other information including
project layout, design criteria for well control and casing, specifications for blowout
preventors, and a mud program is required.
The developer must design, fabricate, install, use, inspect, and maintain all platforms
and structures to assure their structural integrity for the safe conduct of operations at
specific locations. Factors such as waves, wind, currents, tides, temperature, and the
potential for marine growth on the structure are to be considered.
All surface production facilities including separators, treaters, compressors, and headers
must be designed, installed, and maintained to assure the safety and protection of the
human, marine, and coastal environments.
In the USA, the regulatory processes and jurisdictional authority concerning pipelines on
the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) and in coastal areas are shared by several federal
agencies, including the Department of Interior (DOI), the Department of Transportation
(DOT), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), the Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission (FERC), and U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) [1].
The DOT is responsible for regulating the safety of interstate commerce of natural gas,
liquefied natural gas (LNG), and hazardous liquids by pipeline. The regulations are
contained in 49 CFR Part 192 (for gas pipeline) and part 195 (for oil pipeline)
(References [2] & [3]). The DOT is responsible for all transportation pipelines beginning
downstream of the point at which operating responsibility transfers from a producing
operator to a transporting operator.
The DOIs responsibility extends upstream from the transfer point described above. The
MMS is responsible for regulatory oversight of the design, installation, and maintenance
of OCS oil and gas pipelines (flowlines). The MMS operating regulations for flowlines are
found at 30 CFR Part 250 Subpart J [4].

- 14 Pipeline permit applications to regulatory authorities include the pipeline location


drawing, profile drawing, safety schematic drawing, pipe design data to scale, a shallow
hazard survey report, and an archaeological report (if required). The proposed pipeline
routes are evaluated for potential seafloor, subsea geologic hazards, other natural or
manmade seafloor, and subsurface features/conditions including impact from other
pipelines.
Routes are also evaluated for potential impacts on archaeological resources and
biological communities. A categorical exclusion review (CER), environmental
assessment (EA), and/or environmental impact statement (EIS) should be prepared in
accordance with applicable policies and guidelines.
The design of the proposed pipeline is evaluated for:

Appropriate cathodic protection system to protect the pipeline from leaks resulting
from the external corrosion of the pipe;
External pipeline coating system to prolong the service life of the pipeline;
Measures to protect the inside of the pipeline from the detrimental effects, if any, of
the fluids being transported;
Pipeline on-bottom stability (that is, that the pipeline will remain in place on the
seafloor and not float);
Proposed operating pressures;
Adequate provisions to protect other pipelines the proposed route crosses over; and
Compliance with all applicable regulations.

According to MMS regulations (30 CFR Part 250), pipelines with diameters less than 85/8 inches installed in water depths less than 200 ft are to be buried to a depth of at least
3 ft below the mudline. If the MMS determines that the pipeline may constitute a hazard
to other uses, all pipelines (regardless of pipe size) installed in water depths less than
200 ft must be buried. The purpose of these requirements is to reduce the movement of
pipelines by high currents and storms, to protect the pipeline from the external damage
that could result from anchors and fishing gear, to reduce the risk of fishing gear
becoming snagged, and to minimize interference with the operations of other users of
the OCS. For pipe sizes less than 8-5/8 inches, the burial requirement may be waived if
the line is to be laid on a soft soil which will allow the pipeline to sink into the sediments
(self-burial). Any pipeline crossing a fairway or anchorage in federal waters must be
buried to a minimum depth of 10 ft below mudline across a fairway and a minimum depth
of 16 ft below mudline across an anchorage area.

- 15 -

References
[1]

OCS Report MMS 2001-067, Brief Overview of Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas
Pipelines: Installation, Potential Impact, and Mitigation Measures, Minerals
Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 2001

[2]

49 CFR, Part 192, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline:


Minimum Federal Safety Standards

[3]

49 CFR, Part 195, Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline

[4]

30 CFR, Part 250, Oil and Gas and Sulfur Operations in the Outer Continental
Shelf

- 16 -

- 17 -

PIPELINE ROUTE SELECTION AND SURVEY


When layout the field architecture, several considerations should be accounted for:

Compliance with regulation authorities and design codes


Future field development plan
Environment, marine activities, and installation method (vessel availability)
Overall project cost
Seafloor topography
Interface with existing subsea structures

The pipeline route should be selected considering:

Low cost (select the most direct and shortest P/L route)
Seabed topography (faults, outcrops, slopes, etc.)
Obstructions, debris, existing pipelines or structures
Environmentally sensitive areas (beach, oyster field, etc.)
Marine activity in the area such as fishing or shipping
Installability (1st end initiation and 2nd end termination)
Required pipeline route curvature radius
Riser hang-off location at surface structure
Riser corridor/clashing issues with existing risers
Tie-in methods

The required minimum pipeline route curve radius (Rs) should be determined to prevent
slippage of the curved pipeline on the sea floor while making a curve, in accordance with
the following formula [1]. If the pipeline-soil friction resistance is too small, the pipeline
will spring-back to straight line. The formula also can be used to estimate the required
minimum straight pipeline length (Ls), before making a curve, to prevent slippage at
initiation. If Ls is too short, the pipeline will slip while the curve is being made.

Rs Ls

F TH
Ws

Where,
Rs =
Ls =
F=
TH =
Ws =

Min. non-slippage pipeline route curve radius


Min. non-slippage straight pipeline length
Safety factor (~2.0)
Horizontal bottom tension (residual tension)
Pipe submerged weight

lateral pipeline-soil friction factor (~0.5)

- 18 If a 16 OD x 0.684 WT pipe is installed in 3,000 ft of water depth using a J-lay method


(assuming a catenary shape), the bottom tension and the Rs and Ls can be estimated as
follows:
The submerged pipe weight, Ws = 22.6 lb/ft
Assuming the pipe departure angle () at J-lay tower as10 degrees
Top tension, T = Ws x WD / (1- sin ) = 22.6 x 3,000 / (1- sin 10) = 82,047 lb 82 kips
Bottom tension, TH = T x sin = 82 x sin 10 = 14.2 kips
Rs Ls

F TH 2.0 14.2 1,000

2,513 ft Use minimum 3,000 ft


Ws
22.6 0.5

Initiation
point

Ls

Rs

Lay direction

If the curvature angle () and the pipe rigidity (elastic stiffness = elastic modulus (E) x
pipe moment of inertia (I)) are considered to do a big role on the Rs and Ls estimates, the
above formula can be modified as follows:
Rs Ls

F TH
EI
2
Ws
R (1- cos )

Once the field layout and pipeline route is determined by desktop study using an existing
field map, the pipeline route survey is contracted to obtain site-specific information
including bathymetry, seabed characteristics, soil properties, stratigraphy, geohazards,
and environmental data.

- 19 -

Bathymetry (hydrographic) survey using echo sounders provides water depths (sea
bottom profile) over the pipeline route. The new technology of 3-D bathymetry map
shows the sea bottom configuration more clearly than the 2-D bathymetry map (see
Figure 3.1).
Figure 3.1 Sample of Bathymetry Map

2D View

3-D View
Side scan sonar is the industry standard method of providing high resolution mapping of
the seabed. It uses narrow beams of acoustic energy (sound) which is transmitted out to
the seabed topography (or objects within the water column) and reflected back to the
towfish. It is used to identify obstructions, outcrops, faults, debris, pockmarks, gas
vents, anchor scars, pipelines, etc. Typically objects larger than 1m are accurately
located and measured (see Figure 3.2).

Figure 3.2
Side Scan Sonar Interpretation [2]

- 20 An acoustic sub-bottom profiler is a tool to measure geological characteristics i.e.


subsurface strata (stratigraphy), faults, sediment thickness, etc. Figure 3.3 shows one
example of sub-bottom profile and its interpretation.
Figure 3.3 Sub-bottom Profile [2]

Magnetometer (Figure 3.4) is a tool to locate cables, anchors, pipelines, and other
metallic objects. It is near-bottom towed by a cable from a survey vessel.
Figure 3.4 Geometrics G-882 Magnetometer [3]

- 21 -

Soil sampling is required to calibrate and quantify geophysical and geotechnical


properties of soils. The soil sampling instruments include grabs, gravity drop corers, and
vibracorers. Drop corer or gravity corer is a device which is dropped off from a survey
vessel. And on contact with the seabed, a piston in the device is activated and takes a
shallow core (up to a meter or so in depth). This core is retained and preserved in the
device and then hauled back to the surface. The core samples collected are
photographed, logged, tested (by either Torvane or mini cone penetrometer) and
sampled onboard the survey vessel. Further sampling and geotechnical testing can be
undertaken in the laboratory. The cone penetration test (CPT) provides tip resistance,
sleeve friction, friction ratio, undrained shear strength, and relative density. Figures 3.5
and 3.6 show drop corer and Torvane shear test kit.
Figure 3.5 Drop Corer [4]

Wireline to surface

Release
mechanism

Weights
(400-800 lbs)

Barrel
(10-20 ft)

Core
catcher
Weight triggering
release mechanism
on hitting seafloor

- 22 Figure 3.5 Torvane Shear Test Kit [5]

Environmental (metocean) data including wind, waves, and current along the water
depth for 1, 5 (2 or 10), and 100 year return periods are required.

- 23 -

References
[1] Pipeline Manual, Chevron, 1994
[2] EGS Survey Website, http://egssurvey.com/enter_ser.htm
[3] Geometrics Website, http://geometrics.com/magnetometers/Marine/G-882/g882.html
[4] Submarine Pipeline On-bottom Stability Analysis and Design Guidelines, AGA,
1993
[5] Earth Manual, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1998, or
http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/writing/earth/earth.pdf
[6] Simon A. Bonnel, et. al., Pipeline Routing and Engineering for Ultra-Deepwater
Developments, OTC (Offshore Technology Conference) Paper No. 10708, 1999

- 24 -

- 25 -

DESIGN PROCEDURES AND DESIGN CODES


There are typically three phases in offshore pipeline designs: conceptual study (or PreFEED: front end engineering & design), preliminary design (or FEED), and detail
engineering.

Conceptual study (Pre-FEED) defines technical feasibility, system constraints,


required information for design and construction, rough schedule and cost estimate

Preliminary design (FEED) defines pipe size and grade to order pipes and
prepares permit applications.

Detail engineering defines detail technical input to prepare procurement and


construction tendering.

The pipeline design procedures may vary depending on the design phases above.
Tables 4.1 and 4.2 show a flowchart for preliminary design phase and detail engineering
phase, respectively.
Design basis is an on-going document to be updated as needed as the project proceeds,
especially in conceptual and preliminary design phases. The design basis should
contain:

Pipe Size
Design Pressure (@ wellhead or platform deck)
Design Temperature
Pressure and Temperature Profile
Max/Min Water Depth
Corrosion Allowance
Required overall heat transfer coefficient (OHTC) Value
Design Code (ASME, API, or DNV)
Installation Method (S, J, Reel, or Tow)
Metocean Data
Soil Data
Design Life, etc.
Fluid property (sweet or sour)

- 26 Table 4.1 Preliminary Design (FEED) Flowchart

Scope of Work
Route Selection

Design Basis

Pipe Material
Selection

Hazard Survey

Pipe WT
Determination

Preliminary Cost
Estimate

Flow Assurance

Pipe Coating
Selection

Preliminary Design
Drawings

Permit
Application

Thermal
Expansion

Procurement Long
Lead Items

On-bottom
Stability

Free Span

Cathodic
Protection

Tie-ins and Shore


Approach

Installation Check

- 27 -

Table 4.2 Detail Engineering Flowchart

Scope of Work

Design Basis

Route Selection

Metallurgy &
Welding Study

Pipe WT and
Grade Check

Material/Construction
Specifications

Pipe Coating
Selection

Construction
Drawings

Thermal
Expansion

Procurement &
Construction Support

Route Survey

Flow Assurance

On-bottom
Stability

Free Span

Cathodic
Protection

Tie-ins and Shore


Approach

Installation Check

- 28 The following international codes, standards, and regulations are used for the design of
offshore pipelines and risers.
US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
30 CFR, Part 250

Oil and Gas and Sulfur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf

49 CFR, Part 192

Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline: Minimum


Federal Safety Standards

49 CFR, Part 195

Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline

American Bureau of Shipping (ABS)


ABS

Fatigue Assessment of Offshore Structures

ABS

Guide for Building & Classing; Subsea Pipeline Systems

ABS

Guide for Building & Classing; Subsea Riser Systems

ABS

Guide for Building and Classing; Facilities on Offshore Installations

ABS

Rules for Building and Classing; Offshore Installations

ABS

Rules for Building and Classing; Single Point Moorings

ABS

Rules for Certification of Offshore Mooring Chain

American Petroleum Institute (API)


API Bull 2U

API Bulletin on Stability Design of Cylindrical Shells, 2004

API 17J

Specification for Unbonded Flexible Pipe, 2002

API 598

Standard Valve Inspection and Testing

API 600

Cast Steel Gates, Globe and Check Valves

API 601

Metallic Gaskets for Refinery Piping (Spiral Wound)

API RP 2A

Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing


Fixed Offshore Platforms - Working Stress Design

API RP 2RD

Design of Risers for Floating Production Systems (FPSs) and


Tension-Leg Platforms (TLPs), First Edition, 1998

API RP 5LW

Recommended Practice for Transportation of Line Pipe on Barges


and Marine Vessels

API RP 5L1

Recommended Practice for Railroad Transportation of Line Pipe

API RP 5L5

Recommended Practice for Marine Transportation of Line Pipe

API RP 6FA

Specification for Fire Test for Valves

API RP 14E

Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore


Production Platform Piping Systems - Risers

API RP 17A

Recommended Practice for Design and Operation of Subsea


Production Systems Pipelines and End Connections

API RP 17B

Recommended Practice for Flexible Pipe, 1998

- 29 -

API RP 500C

Classification of Locations for Electrical Installation at Pipeline


Transportation Facilities

API RP 1110

Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum Pipelines, 1997

API RP 1111

Recommended Practice for Design Construction, Operation, and


Maintenance of Offshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines, 1999

API RP 1129

Assurance of Hazardous Liquid Pipeline System Integrity

API Spec 2B

Specification for Fabricated Structural Steel Pipe

API Spec 2W

Specification for Steel Plates for Offshore Structures, Produced by


Thermo-Mechanical Control Processing (TMCP).

API Spec 2C

Offshore Cranes

API Spec 2Y

Specification for Steel Plates, Quenched and Tempered, for


Offshore Structures

API Spec 5L

Specification for Line Pipe

API Spec 6D

Specification for Pipeline Valves (Gate, Ball, and Check Valves)

API Spec 6H

Specification for End Closures, Connectors and Swivels

API Std 1104

Standard for Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


ASME B16.5

Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

ASME B16.9

Factory Made Wrought Steel Butt Welding Fittings

ASME B16.10

Face-to-Face and End-to-Ends Dimensions of Valves

ASME B16.11

Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded

ASME B16.20

Ring Joints, Gaskets and Grooves for Steel Pipe Flanges

ASME B16.25

Butt Welded Ends for Pipes, Valves, Flanges and Fittings

ASME B16.34

Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End

ASME B16.47

Large Diameter Steel Flanges - NPS 26 through NPS 60

ASME B31.3

Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping

ASME B31.4

Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum


Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia and Alcohols, 1999

ASME B31.8

Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, 1999

ASME II

Materials

ASME V

Non-Destructive Examination

ASME VIII, Div 1&2

Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

ASME IX

Welding and Brazing Qualifications

- 30 -

American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)


ASTM A6

Standard Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Steel


Plates, Shapes, Sheet Piling, and Bars for Structural Use

ASTM A20/20M

General requirements for Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels

ASTM A36

Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel

ASTM A53

Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Ferritic and Martensitic,


for Pressure-Containing Parts, Suitable for Low-Temperature
Service

ASTM A105

Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping


Applications

ASTM A185

Specification for Welded Wire Fabric, Plain for Concrete


Reinforcement

ASTM A193

Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting


Materials for High Temperature or High Pressure Service and Other
Special Purpose Applications

ASTM A194

Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for
High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both

ASTM A234

Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel


and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service

ASTM A283

Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates,


Shapes and Bars

ASTM A307

Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs

ASTM A325

Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated,


120/150 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength

ASTM A490

Standard Specification for Heat Treated-Treated Steel Structural


Bolts 150 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength

ASTM A500

Cold Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural


Tubing in Rounds and Shapes

ASTM A615

Specification for Deformed Billet-Steel ars for Concrete


Reinforcement

ASTM B418

Cast and Wrought Galvanized Zinc Anodes (Type II)

American Welding Society (AWS)


AWS D1.1

Structural Welding Code Steel

- 31 -

British Standard (BS)


BS 4515

Appendix J. Process of Welding of Steel Pipelines on Land and


Offshore Recommendations for Hyperbaric Welding

BS 7608

Code of Practice for Fatigue Design and Assessment of Steel


Structures, 1993, British Standard Institution

BS 8010-2

Code of Practice for Pipelines - Subsea Pipelines, 2004, British


Standard Institution

Canadian Standards Association (CSA)


CSA-Z187

Offshore Pipelines

Det Norske Veritas (DNV)


DNV

Rules for Design, Construction and Inspection of Offshore


Structures.

