You are on page 1of 188

UC-NBLF

IIHIIIUIlluii

:*;(!(.

^liii

'

ifn"t:.n<-u>

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2008

with funding from

IVIicrosoft

Corporation

http://www.archive.org/details/amuletsaOOpetrrich

AMULETS

AMULETS
ILLUSTRATED BY THE EGYPTIAN COLLECTION IN
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON

BY

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE
HON

^0**
fi'^

^Y

HON. F.S.A. (SCOT.), A.R.I.B.A., MEMBER OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY,


MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY
OF ANTHROPOLOGY, BERLIN; MEMBER OF THE ITALIAN SOCIETY OF ANTHROPOLOGY; MEMBER
OF THE ROMAN SOCIETY OF ANTHROPOLOGY; MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF
NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES; MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL society; EDWARDS PROFESSOR OF
EGYPTOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

D.C.L., LL.D., LITT.D., PH.D., F.R.S., F.B.A.,

LONDON

lo

CONSTABLE & COMPANY LTD


ORANGE STREET LEICESTER SQUARE WC
1914

,y

Gv

CONTENTS
CHAPTER

CHAPTEE

I.

The Principles of Amulets.


1.

2.

3.

4.
6.

NO.

The belief in amulets


Meaning of the name

27.

Wagtail, ur.

28.

Human-headed

Purpose of amulets
Five theories of amulets
Examples of each theory

29. Duckling, za. (2)

30.

31. Nefer. (8)

Man's

girdle

14

tie,

14

onkh. (7)

33. Counterpoise, menat.


34.

9.

Organic amulets

The flux

32. Sistrum. (3)

Scope of amulets

12.

Limitations of the class


Growth of funereal amulets

13.

15
15

16

Plummet. (10)
Forked lance. (10).

16
16

16

39. Ostrich plumes. (11)

Egyptian Amulets.
11.

40.

Two plumes,

disc

and horns.

17

42. Rising sun. (3)

17

17

Crowned sun. (1)


Bark of the moon.

17

Material for study


15. Arrangement of the catalogue
16. Materials named

17. Classification

47. Hornet. (4)

48.

White crown.

49.

Red crown.

50.

Double crown on neb.


Vulture and uraeus. O
Royal crook. O
Royal scourge. (1)

44.
45.

....
.

of the catalogue

CHAPTEE

in.

-46.

61.

Amulets of Similaks.

(295)

62.

o.
1.

Head

2.

Face. (23)

>/3.

bearded.

Uzateye.

4. Eye. (4)
5.
6.

Ear. (4).

Tongue.

--7. Heart.

(2)

(41)

8.

Breast. (3)

9.

Arm.

(1)

11.

Two arms,
Hand open.

12.

Fist clenched. (17)

10.

^13. Fist,

Two hands

15.

Leg. (16)

/i.6.

17.

Sma.

by

side. (1)
.

(5)

17

(17)

17

18

18

59.

Man

60.

Bound

61.

Figure with necklaces.

(19)

18

(6)

19

with palms.

19

captive. (8)

19

(1)

CHAPTER

V.

Amulets of Property.

(31)

19^

62.

Ox head.

(18)

63.

Cow, legs

tied. (7)

64. Gazelle. (1)

20*'

meat.

65. Joint of

12

66.

20.

12

67.

31.

Papyrus sceptre. (26)


Papyrus on plaque. (4)

13

68. Altar with cakes. (6)

22.

Jackal head. (27)

13

69. Date. (1)

23.

Leopard head.

13

70.

Vase. (16)

71. Collar. (2)

13
13

14

73.

(1)

18

Uraeus serpent.

12

18

58.

Frog and

Claw. (10)
25. Tooth. (8)
26. LoQust. (2)

18
18

Fly. (52)

24.

18
18

Disc mace. (5)


66. Pear mace. (20)
57. Feathers and scourge.

19.

18
.

66.

18.

toad. (20)

17

(9)

fingers. (2)

9
9
10
10
10
10

Phallus. (9)

17

64. Shepherd's stick, tuts. (10)

(12)

63.

side

(4)

Tea. {I)

thumb between

14.

Stairs. (1)

(3)

(2)

16

(-1)

41. Pair of feathers. (1)


43. Disc of sun. (2)

14.

System

15

(6)

38.

II.

15

Head-rest. (12)
35. Zad. (34)
36. Square. (12)
37.

CHAPTEE

14

of beliefs

14

^'
'.

10.

14

bird, la. (5)

8.

7.

(237)
PAOI

(3)

The doctrine of similars


Lower individual beliefs
Primitive modes of thought

6.

^^

Amulets of Powers.
PAO

HOT.

IV.

(1)

Goose or duck.
Dish on mat, hotep.

20
20
to
20
21

72. Clothing. (5).

Royal head-dress.

20
20
20
20

21

CONTENTS
CHAPTER

PAOE

ICO.

74.

Comb.

(6)

76.

21

76.

Human-headed Gods.

Spear head.
Writing tablet. (2)
77. Name badge. (5)

21

138.

21

139.

Cartouche. (3)

21

140.

,,

multiple. (14).

22
22

141.

,,

with gods. (12)

22
22

143.

78.

Seal. (6)
80. Seal ring. (1)
79.

81. Circle of cord, (2)

82. Slave figure. (1)

Uzai eye, usual. (86)


unusual. (46)
,

142.

(350)

84.

22

/85. Crescent. (8)


86.

Mummy.

87.

Mummy on bier.

-88. Girdle
.89.

(2)

(4)

of Isis, thet. (23)

Scarab,

flat base.

146.
147.

Head

90. Scarab, inscribed. (26)


91. Pectoral. (7)

92.

Scarab with

legs. (50)

93. Scarab winged. (8)

Vulture standing. (7)


95. Vulture spread. (4)

94.

96. Serpent. (7)


97.

Serpent head. (12)

98.

Cobra on

99.

Amphisbaena on case. (2)


Phagrus eel on case. (3)

100.

case. (8)

on case. (7)
Taurt on case. ( 1 )
103. Shrew mouse on case.
104. Horn. (1)
105. Bone. (3)
101. Lizard
102.

(1

106. Coral. (1)

107.

Cypraea

shell. (7)

108. Nerita shell. (3)


109.

MitrasheU.

(2)

110. Contis shell. (4)


111. Cardium shell. (9)

112. Meleagrina shell. (12)

Cleopatra shell. (4)


114. Pectunculus shell. (2)
113.

115. Polinket shell. (1)

Murex

shell. (1)

118. Helix Bh%\\. (8)

119. Clanculus shell. (1)


120. TMrJo shell. (1)

121.

OKm shell.

(2)

122. Terebra shell. (2) .


123. Stone implement. (12)
124. Bell. (5)
125.

Door

bolt. (1)

126. Seated prince. (2)


127. Princess. (2)

128.

Medusa

129. Bulla. (12)

head. (3)

132.

Forehead pendant. (21)


Knotted cord. (7)
"Woven charm. (1)

133.

Charm

134.

Hypocephalus.

130.
131.

case. (18)

(4).

135. Inscribed stone, Greek. (26)


136. Inscribed stone, non-Greek. (11)

-137. Cross. (44)

on

crocodiles.

(9)

the child. (26)


on the lotus. (1)
of Horus. (2)

and Horus.

(21)

22
23
23
23
23

150. Isis

mourning.

(8).

151. Isis Pharia. (3)


152. Isis, Nebhat, and
153.

Horus.

Groups of goddesses.

Nebhat. (10)
Nebhat mourning. (2)
156. Osiris, Isis, and Horus.
154.

(6)

(2)

155.

24
24
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
27
27
27

157. Osiris. (13)


158.

Heart of

(4)

Osiris. (18)

159. Oracular bust. (9)

160.

Horus and Min.

161.

Min. (11)

162.

Amen. (5)
Amen, Mut, and Khonsu.

163.
164.
165.
166.

Mut. (10)
Khonsu. (2)
Anhur. (1)

(1)

(1)

167. Shu. (11)


168. Neit. (3)
169. Unknown deities. (6)

Hathor. (16).
Head of Hathor.
172. Maot. (1)
170.

171.

173.

Hat-mehyt.

174. Selket. (2)

27

175.

27
27
27

176.

