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Extrusion

Types of extrusion processes


Direct extrusion process
Indirect/Reverse extrusion process

THE ALUMINIUM EXTRUSION PROCESS


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Continuous Production Line for Aluminum Tube


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Products of
Dajcor Aluminum Ltd,
155 Irwin St.
Chatham, Ontario
Canada N7M 5J5

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Extruded Aluminum

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Samples of extruded-aluminum heat sinks


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Parameter used in extrusion process


Extrusion ratio = R

Ai
R=
A
Where A is initial area f

i
Af is the final area
Shape factor. It is the ratio of the perimeter of the part to its crosssectional area
True strain =

Ai
= ln
Af

Lf

= ln
Li

= ln (R )

Where Lf and Li are final and initial lengths


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Analysis for extrusion force

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For perfectly plastic material with yield stress, Y,


energy dissipated/unit volume, u, is
u = Y
Workdone = A i L i u

F = Ram force
Wokdone = FLi = pA i L i
Ai
p = u = Y ln = Y ln
Af
Ideal force = F = pA i

Where

Lf

= Y ln
Li

= Y ln (R )

p = extrusion pressure
Li = distance travelled by the ram
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Forces in hot extrusion


In hot extrusion
p = KelnR

Where, Ke = extrusion constant and is a


function of material and temperaure.

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Problem
Calculate the force required in direct extrusion of 1100O aluminium from a diameter of 152.4 mm to 50.8
mm. Assume that the redundant work is 30% of the
ideal work of deformation, and friction work is 25% of
the total work of deformation.
(utotal= uideal+ ufriction + uredundant )
u
= specific energy
uideal
= actual energy
ufriction
= energy due to frictional forces
uredundant
= energy required additional plastic
deformation
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Problem
Estimate the force required in extruding 70-30
brass at 973 K if the billet is 125 mm and
extrusion ratio is 20. Assume Ke = 230 MPa for
70-30 brass at 973 K. Also compute its true
strain.

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Drawing
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Drawing
Similar to extrusion process
In drawing process the work is under tension
whereas in extrusion it is under compression
Generally finishing process

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The Cold Drawing Process for Steel Bars


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Cold drawn Seamless tubes


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Sizes from small diameter hypodermic medical tubing


.009" OD (.23mm) to .375"OD (9.35mm). Fabrication
processes include welding, drawing, straightening, ..

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Drawing force
Ai
Ideal deformation = d = Y ln
Af
= drawing pressure = K
d = dis tan ce moved

K
For _ strain hardening _ material; Y = Y =
n +1
Ai

Drawing force = F = YA f ln
Af
n

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Maximum reduction per pass


As reduction increases
The drawing stress increases
It may reach the material yield stress, Y, at
the exit
Hence, at this stress, the work continues
to yield and fail
Therefore, the limiting condition is d = Y
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Ai
d = Y ln
Af
Ai
= 1
ln
Af

= Y

Ai
=e
Af
Ai Af
1
Maximum reduction / pass =
= 1 = 0.63 = 63%
e
Ai

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Drawing of flat strip


Assuming no change in the width of the strip

ti
d = Y' ln
tf

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Maximum reduction per pass for a


strip

In this case the drawing stress is equated with


uni-directional yield stress
Because the strip is only subjected to tension
ti
d = Y' ln = Y
tf
t Y 3

ln i = =
t f Y' 2
ti
=e
tf

ti tf
Maximum reduction / pass =
= 1
ti

1
e

= 0.58 = 58%
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Problem
If an annealed 85-15 brass work-piece is
drawn from an initial diameter of 8 mm to a
final diameter of 6 mm at a speed of 0.6 m/s,
calculate
a. The power required and
b. The die pressure at the exit.
Assume a value of 0.40 for both the redundancy
and the friction work.
Assume tensile yield stress of brass as 850 MPa.
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Thanks
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