DNV

Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine Operations - Part 1


General

DNV

Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine Operations - Part 2


Operation Specific Requirements

DNV-CN-30.2

Fatigue Strength Analysis for Mobile Offshore Units

DNV-CN-30.4

Foundations

DNV-CN-30.5

Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads

DNV-OS-B101

Metallic Materials

DNV-OS-C101

Design of Offshore Steel Structures, General (LRFD method)

DNV-OS-C106

Structural Design of Deep Draught Floating Units (LRFD method)

DNV-OS-C201

Structural Design of Offshore Units (WSD method)

DNV-OS-C301

Stability and Watertight Integrity

DNV-OS-C401

Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures

DNV-OS-C502

Offshore Concrete Structures

DNV-OS-D101

Marine and Machinery Systems and Equipment

DNV-OS-D201

Electrical Installations

DNV-OS-D202

Instrumentation and Telecommunication Systems

DNV-OS-D301

Fire Protection

DNV-OS-E201

Oil and Gas Processing Systems

DNV-OS-E301

Position Mooring

DNV-OS-E402

Offshore Standard for Diving Systems

DNV-OS-E403

Offshore Loading Buoys

- 32 DNV-OS-F101

Submarine Pipeline Systems, 2003

DNV-OS-F107

Pipeline Protection

DNV-OS-F201

Dynamic Risers, 2001

DNV-OSS-301

Certification and Verification of Pipelines

DNV-OSS-302

Offshore Riser Systems

DNV-OSS-306

Verification of Subsea Facilities

DNV-RP-B401

Cathodic Protection Design, 1993

DNV-RP-C201

Buckling Strength of Plated Structure

DNV-RP-C202

Buckling Strength of Shells

DNV-RP-C203

Fatigue Strength Analysis of Offshore Steel Structures

DNV-RP-C204

Design against Accidental Loads

DNV-RP-E301

Design and Installation of Fluke Anchors in Clay

DNV-RP-E302

Design and Installation of Plate Anchors in Clay

DNV-RP-E303

Geotechnical Design and Installation of Suction Anchors in Clay

DNV-RP-E304

Damage Assessment of Fibre Ropes for Offshore Mooring

DNV-RP-E305

On-bottom Stability Design of Submarine Pipelines, 1988

DNV-RP-F102

Pipeline Field Joint Coating and Field Repair of Linepipe Coating

DNV-RP-F103

Cathodic Protection of Submarine Pipelines by Galvanic Anodes,


2006

DNV-RP-F104

Mechanical Pipeline Couplings

DNV-RP-F105

Free Spanning Pipelines, 2006

DNV-RP-F106

Factory Applied External Pipeline Coatings for Corrosion Control

DNV-RP-F107

Risk Assessment of Pipeline Protection

DNV-RP-F108

Fracture Control for Pipeline Installation Methods Introducing Cyclic


Plastic Strain

DNV-RP-F109

On Bottom Stability of Offshore Pipeline Systems, 2006 Draft

DNV-RP-F111

Interference between Trawl Gear and Pipe-lines

DNV-RP-F202

Composite Risers

DNV-RP-F204

Riser Fatigue, 2005

DNV-RP-F205

Global Performance Analysis of Deepwater Floating Structures

DNV-RP-G101

Risk Based Inspection of Offshore Topside Static Mechanical


Equipment

DNV-RP-H101

Risk Management in Marine and Subsea Operations

- 33 -

DNV-RP-H102

Marine Operations during Removal of Offshore Installations

DNV-RP-O401

Safety and Reliability of Subsea Systems

DNV-RP-O501

Erosive Wear in Piping Systems

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)


ISO-15589-2

Cathodic Protection of Pipeline Transportation Systems - Part 2:


Offshore Pipelines, 2004, International Organization for
Standardization

Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS)


MSS SP-44

Steel Pipeline Flanges

MSS SP-75

Specification for High Test Wrought Butt Welding Fittings

National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)


NACE RP-0176-94

Corrosion Control of Steel Fixed Offshore Platforms Associated with


Petroleum Production, 1994

Nobel Denton Industries (NDI)


NDI-0013

General Guidelines for Marine Loadouts

NDI-0027

Guidelines for Lifting Operations by Floating Crane Vessels

NDI-0030

General Guidelines for Marine Transportations

NORSOK Standards
NORSOK G-001

Marine Soil Investigations

NORSOK L-005

Compact Flanged Connections

NORSOK M-501

Surface Preparation and Protective Coating

NORSOK M-506

Corrosion Rate Calculation Model

NORSOK N-001

Structural Design

NORSOK N-004

Design of Steel Structures

NORSOK U-001

Subsea Production Systems

NORSOK UCR-001

Subsea Structures and Piping Systems

Tube & Pipe Association (TPA)


TPA IBS-98

Recommended Standards for Induction Bending of Pipe and Tube,


1998

- 34 -

- 35 -

FLOW ASSURANCE
Flow assurance is required to determine the optimum flowline pipe size based on
reservoir well fluid test results for the required flowrate and pressure. As the pipe size
increases, the arrival pressure and temperature decrease. Then, the fluid may not reach
the destination and hydrate, wax, and asphaltene may be formed in the flowline. If the
pipe size is too small, the arrival pressure and temperature may be too high and
resultantly a thick wall pipe may be required and a large thermal expansion is expected.
It is important to determine the optimum pipe size to avoid erosional velocity and
hydrate/ wax/asphaltene deposition. Based on the hydrate/wax/asphaltene appearance
temperature, the required OHTC is determined to choose a desired insulation system
(type, material, and thickness.) If the flowline is to transport a sour fluid containing H2S,
CO2, etc., the line should be chemically treated or a special corrosion resistant alloy
(CRA) pipe material should be used. Alternatively, a corrosion allowance can be added
to the required pipe wall thickness. capital expense (Capex) and operational expense
(opex) using CRA, chemical injection, corrosion allowance, or combination of the above
should be exercised to determine the pipe material and wall thickness.
Figure 5.1 shows various plugged flowlines due to asphaltene, wax, and hydrate
deposition.
Figure 5.1 Plugged Flowlines

(a) Asphaltene

(b) Wax

(c) Hydrate

- 36 Figure 5.2 illustrates one example of how to select pipe size from flow assurance results.
The blue solid line represents inlet pressure at wellhead and the red dotted line
represents outlet fluid temperature. The 8 ID pipe may require a heavy (thick) wall and
the 12 ID pipe may require a thick insulation coating depending on hydrate (wax or
asphaltene) formation temperature.
Figure 5.2 Inlet Pressure & Outlet Temperature vs. Flowline ID
450

70

400

60

350

Temperature(oC)

40

300
250

30

Pressure (bar)

20

200
150
8 ID
100
150

50

12 ID

10 ID

10
0

170

190

210

230

Flowline ID (mm)

250

270

290

310

- 37 -

References
[1] Properties of Oils and Natural Gases, Pederson, K.S., et. al., Gulf Publishing Inc.,
1989
[2] The Properties of Petroleum Fluids, McCain, William, PennWell Publishing
Company, 1990
[3] A Comprehensive Mechanistic Model for Two-Phase Flow in Pipelines, Xiao, J.J.,
Shoham, O., and Brill, J.P., 65th Annual Technical Conference & Exhibition, Society
of Petroleum Engineers, 1990
[4] CRC Handbook of Solubility Parameters and Other Cohesion Parameters, Barton,
A.F.M., CRC Press, 1991
[5] Prediction of Slug Liquid Holdup Horizontal to Upward Vertical Flow, Gomez, L.,
et. al., International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2000
[6] Fluid Transport Optimization Using Seabed Separation, Song, S. and Kouba, G.,
Energy Sources Technology Conference & Exhibition, 2000
[7] PVT and Phase Behaviour of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids, Danesh, Ali, Elsevier
Science B.V., 2001
[8] Mechanistic Modeling of Gas/Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Pipes, Shoham, O.,
Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2006

Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)


Science:

0oC (273.15oK) and 1 bar (100 kPa)

Oil & Gas Industry:

60oF (15.6oC) and 14.73 psia (30 Ag or 1.0156 bar)

1 bar = 14.504 psi


1 atmosphere = 14.696 psi

- 38 -

- 39 -

UMBILICAL LINE
Umbilicals (Figure 6.1) are used to supply electric/hydraulic power to subsea valves/
actuators, receive communication signal from subsea control system, and send
chemicals to treat subsea wells. The functions of umbilicals can be;

Chemical Injection
Electric Hydraulic
Electric Power
Hydraulic
Communications
Scale Squeeze
Seismic, etc.

From flow assurance analysis, the type, quantity, and size of each umbilical tube are
determined. Most commonly used chemicals are; scale inhibitor, hydrate inhibitor,
paraffin inhibitor, asphaltene inhibitor, corrosion inhibitor, etc.
The umbilical terminates at subsea umbilical termination assembly (SUTA) and each
function hose or cable connects to manifold or tree by flexible flying leads.
Umbilical manufacturers include; DUCO (formerly Dunlop Coflexip, now a Technip
company), Oceaneering Multiplex, Aker Kvaener, Nexans (formerly Alcatel), JDR, etc.
Figure 6.2 shows Oceaneerings Panama City plant.
Figure 6.1 Umbilical Lines [1]

- 40 Figure 6.2 Oceaneering Umbilical Plant [2]

- 41 -

Figure 6.3 UTA (Umbilical Termination Assembly) Installation [3]

- 42 -

Bend restrictor (or bend limiter) is commonly found at the end of cables, umbilicals, and
flexible pipes, such as surface termination, subsea Manifold or PLET termination, and in
any region where over bending is a problem. Unlike a bend stiffener, the bend restrictor
does not increase the umbilical or pipes stiffness. When the bend restrictor is at "lock
up" radius, it prevents the umbilical or pipe from over bending, kinking, or buckling.
Bend restrictors can be manufactured from polyurethane or steel. The half shell
elements are bolted together around the pipe and the next elements are bolted to
interlock with those already in place. Each element allows to move a small angular
distance and when this distance is projected over the length of the restrictor, the lock up
radius is formed. This radius is to be equal to or greater than the minimum bend radius
of the flexible.
Bending stiffeners are used at the termination point of cables, umbilicals, and flexible
pipes where the stiffness of the system undergoes a step change. This sudden stiffness
change between the flexible and rigid termination structure creates high levels of stress
when the flexible is bent. In a dynamic situation such as repeat bending, this can lead to
fatigue failure in the flexible. Bend stiffeners are utilized to increase the stiffness of the
flexible. The most common method of achieving this is to attach an molded elastomer
tapered sleeve to the flexible.
Figure 6.4 shows bend restrictor and bend stiffness configurations.
Figure 6.4 Bend Restrictor (left) [4] and Bend Stiffener (right) [5]

- 43 -

References
[1]

Offshore-Technology.com website, www.offshore-technology.com

[2]

Oceaneering International, Inc. website, www.oceaneering.com

[3]

Nexen Aspen Project, presented at Houston Marine Technology Society


luncheon meeting, 2007, www.mtshouston.org

[4]

Dunlaw Engineering Ltd. website, http://www.dunlaw.com/bend_limiters.html

[5]

Trelleborg CRP website, http://www.crpgroup.com/engineered_products.htm

- 44 -

- 45 -

PIPE MATERIAL SELECTION


Pipe material type, i.e. rigid, flexible, or composite, should be determined considering:

Conveyed fluid properties (sweet or sour) and temperature

Pipe material cost

Installation cost

Operational cost (chemical treatment)

There are several different pipes used in offshore oil & gas transportation as follows:

7.1

Low carbon steel pipe

Corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) pipe

Clad pipe

Composite pipe

Flexible pipe

Flexible hose

Coiled tubing

Low Carbon Steel Pipe


Low carbon (carbon content less than 0.29%) steel is mild and has a relatively low
tensile strength so it is used to make pipes. Medium or high carbon (carbon content
greater than 0.3%) steel is strong and has a good wear resistance so they are used to
make forging, automotive parts, springs, wires, etc. Carbon equivalent (CE) refers to
method of measuring the maximum hardness and weldability of the steel based on
chemical composition of the steel. Higher C (carbon) and other alloy elements such as
Mn (manganese), Cr (chrome), Mo (molybdenum), V (vanadium), Ni (nickel), Cu
(copper), etc. tend to increase the hardness (harder and stronger) but decrease the
weldability (less ductile and difficult to weld). The CE shall not exceed 0.43% of total
components, per API-5L [1], as expressed below.
CE(IIW) C

Mn Cr Mo V Ni Cu

0.43%
6
5
15

(note: IIW = International Institute of Welding)


Pipes are graded per their tensile properties. Grade X-65 means that SMYS (specified
minimum yield strength) of the pipe is 65 ksi (see Table 7.1.1). The API-5L line pipe
specification defines two different product specification levels, PSL 1 and PSL 2. PSL 2
is commonly used for weld joint connections (see Table 7.1.2).

- 46 Table 7.1.1 Tensile Requirements for API-5L PSL 2 Pipe

Table 7.1.2 API-5L PSL 1 vs. PSL 2

- 47 -

The yield strength is defined as the tensile stress when 0.5% elongation occurs on the
pipe, per API-5L. The DNV code [2] defines the yield stress as the stress at which the
total strain is 0.5%, corresponding to an elastic strain of approximately 0.2% and a
plastic (or residual) strain of 0.3%, as shown in Figure 7.1.1.
Figure 7.1.1 Yield Stress
Stress

SMYS

0.5 %
Strain

Strain
0.3%
Residual
strain

0.2%
Elastic
strain

In elastic region, when the load is removed, the pipe tends to go back to its origin. If the
load exceeds the elastic limit, the pipe does not go back to its origin when the load is
removed. Instead, the stress reduces the same rate (slope) as the elastic modulus and
reaches a certain strain at zero stress, called a residual strain.

- 48 Line pipe is usually specified by Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) and schedule (SCH). The
most commonly used schedules are 40 (STD), 80 (XS), and 160 (XXS) (see Tables
7.1.3 and 7.1.4).
Table 7.1.3 Pipe Schedules
NPS

OD
(inches)

10

Wall Thickness (inches)


SCH
10s

SCH
10

SCH
20

SCH
30

SCH
40s

SCH
40

SCH
60

SCH
80s

SCH
80

SCH
100

SCH
120

SCH
140

10.75

.165

.165

.250

.307

.365

.365

.500

.500

.593

.718

.843

1.000 1.125

12

12.75

.180

.180

.250

.330

.375

.406

.500

.500

.687

.843

1.000 1.125 1.312

14

14.00

.188

.250

.312

.375

.375

.437

.593

.500

.750

.937

1.093 1.250 1.406

16

16.00

.188

.250

.312

.375

.375

.500

.656

.500

.843

1.031 1.218 1.437 1.593

18

18.00

.188

.250

.312

.437

.375

.562

.750

.500

.937

1.156 1.375 1.562 1.781

20

20.00

.218

.250

.375

.500

.375

.593

.812

.500

1.031 1.280 1.500 1.750 1.968

24

24.00

.250

.250

.375

.562

.375

.687

.968

.500

1.218 1.531 1.812 2.062 2.343

SCH 80s = 80 ksi SMYS stainless steel

SCH
160

- 49 -

NPS

OD

Table 7.1.4 API-5L Standard Pipe Wall Thickness

(inch)

(inch)

(inch)

0.250

0.281

0.318

4.5

4.5

0.337

0.438

0.531

0.674

5.563

0.375

0.500

0.625

0.750

6.625

0.375

0.432

0.500

0.562

0.625

0.719

0.750

0.864

0.875

8.625

0.375

0.438

0.438

0.500

0.562

0.625

0.719

0.750

0.812

0.875

1.000

10

10.75

0.365

0.438

0.438

0.500

0.562

0.625

0.719

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.250

12

12.75

0.375

0.406

0.438

0.500

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.250

14

14

0.375

0.406

0.438

0.469

0.500

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.250

16

16

0.375

0.406

0.438

0.469

0.500

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

18

18

0.375

0.406

0.438

0.469

0.500

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

20

20

0.438

0.469

0.500

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

1.312

1.375

22

22

0.500

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

1.312

1.375

1.438

1.500

24

24

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

1.312

1.375

1.438

1.500

1.562

26

26

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

28

28

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

30

30

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

32

32

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

34

34

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

36

36

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

38

38

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

40

40

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

42

42

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

44

44

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

46

46

0.562

0.625

0.688

0.750

0.812

0.875

0.938

1.000

1.062

1.125

1.188

1.250

- 50 Depending on pipe manufacturing process, there are several pipe types as:

Seamless pipe

DSAW (double submerged arc welding) pipe or UOE pipe

ERW (electric resistant welding) pipe

Seamless pipe is made by piercing the hot steel rod, without longitudinal welds. It is
most expensive but ideal for small diameter, deepwater, or dynamic applications.
Currently up to 24 OD pipe can be fabricated by manufacturers.
DSAW or UOE pipe is made by folding a steel panel with U press, O press, and
expansion (to obtain its final OD dimension). The longitudinal seam is welded by double
(inside and outside) submerged arc welding. DSAW pipe is produced in sizes from 18"
through 80" OD and wall thicknesses from 0.25" through 1.50".
ERW pipe is cheaper than seamless or DSAW pipe but it has not been widely adopted
by offshore industry, especially for sour or high pressure gas service, due to its variable
electrical contact and inadequate forging upset. However, development of high
frequency induction (HFI) welding enables to produce better quality ERW pipes. Figure
7.1.2 shows pipe types by manufacturing process.

- 51 -

Figure 7.1.2 Pipe Types by Manufacturing Process

(a) Seamless pipe

(b) UOE pipe

U-forming

(c) Continuous ERW pipe

O-forming

Expansion

- 52 7.2

CRA (Corrosion resistant alloy) Pipe


Depending on alloy contents, CRA pipe can be broken into follows:
Stainless steel:

316L, 625 (Inconel), 825, 904L, etc.

Chrome based alloy:

13 Cr, Duplex (22 Cr), Super Duplex (25 Cr), etc.

Nickel based alloy :

36 Ni (Invar) for cryogenic application such as LNG


(liquefied natural gas) transportation (-160oC)

Titanium:

Light weight (56% of steel), high strength (up to 200 ksi


tensile), high corrosion resistance, low elastic modulus,
and low thermal expansion, but high cost (~10 times of
steel). Good for high fatigue areas such as riser
touchdown region, stress joint, etc.

Aluminum:

Light weight (1/3 of steel), low elastic modulus (1/3 of


steel), high corrosion resistance, but low strength (only up
to 90 ksi tensile). Applications can include casing, air can,
and risers.

Some key properties of each material are introduced in Table 7.2.1.


Table 7.2.1 Material Properties
Properties

Carbon Steel

Stainless Steel

Titanium

Aluminum

Specific Gravity
(Density)

7.85

8.03

4.50

2.70

(490 lb/ft3)

(500 lb/ft3)

(281 lb/ft3)

(168 lb/ft3)

Elastic Modulus

29,000 ksi

28,000 ksi

15,000 ksi

10,000 ksi

(@ 200 F)

(200,000 Mpa)

(193,000 Mpa)

(104,000 Mpa)

(69,000)

Thermal
Conductivity

30 Btu/hr-ft-oF

10 Btu/hr-ft-oF
(17 W/m-oC)

12 Btu/hr-ft-oF
(20 W/m-oC)

147 Btu/hr-ft-oF
(255 W/m-oC)

8.9 x 10-6 /oF

4.8 x 10-6 /oF

12.8 x 10-6 /oF

(16.0 x 10-6 /oC)

(8.6 x 10-6 /oC)

(23.1 x 10-6 /oC)

(51 W/m-oC)

(@ 125oC)
Thermal Expansion
6.5 x 10-6 /oF
Coefficient
(11.7 x 10-6 /oC)

1 ksi = 6.8948 Mpa


1 Btu/(hr-ft-oF) = 1.731 W/(m-oC)

- 53 -

Depending on sour contents in the fluid, different chrome based alloy pipe should be
selected as shown in Table 7.2.2.
Table 7.2.2 Chrome Based Alloy Pipe Selection for Sour Service

7.3

Conveyed Fluid

13% Cr

22% Cr

25% Cr

CO2

> 1%

> 1%

> 1%

H2S

< 0.04 bar

< 0.2 bar

< 0.4 bar

Cl

No

< 3%

< 5%

Clad Pipe
Clad pipe is a combination of low carbon steel (outer pipe) and CRA (inner pipe). This
pipe reduces material cost by using a thin wall CRA pipe at inner pipe wall surface to
resist internal corrosion. And the carbon steel outer pipe wall provides structural
integrity. Special caution should be addressed during clad pipe welding to the low
carbon steel pipe, since hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) can occur by dissimilar
material welding process.