(7)

(2)

Nefertum. (11)
Ptah Seker. (25)

177. Ptah. (6)

178.

27

Dwarf.

(2)

179. Saints. (6)

27
27
27

116. Cassis shell. (I)


117.

the hunter. (1)

149. Isis. (17)

23
24

(32)

inscribed. (10)

,,

148. Isis

Sun and wings. (2)


Sun and uraei. (2)

Horus
Horus
Horus
Horus

144.

VI.

PKOtECTIVE AmXTLETS.

(448)

NO.

145.

CHAPTER
83.

VII.

21

CHAPTER Vni.

28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
29
29
29
29
30
30
32
32

Animal-headed Gods.
Horus. (15)
181. Ea. (16)
180.

182.

Four sons

183. Set. (1)

of Ea. (19)

184. Sphinx, male. (4)

185. Sphinx, female. (15)


186.

Hathor, cow-headed.

187.

Khnumu.

(4)

(9).

188. Bes. (36)


189. Bes, unusual. (10)

190.

Bes head. (26)

191. Tahuti of Panebes. (1)


192. Mahes. (8)
.

193.

Anhur and

194.

Sekhmet or

Tefnut. (2)
Bastet. (24),

195. Aegis of Bastet. (15)

196.
197.

198.

VI

Shu and Tefnut.


Anpu. (23)
Upuatu. (1)
.

(3)

(260)

CONTENTS
PAOK
199. Jackal-headed archer. (1)
200. Shrewmouse figure. (1)

201. Sebek. (1)


202. TehutL (21)

CHAPTER
Animal Gods.
205.

Ape
Ape

standiDg. (7)

206. Baboon. (12)


207. Apis bull. (10)
.

208.
209.
210.

211.
212.

Hathor cow. (6)


Hathor cow on square.
Hathor head. (6)

(5)

Ram. (11)
Ram's head.

(21)

213. Hare. (4)


214. Ibex. (2)
215.

Barbary sheep.

(1)

216. Klipspringer. (1)


217. Camel. (1)

218.

Hawk-headed sphinx.

219. Lion. (16)

220.

Two

(1)

lion fore-parts. (7)

221. Lion's head. (4)


222. Lion and bull fore-parts.

223.

Two

bull fore-parts.

(3),

224.

Cat. (16)
225. Cat in shrine. (2)
226.

Two

227. Cat

cats on

column.

and kittens

(2)

(3)

228. Set animal. (2)


229. Jackal standing. (5)
230. Two jackal heads. (1)

231. Jackal couchant. (8)


232. Shrew mouse. (5)
.

233.

Dog.

(6)

234. Pig. (5)


235.

238.

Hippopotamus.

236. Taurt. (51)

237.

(6)

Hippopotamus head.
Hedgehog. (1)

(16)

Waran.

241.

(1)

242. Lizard. (1)


243. Mentu standard. (7)
244. Hawk-headed sphinx. (1)
245. Hawk, falcon. (59)

IX.

246. Ostrich. (1)

(442)

247. Ibis. (12)


248. Vulture. (2)

249. Vulture flying. (2)


250. Goat-sucker. (2)
251. Bird heads. (6)
252. Coptic birds. (5)

44
44
44
44
44
44
45
45
45

253. Bird's foot. (1)


254. Serpent with arms, Nehebka. (5)
255. Qarmiit, nar. (3)
.

Oxyrhynkhos.

256.

(1)

257. Bulti. (11)


258. Electric fish. (7)
259. Lepidotos. O

260. Scorpion.

45
45
45
45
45
45
45

46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
47
47
47
47
47

47
48
48
48
48
48
48
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
50
50
50
SO
50
60
SO
50
50
SO
SO
50
50
50

43
43
43
43

seated. (4)

pAoe

239. Turtle. (4)


240. Crocodile. (18)

42
43

203. Serpent-hoaded god. (4)

204.

NO.

42
42
42

Green

261.

(4)

beetle. (6)

262. Shuttle. (2)

Woman

268.

with offerings. (1)


Figure in tall head-dress. (1)
Figure in long robe. (2)
Figure in pointed cap. (2)
Flower. (3)
Palm column. (1)

269.

Bunch

271.

Seed

272.

Unknown.

263.
264.
265.
266.
267.

of grapes. (1)
270. Flowering reed. (1)

Two

':,273.

Vll

51

vessel. (3)

61
61

(2)

fingers. (11)

61
51

274. Uncertain pendants. (2)


275. Star. (2)

...
CHAPTER

Positions of amulets

51

X.

List of groups of amulets

61
52
53

Ikdes

55

Properties of stones

OF PLATES

LIST
SiMILAES

Human Gods

^ABTS OF Human Bodt

1.

Animai, and Vegetable

11.

POWEKS
IV.

Funereal Offerings

....

Possessions

Protection, Celestial

Protection

IX.

X.
XI.
XII.

Shells.

BUTXAF,

XXI.
XXII.
XXIII.

8689

Figures

Bes, Tahuti,

92,

93

9498
99103
104114

XXXIX.
XL.

130

XLII.
XLIII.

131

131

131133

XLIV.
XLV.
XT,VI.

Hypocephali

134

Inscribed Stones, Semitic, Cboss

XLVII.
135
135,

136,

136

.....

XLIX.
T.

138141

....
Nebhat

LI.

138142

LII.

143149

LIIL

149156

LIV.

UC

183188
189192

Sekhmet,

193195
196203

Ape, Bull,

Cow

....

Cow, Sheep, Hare, Lion


Lion, Cat, Jackal

Shrew Mouse, Dog,

....
....
......
Pig,

Hippo-

Eeptiles, Birds

Birds

Animal Gods, and Various Objects


Addenda.
Addenda.
Addenda.
Addenda.
Lists of Amulets,

204209
210219
220231
232237
238245
246262
263274

Macgeegor Papy-

rus AND Dendeeeh.

137

Osiris,

XL VIII.

181

Shu with Tefnut, Jackal, Sebek,

>

Inscribed Stones, Greek


Inscribed Stones, Non-Greek

Mahes

Anhur with Tefnut,

potamus
XLI.

180,

182

Hathor, Khnumu, Bes

Animal Gods:

XXXVII.
XXXVIII.

176179

Tehuti

91

Cords, Weaving, Charm Cases

Isis,

XXXVI.

160175

Dwarfs, Saints
Animal-Headed Gods : Hoeus-Ea

Set, Sphinx,

158

159

90

116129

Forehead Pendants
Knotted Coeds
Knotted Cords

Horus,

XXXV.

167,

Animal-Headed Gods
Four Sons of Ea

XXXIV.

90
.

Human Gods
XXIV.
Eye of Horus
XXV.
Eye of Horus
XXVI.
Horus, Isis
XXVII.

XXXII.
XXXIII.

Human Gods

Bastet

Scarab with Legs and Wings


Vulture, Serpent

Implements,

XX.

6272
7482
8386

....

Pectorals

Shells,

XIX.

(60 , 61)

Inscribed Scarab, Backs

Horn and

XVIII.

Inscribed Scarab, Fronts

XIV.

XVII.

Mummy, Girdle, Flat Scarab

Cases for Eeptiles

XVI.

59

36

Osiris

Oeacular Busts
MiN to Nefertum
/

XXXI

continued.

Heart of

XIII.

XV.

2735

VI.

VIII.

Osiris,

XXX.

Pkoperty
V.

XXVIII
XXIX.

Symbolic Hieeogltphs
Symbols of Ability and Authority

III.

VII.

117
1826

Bronze Gnostic Amulet


Plans of Amulets on Mummies
Plans of Amulets on Mummies
.

Plans of Amulets on Mummies


Plans of Amulets on Mummies
Index to Amulets in Position.

135aa

15
ft 12

1318
1924

It

is

intended that this volume shall

be the

first

of

a series

dealing with various branches of Egyptian Archaeology, based upon

the collection at University College.

In the succeeding volumes, the Scarabs, Cylinders, Button Seals,


Tools,

Glass,

Beads and other subjects will be discussed and

trated, with reference also to other collections.

illus-

AMULETS
CHAPTER

THE PRINCIPLES OF AMULETS


1.