7.4

Composite Pipe
A carbon-fiber or graphite material for small size pipe in low pressure application has
been developed for mostly topside piping and onshore pipeline. However, its application
is going to expand to subsea use due to its excellent corrosion resistant and low thermal
expansion.

7.5

Flexible Pipe
Flexible pipe consists of steel layers and plastic layers. Each layer is un-bonded and
moves freely from each other. It is known for excellent dynamic behavior due to its
flexibility. However, the flexible pipe size is limited by burst and collapse resistance
capacities. The maximum design temperature is 130oC due to the plastic layers limit.
The maximum pipe size made by industries is 19 (by year 2006). Flexible pipes
manufacturing limit (maximum design pressure) is shown in Figure 7.5.1.

- 54 Figure 7.5.1 Flexible Pipe Manufacturing Limit


Design Pressure (psi)

1400
0
1200
0

API 17J Design Limit

1000
0
800
0
600
0

Current Industry Limit

400
0
200
0
0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Pipe ID (inch)

Each steel and plastic layer has a different function as shown in Figure 7.5.2. For a sour
service, a stainless steel carcass is required. For a water injection line, a smooth plastic
bore can be used. The smooth bore is not normally used for gas applications due to gas
permeation problem. The pressure build-up in the annulus of the pipe can occur due to
diffusion of gas through the plastic sheaths. When no carcass is present, the inner
plastic layer will collapse if the annulus pressure exceeds the bore pressure, such as
shut-off case. To avoid this problem, gas vent valves are installed at end fitting to
relieve the annulus pressure. Rough bore (with carcass) can cause noise and vibrations
at high flow velocity.
The high density polyethylene (HDPE) is good for the content temperature of up to 65oC,
Rilsan/nylon for up to 90oC, and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for up to 130oC. PVDF
is better for higher temperatures but it is stiffer than nylon (3% vs. 7% in allowable
strain). Another key component of the flexible pipe is the end fitting (Figure 7.5.3) which
is designed to hold all layers of flexible pipe at each end.
The flexible pipe manufacturers include: Technip (formerly Coflexip), Wellstream, NKT,
and DeepFlex. To reduce the flexible pipe weight (especially for dynamic riser use) and
improve corrosion resistance, a composite material, such as for tensile wires, has been
developed. DeepFlex uses a composite material (carbon fibre-reinforced polymer
(CFRP)) for all layers (Figure 7.5.4.)

- 55 -

Figure 7.5.2 Flexible Pipe Structure [3]


External Sheath (HDPE)
- Protects abrasion, seawater
penetration, and steel layer corrosion

Intermediate Sheath (HDPE)


- Protects abrasion between steel layers
Pressure Layer
- Resists internal and external pressures
Pressure Sheath (HDPE/Nylon/PVDF)
- Contains internal fluid and transfers
internal pressure to pressure layer

Armour Wires - Resists tensile load

Carcass Resists external


collapse pressure

Figure 7.5.3 Flexible Pipe End Fitting [4]

Figure 7.5.4 Composite Flexible Pipe [5]

- 56 7.6

Flexible Hose
Flexible hose is a single body rubber bonded (vulcanized, oven baked) structure, unlike
the flexible pipe which consists of unbonded multiple plastic and steel layers. The
flexible hose is commonly used for topside jumpers, single point mooring (SPM) risers,
and surface floating risers to offload the product from the buoy to FPSO or shuttle tanker
(see Figure 7.6.1)
Figure 7.6.1 Flexible Hose Applications
.
FPSO or
Shuttle Tanker

Offloading Hose
SPM Buoy
(mooring lines
not shown)

Risers

Pipeline

PLEM

Seabed

The built in one-piece end couplings with integral built in bend limiters and a composite
fire resistant layer provide a low minimum bend radius, a light compact construction with
excellent flexibility and fatigue resistance. However, there are some manufacturing
limits on hose size and length; the maximum hose size is 30 and the maximum length is
35 ft.
Flexible hose manufacturers include: Dunlop Oil & Maine, Bridgestone, GoodYear,
Phoenix Rubber Industrial (formerly Taurus), etc.
Figure 7.6.2 shows some pictures of flexible hose applications and factory flexibility test.

- 57 -

Figure 7.6.2 Pictures of Flexible Hose Applications and Factory Flexibility Test

(Source: www.dunlop-oil-marine.co.uk [6])

(Source: www.bridgestone.co.jp [7])

- 58 7.7

Coiled Tubing
Coiled tubing (CT) is a continuously milled tubular product reeled on a spool during
manufacturing process. Tubing diameter normally ranges from 0.75 to 6.625 and a
single reel can hold small size tubing lengths in excess of 30,000 ft. The worlds longest
continuously milled CT string is 32,800 ft. of 1.75 diameter. CTs yield strengths range
from 55 ksi to 120 ksi [8].
CT has been developed for well service and workover and expanded the applications to
drilling and completion. To perform remedial work on a live well, three components are
required:

CT string: a continuous conduit capable of being inserted into the wellbore

Injector head: a means of running CT string into wellbore while under pressure
Stripper or pack-off: a device providing dynamic seal around the CT string

Some benefits of CT applications are: safe and efficient live well intervention, rapid
mobilization and rig-up resulting in less production downtime, and reduced
crew/personnel requirements, etc.
CT technology can be used for:

Well Unloading

Cleanouts

Acidizing/Stimulation

Velocity Strings

Fishing

Tool Conveyance

Well Logging (real-time & memory)


Setting/Retrieving Plugs

CT Drilling

Fracturing

Deeper Wells
Pipeline/Flowline, etc.

The coiled tubing manufacturers include Quality Tubing, Inc. (QTI) and Tenaris (formerly
Precision Tube Technology and Maverick Tube), etc.
Figure 7.7.1 shows a CT operation at onshore wellhead.

- 59 -

Figure 7.7.1 Coiled Tubing Operation [9]

CT String

Injector
Head

- 60 References
[1]

API 5L, Specification for Line Pipe, Section 6.2.1, American Petroleum Institute,
2004

[2]

DNV-OS-F101, Submarine Pipeline Systems, 2003, Sec. 5, C405

[3]

Technip USA Flexible Pipe Presentation

[4]

NKT Flexibles Website, www.NKTflexibles.com

[5]

DeepFlex Website, www.DeepFlex.com

[6]

Dunlop Oil Marine Website, www.dunlop-oil-marine.co.uk

[7]

Bridgestone Website, www.bridgestone.co.jp

[8]

An Introduction to Coiled Tubing History, Applications, and Benefits,


International Coiled Tubing Association (ICTA), 2005

[9]

http://commservices.ssss.com/Literature/documents/
STEWARTANDSTEVENSONCTU.pdf

[10]

Farouk A. Kenawy and Wael F. Ellaithy, Case History in Coiled Tubing Pipeline,
OTC (Offshore Technology Conference) Paper No. 10714, 1999

[11]

Tim Crome, et. al., Smoothbore Flexible Risers for Gas Export, OTC Paper
#18703, 2007

- 61 -

PIPE COATINGS

8.1

Corrosion Coating
Inner surface of the pipe is not typically coated but if erosion or corrosion protection is
required, fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) coating or plastic liner is applied. Outer surface of
the carbon steel line pipes are typically coated with corrosion resistant FBE or neoprene
coating. The three layer polypropylene (3LPP), three layer polyethylene (3LPE, see
Figure 8.1.1), or multi-layer PP or PE is used for reeled pipes to provide abrasion
resistance during reeling and unreeling process. Thermally sprayed aluminum (TSA)
coating can be used for risers especially when there is a concern on CP shielding due to
strakes or fairings. abrasion resistant overlay (ARO) is commonly applied for the
horizontal directional drilling (HDD) pipes or bottom towed pipes.
The coating materials normal thickness and temperature limit are as follows:

Fusion Bounded Epoxy, 0.4-0.5 mm, 200oF


Polyethylene, 3-4 mm, 150oF
Polypropylene, 3-4 mm, 220oF
Neoprene, 3-5 mm, 220oF
Figure 8.1.1 3LPE Coating

Steel
FBE Layer
Adhesive Layer
HDPE Layer

- 62 8.2

Insulation Coating
To keep the conveyed fluid warm, the pipeline should be heated by active or passive
methods. The active heating methods include, electric heat tracing wires wrapped
around the pipeline, circulating hot water through the annulus of pipe-in-pipe, etc. The
passive heating method is insulation coating, burial, covering, etc.
Glass syntactic polyurethane (GSPU), PU foam, and syntactic foam commonly are the
commonly used subsea insulation materials (see Figure 8.2.1). Although these
insulation materials are covered (jacketed) with HDPE, they are compressed due to
hydrostatic head and migrated by water as time passes, so it is called a wet insulation.
Figure 8.2.1 GSPU (left) and Syntactic Foam Insulation (right)

OHTC or U value is used to represent the systems insulation capability. Lower U value
prvides higher insulation performance. Heat loss can occur by three processes:
conduction, convention, and radiation. Conduction is a heat transfer through a solid by
contact, and convection is a heat transfer due to a moving fluid. Radiation is a heat
exchange between two surfaces (heat is radiated to the surrounding cooler surfaces).
Good insulation can be achieved by minimizing the above heat loss processes.
Conduction is dependent on material size and thermal conductivity. Convective heat
transfer (film) coefficient can be obtained from internal and external fluid Reynolds and
Prandtl numbers.

- 63 -

The OHTC or U value can be obtained using the formula below:

1
r r 1
1 r1 r2 r1 r3
r
ln
ln 1 ln m 1
h1 K 1 r1 K 2 r2
K m1 rm1 rm hm

Where,
h1 = internal surface convective heat transfer coefficient
hm = external surface convective heat transfer coefficient
r = radius to each component surface
K = thermal conductivity of each component

rm

r1

For example, the U value for a 6.625 OD x 0.684 WT pipe with a 1 GSPU coating is:
Pipe
r1 = 2.6285
r2 = 3.3125
K1 = 30 Btu/hr-ft-oF
GSPU
r2 = 3.3125
r3 = 4.3125
K2 = 0.096 Btu/hr-ft-oF
Neglect FBE corrosion coating and HDPE outer jacket and assume h1 & h3 = 1,000
Btu/hr-ft2-oF.

1
1
2.6285/12 3.3125 2.6285/12 4.3125 2.6285 1

ln
ln

1,000
30
0.096
2.6285
3.3125 4.3125 1,000

1.65 Btu/(hr ft 2 o F)

- 64 8.3

Pipe-in-Pipe
Another pipe insulation method is pipe-in-pipe (PIP) which an inner pipe is covered by a
larger outer pipe (Figure 8.3.1). The annuls between inner pipe and outer pipe are filled
with insulation materials including: micro-porous silica (Aerogel), polyurethane foam
(PUF), Wacker/Porextherm, Mineral wool, etc.
Figure 8.3.1 PIP

Aerogel
Microporous silica with a pore size of 10-9m.

Best U value 0.0139 W/m-oK at 50oC.

The density is 0.11 SG.

Developed for the reeling process and many track records exist.

Requires centralizers with a spacing of every 2m or so.

Cheaper than Wacker/Porextherm product.

PUF

2nd cheapest form of insulation.

2nd poorest U-value (0.029 W/m-oK at 50oC) of all insulation materials but used
extensively for S/J-lay projects, normally without centralizers.

Densities are in the range of 0.07 - 0.12 SG.

Use with reel-lay has been limited due to potential damage (compression and crack)
during reeling.

- 65 -

Wacker/Porextherm

Fumed microporous silica with a pore size of 10-6m.


Porextherm.

Most expensive thermal insulation product.

Good U-value (0.0195 W/m-oK at 50oC).

Standard density is 0.19 SG.

Developed for the reeling process and many track records exist.

Requires centralizers with a spacing of every 2m or so.

Wacker is purchased by

Mineral Wool
Cheapest form of insulation.

Poorest U-value (0.037 0.045 W/m-oK at 50oC) of all insulation materials but used
extensively in the North Sea.

Densities are in the range of 0.1 - 0.12 SG.

Not good for low U value unless combined with other method such as heat tracing.

PIP system requires bulkheads, water stops, and centralizers, depending on fabrication
methods. The end bulkhead is designed to connect the inner pipe to the outer pipe, at
each pipeline termination (see Figure 8.3.2). Intermediate bulkheads may require for
reeled PIP to allow top tension to be transferred between the outer pipe and the inner
pipe, at intervals of approximately 1 km. During installation, the tensioner holds the
outer pipe only, so the inner pipe tends to fall down by its dead weight and may result in
buckling at sag bend area near seabed, if no intermediate bulkheads exist.
Figure 8.3.2 End Bulkhead
Inner pipe

Outer pipe

Bulkhead

Flange

- 66 Water stops (see Figure 8.3.3) are installed to limit the pipeline length damaged in the
event that the annulus is flooded by pipeline failure or puncture. Considering low
fabrication cost and low heat loss, it is recommended to install one or two water stops
per each stalk length. The stalk length varies, due to spool base size and pulling
capacity, typically between 500 m to 1,500 m. It should be noted that the water stops
are not a design code requirement but they are recommended for deepwater project
where recovery of the flooded pipeline is challenging.
EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) rubber, Viton (a brand of synthetic rubber),
and silicone rubber have been used for the water stop material. The axial compression
for the water stops is provided by using an interlocking clamp arrangement which will
provide the radial expansion of the ring against the pipe walls.
Centralizers or spacers (see Figure 8.3.3) are polymeric rings clamped on the inner pipe
for reeled PIP:

to protect insulations abrasion damage during insertion of the inner pipe into the
outer pipe

to protect insulations crushing due to bending load while reeling

to protect insulations crushing due to thermal bucking during operation

The centralizer works as a heat sink due to its high thermal conductivity (~0.3 W/m-oK ,
10 to 20 times higher than insulation materials). Therefore, reducing the number of
centralizers by increasing the centralizer spacing (2 m typical), or centralizer-less design
can reduce both the material and fabrication/installation costs.
Figure 8.3.3 Water Stop Seal (left) [1] and Centralizer (right) [2]

- 67 -

For the reeled PIP, the annulus gap needs to be sufficient to put insulation material,
centralizer, and clearance gap to account for the weld beads, welding misalignment,
pipe manufacturing tolerances, etc. The annulus gap should be in the range of 30 to 40
mm and the net gap (between insulation and outer pipe ID) should be 15 mm or higher
(see Figure 8.3.4). The maximum reeled PIP that has been installed by Technip is 12.2
x 17 PIP for Dalia Project.
Figure 8.3.4 Reeled PIP with Centralizers
Inner Pipe

Annulus Gap

Outer Pipe

Net Gap

Insulation

Centralizer

The PIP can be used for cold products such as LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and LNG
(liquefied natural gas) to keep the product as cold as possible. For example, LNG flows
at -256F (-160C), and the LNG pipelines need to be kept below a certain temperature
and above a certain pressure to prevent vapor generation. The LNG is commonly
transported from ship carrier (LNG tanker) to onshore facility via thick insulated pipelines
installed on a jetty. Dredging may be required along the ship channel to facilitate vessel
access to the jetty. To control the pipeline contraction due to cold product temperature,
frequent expansion loops are also required.
Recently, many subsea LNG pipelines are under development. The advantages of
subsea LNG pipelines include; increase security due to pipeline buried under the
seabed, low cost of jetty construction and dredging, no expansion loops, no insulation
coating damage, and sound control of thermal cyclic fatigue, etc. Some challenges of
subsea cryogenic LNG pipelines are; effective insulation system (vaccum, Nanogel,
Aerogel, IzoFlex, etc.) and special cryogenic materials for pipe, forgings, and welding
consumables. Either 36% nickel alloy (Invar) or 9% nickel alloy is typically used for the
inner pipe of the cryogenic LNG pipelines [3]. A triple PIP (pipe-in-pipe-in-pipe) system
is introduced by ITP (InTerPipe) to transport LNG through subsea [7].