The

present study of Egyptian amulets

is

based upon

the University College collection, which I have tried to


naake as varied as possible

some two hundred and seventy

different kinds of amulets are here described, together with

summary

of those in

some other

collections, in order to

show the numbers and the materials of which amulets


were usually made. To understand the purpose of these
amulets, it is needful to gain some general ideas from the
use of amulets in other lands. The belief in the magic
effect of inanimate objects on the course of events is one of
the lower stages of the
of natural action

it

human mind

in seeking for principles

belongs to a condition of the intellect

so low as to be incapable of clear reason about cause

Yet

effect.

and

has become so ingrained a habit of thought

it

during the vast ages before observation and induction were


developed, that

it

survives the rise of knowledge

and reason-

among most people. The use of amulets is by no


means equally general in all races the lowest of mankind
the Tasmanians had great confidence in the power of
amulets, the Shilluks of the Sudan wear them in a bunch,
the Arabs have great faith in charms which are worn, and

ing

Southern Italy

in our own, as in Pliny's time abounds in

Strange to say, a large part of the children

amulets.

lower classes in England wear them

which persons of
mascots

an extraordinary revelation

is

of

the

and the extent to


supposed education will wear charms and
;

of the real fatuity

and savagery of the mind of modern man. Yet other races


seem early to have abandoned such thoughtless beliefs.
The Veddahs and the Algerians apart from Arab influence
avoid amulets, and there is no allusion to amulets in the
minute personal details of the Icelandic and Norse Sagas.
What is now required is an ethnological study of diffusion
of amulets, which might throw light on the connections of

the time of Pliny.

had

It

seems most

likely that the

name

travelled with the Phoenicians, as they were the only

source of Semitic words in the western seas before the

Roman

age perhaps Carthage was the intermediary. The


amulet therefore means something carried about by the
wearer, in order to get some magical benefits from it, apart
;

from any material use. In Egypt such amulets were also


put upon the dead for benefiting them in a future
existence and we can hardly deny the name to some kinds
of objects copied from personal amulets, and set up
stationary in the house. In the records of amulets there is
a great confusion with actual medicines, which we should
nowadays recognise as acting by natural causes. The
line between Nature and magic has been but very slowly
defined and what we look on as mere superstitions were
regarded as soundly logical remedies two thousand, or
even two hundred, years ago. In extracting ideas from
;

ancient writers

it is

therefore needful to set aside

all

internal

remedies, and some external ones which might be actually


medicinal.
3.

for

The meaning of each of the amulets, and the purpose


it was carried, is here considered, as that is the

which

Merely to catalogue
real spirit and essence of the subject.
amulets without any regard to their meaning, is much like
collecting pretty shells without

creatures

which

knowing anything of the


The recent works of

produce them.

various peoples.

on the Italian amulets ancient


and modern have set an excellent example of the intelligent study of the subject. A paper by Comm. Boni should
be noted for its wide view {Nuova Antologia, October 1st,
Various general principles of the purpose of amulets
1912).
have been proposed, or might be considered. But, so far,
the different theories have not been weeded by means of the
There may have been several
test of actual instances.

What

different principles or starting points for the adoption of

2.

defines

it

an amulet, and why is it used ? The name still


very well after two thousand years, and shows one
is

line of diffusion of the idea.

The Arabic

hamulet, a freight,

burden, or thing carried, has passed in ancient times into


the west, as

it

had originated the Latin amuletus as early as

Prof. Bellucci, of Perugia,

amulets, or possibly only one broad idea has developed in


various ways.

necessary to try

by each view.

To

how

get

some

insight

upon

far different instances

this,

it

is

can be explained

THE PRINCIPLES OF AMULETS


';

4.:

Tiaeiplanations that are the more obvious are

The

(A)

and see whether there be cases which can be explained by


only one motive, or only by another. To this we proceed.
(A) The Confidence theory will explain such cases as the

five:

psychic effect of giving confidence and

self-

and the intent to live; with the result that the


wearer would be thus fortified to steer through dangers
without faltering, or would be saved from that terrible
weakening due to fear, which often kills men as surely as
To possess a charm which would
knife or poison kills.
defy tabu would be a vast advantage in lower forms of
reliance,

wearing of part of a bear in order to give strength (Eskimo),


a leopard's claw to protect from wild beasts (Central Africa),
dog's teeth to protect from a mad dog (Italy), a figure of a
siren for security (It.), a lizard with a forked tail to get
luck

culture.

The

(B)

direction of thought to

may have

or disease,

any physical weakness


and

a very beneficial effect on illness

of similars.

Other examples, such as a serpent's skin worn to guard

against the bite of reptiles, might be explained by (C), (D)

the possession of an amulet supposed to benefit the patient,

may

easily act as a faith-healer

(C)

The

and promote

amulets.
is set in

real recovery.

In the

tale of

Anpu and

may

be a purpose of

So

also to him.

it

an

a blood-stone,

tion

Bata, the heart of Bata

a tree, and anything that happens to

it

(It.),

happens

various

or

other

lump

worn

of a heart

of red coral for

menstrua-

concretions and inclusions in stone for pregnancy

(It.),

which might be equally well explained on any

of the

five theories.

might be imagined that a kidney-stone,


eye-stone,

Further examples are the figure

or (E).

for heart disease (It.), a

idea of a double or alter ego of different organs,

connected with them in a mystic way,

and the wearing of written charms. But each


examples can equally be explained by (E), the effect

(It.),

of these

The Faith

(B)

will explain cases

objects

theory, or the effect of thought-directing,

such as the

fish

worn

for fecundity

(It.),

supposed to be connected with different organs, would by

or the bat's head worn to prevent sleep (Pliny, xxx, 48)

the care and attention paid to them have a reflex action in

but these

strengthening the organ involved.

The use of galactitis, a soft white stone


effect of similars.
worked up into a milky diffusion in water, and taken
internally for lactation (Pliny, xxxvii, 59), might be
explained by (D) or (E). Other cases which might equally
be explained by (C), (D) or (E) are the wearing of a red
stone of any kind against bleeding a milk-white stone for
the Dentalium shell for teething the nephrite
lactation
stone for the kidneys the operculum of a shell (" eye of
S. Lucia") for the eyes; an ivory ball like a breast, for
lactation
a white and cold ivory tablet for fever (all in
Italy)
the bones of animals' heads for headache (Pliny,

(D) The provision of a vicarious double, to which evils

and diseases may be transferred from the body. An object


resembling the disease, or a model of the organ, might be
supposed to receive the attacks of the malignant spirits to
whom diseases are usually credited, and so save the real

The

influence often called

"sympathetic magic"

xxix, 36)

folly

the tangible

charm

for a given purpose.

How

may

see in

can go in such a way anyone

field

of

medicine

by referring to

object to distract the attention.

When we

look at the various possible motives for the use


amulets stated above, we may doubt whether any one
motive can account for the whole system, or whether

are the principal amulets against the evil eye in Italy.

facetted rock crystal, or even a bottle stopper, serves to catch

the eye and thought of an observer and divert


the wearer.

all

many

Similarly the attention

is

them from

easily diverted to

sexual models, both kinds of which are reputed

explanations are needful ?

The only way

In prehistoi'ic times this

was done in Egypt by a bright white piece of shell hung on


the forehead in one case a bright piece of sheet copper
was used. In modern times women wear in Egypt a bright
gilt tubular ornament down the middle of the forehead and
in Damaraland a chief's daughter wore a disc of shell, hung
so that she could swing it over either eye (Galton, Travels
in South Africa, ed. 1890, p. 63).
For the same purpose

of

examples come under one explanation? or how

another kind of thought-directing, which must

from the person who dreads them, by his wearing some

ancient

Can

is

confounded with the above.


Not only may the
patient's thoughts be usefully directed, but also the
dangerous thoughts of another person may be diverted away

prescriptions.

several different motives have not been followed.

There

inot be

human

the wearing of the yellow Lyncurion stone for

xxviii, 27).

in order to construct a

jaundice (Pliny, xxxvii, 13), or a tooth for toothache (Pliny,

5.

which might perhaps best be named " the doctrine of


similars."
Objects which have a similarity one to another,
supposed
to be necessarily connected
are
they are in touch
with the abstract quality or influence which has to be
evoked they generally act by producing a similarity in
the person, but otherwise by averting a similarity, on the
plea that the event has already taken place, and cannot
therefore happen again.
No doubt the great majority of charms and amulets
recorded by writers, have merely been selected by reason of
casual connection. When any unusual event happened
good or bad the person looked for some cause in his own
surroundings and if he carried, or did, anything unusual,
it was naturally connected with the event.
Then, no doubt,
there was much theorizing from very mixed assumptions,
far

equally be explained by (E), as cases of the

person.