- 68 8.4

Concrete Weight Coating


Concrete weight coating (Figure 8.4.1) is applied to make the pipe stable under the
water. One inch is the minimum concrete coating thickness that fabricator can put on. It
should be evaluated if concrete coating is the most cost effective option to increase pipe
weight. Increasing the pipe wall thickness may be more efficient considering pipe
transportation and project management cost for the concrete weight coating.
Figure 8.4.1 Concrete Weight Coating [4]

The polyethylene outer wrap in the above picture is removed after the concrete coating
is cured. Each pipe end is left without concrete coating for welding and welding
inspection. No coating is applied near the pipe end for automatic welding and automatic
ultrasonic test (AUT), as indicated in Figure 8.4.2. The concrete coating stop distance
from the pipe end is also called concrete cut-back length.
Figure 8.4.2 Coating Cut-Back Length
(Lengths shown below are for reference use only and can vary by contractor and project.)
Bare Steel

FBE

15

Concrete

- 69 -

8.5

Field Joint Coating


After the field weld is made, each pipe joint should be coated with a corrosion resistant
coating. The field joint coating (FJC) can be done by FBE, heat shrink sleeve, or PU
foam (for concrete coated pipe). Figure 8.5.1 presents one example of field joint coating
for insulation coated pipes.
Figure 8.5.1 Field Joint Coating [5]

- 70 References
[1] Dunlaw Engineering Ltd. website, http://www.dunlaw.com/bend_limiters.html
[2]

Oil & Gas Journal website,


http://www.ogj.com/display_article/112253/7/ARCHI/none/none/Innovations-keyreeled-pipe-in-pipe-flowline-for-gulf-deepwater-project/

[3]

Tom Phalen, C. Neal Prescott, Jeff Zhang, and Tony Findlay, Update on Subsea
LNG Pipeline Technology, OTC (Offshore Technology Conference) paper No.
18542, 2007

[4]

Bayou Companies website, http://www.bayoucompanies.com

[5]

Pipeline Induction Heat website, http://www.pih.co.uk

[6]

M. Delafkaran and D.H. Demetriou, Design and Analysis of High Temperature,


Thermally Insulated, Pipe-in-Pipe Risers, OTC (Offshore Technology Conference)
paper No. 8543, 1997

[7]

ITP website, http://www.itp-interpipe.com/

- 71 -

PIPE WALL THICKNESS DESIGN


Pipe wall thickness (WT) should be checked for;
- internal pressure (burst)
- external pressure (collapse/buckle propagation)
- bending buckling
- combined load
Also the calculated pipe WT should be checked for thermal expansion, on-bottom
stability, free spanning, and installation stress.
9.1

Internal Pressure (Burst) Check


Pipe should carry the internal fluid safely without bursting. Design factor (inverse of
safety factor) used for burst pressure check (hoop stress) varies due to the pipe
application; oil or gas and pipeline or riser. The 0.72 design factor means a 72% of pipe
SMYS shall be used in pipe strength design. Riser is required to use a lower design
factor than the flowline/pipeline. This is because the riser is attached to a fixed or
floating structure and the risers failure may damage the structure and cost human lives,
unlike the pipeline failure. Moreover, gas riser uses lower design factor than the oil riser,
since gas is a compressed fluid so gas risers failure is more dangerous than the oil
risers.
Table 9.1.1 Design Factors [1] [3]
System
Flowline

Design Factor
0.72

Code
30-CFR-250

0.60 (riser)
Pipeline (Oil)

0.72
0.60 (riser)

Pipeline (Gas)

0.72
0.50 (riser)

49-CFR-195
(ASME B31.4)
49-CFR-192
(ASME B31.8)

- 72 Using a conventional thin wall pipe formula, as used in ASME B31.4 and B31.8, the
required pipe wall thickness (t) can be obtained as;

Where,

P=
D=
S=
DF =

PD
2 S DF

internal pressure (psi)


pipe OD (inch)
pipe SMYS (psi)
design factor

For example, for a gas pipeline with a 4,000 psi internal pressure (at water surface), the
required WT for a 16 OD and X-65 grade pipe is 0.684 as below.

4,000 16
0.684"
2 65,000 0.72

The empty pipe dry weight in air is 112.0 lb/ft and water displacement (buoyancy) is 89.4
lb/ft. Therefore, the pipe specific gravity is 1.25 (or 112.0/89.4). The submerged pipe
weight is 22.6 lb/ft (or 112.0-89.4 lb/ft).
The gas pipeline riser requires 0.985 WT pipe, using the same criteria as above but with
0.5 design factor.

4,000 16
0.985"
2 65,000 0.5

For a deepwater application, the external hydrostatic pressure should be accounted for
by using P instead of P.
P = (internal pressure)max (external pressure)min = Pi_max Po_min
For the above example, the external pressure is zero at the platform, so there is no
change in WT calculation.
The above thin wall pipe formula assumes uniform hoop stress across the pipe wall and
gives a conservative result (high hoop stress). However, the hoop stress is not uniform
and it is maximum at inner surface and minimum at outer surface as shown in Figure
9.1.1. Therefore, a closed form solution of thick wall pipe (D/t<20) formula should be
used if more accurate hoop stress is required [6].

- 73 -

h
Where,

Pi a2 Po b2 a2 b2 Pi Po / r 2
b2 a2

Thick wall pipe formula

a = inner pipe wall radius = Di / 2


b = outer pipe wall radius = Do / 2
r = arbitrary pipe radius (at which the hoop stress to be estimated)

By replacing r = a, the maximum hoop stress at inner pipe wall can be expressed as;

(Pi Po ) D
(P P ) t
0.5 (Pi Po ) i o
2t
2 (D t)

Thick wall pipe formula @ inner wall

As a reference, the hoop stress formulas in another codes are listed below :
h

(Pi Po ) D
Pi
2t

API RP 2RD

(Pi Po ) D
0.4 (Pi Po )
2t

ASME B31.3 & Boiler Code

Figure 9.1.1 Pipe Hoop Stress Comparison

Po

b
a
Pi

h_thick wall

h_thick wall

h_thin wall

Di
D

- 74 9.2 External Pressure (Collapse/Buckle Propagation) Check


The deepwater pipeline shall be checked for external hydrostatic pressure for its
collapse resistance and buckle propagation resistance. Normally the buckle propagation
resistance requires heavier WT than the collapse resistance. However, if a buckle
arrestor is installed at a certain interval (typically a distance equivalent to the water
depth), the buckle propagation is prevented or stopped (arrested) and no further damage
to the pipeline beyond the buckle arrestor can occur. In this way, we can save some
pipe material and installation cost by designing the pipe for collapse resistance.
The ASME code does not provide a formula to check for collapse resistance, thus the
API RP-1111 is normally used [7].
P P
o
i

P
c

max

f P
o c

P P
y e
P 2 P 2
y
e

t
P 2S
y
D
3
t

D
2E
P
e
(1 2 )

Where,

fo =
Pc =
Py =
Pe =
E=
M=

collapse factor, 0.7 for seamless or ERW pipe


collapse pressure of the pipe, psi
yield pressure collapse, psi
elastic collapse pressure of the pipe, psi
pipe elastic modulus, psi
possions ratio (0.3 for steel)

- 75 -

For example, for a 4,000 psi internal pressure gas pipeline in 3,000 ft water depth
(1,333.3 psi), the 16 OD x 0.684 WT, X-65 grade seamless pipe can resist collapse
pressure, as calculated below.

0.684
Py 2 65,000
5,558 psi
16
3

0.684

16

Pe 2 29,000,000
4,980 psi
(1 0.3 2 )
Pc

5,558 4,980
5,558 2 4,980 2

3,724 psi

f o Pc 0.7 3,724 2,607 psi


Po Pi 1,333.3 0 1,333.3 psi during installati on (empty pipe)
Po Pi 1,333.3 4,000 2,666.7 psi during operation
Po Pi

max

Po Pi

1,333.3 psi

max

f o Pc okay

Buckle propagation pressure (Pp) should be computed and checked with differential
pressure per API RP-1111 formula. If the buckle propagation pressure is higher than the
differential pressure, buckle will not propagate (travel). However, buckle will propagates
if the calculated buckle propagation pressure is less than the differential pressure.

t
Pp 24 S
D

2.4

If Po Pi max 0.8 Pp

then, buckle arrestor is required

- 76 As shown in the below calculations, the 16 OD x 0.684 WT, X-65 grade pipe requires
buckle arrestors in water depths greater than 1,453 ft (equivalent to 646 psi).

0.684
Pp 24 65,000

16

2.4

808 psi

0.8 Pp 0.8 808 646 psi

Po Pi max 1,333.3 psi


Po Pi max 0.8 Pp buckle arrestor is required

There are several types of buckle arrestors available; slip-on ring type and integral type
(Figure 9.2.1). Some contractors prefer thick wall pipe joint to buckle arrestor.

Figure 9.2.1 Buckle Arrestors

Steel
ring

(a) Slip-on Type

Epoxy
grouting

Forged ring

Welding

(b) Integral Type

- 77 -

9.3

Bending Buckling Check


Pipe WT should be checked for bending buckling during installation and operation per
API RP-1111.

P Pi g

o
b
Pc
bendingstrain 0.005 for installation, 0.003 for operation
b

t
2D

g (1 20 ) -1

D max D min
ovality
D max D min

The same pipe as above with 1.0% ovality satisfies the bending buckling requirement as
calculated below.

t
0.684

0.0214
2 D 2 16

g (1 20 ) -1 1 20 0.01 0.833
1

Po Pi 0.005 1,333.3

0.381
b
Pc
0.214
3,724

during installati on

Po Pi 0.003 2,666.7

0.702
b
Pc
0.214
3,724

Po Pi

g
b
Pc

okay

during operation

- 78 If the pipe is to be installed by a reel-lay method, the pipe WT needs to be checked for
buckling during reeling. For a reel drum radius of R, the required pipe WT for reeling is
estimated as:

1.25D 2
R

For a 31.5 reel drum radius (Technip Deep Blue), the required pipe WT for the 16 OD
pipe is 0.847 as below:

9.4

1.25 162
0.847"
31.5 12

Combined Load Check


The combined stress of hoop stress (Sh) and longitudinal (axial compression or tension)
stress (SL) should not exceed 90% of the pipe SMYS during operation, per ASME B31.8.
There is no maximum combined stress limit for hydrotesting in this code, but it is allowed
by industry to use 100% SMYS during hydrotest.
Table 9.4.1 Design Factors (ASME B31.8)
Hoop Stress, F1

Longitudinal Stress, F2

0.72 (pipeline)

0.80

Combined Stress, F3
0.90 (operation)

0.50 (riser)

1.00 (hydrotest)

The combined stress can be calculated using Von Mises formula as below, neglecting
torsional (tangential) stress:
Von Mises Stress

Sh SL Sh SL F3 SMYS
2

The longitudinal stress comes from tension and bending loads due to installation, route
curvature, free span, thermal expansion, etc. As shown in Figure 9.4.1, the maximum
allowable Von Mises Stress curve gives less conservative results than the Tresca stress
curve. If the calculated Von Mises stress falls inside of the curve, the pipe is considered
safe in terms of combined resultant stress.

- 79 -

It should be noted that, for the same tensional and compressive stress at a positive hoop
stress, the pipe may not be safe for the compression (see point B in Figure 9.4.1).
Figure 9.4.1 Von Mises Stress Curve [6]

B (unsafe)

A (safe)

(Tresca Stress)
Von Mises Stress

- 80 9.5

Definition of MADOP
It is important to understand the term of differential pressure in deepwater applications.
In shallow water applications, the external hydrostatic head due to water depth (column)
is neglected. However, as the water depths and production pressures increase, heavier
wall pipes are required and it becomes natural to consider the benefit of external
pressure in pipe wall thickness determination.
The pipeline and riser system used to be designed for maximum allowable operating
pressure (MAOP) in shallow water applications. To account for the external pressure
effect, the pipeline and riser system should be designed for the maximum allowable
differential operating pressure (MADOP). For example, if a flowline is to be designed for
a 5,000 psi MAOP at subsea wellhead located in 3,375 ft water depth (equivalent to
1,500 psi external pressure), the burst resistant required pipe wall thickness can be
determined using the MADOP of 3,500 psi.
If a riser is required in the above example, the riser should be designed for the MADOP
along the riser length. At the riser bottom, the MADOP is 3,500 psi assuming the same
water depth as at the subsea well. And at the riser top, the MADOP is 5,000 psi 1,275
psi (assuming 0.85 SG oil contents) or 3,725 psi. Thus, the riser should be designed for
the MADOP of 3,725 psi. If there is no subsea isolation valve at flowline and riser
connection, the flowline needs to be designed for the MADOP of the whole system which
is 3,725 psi due to hydrotesting requirement.
Figure 9.5.1 illustrates the applications of MADOP when MAOP is specified at subsea
wellhead (typical flowlines) and at water surface (typical pipelines).

- 81 -

Figure 9.4.2 Applications of MADOP


MAOP = Max. Allowable Operating Pressure
MADOP = Max. Allowable Differential Operating Pressure
r w = Seawater Density
r c = Contents Density

water surface

Pd = Design Pressure = MAOP


Pe = External Pressure = r w g h
Pc = Contents Hydrostatic Head = r c g h

P_surface = P d - Pe - r c g h = Pd - r c g h

CASE 1 - MAOP specified at subsea wellhead (ex: flowline)


Pipe should be designed for the maximum P:
MADOP = Max(P_surface, P_seabed) = Pd - r c g h

seabed
Pd = MAOP at subsea wellhead
P_seabed = P d - Pe = Pd - r w g h

water surface

Pd = MAOP at water surface


P_surface = P d - Pe = Pd

CASE 2 - MAOP specified at water surface (ex: export line)


Pipe should be designed for the maximum P:
MADOP = Max(P_surface, P_seabed) = Pd
h

seabed
P_seabed = Pd - Pe + Pc = Pd - ( r w - r c) g h

- 82 References
[1]

49 CFR, Part 192, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline:


Minimum Federal Safety Standards

[2]

49 CFR, Part 195, Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline

[3]

30 CFR, Part 250, Oil and Gas and Sulfur Operations in the Outer Continental
Shelf

[4]

ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum


Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia and Alcohols, 1999

[5]

ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, 1999

[6]

Advanced Mechanics of Materials, Arthur P. Boresi, Richard J. Schmidt, and


Omar M. Sidebottom

[7]

API RP-1111, Recommended Practice for Design Construction, Operation, and


Maintenance of Offshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines, 1999

[8]

API RP 2RD, Design of Risers for Floating Production Systems (FPSs) and
Tension-Leg Platforms (TLPs), First Edition, 1998

[9]

ASME B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping

[10]

DNV-OS-F101, Submarine Pipeline Systems, 2003

[11]

Alexander Blake, Practical Stress Analysis in Engineeering Design, Marcel


Dekker, Inc., 1990

[12]

Joseph E. Shinley and Larry D. Mitchell, Mechanical Engineering Design,


McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983

[13]

C.P. Sparks, The Influence of Tension, Pressure and Weight on Pipe and Riser
Deformations and Stresses, Journal of Energy Resources Technology,
Transactions of the ASME, March 1984

[14]

Jaeyoung Lee and Don Herring, "Improved Pipe Hoop Stress Formula,"
Deepwater Pipeline & Riser Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, 2000

[15]

Jaeyoung Lee, "Modified Thin Wall Pipe Formula for Deep Water Application,"
International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineering (ISOPE) Conference,
Canada, 1998

- 83 -

10

THERMAL EXPANSION DESIGN


Thermal expansion is an important issue in deepwater flowlines design since flowlines
normally carry very high pressure and temperature fluid, unlike export pipelines. The
thermal elongation is a function of the pipe materials thermal expansion coefficient (),
differential temperature (T) between the conveyed fluid temperature and the ambient
temperature when the pipe is welded, and the pipeline length (L). If a 1.0 miles of
carbon steel pipe (= 6.5 x 10-6 /oF) is operated at 100oF differential temperature, the
pipeline end elongation (L) will be:

L T L 6.5 10 -6 100 5280 3.4 ft

However, the pipe/soil friction force resists the pipeline expansion, so the above
estimated pipeline end elongation will be reduced significantly. The thermal expansion
analysis is not simple and FEA (finite element analysis) tools are commonly used to
handle sea bottom irregularities, flowline route curvatures, and pressure and
temperature variance along the route. Snaking (lateral displacement) or upheaval
buckling (vertical displacement) can occur due to excessive flowline enlogation when
both ends are restrained and are not allowed to move freely.
Figure 10.1 Snaking and Upheaval Buckling

(a) Snaking

(a) Upheaval Buckling

(Source: www.jee.co.uk)

- 84 To control or mitigate the thermal expansion problems, such methods can be adopted as
follows (also see Figure 10.2):

Snake lay

Expansion loop

Flexible jumper

Inverted U or M shape rigid jumper

Sliding PLET

Random buckle initiators (sleepers, buoyancies, etc.)

Random buckle arrestors (random rock dumping, burial, anchor, etc.)

Figure 10.2 Thermal Expansion Mitigation Methods

(a) Sliding PLET

(b) A Sleeper under the Flowline

- 85 -

Figure 10.2 Thermal Expansion Mitigation Methods (continued)

Plan View - without Buoyancy


(Shorter Wave Length Smaller Curvature Radius Higher Stress)

Distributed Buoyancy
L

Plan View with Distributed Buoyancy


(Longer Wave Length Less Curvature- Lower Stress)
(c) Distributed Buoyancies
Flowline tends to expand (elongate) to each end of the flowline while the soil holds the
axial movement of the flowline. At a certain point, the soil friction resistance equals or
exceeds the flowline expansion load. Beyond this point, called a virtual anchor point, the
flowline will not move. The flowline walking can occur when the virtual anchor point
moves between when flowline is warmed (operation) and when it is cooled down (see
Figure 10.3). Repeated shutdowns and startups cycles may cause the axial walking and
require anchor pile to hold back the flowline from walk-away. Otherwise, a steel
catenary riser (SCR) may buckle due to reduced sag bend radius at seabed due to
accumulated pipeline walking.

- 86 Figure 10.3 Flowline Walking Phenomenon

Moved virtual
anchor point

Tension

Diagram
Shutdown

Flowline
distance

Operation

Compression

Riser end

Flowline/Riser
Profile

< Walking occurs >

Before
After

Flowline end

- 87 -

References
[1]

Jee web site, www.jee.co.uk

[2]

Han S. Choi, Expansion Analysis of Offshore Pipelines Close to Restraints,


ISOPE (International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineering) Conference,
1995

[3]

C. J. M. Putot, Localized Buckling of Buried Flexible Pipelines, OTC (Offshore


Technology Conference) Paper No. 6155, 1989

[4]

I. R. Colquhoun, et.al., Maximum Allowable Temperature Differentials in Buried


Pipelines, OMAE (Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineers) Conference, 1992

[5]

I. G. Craig, et. al., Upheaval Buckling : A Practical Solution Using Hot Water
Flusing Technique, OTC (Offshore Technology Conference) Paper No. 6334,
1990

[6]

A. C. Palmer, et. al., Design of Submarine Pipelines Against Upheaval Buckling,


OTC (Offshore Technology Conference) Paper No. 6335, 1990

[7]

M. Finch, Upheaval Buckling and Floatation of Rigid Pipelines: The Influence of


Recent Geotechnical Research on the Current State of the Art, OTC (Offshore
Technology Conference) Paper No. 10713, 1999

[8]

R. Bruschi, et. al., Lateral Snaking of Hot Pressurized Pipelines Mitigation for
Troll Oil Pipeline, 1996 OMAE, 1996

[9]

James G. A. Croll, A Simplified Analysis of Imperfect Thermally Buckled Subsea


Pipelines, International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 4,
1998

[10]

R.R. Hobbs and F. Liang, Thernal Buckling of Pipelines Close to Restraints,


International Conference on OMAE (Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering)
1989

[11]

Jie Zheng, Xinhai Qi, and Mark Brunner, Effects of Soil Resistance on Lateral
Buckling of Pipelines, DOT (Deep Offshore Technology) 2002

[12]

Mark Brunner, Xinhai Qi, and Jun Chao, Challenges and Solutions for
Deepwater HP/HT Flowlines, DOT (Deep Offshore Technology) 2003

- 88 -

- 89 -

11

PIPELINE ON-BOTTOM STABILITY DESIGN


Pipeline laid on the sea floor should be stable during installation, after installation, and
during operation. If the pipe is too light during installation, it will be hard to control the
pipe since it behaves like a noodle due to waves & current and installation vessels
motion. Most installation contractors require a minimum 1.15 pipe SG (specific gravity)
to avoid pipe buckling which may occur due to pipes excessive movement during
installation.
After installation, before the pipe is filled with water or product fluid, the pipe should be
checked for 1 year return period waves and current conditions. If the pipe is laid as
empty for a long period before commissioning, a 2-year, 5-year, or 10-year return period
metocean data should be used. During operation, the pipe should be stable for a 100year return period metocean data.
The soil data is very important to estimate the pipeline on-bottom stability. If no soil data
is available, use the following data for the pipe-soil lateral friction coefficients per DnVRP-F109, On Bottom Stability of Offshore Pipeline Systems:
Clay

0.2

Sand

0.6

Gravel

0.8

To keep the pipeline stable, the soil resistance should be greater than the hydrodynamic
force induced on the pipeline.

W s FL FD FI

Eq. 11.1

Where,
FL

1
w D CL V 2
2

FD

1
w D C D V V Drag Force
2

FI

D2
w CM A
4

Lift Force

Hydrodynamic
Force

Inertia Force
Soil Resistance

- 90 is the soil friction coefficient as mentioned in the previous paragraph; WS is the pipe
submerged weight (lb/ft); rw is the water mass density (64 lb/ft3); V is the near-bottom wave
& current velocity; and A is the water particle acceleration corresponding to the V. The
recommended lift, drag, and inertia force coefficient (CL, CD, and CM) is 0.9, 0.7, and 3.29
respectively.
The AGA pipeline on-bottom stability program [1] is widely used by industries. The
program has three modules:

Level 1 Simple and quick static analysis using a linear wave theory and Morison
equations as above, without accounting for pipe movement or selfembedment.

Level 2 -

Reliable quasi-static analysis using a non-linear wave theory and


numerous model test results considering pipes self-embedment.

Level 3 -

Complicated dynamic time domain analysis using series of linear waves


and allowing some pipeline movements. Compare the computed pipe
stresses and deflections with allowable limits.

Level 2 is recommended for most cases. Level 3 can be used to predict pipeline
movements especially for dense sand or stiff clay where the pipe embedment does not
take a big role. However, Level 3 takes a long computer running time and it is difficult to
estimate how far the pipeline will move over the design life. Therefore, Level 3 is not
recommended unless small savings of concrete coating can affect the project cost
significantly.
In Level 2 analysis, it is noted that the vertical safety factor in the output should be
treated as a reference use only. This is because the lift force is already considered in
the horizontal stability check (see Eq. 11.1) and the lift force is calculated based on the
pipe sitting on the seabed. Once the pipe is lifted off the seabed, the water will start to
flow underneath the pipe. The underneath flow velocity is faster than the upper flow,
thus the underneath pressure is less than the upper pressure. This pressure differential
tends to push the pipeline back to the seabed and drastically reduces the lift force.

- 91 -

The following methods (also see Figure 11.1) can be adopted to keep the pipeline stable
on the sea floor:

Heavy (thick) wall pipe


Concrete weight coating
Trenching
Burial
Rock dumping (covering)
Concrete mattress or bitumen blanket
Concrete block
Figure 11.1 Some of Pipeline On-bottom Stability Mitigation Methods

Trenching

Rock Dumping

Concrete Mattress

Concrete Block

- 92 References
[1]

Submarine Pipeline On-bottom Stability Analysis and Design Guidelines,


American Gas Association, 1993

[2]

C.P. Ellinas, et. al., Prevention of Upheaval Buckling of Hot Submarine Pipelines
by Means of Intermittent Rock Dumping, OTC (Offshore Technology Conference)
Paper No. 6332, 1990

[3]

Submar Website, www.submar.com, for concrete mattress

[4]

Van Oord Website, www.vanoord.com, for rock dumping

[5]

Jaeyoung Lee and Keh-Han Wang, "Stability of Pipeline under Oblique Waves,"
Oceans 2001, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2001

[6]

Guideline for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe, ASCE, 2001,


http://www.americanlifelinesalliance.org/pdf/buried_pipe.pdf

[7]

Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems, ASCE, 1984

[8]

SeaMark Systems, http://www.seamarksystems.com, for concrete/bitumen


mattress

[9]

Pipeshield International Ltd., http://www.pipeshield.co.uk, for concrete block and


mattress

[10]

Pro-Dive Marine Services, http://www.prodive.ca, for mattress and fabric


formwork

[11]

SLP Engineering, http://www.slp-eng.com/Submat/Grout-Bags.asp, for grout bag


and bitumen mattress

- 93 -

12

PIPELINE FREE SPAN ANALYSIS


Pipeline free spans could exist at irregular seabed terrain or fault areas. The best way is
to avoid free spans but if not avoidable, it is necessary to check if the anticipated free
span length is acceptable for static and dynamic loads. The static loads include dead
weight of the pipe and waves & current induced hydrodynamic load. Figure 12.1 shows
one example of static pipe stress near free span areas. The dynamic loads come from
vortex induced vibration (VIV, see Figure 12.2) and fatigue damage.
Figure 12.1 Static Free Span Stress

Figure 12.2 Dynamic VIV Loads


Cross-flow vibration

Inline-flow vibration

Wave &
current

Wave &
current

(small amplitude)

(large amplitude)

- 94 The DnV-RP-F105 (Free Span Pipelines, 2006) and DnVs FatFree Program can be
used to check for the maximum allowable free span length. If the actual free span length
exceeds the maximum allowable free span length, the free span should be corrected
using one of the mitigation methods below (also see Figure 12.3):

Alteration of seabed (cut-off high seabed spots by plough or trencher)

Concrete mattress or sand-cement bags

Mechanical support

Strakes or fairings
Figure 12.3 Examples of Free Span Mitigation Methods

(a) Mechanical support

(b) Strakes

(c) Fairings

- 95 -

References
[1]

Submarine Pipeline On-bottom Stability Analysis and Design Guidelines,


American Gas Association, 1993

[2]

B.M. Sumer and J. Fredsoe, A Review on Vibrations of Marine Pipelines, ISOPE


(International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers) Conference, 1994

[3]

L.Lee and D.W. Allen, The Dynamic Stability of Short Fairings, OTC Paper
#17125, 2005

[4]

CRP Website, www.crpgroup.com/cable_protection.htm

[5]

Mark Tool & Rubber Co. Inc. Website, www.marktool.com

- 96 13

CATHODIC PROTECTION DESIGN


Corrosion is a deterioration of a material due to reaction with its environment (oxidation
or chemical reaction). It is a natural tendency of a refined material (steel) to return to its
original state (iron ore). A corrosion resistance coating is applied to prevent corrosion,
but a cathodic protection (CP) system using anodes is used as a supplemental corrosion
protection system. This is because the corrosion coating can be damaged during pipe
transportation and installation.
For the pipeline CP system, half shell anodes are tied-on the pipe outer surface at
certain intervals. Typically 75 to 115 lb aluminum alloy anodes are installed at 200 to
1,000 ft intervals. Structural anodes can also be installed at PLET, to reduce offshore
anode installation time and to keep the anode from being buried into the soil. For the
case of installing the anodes on the PLET, attenuation calculation is needed to check if
the anode current can flow to the designated distance.
Design guidelines can be found at DNV-RP-F103 (Cathodic Protection of Submarine
Pipelines by Galvanic Anodes, 2006), DNV-RP-B401 (Cathodic Protection Design,
2005), and ISO-15589-2 (Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries Cathodic Protection of
Pipeline Transportation Systems Part 2: Offshore Pipelines, 2004) (Ref. [1] - [3]).
There are four components in CP system (see Figure 13.1) as follows:
(1) Anode (lower electrical potential) the point that corrosion occurs (oxidation or
production of electrons)
(2) Cathod (higher electrical potential) the point that consumption of electrons occurs
(3) Electrolyte electrically conductive fluid (water or air)
(4) Return Circuit (metallic path) electrons move from anode to cathode
Figure 13.1 CP System Components

Anode (-)

Cathod (+)

Current

- 97 -

Galvanic or sacrificial anodes are made of zinc, magnesium, and aluminum. The
electrochemical potential, current capacity, and consumption rate of these alloys are
superior for CP than iron. The driving force for CP current flow is the difference in
electrochemical potential between anode and cathode. Table 13.1 shows some
materials electrochemical potentials.
Table 13.1 Electrochemical Potential - Galvanic Series
Materials

Electrochemical Potential (-V)

Pure magnesium

1.75

Magnesium alloy

1.6

Zinc

1.1

Aluminum alloy (5% zinc)

1.05

Pure aluminum

0.8

Mild steel

0.5 to 0.8

Mild steel (rusted)

0.2 to 0.5

Cast iron

0.5

Mild steel in concrete

0.2

Copper, brass, bronze

0.2

Anode

Cathod

Anodes types to be used for pipeline CP system are shown in Figure 13.2 below. A
concrete mattress with integrated anodes embedded in concrete blocks has been
developed to provide both pipeline stabilization and a local CP source.

- 98 Figure 13.2 Anode Types for Pipeline CP System

Square End Bracelet


(for concrete coated pipe)

Tapered End Bracelet


(for non-concrete coated pipe)

Structural Anode
(for PLET)

CP Mattress
(Source: www.stoprust.com [4])

- 99 -

Table 13.2 Tapered Bracelet Anode Dimensions [5]

Please refer to www.galvotec.com for non-tapered bracelets for concrete coated pipes.

- 100 References
[1]

DNV-RP-F103, Cathodic Protection of Submarine Pipelines by Galvanic Anodes,


2006

[2]

DNV-RP-B401, Cathodic Protection Design, 2005

[3]

ISO-15589-2, Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries Cathodic Protection of


Pipeline Transportation Systems Part 2: Offshore Pipelines, 2004

[4]

CP-Mat Catalogue, by Deepwater Corrosion Services, Inc (www.stoprust.com)


and Submar, Inc. (www.submar.com)

[5]

Galvotec website, www.galvotec.com

- 101 -

14

PIPELINE INSTALLATION

14.1

Pipeline Installation Methods


In early days, the pipeline was fabricated at beach and towed to the project field by a tug
boat. Most widely used installation method is using a pipeline installation vessel which
can weld pipe joints on the deck and lower the pipes by releasing the pipes from the
tensioners while moving the vessel. Depending on the pipelines profile from the vessel
to the sea floor, it is called S-lay or J-lay. Another installation method is to fabricate the
pipeline at spool base near beach and reel the pipe onto the reel ship. Then the reel
ship carry the reeled pipe to the project field and lay by un-spooling the pipes.
The four (4) pipeline installation methods are listed below and illustrated in Figure
14.1.1.

Towing bottom tow, near bottom tow, mid-depth tow, and surface tow

S-Lay

J-Lay

Reel-Lay
Figure 14.1.1 Pipeline Installation Methods

- 102 In shallow waters, an anchor moored barge cab be used but a dynamic position (DP)
vessel is widely used for deepwater installation. Details of each installation method are
listed below.
(1) Towing

Made up of a carrier pipe (up to 60 to date) with several components (bundle) inside
near beach
Limitations on length that can be fabricated (beach size limit) and installed (towing
limit)
Carrier pipe provides a corrosion free environment internally
Requires several support vessels (cheaper ones than S/J/Reel-lays)

(2) S-Lay

Pipeline is fabricated on the vessel using single, double, or triple joints


Requires a stinger up to 100m long, either single section or two/three articulated
sections
Deeper water requires longer stinger and higher tension resulting in more risk
Typical lay rate is approximately 3.5km per day
Maximum installable pipe size is 60OD by AllSeas Solitaire

(3) J-Lay

Welding is done on vessel, but at one station, so is slower


Pipe has a departure angle very close to vertical, so less tension is required
Principal application is for deep water
Stinger is not required
Typical lay rate is approximately 1 - 1.5 km per day
Maximum installable pipe size is 32OD by Saipem S-7000

(4) Reel-Lay

Pipe welded onshore in a controlled environment and spooled onto vessel in


continuous length until complete or maximum capacity is reached
Much lower tension and therefore more control than S lay
Limited on coating types no concrete coating or stiff insulation coating
Limitations on reeling capacity by volume or weight
Typical lay rate is 14 km per day

- 103 -

Typical S-lay tensioner and stinger are shown in Figure 14.1.2. S-lay and J-lay
configuration is shown in Figure 14.1.3 and Figure 14.1.4 respectively. There are
multiple welding stations in S-lay, depending on pipe size and pipe WT. Therefore, it is
important to control the time spending at each station. If one station spends 10 minutes
while the others spend 5 minutes, the pipe lay rate is reduced by 50%. For example, if
each station takes 7 minutes to connect one pipe joint (40 ft), the lay rate would be 1.6
miles per day as below:
(24 x 60 min/day) / (7 min/40 ft) = 8,230 ft/day = 1.6 miles/day
The J-lay has only one welding station but can weld multiple pipe joints such as triple to
hex joints (120 ft to 240 ft).
Pipe strain or curvature variance during reel-lay is presented in Figure 14.1.5. The pipe
strain is near zero when the pipe departs the stinger. The pipe is reeled on a spool at
spooling base as shown in Figure 14.1.6. The maximum reelable pipe size is 18 OD
due to pipe strain and tension limit during reeling. The combined strain during reeling
process will reach approximately 3% to 4% (note: yield is 0.5% and ultimate tensile is
5%). The reeled pipe WT needs to be thick enough to avoid wrinkle (see Section 9.3).
Figure 14.1.2 S-Lay Tensioner and Stinger

Stinger
Tensioner [1]

- 104 Figure 14.1.3 S-Lay Configuration


Welding Station #3
Welding
Inspection
Station

Plan

Welding Station #2
Welding Station #1

Tensioner

Installation Vessel
Stinger
40-ft or 80-ft Pipe Joints
Tensioner

Profile

Rollers
Stinger

Figure 14.1.4 J-Lay Configuration

Traveling tensioner
J-lay tower

Fixed tensioner

Triple or quadruple joints (120-ft or


160-ft) with a collar installed in the
middle of the last joint

Welding/inspection station
Installation Vessel

Rollers

- 105 -

Figure 14.1.5 Pipe Moment-Curvature Changes during Reel-Lay


3
2
1

moment

3
curvature

4
2

Figure 14.1.6 Spooling Base

- 106 14.2

Pipeline Installation Vessels


There are many offshore pipeline installation vessels available worldwide [2]. Some
deepwater installation vessels are shown in Figure 14.2.1.
As a reference, some dynamically positioned (DP) vessels which can lay pipes in water
depth greater than 3,600 ft are listed in Table 14.2.1. Table 14.2.2 presents several
reel-lay vessels reeling capabilities.
Figure 14.2.1 Deepwater Pipeline Installation Vessels

Allseas, Lorelay
(S-Lay)

Subsea 7, Skandi Navica


(Reel-lay)

- 107 -

Table 14.2.1 Deepwater Pipeline Installation Vessels


Tension
capacity

Max. pipe OD

(kips)

(inch)

Max.
water
depth*
(ft)

Lorelay

360

30

10000+

Solitaire

1200

60 (S) / 18 (Reel)

10000+

Audacia

1155

44

10000+

S (2007)

Intrepid

268

12

8000

S / Reel

Express

352

14

J / Reel

Caesar

891

36

6560

S/J

Hercules

1200

60 (S) / 18 (Reel)

8000+

S / Reel

Chickasaw

180

12

6000

S/Reel

Heerema

Balder

1250

32

10000

J. Ray
McDermott

DB50

20

10000

J / Reel

48 (S/J)/10 (Reel)

10000

S / J / Reel

1160

32

10000

881 (J)
551 (Reel)

20

10000

J / Reel

Falcon

300

14

9840

Kestrel

265

12

5000

J / Reel

Polaris

529

60 (S/J)/18 (Reel)

7000

S / J / Reel

Sapura
3000

528

60

6560

S / J (2007)

Deep Blue

1697

28 (J)/18 (Reel)

10000

J / Reel

Apache

440

16

5000

Reel

Constructor

440

14

5000

J / Reel

160

12

10000

S / J / Reel

500

19

9500+

Reel

Fennica

500

19

6500

Reel

Seven
Oceans

880

16

Reel

Contractor

Allseas

Helix
(Cal Dive)

Global

Vessel

DB16
Saipem

S-7000
FDS

Acergy
(Stolt)

Technip

Torch
Subsea 7

Midnight
Express
Skandi
Navica

775 (J)
100 (Reel)
300 (S/J)
100 (Reel)

Lay
method

* Maximum water depth for small pipe sizes. The installable water depth varies with pipe size
and weight.

- 108 -

Table 14.2.2 Reeling Capacity


Contractor

Cal Dive

Global

Vessel Name

Intrepid

Hercules

Reel flange diameter (ft)

116

Reel hub diameter (ft)

Reel width between flanges (ft)


Pipe weight capacity (short ton)
Number of reels (ea)

Subsea
7
Skandi
Navica

Technip

Technip

Deep
Blue

Apache

82

101.7

82

59

54

64

54

23.5

22

17.06

21.3

1700

6500

2750

3080

2200

- 109 -

14.3

Pipeline Installation Analysis


Pipe structural integrity should be checked for during installation operation, including
initiation, normal lay, and termination. Also, abandonment & recovery (A&R), single
point lift (SPL), and davit lift analysis should be performed for contingency occasions.
To determine whether the designed pipe can be installed by any installation vessel
currently available in the industry, at least the normal installation analysis should be
done before the pipe ordered. The installation vessels limit such as tensioner, stinger,
etc. should be checked in pipeline installability evaluation. Several programs available
for pipeline installation analysis are: Offpipe, Orcaflex, Flexcom, etc.
The pipe stress limit during installation is not specified in any industry codes or
standards. However, industry uses 72% SMYS at sagbend and 85% SMYS at
overbend. At sagbend, the pipe is hard to control, like at stinger, so more stringent
stress limit (lower stress limit) is applied. For the dynamic analysis, higher stress limits
are used since more severe environment and vessel motion are considered. If strain
criteria are used, a 0.15% and 0.20% strain can be used at sagbend and overbend,
respectively. Figure 14.3.1 shows one example of pipe stress analysis results.