(E)

may

to

be

The unquestionable truth of this


thought-directing away from the patient has no bearing

powerful protectors.

to study this is to select test instances,

THE PRINCIPLES OF AMULETS


upon the

own

reality of the beneficial direction of the patient's

thoughts, or the Faith theory.

(C) The Doable theory, or alter ego, according to which


an external double of an organ is so bound up witli it that
benefits to one are conferred on both, will account for most
of the eases named.
But where the wearer is unconscious
of the amulet, as a tooth
xxviii, 78),

worn

for teething (Italy, Pliny,

the foregoing theories, (A), (Bj, could not hold

good, but only the following, (D), (E).

(D) The Vicarious theory supposes that a model worn

and ward them off the


actual person.
This as we have noticed will account for
most of the preceding cases. There are, however, some
will

receive the attacks of spirits

amulets which are specially to be thus explained, such as


the placing of lead amulets on swine to avert suppuration
and vermin, the dull, sluggish metal hindering the sluggish
evils (It.)
the use of amber which has motes in it, or a
white opacity, for the benefit of the eyes (It.) the wearing
of a tongue of a hyaena or a dog in the shoe to prevent dogs
barking (Pliny, xxvii, 42 xxix, 32) the use of a chilly
;

frog against the chill of fever (Puny, xxxii, 88)


the wellknown heart or image pricked with pins or stabbed all of
;

may

these

be looked on as vicarious,

or

else

as

(E),

similars.

Somewhat like this is the scape-goat idea of a victim to


away the evil, as in the transfer of scorpion poison by

speaking in au ass's ear (Pliny,

on a frog which

is

liberated to

xxviii, 42), or the spitting

remove a cough (Pliny,

xxxii,

29).

All of the examples of the above theories of amulets

we have seen to be equally compatible with


(E) The doctrine of Similars, according to which

explanations

or

objects

is

One

most instructive
that by Easmdssen, describing the

theories.

accounts of amulets

of

the

The People of the Polar North. The extreme


simplicity and directness of the ideas, and the absence of
any magical or theistic comphcation renders this a classical
in

instance of Similars.

In Italy the very common use of flint arrowheads or fossil


teeth called " thunderstones " to protect from lightning, or
serpentine to protect from serpents (also Pliny, xxxvi, 11),
can only be explained by Similars. The same idea is shown
by putting a dragon's head under the door-sill for good
fortune (Pliny, xxix, 20), i.e., trampling on evil influences;
also by the frog, transfixed so that it cannot move away, to
ensure faithfulness (Pliny, xxxii, 18)
while the effect of
;

opposites

is

shown by the hairs

fertility (Pliny, xxx, 49).

animals

is

she-mule worn for


complex amulet of watchful
river crabs, wrapped with the

that of the eyes of

of a

mouth

clothes that she

different class of beliefs


is

can be proved

to

only legitimate to accept that belief as

the underlying cause of

all

the uses of amulets which are

generally recognised.
7. There is also another class of amulets, which the
wearer regards as entirely individual, and which result from

illogical

This

is

form

when

a lower form of belief

Yet

strange

say

to

this

is

least

it

pre-

wholly
intel-

belief is that

of

persons.

When we

try

to see

some underlying

may

observe that the

cause for such a savage survival we

occupations of the wearers are those which seem most to


depend on chance, and least on continuous will. Actors,
gamesters and aviators, as well as motor racers, cling to
amulets, and all are dependent upon conditions which are

girl's

evidence can be the result of beliefs in Similars

and until some


have existed, it

which appears commonest


at present in " mascots," carried by various classes of

,-

put in a

critical

lectual

,-

ejjgs)

unaccountable.

for as

give birth to ^lall children;

otherwise called

of Similars,

Other theories may give the explanation of some cases they cannot be disproved as modes of
thought.
But every case which we have recounted as

than that in the general applicability of an amulet

of a beae,

(which lays small

them excepting the theory

supposes no law, but a chance connection which

The amulets are the skin from the roof of


worn in a child's cap in order to be
strong in clanger ; the head or feet of a hawk, sewn in a
boy's clothes in order that he may become a great hunter
a black guillemot's foot, worn to become great ichalers
a
raven's foot, worn to be satisfied u-ith little a head of a fox,
worn to be cunning and guarded ; the head of a kittiwake
Similars.

From these various examples of charms and amulets,


which are compatible with the different theories that we
have considered, it appears that though some are consistent
with each of the theories, yet no theory will explain all of

a casual observation of what happens to the person

these examples can only be reasonably accounted

(Pliny, xxxii, 38).

certain objects are present.

example of the doctrine of Similars. The amulet confers


qualities or protects from danger
and excepting the first
case which might be explained on the Confidence theory (A)

the

Sympathetic Magic.

which are closely alike have such a connection that power


over one, or possession of one, enables the wearer to
influence the other or to command like qualities.
Here we
at once find many cases which are explained by this belief,
but which are not touched by any of the four preceding

Eskimo

,-

flesh of a nightingale in a deer's skin, to give watchfulness

carry

6.

which is durable and stronger than fire, worn to give long


and strength ; a pebble, which drops swiftly from a high
rock, put on the necks of puppies that they may he fleet and
strong
the skin of a little auk caught fighting put on a
dog that he may be a fighter.
In the Heimskringla (Magnusson and Morris, i, 55 6)>
there is one of the nearest instances to an amulet in Norse
" Swipdag let take the heart out of a wolf, and
writing
roast it on a spit, and gave it thereafter to Ingiald, the
king's son, to eat
and thenceforth became he the grimmest
of all men, and the evillest hearted." This is essentially an
life

may

not obviously in their

a piece of a hearthstone,

own

control.

We may

smile at the

use of basilisk blood to gain success in petitions (Pliny,

b2

THE PRINCIPLES OF AMULETS


waa more reasonable to believe in some
general law on the matter than to believe in the effect of a
man smoking a cigar opposite a theatre door to gain a
xxix, 19,)

but

it

We may

profitable audience for the play.

not believe in

the other shows the sense of law, even

animistic, while
if

entirely misapplied.

When we

9.

Italy,

read the pages of Pliny regarding ancient

or Bellucci

about modern

Italy,

we

largely organic objects are adopted as amulets.

an ex-prime minister wearing a swastika for luck, and

long; and even

talking heartily about

now wears

it

to

victory (Pliny, xxviii, 29),


trinkets

particular

power

While no one

uneducated boys.

the right shoulder of a chamaeleon to ensure


for

of irrational belief

we yet read

their

of aviators

On

safety.

seems

to

wearing

the whole the

have gained, rather than

modern times.
8. The primitive mode of thought seems unchanged by
The untamed mind of man appears to
all that has past.
lost its hold in

be continually feeling vaguely for different avenues to


reason is so little developed that benefit seems

success

only to be reached by trying blindly in

all

directions.

have often been surprised at the helpless way in which


Egyptians will do things on the chance of success. They
perhaps at third-hand of
will follow some vague rumour
a benefit or a gain, merely to see if any good result comes.
It seems like the white ants making tunnels in all
directions, on the chance of hitting something to eat,
This incessant
without any guide from the senses.
vague searching, whenever it succeeds, produces a belief
that any casual connection with other incidents is a real

cause of success
success

is

some

the least intelligent think that their

only individual to them, and cling to any

link as a

tangible
for

law,

"mascot"

of

the innumerable gene-

about wolves' tongues, dragons'

ralities

which choke the pages

eggs,

and frame one

the more intelligent seek

of Pliny

tails,

or serpents'

and many other old

This subject of individual amulets, or "mascots," does


belong to our present work; the distinction should

however be observed between

this

and the general amulet,

and we should regard the difference of the much lower grade


of superstition from which it originates.
The individual
amulet regards only chance connection without any law or
reason

These, in

the nature of things, have been but rarely preserved for

recognised.

when found
mere twig

their

meaning

is

not easily

a tree, or a scrap of fur might

of

a grave without a meaning; while a


wrought stone or pottery object is clearly

be casually
carefully

left in

Hence we

intentional.

find

what

is

any case but a small

in

part of the whole mass of amulets that have been in use.

The nature

such things is doubtless


in continual flux like all matters which have not been fixed
by reduction to a written form. We can hardly realise
how the thoughts of early man must have been incessantly
shifting

the

of

in

beliefs

and changing

their form, like

an amoeba.

We

so accustomed to reduce ideas to a written definition,

are

which

perpetuates them unaltered until they are entirely out of


date, and passed by in further growth, that we cannot feel
ideas fluctuating with the individual.
A
such as that in amulets and charms is one
of the last things to be fixed by writing, and hence it has
been exposed longer to the waves of changing thoughts.

the sense of

popular

all

belief,

Even Roman law was not


certainties

till

well

have been continually

shifting.

10. In Italy at present

decay

crystallized into writing

and at the other end of the scale of


such vague beliefs as those in amulets must

into the historic age

of beliefs.

Of

all

we

see the result of a long course of

the purposes of amulets, very nearly

half are against the evil eye, and these are most incongruous
in their nature

shells, claws, horn, teeth, toads, crescents,

madrepore
everything seems equally
This great variety must have originated in very
different ideas of connection the purposes must have been
crystal,

agate,

applicable.

writers.

not

how

perceive

& star-fish smeared with foxes' blood, and nailed with copper
nails over a door to repel evil (Pliny, xxxii, 16) but we see

the general amulet

is

in the first groping stage of

the acquisition of general laws, which eventually lead to the


orderly view of organic nature.

Both are absurd

with the least real knowledge; yet the one

is

to

anyone

hopelessly

very diverse originally.

But

all have been blended into


one general idea of averting the ill will of another person
and this has passed further into the stage of averting mere
ill-luck brought by another person without any intention.
Such a jumble of different beliefs into one generality shows
that there has been a long time for the details to be
forgotten, and for one vague idea to be substituted for the

specific observations of chances, out of


of beliefs

CHAPTER

had

which a multitude

arisen.

II

EGYPTIAN AMULETS
11.

both

The subject

of

Egyptian amulets

is

one that appeals

to the reader of folk lore, as well as to the Egyptologist,

and hence it is needful here to deal with some elementary


details which may not be familiar to one side or to the other.

The whole subject of amulets is an immense one, and


is no general work of reference giving the ideas of
various lands.
Nor is this intended to deal with other
there

than Egyptian amulets, though

many

collateral

examples

EGYPTIAN AMULETS
are

Studying thus with a past civilisation

illustrate their use.

we are almost
of

order to explain tbem, and to

here introduced in

cut off from the largest class of amulets, those

animal and vegetable nature, so that this point of view


On the other hand the Egyptian
is but a partial one.

here

was so industrious in imitation, and believed so completely


in the virtue of models, that he carried out his ideas in

imperishable material more widely than any other people.

hundred and seventy different


amulets used in Egypt, and the amount of light thrown on
them by statements of their properties, or descriptive names,
renders Egypt one of the most favourable lands for a

The great

variety of over two

general study of the subject.


12.

must

In handling a subject which ramifies so widely, we

The
of
the
most
to
The model offer-

begin by some definitions and limitations.

principle

of

amuletic

virtue

sepulchral remains of the


ings, pictorial scenes of

provided

workers,

in

Egyptians.

life,

the

extends

and ushabti
tomb, are

figures of slave

based on

all

the

is the model of a dwelling house and


Beginning
in the early pyramid age there
furniture.
(4)
are the sculptured objects in relief, where the master is
portrayed as " beholding " all his farm and servants in full
activity, and hunting in the desert or on the river.
(5) As
the model was succeeded by the relief, so that was succeeded
in turn by the painting, beginning in the Vlth dynasty,
and fully developed in the Xllth. 1^6) Symbols were then
substituted for the objects such as the model altar, or vase,
or food, placed as an amulet with the body. (7) Besides
amuletic substitutions for real objects, amulets were
adapted to confer powers, such as the crowns, or sceptres, or
verbal charms stating that the deceased was a god and must
be obeyed as such. The wish to have actual objects buried
still lasts in Egypt where food and even a bed may be
placed with the dead.
In England the same feeling is by
no means extinct, as in 1912 a boot maker ordered that

besides the

there

tomb there

should be buried with

him

last,

hammer,

nails,

unfinished boots and a piece of leather.

such necessarily differ from amulets / It appears that we must define amulets broadly as objects
worn by the living in their being more extensive, and not (worn by the living, without any physiciil use but for magical
suspended from the person. As for the dead, so also for benefits, or placed with the dead, or set up in the house for
the living, there are some classes of amulets numerous
its magical protection, apart from deities for household
their
enough to form whole subjects in themselves, apart from
worship.
amuletic aspect such are the scarabs with royal names,
14. The material used for the present study is mainly
with other personal names, with charms, and with devices
the collection which I have made during the last thirty
of unknown purport
also the plaques with similar devices,
years in Egypt, now taken over by University College. At
and the foreign class of button seals. Each of these classes first a collection purchased by a visitor or worker in
is so important and numerous that we cannot include them in
Egypt is naturally miscellaneous and casual gradually
a detailed account with other amulets. Nor is it possible to
certain lines claim more interest, and besides the main
divide between amulets for the living and for the dead, though
pursuit of scarabs, tools, technical work, weights, and
principle of Similars

many

kinds belong exclusively to one or other category.

pottery, the curious variety of out-of-the-way amulets has

In general any object with a means of suspension on the

proved attractive. Further information was also obtained


from the regular excavations as to the positions in which
amulets are found upon the body, and the detailed accounts of
such here recorded are almost the only observations yet published on this matter.
The dates of various amulets were
also obtained from excavations, and in this
as in other
subjects
the miscellaneous material purchased is immensely
enhanced in its meaning and interest by the precise information gathered in scientific work. While the commoner
amulets are illustrated by splendid examples in the national
collections, there is no series nearly as complete as the
present one for the rarer and more obscure amulets, only

person, and not of immediate use or ornament,


classed as

an amulet.

The

must be

figures of the gods with loops for

suspension we include as amulets, while those which were

must be treated along with

stood on a base

all

other images

Unfortunately the detail of the suspending ring


not noted in catalogues where following descrip-

of divinities.

or hole is

have therefore accepted all figures under two inches


high ('05 m.) as amulets, and left larger figures apart. The

tions, I

great development of amulets for the dead

is

peculiar to

Egypt elsewhere they are found, but not with such variety
and detail. In China the substitutes of paper or pottery figures
of slaves, and paper dollars, is of the same purpose but the
great extent of symbolic amulets in Egypt is unparalleled.
13. The stages of the growth of the amulet system in
Egyptian burials can be historically traced more completely
;

than elsewhere.
historic,

In the earliest graves, such as the prewhole objects were buried. (2) In the later pre(1)

and early historic time, the objects were deliberately


broken or " killed." (3) In the early dynasties models of

historic

objects app3ar

besides the jars of grain there are small

model granaries

and joints of meat


and, in the Xth Xlth dynasties,

besides the jars of beer

here are modf>ls of food

ten being absent.

Besides this collection

many

early discoveries and pur-

chases of mine went to Miss Edwards for her collection,

bequeathed
objects

to University College

from

my

these, along with other

excavations that have been presented to

the college, are all included in the present catalogue.