Overbend:

85%SMYS (static)

100%SMYS (dynamic)

Sagbend:

72%SMYS (static)

96%SMYS (dynamic)

Figure 14.3.1 Example of Pipe Stress Analysis Results

- 110 Figure 14.3.2 illustrates A&R procedures. For abandonment, the A&R cable from a
winch on the vessel is attached to the pipe pull- head. While moving the vessel, the
A&R cable is lowered to the sea floor. Recovery follows the reversed order of the
abandonment procedures.
Single point lift (SPL) is similar to the A&R operation except no-use of stinger. The SPL
cable from a crane or davit on the vessel is free hanged vertically, at side of the vessel.
Multiple davits can be used to minimize the pipe stress during lifting and lowering the
pipeline, as shown in Figure 14.3.3.

Figure 14.3.2 Abandonment and Recovery Sequence

A&R cable

Pipeline
Recovery

Abandonment

- 111 -

Figure 14.3.2 Davit Lift

Davits

Davit cables

Pipeline

- 112 References
[1]

Dominique Perinet and Ian Frazer, J-Lay and Steep S-Lay: Complementary Tools
for Ultradeep Water, OTC 18669, 2007

[2]

Offshore magazine poster, or


www.pennwellpetroleumgroup.com/resourcecenter/os_poster_series.cfm

[3]

Tim Crome, Reeling of Pipelines with Thick Insulation Coating, Finite-Element


Analysis of Local Buckling, OTC (Offshore Technology Conference) Paper No.
10715, 1999

[4]

Ruxin Song and Paul Stanton, Deepwater Tie-back SCR: Unique Design
Challenges and Solutions, OTC 18524, 2007

[5]

E.P. Heerema, Recent Achievement and Present Trends in Deepwater Pipe-lay


Systems, OTC Paper #17627, 2005

[6]

Brett Champagne, Derek Smith, et al., The BP Bombax Pipeline Project Design
for Construction, OTC Paper #15271, 2003

- 113 -

15

SUBSEA TIE-IN METHODS


Unlike onshore tie-ins, it is difficult to make subsea tie-ins in terms of material handling,
pipe cutting, welding, etc. Subsea tie-in is typically made by diver-assisted flange
connectors for shallow water pipelines and diverless remotely operated vehicle (ROV)
connectors for deepwater pipelines.
There are three types of connectors available: flange, clamp (Graylok type), and collet
connectors. Clamp or collet connector is more favorable over the flange connector due
to ROV operability, offshore connection time, and available tie-in tools from contractors.
Flange connector is industry proven technology and can be easily procured from
vendors shelf. However, due to lengthy subsea connection time, unfriendly ROV
operation, and limited availability of connection tools/systems, the flange connector is
not recommended for deepwater application.
Clamp connector is compact and widely used for deepwater tie-ins. A single bolt with
hinge system clamp connector is preferable for the diverless ROV connection. The seal
ring between two hubs provides very secure mechanical sealing as the internal pressure
is energized.
Collet connector is more expensive and complicated than any other connectors.
Hydraulic pressure is used to close the fingers of collets and set the drive ring which
locks the collets. There are two types of collet connectors; integral and non-integral. An
integral collet connector has a self-contained actuator and is much larger and more
expensive than a non-integral collet connector. A non-integral collet connector requires
an external, reusable actuator that is deployed and retrieved by a running tool. Nonintegral collet connector is more compact than integral collet connector and economical
when more than three collet connectors are required (if only one running tool is
required).
Figures 15.1 and 15.2 show each connector components and collet connector assembly
sequence, respectively. Table 15.1 shows each connector types advantages,
disadvantages, and available vendors.

- 114 Figure 15.1 Connector Types

Compact Flange (top) and ANSI Flange (bottom)

Flange Components

Clamp

Hub
Seal Ring

Four Bolts Clamp Connector

Clamp Connector Components

Single Bolt Clamp Connector

Collet Connector Components

- 115 -

Figure 15.2 Collet Connector Assembly Sequence

- 116 Table 15.1 Pros and Cons of Each Connector

Flange

Clamp

Collet

- Industry proven

- Industry proven

- Industry proven

- Least expensive connector

- Diverless single or dual


bolting system

- No bolt required

- Least procurement time


(standard components)

- Long installation time (16-20


hrs for 12-inch connector)

- Quick connection time


- Lighter than other
connectors
- OSI RAC (Remote
Articulated Connector) can
accommodate some
misalignment (~5o)

- Quick connection time


- Accommodate some
misalignment (+2o)

- Most expensive and


complicated connector

- More expensive than flange


- Conventional ANSI Flange:
Numerous vendors

Oceaneering (Grayloc)

Oil States Industries (OSI)

Vetco Gray (GSR)

Cameron

Vector (Techlok, Optima)

FMC
Vetco

Vector (SPO)

ReFlange/Oceaneering (RCon)

Oceaneeriong/ReFlange

Aker Kvaener

and others

Destec (Desflex)

Destec (G-Range, GSB)

LTS

LTS

and others

FMC

- Compact Flange:

Oil States Industries


and others

Aker Kvaener

- 117 -

Maximum allowable pressure and temperature ratings for steel pipe flanges and flanged
fittings according to the American National Standard ANSI B16.5 (Pipe Flanges and
Flanged Fittings, 2003) are presented in Table 15.2 below.
Table 15.2 Pressure Ratings per ANSI B16.5
Pressure Class (lb.)

Temperature
(oF)

150

300

400

600

900

1500

2500

-20 to 100

285

740

990

1480

2220

3705

6170

200

260

675

900

1350

2025

3375

5625

300

230

655

875

1315

1970

3280

5470

400

200

635

845

1270

1900

3170

5280

500

170

600

800

1200

1795

2995

4990

Generally, three diverless subsea pipeline connection methods have been used in the
offshore industry. These methods are:

Pull-in Connection

Vertical or Horizontal Jumper Connection

Stab and Hinge-over (S&HO) Connection

The pull-in connection is a cost-effective method for both 1st end and 2nd end
connections. However, this method is known to take more offshore time than jumper
connection due to subsea pull-in operation.
Both vertical and horizontal jumper connections have been widely used for 2 nd end
connection. The vertical jumper connection is more attractive than the horizontal jumper
connection because of easy installation and competitive hardware tool cost. However,
the abrupt vertical elevation difference by the vertical bends may cause a hydrate
formation (slug). The disadvantages of the horizontal jumper are difficulty in adjusting
misalignment and possible residual tension on the pipe due to horizontal stroking.
The stab and hinge-over connection is ideal for 1st end connection because of easy and
simple installation without any other pipe lay initiation support. The material and
fabrication cost may be higher but its offshore installation time is less than the jumper
connection.
Figures 15.3 through 15.6 illustrate each tie-in method. Table 15.3 summarizes the
advantages and disadvantages of each tie-in system.

- 118 Figure 15.3


Pull-in Connection Method
(by Aker Kvaener)

- 119 -

Figure 15.4
Vertical Jumper Connection Method
(by FMC (top) and Aker Kvaner(bottom))

Inverted U Shape

M Shape

(1)

FLOWLINE

Flexible Pipe with Goose Neck


(1) The connector module is lowered
by guide wire.
(2) The module is landed onto the
manifold hub.
(3) ROV makes up the connection
using hot-stab on torque tool.

GUIDE WIRE

(2)
(3)

- 120 Figure 15.5


Horizontal Jumper Connection Method

(by FMC)

(JSS (Jumper Stroking System) by ABB)

- 121 -

Figure 15.6
Stab and Hinge-over Connection Method (by OSI)

(1) Connector assembly is lowered.

(3) Connector assembly hinges over.

(2) Connector assembly lands in receiver structure.

(4) ROV makes the connection.

- 122 Table 15.3 Pros and Cons of Each Connection Method

Tie-in
Method
Pull-in
Connection

Vertical
Jumper
Connection
Horizontal
Jumper
Connection

Stab and
Hinge-over
Connection

Advantages

Disadvantages

- No jumpers/PLETs required
- Less connections lower leak risk
- Deflect-to connect for 2nd end tiein
- Direct pull-in connect for 1st and
2nd end tie-ins

- Need to hold the pipeline installation


vessel until the tie-in is made
- Lengthy installation (pull-in) time
- Surface or subsea pull-in winch or
sheave required
- ROV docking space required

- Ideal for 2nd end connection


- Easier installation than horizontal
jumper connection

- PLET/jumper fabrication and sling


required
- Vertical bends may cause slug flow
problems

- Ideal for 2nd end connection


- No (vertical) bends required
- Provide optimal flow to prevent
hydrate formation (slug)

- PLET/jumper fabrication and sling


required
- Jumper might be in tension due to
horizontal stoking
- Hard to adjust misalignment

- Ideal for 1st end connection and


lay-away without initiation support
- Eliminate jumper/PLET for 1st end
lay-away
- Short installation time (simple
tooling required)

- Connection base with receptacle to be


installed first
- Low flexibility in installation sequence
- High material/fabrication cost

- 123 -

To make deepwater connections, several tools and systems are required in addition to
connectors. Followings are typical tie-in tools required for deepwater diverless tie-ins:

ROV

ROV running tool, seal replacement tool, actuator, etc.

Pull-in skid with winch (for pull-in connection)

Alignment funnel & sleeve (for jumper connection)

ROV control panel (for Collet connector)

Stab pin unit & receptacle base (for stab & hinge-over)

Many connector manufacturers and installation contractors offer their connection tools
and systems. The tie-in systems available for pull-in connection include:

DMaC (Diverless Maintained Cluster) by Subsea Offshore

UTIS (Universal Tie-in System) and ROVCON (ROV Connection) by FMC

DFCS (Diverless Flowline Connection System) by Sonsub

McPAC (McEvoy Pull-in And Connection) by Cameron

ICARUS by ABB

RTS (Remote Tie-in System) and BBRTS (Big Brother RTS) by Aker Kvaener

Flexconnect II by Technip, and many others

All systems above can make connections using either clamp or collet connectors, except
McPAC and ICARUS which only can use clamp connectors.
Figure 15.7 shows the pull-in connection systems offered by industry.
There exist many tie-in systems available for jumper connection and S&HO connection
as listed below. Figure 15.8 shows some systems available for these connections.

BRUTUS by Sonsub for horizontal jumper connection

VCS (Vertical Connection System) and GHO (Guide and Hinge-over) system by Aker
Kvaener

STABCON (Stab and Connect) connection system by FMC for horizontal jumper
connection

S&HO system by OSI, and many others

- 124 Figure 15.7


Pull-in Connection Systems

Subsea DMaC

Sonsub DFCS

FMC ROVCON

ABB Icarus

Technip Flexconnect II

Aker Kvaerner RTS

- 125 -

Figure 15.8 Other Connection Systems

Sonsub Brutus
(Horizontal jumper connection)
Aker VCS
(Vertical jumper connection)

FMC STABCON
(Horizontal jumper connection)

OSI S&HO System

- 126 References
[1]

FMC Technologies, Subsea Tie-in Systems Catalogue,


www.fmctechnologies.com/subsea

[2]

Destec Engineering Ltd., Compact Flange and G-Range Pipe Connectors


Catalogue, www.destec.co.uk

[3]

Technip Flexconnect II Presentation, 2006

[4]

Vetco, Vertical Clamp Connection System VCCS Presentation, 2006 and


www.vetcogray.com

[5]

Aker Kvaener, Subsea Tie-in, Tools and Connection Systems Catalogue,


www.akerkvaener.com

[6]

Cameron Vertical Connection (CVC) System Catalogue, www.c-am.com/contents/products

[7]

MATIS Remote Flange Connection System, Stolt Offshore Limited, Subsea


Conference 2001

[8]

ReFlange A-CON Variable Alignment Connector Catalogue

[9]

Vector Optima Subsea Connector Catalogue, www.vectorint.com

[10] KOSCON Tie-in Systems, Kongsberg Offshore


[11] Framo RL Connector Technical Bulletin, 1999, Framo Engineering AS
[12] Brutus Horizontal Jumper Connection System, Presentation by Sonsub
[13] The ICARUS Tie-in System, Outline Description, ABB Offshore Systems AS, 1999
[14] The HydroTech Diverless Collet Connector System Catalogue, Oil States
Industries, Inc.
[15] LTS Compact Flange Presentation, www.ltsusa.com
[16] Morgrip Diverless Technology, Repair Connector Presentation by Hydratight
Sweeney

- 127 -

16

UNDERWATER WORKS
To perform subsea works such as tie-ins, inspections, and repairs, underwater works are
required. In shallow waters, divers using air or helium gas can do the underwater works
but in deepwaters special devices are required such as saturation diving chamber
(SDC), atmospheric diving suit (ADS), remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and
autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV).

Surface diving - air diving (O2), 0-120 fsw, 120-180 fsw for short simple task

Gas diving - 10% to 16% O2 balanced helium, 120-180 fsw, 180-300 fsw for short
simple task. Helium is better than nitrogen and lowers decompression sickness
(bends) incidents

Saturation diving - 180-650 fsw , divers remain under pressure for the duration of
the project. Divers are pressurized and de-pressurized slowly in a chamber (Figure
16.1)

ADS - ~1,200 fsw or deeper (2,200 fsw), divers works in atmospheric pressure in
ADS (Figure 16.2)

ROV/AUV - Deepwater or harsh environment, AUV is self propelled (no need for
power supply or communication cables) and useful for short duration underwater
survey.

Figure 16.1 Saturation Diving

Lower SDC (Saturation Diving Chamber)

- 128 Figure 16.2 ADS and ROV

ADS (~1,200 fsw)

ADS (~2,200 fsw)

ROV

Two main categories of underwater welding techniques are wet underwater welding and
dry underwater welding, both are classified as hyperbaric welding.
In wet underwater welding, shielded metal arc welding (SMAW or stick welding) is
commonly used, using a waterproof electrode.
In dry underwater welding, the weld is performed in a chamber filled with a gas mixture
sealed around the structure (pipeline) being welded. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW
or TIG welding) is commonly used, and where here high strength is necessary, dry
underwater welding is most commonly used. The dry underwater welding is very
expensive and takes long offshore time. Research for dry underwater welding at depths
of up to 1000 m is ongoing [1].
Certified welder-divers are required for underwater welding in accordance with the AWS
D3.6, Specification for Underwater Welding Specification for Underwater Welding, and
other weld-related activities.

References
[1]
[2]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underwater_welding
Oceaneering website, www.oceaneering.com

- 129 -

17

OFFSHORE PIPELINE WELDING


Line pipes can be connected by mechanical connectors or welding. Threaded and
coupling (T&C) or pin and box connectors are used for drilling riser and top tensioned
riser connections. However, welding is more commonly used for offshore pipelines due
to its proven technology and lower cost than mechanical connectors. Advantages of
connectors are: use of high grade pipes (up to 125 ksi SMYS), fast make-up, no welding
(no heat-affected zone, no welding inspection), no field joint coating, etc. Disadvantages
of connectors are: high material cost, leak test for each connection, weak for torsion and
fatigue, etc. Integral connectors, without requiring twist the pipe or connector, have
been developed. The available integral connectors are Jetair PSC, Hydil 2000, OSI
Merlin, etc.
The maximum pipe grade which can be welded offshore is X-70. Pipe grade higher than
X-70 requires induction heat treatment which is impossible for continuous long pipeline
welding. The induction heat treatment is normally done in an oven so it is limited by the
welded products size and length.
There are diversity of welding processes such as solid state welding (resistance, cold,
friction, ultrasonic, etc.), soldering/brazing, and fusion welding. Soldering/brazing melts
only filler materials not base materials. However, the fusion welding involves partial
melting of base material (called heat affected zone, see Figure 17.1). Electrical energy
(electrode) is commonly used for the fusion welding. The most widely used welding
types in offshore industries are listed next page and illustrated in Figure 17.2.
Figure 17.1 Heat Affected Zone
Welding filler
Heat affected zone

Base metal

Temperature

Original temperature
at base material

Fusion zone/weld pool


(base metal melt + filler melt)
Melting point of base metal

Temperature at which base material


microstructure is affected

- 130

SMAW or Stick Welding


Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) is frequently referred to as stick welding. The
flux covering the electrode melts during welding and this forms the gas and slag to
shield the arc and molten weld pool. The slag must be chipped off the weld bead
after welding.

GMAW or MIG Welding


Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) uses an arc between a consumable constant filler
metal electrode and the weld pool. Shielding is provided by an externally supplied
shielding gas. This method is also known as metal inert gas (MIG) welding or metal
active gas (MAG, i.e. carbon dioxide or oxygen) welding.
GMAW consists of a DC arc burning between a thin bare metal wire electrode and
the work piece. The arc and weld area are encased in a protective gas shield. The
wire electrode is fed from a spool, through a welding torch which is connected to the
positive terminal. The technique is easy to use and fast (high productivity) and there
is no need for slag-cleaning since no flux is used. The MAG process is suitable for
steel, low-alloy, and high-alloy based materials. The MIG process, on the other
hand, is used for aluminum and copper materials.

GTAW or TIG Welding


Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is more commonly known as tungsten inert gas
(TIG) welding. It is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten
electrode to produce the weld. The electrode used in GTAW is made of tungsten,
because tungsten has the highest melting temperature among metals. As a result,
the electrode is not consumed during welding, though some erosion (called burn-off)
may occur.
GTAW is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and light
metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys. The process is known for
creating stronger and higher quality welds than SMAW and GMAW. However,
GTAW is comparatively more complex and difficult to master. It is also significantly
slower than most other welding techniques.

- 131 -

Figure 17.2 Welding Types


SMAW, Stick
(Shielded metal arc welding)

In-continuous
consumable weld
Good for C-Mn only
Simple and portable
Slow
Slag and rough surface
No good for root welding

GMAW, MIG
(Gas metal arc welding)

GTAW, TIG
(Gas tungsten arc welding)

Continuous consumable weld

Non-consumable weld

Good for C-Mn and 13Cr

Good for all C-Mn and


CRAs

Fast, automatic- most efficient


Good for high strength
material
Commonly used for pipeline
welding

Good for root welding


Highest quality and cost
Good for thin material
Slow and high skill factor

- 132 Each welding should be examined for its completeness and quality by non-destructive
test (NDT). Generally four (4) NDT methods are widely used in welding inspection as
shown in Table 17.1.
Table 17.1 Non-Destructive Test
Radiography Test

Ultrasonic Test

Magnetic Particle

Dye Penetrant

X-ray/gamma-ray
passes through pipe
to film

Mechanical vibration
emitted, reflected,
and received

Detect disturbed
magnetic field

Detect by dye
penetration

Detects volumetric
defects, porosity,
and concavity

Detects planar
defects and lack of
fusion

Detects surface
and near-surface
cracks

Detects surface
cracks of
stainless steels

Safer than
Radiography

Figure 17.3 shows each inspection NDT method and its principals. The radiography test
is commonly used to find defects (such as voids and cracks) but it can not show the
depth of the defects (see Figure 17.3 (a)). Therefore automatic ultrasonic test (AUT) is
used to check the exact size of the defects, as necessary.