In
order to preserve a record, the number of examples in the
original

Edwards

marked E, and those added


and discoveries are marked P. Of

collection is

by the Petrie collection

course, nothing resembling finality is possible in this, or


other, branch of archaeology; but the time has

come

any
for

EGYPTIAN AMULETS
taking stock of the subject, classifying the various details,

nouvel Empire, 1904, Caire)

and making a platform for planning further investigations


and seeing clearly the value of any fresh information.

and mythological references and figures and (E) references


from other countries, which may help us to understand
the ideas when no explanation remains in Egypt.
16. The amulets named in the MacGregor papyrus are
each stated to be of gold, which is omitted in the copy here
given.
There is also a list of amulets of Osiris given on the
upper part of the temple of Dendereh, and copied here
(pi. xlviii) from the pubheation by Mariettb, Dendereh,
iv, 87.
They are there classed according to their material,
and after each name of material a dividing line is here
inserted.
The materials named are Uher or Hei-u, which,
by the nature of the amulets and coming first, is probably
gold, perhaps a form of the Greek Khrusos.
An. en. deb,
probably " stone of Edfu " the house sign inMariette's copy
is probably the square block of stone.
Mefkat, Mefkat A men
Me/Icat of Kliaru (Syria,) this was a green mineral in general,
including turquoise, malachite, and probably chrysocolla: that
from Amen was probably western, from Kharu, Syrian.
Nesheii is green felspar.
Kartef? of Rutennu (Syria),
unknown.
Sef. s. taken ? Sef is the name of white quartz
(Kennard tablet), and taken is amethyst this is therefore

Other collections have been referred

from

partly

to,

catalogues published, such as the excellent ones of Turin,

and Cairo. The difficulty in using such is


in the Turin and
the defect of some information
St. Petersburg catalogues the details of form are often
vague in the Cairo catalogue the drawings are ample, but
St. Petersburg,

the nature of the material


the British

Museum

there

is

is

very imperfectly stated. Of


no detailed catalogue, and the

from double glass often makes the


It is hoped that the photographs here given of nearly all examples, and the definition
excessive reflection

material indistinguishable.

of the material, will leave but few uncertainties.

It

should

be noted that in many types this collection has been


severely weeded, so as to omit duplicates where of no
additional importance

whereas the national collections, by


by numerous duplicates, kept

their conditions, are swelled


for their beauty

and attractiveness, or obtained as part

The

of large acquisitions.

scientific

depends upon the scope and variety

of

value of a collection
it,

rather than on the

brilhance of particular specimens.


15.

In

the treatment of this catalogue, the figures

may have

diverse

meanings

such

as

which

the vulture

would be

(D) various scattered allusions

are

amethystine quartz.

Shesteb, a late

Kes. ankk, alabaster.

Qo

is Qi/

or Qedu

is

form

of Khesdeb, lazuli.

unknown, another form

being used for the plummet and square which are

impossible, to determine in all cases which was the intended

usually of haematite, this was probably the material. Seller,


the " charming " stone, is unknown.
So also is Beket.

meaning. Such figures are therefore placed under the first


important heading to which any of them may refer, with

tie

cross-references from other headings.

reference

nevertheless classed togetlier, as

it

difficult,

It is needless to

or

Kkenein

give

minute vei'bal descriptions or dimensions, when the photographs are before the reader, and are of the actual size,
except in a very few instances which are specially noted.

The

first

principle of a

modern catalogue

usually jasper, as
is

it

numbers

17.

On examining

have

ascertained meanings

all

existing catalogues

including

it

These are

at the

should follow the real

life of

ing attached to each amulet

the subject

rather

(I)

may

The various

all.

be completely put in order under

which the amulets are here arranged.

the amulets of Similars, which are for influenc-

of

Powers, for conferring powers and

upon the dead


(III) the amulets of
which are entirely derived from the funeral
offerings, and are thus peculiar to Egypt
(IV) the amulets
for Protection, such as charms and curative amulets
(V) the
figures of Gods, connected with the worship of the gods
and their functions.
capacities, especially

Property,

the mean-

than any external

As international names are desirable in dealing with any


classification, and one word is preferable to a
description when handling a subject, it is best to have a
proper name for each class, independent of English. The
scientific

with their explanatory names, in a papyrus of that Book, belonging to the


Rev. William MacGregor, which is here transcribed from
of seventy-five amulets,

Similars

and

the photograph published by Dr. Capart (Z. A. S. xlv, 14)


(C) the analysis of the objects represented uiwn coffins in
Cairo, published by

these are dealt with last of

amulets

(II) the

These meanings of the amulets


are given by various sources principally by (A) the chapters
of the Book of the Dead which refer to the amulets
(B)
list

The

ing similar parts, or functions, or occurrences, for the wearer

feature of form or material.

the very full

five great classes, in

that of Cairo

wrong end, with a verbal description


supplemented by a picture. The modern conditions of
illustrations developed in the last few years have completely reversed the old idea, and there is no excuse now for
burdening a reader with a description of what can be
grasped with a tenth of the time and thought in a picture.
The principle of the arrangement of this catalogue is
that

tablet.

the two hundred and seventy different

meaning

Unhappily

Kennard

amulets in this volume are put

kinds of amulets found in Egypt, there are only about a


dozen which remain unclassed, and without any known

such description as

have begun

the material of the girdle

sard on the

of the

clear pictures of every object,


is

it is

below each column.

full and
and then to build upon that
needful to supplement the picture.
is to

is

amulet, but

may

TTouo),

be termed Homopoeic (from

I do,

or

make)

o/xos, like,

Dynatic (from Swoitos, able, powerful, adequate)

amulets Ktematic (from

M. Lacau (Sarcophages anterieurs au

or same,

the amulets of Powers

(cr^/xa,

we

call

the Property

goods, possessiuns)

the Pro-

tective amulets, Phylactic (from (^vXaxTiKos, fitted to guard,

EGYPTIAN AMULETS
familiar in the term " phylacteries ")

Gods, Theo2>horic (from

Our

and

and the amulets

of

this volume.

For purpose

is

here given, in the Contents of

Powers, or Dynatic.
Property, or Ktematie.

here stated without illustration have a second

Protection, or Phylactic.

6k2, or 184c

god,

<^opE(i>,

I bear, or wear).

classes then are called here amulets of

Similars, or Homopoeic.

Gods, or Theophoric.
Of these classes the Similars are undoubtedly the most
primitive, being found among races like the Esliimo who
have no other amulets, and being the basis of the Italian

The Powers and Property amulets are


Egyptian, and originate with the models of the

ideas of amulet.
entirely

funeral furniture, arising, therefore, after the development

The Protective amulets are a later


depending on quasi-medical ideas, or verbal incantations or prayers written down.
Lastly, the figures of Gods
belong to the age of a developed theology. The list of all
of the funeral system.
class,

these amulets of each class

each kind of amulet


has a number assigned to it, the same in the text and in
the plates; each separate specimen shown has a letter
added to the number as 6k, 184c, and duplicates which are

Otos,

The

of reference

number

as

3.

transliteration of

Egyptian

is

that followed in the

Student's History, except that the arm, din


its historical
its

equivalent

written equivalent

is

is rendered by
For the reed, a is continued, as
aleph whenever rendered in Semitic

o.

names, and the value i or ?/ is a theoretical early stage,


of which not a single transliteration is known.
The goldenheaded vulture is short a. For very familar names the
usual forms are retained, as Isis, Horus, Ea, etc.
In the record of specimens, groups are numbered which
have been found together a list of such groups is placed
at the end of the volume.
;

SYSTEM OF THE CATALOGUE


Name,

is

when not

name, with reference

the ancient Egyptian

Meaning,

is

is

the Egyptian

meaning

if

known

Am.

also that in

36

stated in dynasties, I to

XXX.

is

stated

The number
letter

it

refers to duplicates of

number

refers

to

the collection at

catalogued here;
collected

number

by

after

examples in each

with P.

is

1898.

Bibch,

Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities at

Rkisner,

G.,

Catalogue

of Amuleti.

Cairo

1908.

Golenischeff, W.

Turin.

Ermitage Impeiial.
1891. 386 pp.

Lanzone, R. V. Regio Museo di Torino.


1882.
484 pp.

Anti-

chita Egizie.

The Athens
(now

S.,

Inventaire de la Collection Egyptienne.

number

Peru-

fig.

1880.

St. Petersburg.

collection
.

74

pp.,

1897.

collec-

Catalogo

64 pp.,

Murray, M. A., Catalogue of Egyptian


Antiquities in National Museum.
1900.
Price.
Price, Hilton, Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities.

Petrie.

Bellucci, Dr. Giuseppe,

Perugia, 1908.

Edinburgh.

Univ. Coll.

stated the

158

Cairo.

number by Miss Edwards,

principal books referred to are

Bell.

is.

II Feticismo primitivo in Italia.

Museum.

University College, London,

Petrie, with E. the

mainly also collected by

The

it

of

the amulet

Bellucci.

Alnwick.

common

Gli Amuleti.

Alnwick.

of

fused rock, basalt.

far

Torino.

1904.

examples of each
material in this collection and in others which have been
published or noted. One new term is used for indurated
mud or ash, which is of the composition of slate, but without a slatey fracture. As no usual word was available, it is
here called Durite it has been usually confounded with the
Mateiial, includes the total

show how

di

Lanz. Lanzone, E. V. Dizionario di Mitologia Egizia.