Figure 17.3 Non-Destructive Test

Radiation
Void

Specimen
(pipe)

Film after Processing

(a) Radiographic Test (RT)

- 133 -

Figure 17.3 Non-Destructive Test (continued)

(b) Automatic Ultrasonic Test (AUT)

(c) Magnetic Particle Test (MPT)

A. Sample before testing


B. Liquid penetrant applied
C. Surplus wiped off leaving
penetrant in crack
D. Developer powder applied,
dye soaks into powder
E. View colored indications, or
UV lamp shows fluorescent
indications

(d) Dye (Liquid) Penetrant Inspection (DPI)

- 134 References
[1]

Technip Presentation on Offshore Welding Methods

[2]

Field Welding Inspection Guide,


http://www.dot.state.oh.us/testlab/StructuralSteel/Field-Welding-InspectionGuide.pdf

- 135 -

18

PIPELINE PROTECTION TRENCHING AND BURIAL

18.1

Soil Properties
The Unified Soil Classification System defines soils such as:

Gravel
Sand
Silt & Clay

76.2 mm to 4.75 mm
4.75 mm to 0.075 mm
< 0.075 mm

Sand soils are defined by friction angle among solids and cohesive clay soils are defined
by shear strength as in Table 18.1, per DNV RP-F105, Free Spanning Pipelines, 2006.
Table 18.1 Soil Properties
Submerged Weight, sub

Angle of Friction,

Shear Strength, Su

(kN/m3)

(Degrees)

(kN/m2)

Loose sand

8.5 11.0

28 - 30

Medium sand

9.0 12.5

30 - 36

Dense sand

10.0 13.5

36 - 41

Very soft clay

4.0 7.0

< 12.5

Soft clay

5.0 8.0

12.5 25

Firm clay

6.0 11.0

25 - 50

Stiff clay

7.0 12.0

50 100

Very stiff clay

10.0 13.0

100 200

Hard clay

10.0 13.0

> 200

Soil Type

Soil stiffness or soil spring constant is widely used in pipe-soil interaction problems. The
static soil stiffness is governed mainly by the maximum reactions. The dynamic soil
stiffness is governed by the unloading and re-loading cycles. The soil stiffness should
be computed for each loading direction, as required: vertical, axial, and lateral direction.

- 136 The static vertical stiffness is a secant stiffness representative for pipeline penetration
condition. If no data are available, use following values in Table 18.2 for the static
vertical stiffness per DNV RP-F105.
Table 18.2 Static Vertical Soil Stiffness
Soil Type
Loose Sand
Medium Sand
Dense Sand
Stiff Clay
Very stiff Clay
Hard Clay
Very Soft Clay
Soft Clay
Firm Clay

Kv (kN/m/m)
250
530
1350
1000-1600
2000-3000
2600-4200
50-100
160-260
500-800

Static vertical soil stiffness, Kv (kN/m/m), can be computed by:

KV

Ws
z
Ws 2

49Do Su 2

Where, Ws
z
Do
Su

= Pipe submerged unit weight (kN/m)


= Pipe embedment (m)
= Pipe outside diameter (m)
= Undrained soil shear strength (kN/m2)

For example, Ws = 8.5 kN/m, Do = 1.22 m, Su = 4.0 kPa;

8.52
49 1.22 4.02

KV

0.076m

8.5
112 kN/m/m ( very soft clay)
0.076

- 137 -

The above formula is modified from the 1995 OMAE paper [1]. Please see references
[2] to [4] for more information on soil stiffness.
18.2

Trenching and Burial


The offshore pipelines are trenched for such conditions and requirements as:

Physical protection from anchor dropping or trawl dragging (see Figure 18.2.1)

On-bottom stability

Approval authorities

The open trench could be covered by natural sedimentation depending on soil conditions
and currents near sea bottom. However, backfilling after the trenching or burial is
required for additional protection and thermal insulation purposes.
Figure 18.2.1 Fishing Trawl

Trenching equipment should be selected based on sea floor soil conditions. Followings
are available trenching equipment in the industry (also see Figure 18.2.2):

Ploughing all types of soil

Jetting sand and soft clay

Mechanical digging & cutting stiff clay and rock

Dredging all types of soil

- 138 Figure 18.2.2 Trenching Equipment

(a) Plough

(b) Water Jet Trencher

(c) Mechanical Trencher

(d) Dredger

- 139 -

A mass flow excavation (by suction or blow out the seawater) has been developed by
GTO [5] and Rotech [6]. Generally, soils in the range of 25 to 50 kPa strength are well
within the economical working range of the mass flow excavation tools. Any soils above
80kPa require high pressure Jetting to break up the conglomerated material which will
then need to be removed by sand pump, or mechanical means. Soils above 500 kPa
need mechanical means such as plows or dredgers.
Figure 18.2.2 Mass Flow Excavators

GTO ROV Suction Dredger [5]

Rotech Mass Flow Excavator [6]

- 140 Burial could be done by backfill the soil by cutting each top side of the open trench (see
Figure 18.2.3) using the same jet trencher used for trenching.

Figure 18.2.3 Backfilling

Required
burial
depth

Cut
section

Without burial, pipelines can be covered with rocks or concrete mattress (see Figure
18.2.4). This method is good for a pipeline laid on a hard rock sea bottom which is difficult
to be buried.

Figure 18.2.4 Rock Dumping (top) and Mattress Covering (bottom)

- 141 -

References
[1] A Soil Resistance Model for Pipelines and Placed on Clay Soils, Verley, R. and
Lund, K.M., OMAE paper, 1995
[2]

Free Spanning Pipelines, DND RP-F105, 2006

[3]

Guidelines for the Design of Buried Steel Pipe, ASCE , July 2001

[4]

SPAN Users Manual (Rev. 9.2), Southwest Applied Mechanics, Inc.

[5]

http://www.gto.no/go/gto-technology/gto-rov-dredge for GTO ROV suction dredger

[6]

http://www.rotech.co.uk/www/subsea/sub_index.htm for Rotech mass flow


excavator

[7]

Trenching Considerations Pipelines, www.oes.net.au/optc_pipelines.htm

[8]

Talon Deepwater Trenching System Brochure, Stolt Offshore

[9]

Fred Hettinger and Jon Machin, Cable and Pipeline Burial at 3,000 Meters, Oceans
2005

[10] R.D. Koster, Trenching of Offshore Pipelines and Cables using the SeaJet
Trencher, Ingeokring Newletter, Vol. 9 No. 1, 2003
[11] Palmer, A.C., The Speed Effect in Seabed Ploughing, Fourth Canadian
Conference on Marine Geotechnical Engineering, 1993
[12] P.G. Allan, Geotechnical Aspects of Submarine Cables, IBC Conference on
Subsea Geotechnics, 1998
[13] Soil Machine Dynamics Ltd Hydrovision website, www.smdhydrovision.com
[14] Advanced Multipass Plough Spread AMP5 CTC Marine Projects Ltd. Website,
www.ctcmarine.com

- 142 -

- 143 -

19

PIPELINE SHORE APPROACH AND HDD


Pipelines transport gas or oil from offshore platforms to onshore storages or refinery
facilities. Also, pipelines are used to transport onshore gas or oil to offshore for
offloading to a shuttle tanker. Either case, the pipeline needs to cross the coastal lines.
If no environmental concerns exist, the most cost effective beach crossing method is an
open cut using dredge or trencher. If the beach crossing area is an environment
sensitive area, such as oyster field, turtle shelter, coral (tour) area, etc., and excessively
strong current occurs, horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is recommended.
Figure 19.1 shows a pipeline initiation from beach by using an open cut method. The
sheet piles are installed both sides of the trench to protect the trench from backfilling
during pipeline pulling operation.
Figure 19.1 Shore Approaching by Open Cut Method

Pullhead

- 144 The HDD is used to install pipeline beneath obstructions, such as rivers or shorelines. It
is considered the most effective environmental conservation method, but more
expensive than open cut & backfill method (see Figure 19.2).
Figure 19.2 Shore Crossing HDD

HDD is not suitable for all types of soil. Depending on soil types, the HDD time and cost
vary significantly (references [1] & [2]).
Clay or sand:

Good to excellent

Gravelly sand: Marginally acceptable


Sandy gravel:

Questionable

Gravel or rock: Unacceptable


Figure 19.3 shows the HDD sequence. The entry and exit angles are varied due to soil
types but typically less than 10 degrees from horizontal plane. The drilling mud used
during drilling operation penetrates into the soil and pastes the drilling hole surface, to
prevent collapse of the drilling hole.
HDD contractors include:

HDI (Horizontal Drilling International)

Mears

Laney Directional Drilling

Nacap, etc.

- 145 -

Figure 19.3 HDD Sequence [3]

- 146 References:
[1]
[2]
[3]

Installation of Pipelines by Horizontal Directional Drilling, An Engineering Design


Guide, PRCI (Pipeline Research Council International, Inc.), April 1995
Guideline, Planning Horizontal Directional Drilling for Pipeline Construction,
CAPP (The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers), Sep 2004
DCCA (Drilling Crossing Contractors Association) poster

- 147 -

20

RISER TYPES
Risers transport products from subsea wells, via flowlines, to topside facilities (import
riser) or topside facilities, via pipelines, to onshore facilities (export riser). There are
fixed static risers, free standing dynamic risers, or combination of both (called hybrid
riser). Risers are classified as follows (see Figures 20.1 and 20.2) due to material type
and its application:

Rigid pipe

Fixed (clamped) riser


J-tube riser
Fixed (clamped) catenary riser
Top tension riser (TTR)
Steel catenary riser (SCR)

Rigid + Flexible

Hybrid riser

Flexible pipe

Simple catenary riser


Lazy wave riser (with distributed buoys)
Pliant wave riser (chain anchored lazy wave)
Steep wave riser (vertical connection at seabed)
Lazy S riser (with an arch buoyancy structure)
Pliant S riser (chain anchored lazy S)
Steep S riser (vertical connection at seabed)

The steep wave (or S) riser is suitable when seabed space is limited. The pliant or
compliant riser is regarded as a hybrid of lazy and stiff wave (or S) risers.
The hybrid riser uses a rigid pipe for the vertical free standing portion and a flexible pipe
for the near surface dynamic motion region. Top tension riser is used to hold a vertical
riser when the well is underneath the floating structure. A pre-tension is applied to the
riser, so the riser pipe will not be in compression when the floating structure moves
down. Figure 20.3 shows hydropneumatic tensioner of which the piston cylinder in each
tank work like a shock absorber of automobile.
Bend stiffener is placed at flexible pipe end to increase the pipe stiffness and thus to
prevent fatigue damage caused by repeated bending (dynamic use). Bend restrictors
are installed at flexible pipe end to limit (restrict) the bend radius thus to prevent bending
buckling (static use).

- 148 Figure 20.1 Rigid Riser Types


Pre-installed riser with clamps

Subsea tie-in

Conventional
Fixed

J-Tube Riser
(Pulling the riser through preinstalled oversized J-tube)

Clamped
Catenary
Riser

SCR
(Steel Catenary Riser)

TTR (Top Tension Riser)

Hybrid Riser

- 149 -

Figure 20.2 Flexible Riser Types

Figure 20.3 Riser Top Tensioner

- 150 References:
[1]

Pipeline Riser System Design and Application Guide, PR-178-622, PRCI


(Pipeline Research Council International, Inc.), 1987

[2]

Ruxin Song and Paul Stanton, Deepwater Tie-back SCR: Unique Design
Challenges and Solutions, OTC 18524, 2007

[3]

API RP-2RD, Design of Risers for Floating Production Systems (FPSs) and
Tension-Leg Platforms (TLPs), 1998

[4]

DNV OS-F201, Dynamic Risers, 2001

[5]

Brian McShane and Chris Keevill, Getting the Risers Right for Deepwater Field
Developments, Deepwater Pipeline and Riser Technology Conference, 2000

[6]

K.Z. Huang, Composite TTR Design for an Ultradeepwater TLP, OTC Paper
#17159, 2005

[7]

A.C. Walker and P. Davies, A Design Basis for the J-Tube Method of Riser
Installation, Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Sept. 1983

- 151 -

21

RISER DESIGNS
Riser designs should be done per API RP 2RD - Design of Risers for Floating
Production Systems (FPSs) and Tension Leg Platforms (TLPs). The general procedures
are as follows:

Riser type and material selection

WT sizing

Static analysis

Dynamic vortex induced vibration (VIV) analysis

Fatigue analysis

Interference analysis

Steel riser is stiff, but if its length (L) is very long and the elastic stiffness (EI) is very
small), the steel riser can be treated as a catenary (the word originated from chain).

Catenary if

L
5,
C

EI
where C
Ws

1/3

characteri stic length

The 16 OD x 0.684 WT pipe in 3,000 ft water depth will behave like a catenary, as
shown below.

EI
C
Ws

1/3

29,000,000 967

22.6/12

1/3

2,460 in 205 ft

L 3,000

14.6 5 Catenary
C
205
The catenary formula is as below:

x
Y a cosh
a
T
a H
Ws
Where,
TH is horizontal bottom tension (residual)
Ws is submerged pipe weight

- 152 The horizontal pipe tension is constant along the water depths, and can be estimated by
top tension multiplied by sin , where is the hang-off angle at surface. Converting the
above formula to obtain a free hanging catenary riser configuration gives;

Top tension, T TH Ws Y T sin Ws Y

Ws Y
1 sin

Bottom tension, TH T sin


Catenary constant, a

TH
Ws

Riser free span length to touchdown, S Y 1 2

a
Y

S
Horizontal distance to touchdown, X a * sinh 1
a
If a riser pipe of 22.6 lb/ft submerged weight is installed with a 10-degree hang-off angle
in 3,000 ft of water;

Top tension, T

Ws Y
22.6 3,000

82.0 kips
1 sin
1 sin 10 o

Bottom tension, TH T sin 82 sin 10 o 14.2 kips


Catenary constant, a

TH 14.2 1,000

630.41
Ws
22.6

Riser free span length to touchdown, S Y 1 2

a
630.41
3,000 1 2
3,575 ft
Y
3,000

S
3,575
Horizontal distance to touchdown, X a * sinh 1 630.41 * sinh 1
1,536 ft
a
630.41
The above equations can be used to estimate J-lay configuration top and bottom
tensions, touchdown point distance from the vessel, etc.

- 153 -

The touchdown area of the catenary riser is subject to fatigue damage due to its
movement against sea bottom as the host platform moves. To avoid this problem,
especially in harsh environment, flexible pipe is adopted using intermediate buoyancies
attached on the pipe. The slack of the flexible pipe absorbs the platforms motions.
Dynamic VIV and Fatigue could be an issue when we design a dynamic riser. DnV and
API fatigue curves can be used for the fatigue damage check. Special care in pipe
procurement (tighter tolerance than line pipe specification) and welding procedures
should be addressed. Special pipe materials like titanium can be used for fatigue
sensitive areas. Strakes or fairings can be used to surpass VIV (see pictures in Section
12).
Determination of tension factor (TF) in top tension riser (TTR) design is very important.
Depending on host platforms response amplitude operator (RAO) and riser pipe
properties, a 1.5 TF is commonly used in Gulf of Mexico. When the riser is in
compressed mode (platform moves down), the TF should not be less than 1.0. Also, the
TF should not be too big because when the platform moves up, an excessive tension will
occur on the riser.
Vortex induced motion (VIM) or interface with other risers or mooring lines should be
checked during riser designs. Also, the riser constructability needs to be evaluated in
early stage.

- 154 References:
[1]

Pipeline Riser System Design and Application Guide, PR-178-622, PRCI


(Pipeline Research Council International, Inc.), 1987

[2]

Ruxin Song and Paul Stanton, Deepwater Tie-back SCR: Unique Design
Challenges and Solutions, OTC 18524, 2007

[3]

API RP-2RD, Design of Risers for Floating Production Systems (FPSs) and
Tension-Leg Platforms (TLPs), 1998

[4]

DNV OS-F201, Dynamic Risers, 2001

[5]

Brian McShane and Chris Keevill, Getting the Risers Right for Deepwater Field
Developments, Deepwater Pipeline and Riser Technology Conference, 2000

[6]

K.Z. Huang, Composite TTR Design for an Ultradeepwater TLP, OTC Paper
#17159, 2005

[7]

A.C. Walker and P. Davies, A Design Basis for the J-Tube Method of Riser
Installation, Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Sept. 1983

- 155 -

22

COMMISSIONING AND PIGGING

22.1

Commissioning and Pre-commissioning


By definition, commission is a request to someone to perform a task (duty or mission).
The pipeline mission is to transport products safely, without failure or leak during the
design life. Commissioning (or startup) is to introducing the first product in the pipeline
system after the new system is installed. Prior to commissioning, the pipeline system
needs to be checked for cleanness, structure strength, leak proof, etc. These actions
are called pre-commissioning which include;

Debris removing, cleaning, gauging, and flooding (watering)

Hydrotesting and leak testing

Dewatering and drying

After installation, pipeline should be checked for internally cleanness and free from
debris such as welding rods, tools, etc. After debris-removal pig runs, a wire-brush
cleaning pig should run to remove more stubborn debris such as mill scale, weld bead
slag, etc. After cleaning the line, the pipeline should be checked for the pipe ID
reduction due to dent or flattening (increased ovality), by using a guage pig. The guage
pigs are fitted with aluminum plate of which diameter is typically 95% of the minimum
pipe ID. Now the pipeline is ready for hydrotesting and should be filled with filtered
water with biocide or corrosion inhibitor (for a long flood time). Prior to water pumping, a
pig is placed in front of the water to ensure removal of all the air in the line. To save
offshore operation cost, the above steps could be performed simultaneously using a
series of pigs (pig train) while flooding the line.
Each pipeline system, such as pipe segments, jumpers and PLETs, are hydrotested at
factory or confirmed by structural integrity test (SIT) or factory acceptance test (FAT).
However, the overall pipeline system, after completion of transportation and
connections, should be checked for its structural integrity (hydrotest) and leak proof (leak
test). The hydrotest pressure is set to be no less than 1.25 times of the maximum
allowable operating pressure (MAOP) or no more than 90% of the pipe SMYS, for at
least 8-hour holding time. The gas riser needs to be hydrotested for at least 1.5 times of
the MAOP. The leak test can be done with 1.1 times of the MAOP, for at least 1-hour
holding time.