1312 pp., 408 pi.
Lacau. Lacau, Sarcopliages anterieurs au nouvel Empire.

the lettered examples, not usually figured in the plates.

Collection, states the

Bellucci.

gia, 1907.

amulet

of the class of

the following letter refers to the specific example

where a number follows the

tion, to

fig.

Fet.

Figures, describes the figures in the plates from amulets


in University College.

esposizione

104 pp.

other lands for comparison.


Period,

aW

Collezione inviata

in dictionaries.

deUa

Mace.

collection is

in

from my notes.
The Murch
is from the notes of Mr. A. C.

New York)

CHAPTEE

III

AMULETS OF SIMILARS
HoMOPOEic Amdletb,
This class of amulets
but in Egypt
dead.

In order that the various functions of

life

made

should be

continued, models of the different parts of the body were


placed with the mummy.
Thus the amulets would ensure

in black steatite without a neck.

Figures.

2b

the seeing, hearing, taste, force to act, use of the hands

2,

activity of the dead in a future life

steatite,

(1

and then the animal

17),

were secured by the

These amulets

figures

Tep

the

which would

2,

felspar

Onyx

1,

Univ.

Collections.

26).

name

A, single face.

B, face front and back.

Period.

la,

blue-green

glaze,

bluer in hollows,

C,

Green glaze

Collection.

Univ. Coll. P.

2,

Ic

The uzat eye

power

it

is

2,

Murch

23,

6,

British

that of Horus, the

is

markings

might have the power

of seeing

(Cairo),

from Dahshur 28,100 (Cairo)


painted in IVth,
and Xllth, Rifeh (Manchester) (Gizeh and
;

Tarkhan
Rifeh,

cofiin.

Inlaid in Xllth dynasty, from Assyut 28,118

Period.

X a)

pi.

and many in Cairo.

Amber.

EYE.

4.

8.

FACE.

Name. Her means the face, always figured front view,


with a short, wide beard, different from that of Tep.
See
the foreign figure in Hierakonpolis, pi. i.
Meaning. While as a hieroglyph it means " facing " or
" over-against,"

Blue glaze

being derived from the feather pattern on a hawk's

Nam.
2.

3,

UZAT EYE.

Otherwise painted on the

flat

Israelite Cities, xxxvii a.

Materials.

black

The deceased being identified with Horus, he is able


to see by means of the eye of the god.
Varieties.
Sometimes inlaid with obsidian, white limestone, lazuli, blue glass, or copper, in the wood of the cofiin.

Hyksos and

xliv,

out.

and back, notch between two beards Ic, amber head


child?) and shoulders.
See as lb from Baft, in

front
(of

pi.

1.

P.

Coll.

in order that the deceased

lb, yellow green glaze, face

1,

As the eye of Horus it will be dealt with


under 138 to 142.
Here it is to be included as being
placed upon the left side of the coflBn, opposite to the head,

XXV Ptolemaic (?).

back, loop broken from top

2k,

Meaning.

head and shoulders.


Figures,

it

cheeks.

Varieties.

3.

Name.
below

of the bearded

Roman

Carnelian 10, Black steatite

Green

Museum

head from the


earliest times.
In the hieroglyph the beard is turned up
at the end, like the beard of the men of Punt, and the hair
is worn long
this seems to be an earlier type than that of
the historic Egyptian.
Meaning. The chief or head-man, but possibly referring,
as an amulet, to the power of the senses.
is

group 2
group 3
2d, e,

2b, carnelian,

Roman.

3.

Name.

(?); 2j, black steatite,

Materials.

Bone

HEAD BEARDED.

1.

2c, carnelian,

are classed here as parts of the body, from the head down-

ward

group

bone, group 5; 2f, blue glaze, group 12; 2f 2, carnelian,


group 7 (2a to f about Vlth dynasty); 2g, blue glaze,
black lines, XVIIIth dynasty 2h, onyx rudely cut as a face,

Roman

ensure the welfare of the body (18

2a, carnelian,

green felspar, group 9

and the feet, and other functions. Other similars would


ensure growth and flourishing, watchfulness, and protection
from wild beasts. In this way the safety, well-being, and
appropriate similar placed with the body.

26.

Varieties and Period.


In the Old Kingdom it is usually
roughly cut in carnelian or sard. In Eoman times it is

is the most primitive in its nature,


was mainly adapted to the service of the

it

Ari.

Meaning.

The power

Varieties.

Single, or three together.

XXIII

Period.
Figtires.

Roman

4ia,

(?),

of sight.

Roman.

green glaze

4a 2, gold

4b, blue-green glaze

4b

2,

square.

probably used as an amulet of the

of the senses.

Materials.

Green glaze

Collection,

IJmv, Coll. P.

4,

Gold
3,

E.

1.
1.

foil

same

found at Hawara,
4b 3, same, in a
;

AMULETS OF SIMILARS
in XVIIIth, of
In Vlth, carnelian, but rare
materials
various
in
common
glass
very
carnelian, gold or

EAR.

5.

Period.

Mes-zer, " Producing the distant," a functional

Name.

in

name.

The power

Meaning.

amulet, for conferring hearing


for gaining the ear of the god.

tablet,

Type

7a

yellow and white stripes, XVIII

carnelian

xlv),

(pi.

7a

7cc, gold (pi. xliii)

For

8a

2,

back, pierced with hole

flat

blue glaze

full

tablets see

Memphis

Materials.

Blue

Collection.

Univ. Coll. P.

8c,

green glaze on

blue glass, Zuweleyn

I.

7j, lazuli

glaze, 4.

basalt
3,

E.

1.

7j 7,

7h

Zuweleyn

71,

Power
Roman.

Figures.

See Labyrinth, xxxvi,

of speech.

Gold.

Position.

In mouth.

4,

red glass
;

7j 4,

black steatite

bronze 7j 9, 10, white limestone


7k 2, black
7k, dark brown jasper

7j 8,

7j 6,

3,

sard

7k

blue-green glaze

4,

green glaze, Illahun,

XXII

7m,

violet glaze,

bright blue inlay of crescent and heart sign

Material.

7p,

711

with

rough blue

Dendereh, group 21. Type C, 7o, light


7o 2, dark blue
green glaze, same marks on both side
Type D, 7n, blue glaze, Ptolemaic,
glaze, same marks.
Dendereh, group 26 7n 2, blue glass, burnt. This type

glaze, Ptolemaic,

p. 36.

Manchester 2, Oxford
Anthrop., 2, 1 each in Brussels, Munich, Boston, Chicago,
Glasgow, Leicester, Aberdeen, Bolton.
Univ.

Collection.

steatite

7h

serpentine

7j 3,

blue glaze, trace of wreath round shoulder, XVIII

(pi. xliv),

Period.

Meaning.

grey serpentine

3,

brown

7j 5,

green glaze

Nes.

green volcanic ash

7j 2,

(8, 9, 10, Nebeaheh)


and green serpentine, 7k

TONGUE.

6.

7d,

wreath and lotus pendant upon it, possibly


7f, red and
7e, red and white jasper
a vase model, XVIII
brown
7g,
white breccia 7f 2, red and white breccia burnt
see type E
7g 2, blue paste 7h, light blue glass 7h 2,
;

for suspension

2,

green glass with

7c, clear

5a, b, blue glaze,

Figures.

Name.

7bb

A, 7a, 7b,

green felspar

3,

violet glaze, with

XVIII.

Period.

schist.

calcite

B, ear incised on a tablet.

A, simple ear.

Varieties.

when on a prayer

Ptolemaic.

Figures.

mummy

when a

hearing;

of

XXVIth.

P.

Coll.

2,

appears also in the heart scarabs, where the akhet bird


figured

on the back.

Type E,

is

7g, calcite.

Carnelian and sard 26, Basalt 19, Blue glaze


16, Green glaze 15, Haematite 15, Variegated glass 9, Lazuli
Materials.

7.