- 156 After successful hydrotesting or leak testing, pipeline needs to be dewatered before
introducing the oil or gas. Dewatering pigs (or pig train) is used to displace water
efficiently. Air drying or vacuum drying is required for dry gas pipelines, but not required
for wet gas or oil pipelines. If pipeline is dewatered using a nitrogen gas, there is no
need to dry the pipeline.
During commissioning, pigs (pig train) are located in front of the first produced gas or oil,
to remove remaining air in the line and ensure that the line is fully filled with the product.
22.2

Pigging
Pig is a device used for cleaning a pipeline or separating fluids being moved down the
pipeline. It is inserted in the pipeline and carried along by pressurized flow of water, oil,
or gas. An intelligent pig is fitted with magnetic or ultrasonic sensors to detect corrosion
or defects in the pipeline. Pigging is performed during installation and operation for such
purposes as:
During Installation

Debris removing, cleaning, and gauging

Watering, dewatering, and drying

Commissioning

During Operation

Cleaning wax/scale/condensate buildups removal

Inventory management sweeping out batching products

Corrosion and scale control

Inspection geometry (physical damage), corrosion, crack, leak detection

Miscellaneous

Decommissioning

Isolation

Recommissioning

- 157 -

During operation, pipelines should be pigged on a regular basis. Timing and frequency
for pigging is dependent on corrosion risk assessment and the production rate
fluctuation. Common pig types are as follows:

Utility pig

foam, elastomer, mandrel (central metal body with various


components: discs, wires brushes, scraper blades, gauging
plates, etc.) to perform debris removing, cleaning, gauging,
watering, dewatering, drying, and batch separation of products

Gel pig -

made with highly viscous product for batching/separating, debris


removal, and dehydrating. Can be used alone (in liquid lines), in
place of batching pigs, or in conjunction with various types of
conventional pigs to improve overall performance by eliminating
the risk of a pig stuck.

Sphere pig -

foam or elastomer skin inflated with glycol and/or water normally


used to sweep liquids from gas lines

Inspection pig -

intelligent or smart pig using gauging plates and calipers to detect


geometry variations (dent, wrinkle, etc.), wall thickness variations,
cracks, corrosion, etc.

There are dual diameter pigs available to negotiate two distinct diameters, for example
8 and 10. Typical pig speeds are in the range of 2 to 10 mph (1 to 5 m/s or 3 to 15 fps)
for oil line and 5 to 15 mph (2 to 7 m/s or 7 to 22 fps) for gas line [1]. Inspection pigs
may require slower speed, i.e. 0.5 m/s (1.5 fps).
Pipe bend for pigging should be at least 3D radius (bend radius equivalent to three pipe
nominal outside diameters) to allow intelligent pigs.
Flexible pipes corrugated carcass may allow bypass of fluid past the pig cups so a
double cup arrangement is recommended to reduce fluid by-pass. Appropriate pig
should be selected to avoid jam and stuck to the corrugated carcass gap.
Pigs could get stuck somewhere in the line during pigging. The main cause is that the
pig cups flip forward and the flow bypass the cups, so the pig is no longer pushed.
When this happens, another pig should run to push the stuck pig. When bidirectional pig
is stuck, it may be recovered by reversed flow. If the stuck pigs can not be recovered,
the pipeline section around the stuck pigs should be cut and replaced [1].
Pig launcher and receiver are used to send and receive pigs (Figure 22.2.1). Figure
22.2.2 shows debris and buildups removals. Variety Pig types are shown in Figure
22.2.3.

- 158 Figure 22.2.1 Pig Launcher and Receiver


(Source: www.ppsa-online.com [2])

Pig Launcher
(source: www.pipelineengineering.com [3])

Figure 22.2.2 Debris and Buildups Removal Pigging

- 159 -

Figure 22.2.3 Pig Types

(a) Utility pigs (Foam - Wire brush disc)

(b) Sphere pig

(c) Intelligent pig


(SmartScan by GE, www.geoilandgas.com [4])

(d) Dual diameter pig

- 160 There are also isolation (plug) pigs available to plug the line temporarily during pipeline
installation or valve/damaged pipe replacement without interrupting the production or
minimizing the downtime. Figure 22.2.4 shows one application of plugs when risers are
being replaced while transporting the production from the other platforms.
Figure 22.2.4 Isolation Plug Application
(Source: www.tdwilliamson.com/media/video.html [5])

(Send plugs to riser bottom Remove risers Install new risers Retrieve plugs)

References
[1]

Offshore Pipelines, Boyun Guo, et. al., 2005

[2]

An Introduction to Pipeline Pigging, PPSA (Pigging Products & Services


Association), 1995

[3]

www.pipelineengineering.com

[4]

GE Oil & Gas Website, WWW.GEOILANDGAS.COM

[5]

TDW Offshore Services, Remotely Operated Plugging Pig Service Catalogue,


www.tdwilliamson.com/media/video.html

[6]

Ralph Parrott and Edd Tveit, The Use of Intelligent Plugs to isolate Operating
Pipelines for Construction and Maintenance Activity, The Oil & Gas Review,
2005

- 161 -

23

INSPECTION
Subsea systems should be monitored or inspected regularly, internally and externally.
The inspection can provide such information as: geometry variation (dent, wrinkle,
buckle, etc.), wall thickness variation (metal loss), corrosion, crack, leak, etc.
The advantages and disadvantages of internal and external inspections are as follows:

Internal inspection:

Applicable for inaccessible (buried or concrete/insulation


coated) pipes. May have to shut-down the system to send
pigs. Pigs may be stopped or lost due to pipe buckle or
pressure loss due to large hole on the pipe.

External inspection:

Applicable for un-piggable line. No need to shut-down the


system. Good for partial suspicious area inspection, such as
manifold, jumper connection, riser, etc.

Self-crawling intelligent pigs have been developed to perform the In-line inspection (ILI)
without interrupting the production. The external inspections or integrity monitoring
systems are performed by ROV or tools mounted on the pipeline (Figure 23.1).
Magnetic and ultrasonic tools are commonly used to detect corrosion, crack, geometry
and wall thickness variations. Detecting a leak as early as possible will reduce the
environmental damage. The current leak detection systems available for subsea
pipelines are;

Ultrasonic -

transmit ultrasonic waves and receive/record reflected waves

Acoustics -

monitor/detect noise or pressure change being created by a


rupture or sudden leak

Dye detectors -

detect optical fluorescent leak visually by a laser beam

Fiber optics -

detect leaks by hydrophones, accelerometers, temperature


monitoring sensors installed on a distributed fiber optic cable
along the pipeline

Flow balance -

detect leak by monitoring volumetric flow rate, pressure, and


temperature

- 162 Figure 23.1 Internal and External Inspection Systems [1]

(The bristle-actuated pipeline tractor is powered through riser and operated by


brush modules that when actuated against each other provide a high pullcapability along the riser or pipeline.)

(a)

Internal Inspection

(Guided ultrasonic waves are used to screen long length of pipeline (several tens
of meters) for corrosion or cracks from a single transducer location.)

(b) External Inspection

- 163 -

The effective integrity monitoring and management planning allows the operator to
reduce uncertainties and risks associated with riser fatigue, corrosion build-up, hydrate
plug or wax formation conditions, etc.
The subsea integrity monitoring service providers include:

Genesis SIG (Subsea Integrity Group)

Come Monday, Inc.

IICORR (Integrity Inspection Corrosion)

Fugro Structural Monitoring (FSM)

2H Offshore

MCS

DeepSea Monitoring Solutions (DMS), etc.

References
[1]

Genesis SIG Website, www.genesis-sig.com

[2]

TDW Williamson Company Brochure

[3]

Offshore Pipelines, Guo, Boyun, et. al, Elsevier, 2005

- 164 -

- 165 -

24

PIPELINE REPAIR
Pipeline repairs may be required during pipeline installation or during operation. If a
pipeline is flooded (water penetrated due to buckling or damage) during pipe laying, the
best repair method is to reverse the lay operation and recover the defect point on the
vessel for replacement.
Shells Mensa project performed a 12-inch repair job at 5,000 ft water depth when the
pipe failed at a welding point due to excessive bending stress. Seven miles of pipe from
depths between 5,300 ft and 4,700 ft were recovered up the stinger by reversed lay
and later reinstalled [1]. The use of a repair clamp is another option for repair during
installation, if the defect point is small and precisely located.
Abandonment and recovery (A&R) procedures can be used to retrieve the damaged
pipeline section during pipelay. The process involves:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Identifying the damage by ROV or diver


Cutting off the damaged pipe (by cutting saw or shaped charge explosive)
Installing a pipeline recovery tool (PRT)
Dewatering the pipe, if needed
Retrieving the pipe end to the water surface by reversed lay

The recovery tool may incorporate a dewatering mechanism with a subsea pig launching
apparatus (see Figure 24.1). During operation, there are generally two repair methods
available;

Clamp repair (see Figure 24.2)

Spool piece repair on-bottom or surface lift

If the defect is isolated with no significant reduction in pipe diameter, such as a leak or
crack due to welding defect or pitting corrosion, a repair clamp method can be used. If
the pipe diameter is severely reduced or the damaged section is long, such as a
buckling rupture, a spool piece repair method must be used.
The basic tasks and procedures to complete a diverless clamp repair are as follows:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Locate the damage


Prepare the work site (lifting the pipe by H-frame or jetting around the pipe)
Remove external coatings, if required
Lower, position, and install the clamp
Pressure test the clamp

- 166 Figure 24.1 Pipeline Recovery Tool (PRT)


(Picture taken from TD Williamson factory in Houston)

Figure 24.2 Diverless Repair Clamp [2]

- 167 -

The on-bottom spool repair method conducts all operations, cuts and connections at sea
bottom, without lifting the pipe to the water surface. An expandable horizontal spool or a
Z-shaped spool can be used like a horizontal jumper connection method.
The on-bottom spool repair procedures are as the following:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

Locate the damage section


Prepare the work site (lifting the pipe by H-frame or jetting around the pipe)
Cut the pipe in two places on either side of the damaged section
Put aside the cut section on the sea floor or retrieve to the surface
Remove coatings and clean each pipe end
Install connectors on each pipe end (test seal integrity)
Measure spool piece distance and fabricate spool with connectors
Lower, position, and connect the spool piece
Pressure test pipeline

The surface lift repair method has been used in shallow water repairs and is expandable
to deepwater repairs. This method requires pipe lifting to the surface, so a large vessel
to handle the pipe is required. The repair procedures are given below:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)

Locate the damage section


Prepare the work site (lifting the pipe by H-frame or jetting around the pipe)
Cut the pipe in two places on either side of the damaged section
Place a recovery tool (head) at the cut end of the damaged pipeline, dewater if
required
Lift the damaged pipeline to surface using a single point lifting method
Remove (cut off) damaged pipe section at the surface
Remove coatings and clean pipe end
Install a connector on a sled with a yoke
Lower the pipeline back to the sea bottom
Repeat for the second end of the pipeline
Measure spool piece distance and fabricate spool with connectors
Lower, position, and connect the spool
Pressure test pipeline

Figures 24.3 through 24.5 show clamp repair, on-bottom spool repair, and surface lift
repair sequence, respectively. Figure 24.6 shows shallow water pipeline repair
sequence, using a diver, forged stab end connectors, and a misalignment ball flanged
spool piece.

- 168 Figure 24.3 Clamp Repair Sequence [3]

Raise pipe and lower repair clamp

ROV opens clamp

ROV closes clamp and tests seals

Recover lift frames

- 169 -

Figure 24.4 On-Bottom Spool Repair Sequence [3]


Raise the pipe and cut the damaged
pipe section. Prepare pipe end for
grip & seal coupling installation.

Lower repair sled with a horizontal


coupling and a vertical connector
hub. ROV installs the coupling to the
pipe. Repeat for the other end.

Lower spool
piece. ROV
connects both
connectors and
tests seals.

Recover rigging.

- 170 Figure 24.5 Surface Lift Repair Sequence [3]

Raise the pipe and cut the damaged


pipe section. Install pipeline recovery
tool and lift the pipe to the surface.

Install repair sled with a horizontal


coupling and a vertical connector
hub at surface and lower to the
seabed. Repeat for the other end.

Lower spool
piece. ROV
connects both
connectors and
tests seals.

Recover rigging.

- 171 -

Figure 24.6 Pipeline Repair in Shallow Water

- 172 References:
[1]

OTC paper #8628, Mensa Project: Flowlines, 1998

[2]

QCS (Quality Connector Systems) Website, www.qualityconnectorsystems.com

[3]

Oil States Industries Inc. Website, http://oilstates.com

[4]

Harvey Mohr, Deepwater Pipeline Connection and Repair Equipment, The


Deepwater Pipeline Technology Conference, 1998

[5]

Alex Alvarado, Gulf of Mexico Pipeline Failure and Regulatory Issues,


Deepwater Pipeline and Riser Technology Conference, 2000

- 173 -

DEFINITIONS
(Not in alphabetical order. To be updated periodically.)

Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC): The mechanism begins with hydrogen atoms
diffusing through the metal. When these hydrogen atoms re-combine in minuscule voids
of the metal matrix to hydrogen molecules, they create pressure from inside the cavity
they are in. This pressure can increase to levels where the metal has reduced ductility
and tensile strength, up to where it can crack open so it is called hydrogen induced
cracking (HIC). High-strength and low-alloy steels, aluminium, and titanium alloys are
most susceptible.
Hydrogen embrittlement (or hydrogen grooving) is the process by which various metals,
most importantly high-strength steel, become brittle and crack following exposure to
hydrogen. Hydrogen cracking can pose an engineering problem especially in the context
of a hydrogen economy.
Hydrogen embrittlement can happen during various manufacturing operations or
operational use, anywhere where the metal comes in contact with atomic or molecular
hydrogen. Processes which can lead to this include cathodic protection, phosphating,
pickling, and electroplating. A special case is arc welding, in which the hydrogen is
released from moisture (for example in the coating of the welding electrodes; to minimize
this, special low-hydrogen electrodes are used for welding high-strength steels). Other
mechanisms of introduction of hydrogen into metal are galvanic corrosion, chemical
reactions of metal with acids, or with other chemicals (notably hydrogen sulfide in
sulphide stress cracking, or SSC, a process of importance for the oil and gas industries).
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org)
Sweet or Sour Crude: The corrosivity of an oil and gas well is increased by the
presence of Cl (chloride) in water solutions, CO2 (carbon dioxide), and H2S (hydrogen
sulphide). The crude is considered sweet as long as H2S is not present. However, CO2
alone can cause high corrosion, since it is acidifying the solution and the corrosion is
further accelerated if Cl is present.
Sour Crude is defined when the partial pressure of H2S is above 0.05 psi. At higher
partial pressures, the corrosion rate on carbon steel is substantially increased by means
of making the water phase more acidic and by forming iron sulphide scale. Sulphide
stress cracking (SSC) is common in high strength steels.

- 174 The impurities (H2S, CO2, Cl, etc.) will need to be removed before the low quality sour
crude is refined into gasoline, thereby increasing the cost of processing. This results in a
higher-priced gasoline than one made from sweet crude oil. Thus sour crude is usually
processed into heavy oil such as diesel rather than gasoline to reduce processing cost.
HIPPS: High Integrity Pressure Protection System is an instrument based over pressure
protective system (OPPS) which is attractive for high pressure/high temperature (HP/HT)
developments where it is not possible to design the pipeline and risers to the full
wellhead shut-in pressure. The instrument can include series of fast acting (high
sensitivity) pressure relief valve, ESD (emergency shutdown valve), etc. There are less
than 6 subsea HIPPS worldwide (mostly in North Sea) and no HIPPS exists in the GOM.
PLEM and PLET: Pipeline end manifold (PLEM) is a sled equipped with multiple
connector hubs. If only one connector hub exists, it is called a pipeline end termination
(PLET). Midline sled is commonly called an in-line sled (ILS).
API Degree (gravity): The API (American Petroleum Institute) degree (or gravity), is a
measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid compared to water. If its API degree is
greater than 10, it is lighter and floats on water. API degree 10 equals to 1.0 specific
gravity (SG) of fresh water.
Although mathematically API gravity has no units (see the formula below), it is referred
to as being in degrees. API degree formula is derived using a hydrometer instrument
and designed so that most values would fall between 10 and 70 API gravity degrees.
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org)

API degree

Fresh water:
Heavy oil:
Medium oil:
Light oil:

141.5
SG at 60o F

131.5

10 oAPI
<22 oAPI
22 oAPI 31 oAPI
31 oAPI 45 oAPI

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Workover: Maintenance is performed during the service life of the well to ensure the
well produces at optimum levels. In addition to periodic maintenance, producing wells
occasionally require major repairs or modification, called "workover." Problems that can
result in a workover operation are: equipment failure, wellbore problems, and saltwater
disposal.
For problem wells, the remedial workover is performed to increase productivity, to open
new producing zones, or to eliminate excessive water or gas production. Examples of
these remedial workover operations are deepening, plugging back, pulling and resetting
liners, squeeze cementing, etc.
Ovality: Pipe out-of-roundness is the difference between largest diameter and smallest
diameter of a pipe (Dmax Dmin). Ovality is the ratio between out-of-roundness and
average diameter (DNV definition). The ovality defined by API is half of the DNV ovality.
Ovality (DNV)

Ovality (API)

Dmax - Dmin
Dmax - Dmin
2 Dmax - Dmin

Dmax Dmin /2 Dmax Dmin


Dav

Dmax - Dmin
Dmax Dmin

If Dnom 16" , Dmax 16.17" , Dnom 15.90" ,


Ovality (DNV)

Ovality (API)

2 16.17 - 15.90
0.017 1.7%
16.17 15.90

16.17 - 15.90
0.008 0.8%
16.17 15.90

- 176 RAO: Response amplitude operator (RAO) is used to represent the vessel or floating
structures six degree movements due to waves and wind, as below.
Heave

Yaw

Roll

Surge

Pitch
Sway

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