The physical heart

Names.

the chief part


the heart

HEART.

is

is

named

as referring to the will

named

opert

on the

coffins,

ab,

and

also hati

but the amulet of

and in the

title of

the chapter (Lacau, p. 125). The chapters relating to the


heart in the Book of the Dead are the 26th, to be engraved

on lazuli, " Whereby the heart is given to a person in the


underworld " the 27th, to be engraved on green felspar,
" Whereby the heart of a person is not taken from him in
the underworld " the 28th and 29th with the same title
the 29th B, " Another chapter of the heart upon carnelian.
I am the Heron, the soul of Ra, who conducts the glorious

Limestone 8, Green jasper 8, Steatite 6,


Gold 5, Quartz 4, Beryl 4, Red limestone 4,
Red jasper 4, Obsidian 3, Prase 3, Agate 3, Blue glass 3,
Amethyst 2, Red glass 2, Red and white breccia 2, 1 each of
Brown jasper. Green felspar. Green volcanic ash. Pink
granite, Granite, Calcite, Alabaster, Black glass. Bronze,
8,

ones to the Duat.

upon the

earth, to do whatsoever their ka willeth.

to

come

earth to do whatsoever his ka willeth."

forth

15 from top

Cairo

Collections.

51,

Univ.

Coll.

P.

27,

E. 14,

St.

Petersburg 33, Turin 21, Athens 17, Alnwick 13, Price

Edinburgh

7,

Murch

9,

7.

8.

upon the

A, plain without side projections.

side projections of arteries.

C, with

B, with

marks on the

which resides in the heart, as


E, with the sun's disc over it, as 7g.

Names.

fig.

BREAST.

Menz.

Power

Meaning.

of lactation.

An

Italy for the increase of milk (Bell.,

ivory ball

is

worn

in

xii, 11).

Flat to rounded.

Varieties.

Period.

All Ptolemaic and

wax

Roman.

Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 20;


8b, blue glaze with black nipple, Dendereh, Ptolemaic,
group 21.
Figures.

8a,

Materials.

front,

D, with the akhet bird, representing the

spirit or illumination

is

Meaning. The power of living and will. In Italy a heart


of bone is worn against the evil eye and heart disease
(Bell., xii, 10 xiii, 11, 18).

o.

2 on left breast

It is

backs of some hearts and heart scarabs. The 30th chapter


is that inscribed on the heart scarabs, and will be given
under 90, the heart scarab.

7m,

low on chest.

upon the

This chapter

referred to by the figure of the heron or akhet bird

as figs.

to

granted to their hae to come forth

granted to the ha of the Osiris

Varieties.

6 on neck

Positions.

down

It is

8,

6,

Gilt wood.

Porphyry

Serpentine

Wood

7n.

Blue-green glaze

gilt 1.

Position.
Collections.

IQ

gilt,

On

breast.

Univ. Coll. P.

3.

1,

Gold

foil

1,

Wkx

gilt li

AMULETS OF SIMILARS
ARM.

9.

THUMB BETWEEN FIRST AND

FIST,

13.

SECOND FINGERS.

Names. Bent Qeb forearm Remen.


Meaning. Power of action.
;

A, bent.

Varieties.

Period.

Sexual power

Meaning.

Type B, green

glaze.

Green glaze

13a, dark blue glaze

Figures.

2.

Univ. Coll. P.

Turin

1,

Ka, from

1.

ARMS.

and intention.

of will

XVIII.

Figure.

10a, blue glaze, flat back;

2,

green glaze,

Kiqqeh, 257.

Blue or green glaze.


Collections.
Cairo 2, Univ. Coll. P.

Material.

HAND

11.

Power

Right and Left.

Mus.

1.

green glaze

Name.

lib,

c, d,

carnelian

Zaraby.

He,

See Deshasheh,

Univ. Coll. P.

Bone

3,

Grey

2,

Price

3,

Mus. 5, Turin
Of those where the side

P. 12, Brit.

Coll.
8.

4,

smaller, group 2; 15b, carnelian

2,

hands.

left

Sard or Carnelian 21, Glaze


Univ. Coll. P. 15 (groups

Collections.
4, Brit,

Mus.

PHALLUS.

6, sard,

group

group 13

12d,

e,

groups

Roman.

12b

12c 2

crescent

4,
4,

6,

7,

12a

3, sard,

group

12b, sard, group 3;

Collections.

Petersburg

and other signs on base

2.

Univ. Coll. P. 5 (groups 23, 27), E. 2, St.


The whole figures (16e, green glaze) are

Graeco-Roman age, and there is no trace of any


such amulet in use by Egyptians. Univ. Coll. P. 1, E. 1,

entirely of

12d 2, steatite
bird on base; 12e (pi. xlvi), steatite, crescent.
This type,
12d, e, seems to be Roman, under Syrian or Asianic
influence.
See Deshasheh, xxvi, 17, 19, 20, 24
3 of
steatite,

2,

12b

green felspar, group 3


12c, bone,
sard, group 1
12c 5, group 8
12d,
;

40).

16a, blue glaze with yellow


13b, red glass, and
group 23 16c, d, gold, Memphis, group 27.
Materials.
Gold 2, Green glaze 4, Green glaze with
yellow points 1, Red glass 2, Haematite 1.

16b

12a, sard, group 3;

Murch

3.

Figures.

VI

1.

1, 2, 7, 14),

Moza, Moza-kherti entire (MacG.


Only Roman.

Period.

Right and Left.

Figures.

2, 8,

Name.

Vigorous action, as in the determinative hiero-

of action.

Peiiod.

Khefo.

Vaneties.

leg carved in

15a, carnelian whitened,

15a

16.

12a 4

LEG.

Uort.

Materials.

is

FIST CLENCHED,

12.

glyph

1.

Univ.

noted there are 12 right hands, 16

Meaning.

13.

showing ankle bone,


15b 2, light
brown agate; 15c, light red agate, showing heel; 15c 2,
similar, smaller; 15c 3, sard, group 7; 16d, milky and
brown agate; 15e, sard; also 15e 2, 3 15e4, group 1;
16e 5, 6, group 2 15f, sard, group 14.

Wrist.

Murch

Name.

Mahasna, tomb

Blue glaze.

Figures

left leg;

1.

Collections.

2.

SIDE BY SIDE.

In Italy a
Power of walking.
bone is an evil eye charm (Bell., xiii, 19).
Period.
Vth and Vlth dynasties.

1 grey agate.

Carnelian 29, Green glaze

Position.

Univ. Coll. P.

Meaning.

2 of carnelian

3,

(?)

OPEN.

llg, green glaze,

Materials.

4,

ii, blue glaze,

Collection.

of action.

11a, bone, group 6

xxvi, 4, 10, 13

Cairo

Figure,
Material.
2, Brit.

VI.

Figures.

agate

VI.

15.

Varieties.

Peiiod.

f,

United action

Period.

Det.

Meaning.

Turin

Unknown.

Name.

Meaning.

10a

4, L. 1,

TWO HANDS

14.

The power

Period.

Name.

Cairo R.

implying the

activities of the will.

Meaning.

dark blue glaze

13b,

Blue glaze.

Collections.

dynasty onwards

Ist

with yellow points, group 22.


Materials.

TWO

10.

Name.

eye in Italy,

Roman.

Period.

Collections.

evil

Right and Left.

Varieties.

glaze,

Turin.
Materials.

Against

(?).

Bell., xv, 11.

VI.

Greenish-blue

Figures.

Unknown.

Name.

B, straight.

green glaze.
17.

SMA.

carnelian

Materials.
felspar 1,

Carnelian 23, Steatite

Brown limestone

Position.
Collections.

Name. iSma, " union " (Lacau, 80); also By, "joy" or
" ecstasy " (Lacau, 88) ; comp. French " fille de joie."

brown limestone.
1,

Bone

2,

Blue glaze

2,

Green

Tombs,

Univ. Coll. P. 17, Price

those noted there are 15 right

flsts,

Union, see earliest form Ist dynasty. Royal

Meaning.

1.

Wrist.
3, Brit.

5 left

Mus.

2.

Of

ii,

Peiiod.

amulets

flsts.

11

II.

Form

all of

figured on

XXVI.

VI

XIII

coffins as

an emblem

AMULETS OF SIMILARS
17a, b,

Figures.

c, e,

Obsidian 25

Materials.

Yellow limestone

1,

Base

Position.
Collections.

Petersburg

2,

Position.

On neck

lower part of

stomach

obsidian; 17d, black porphyry.

Haematite

(?),

2,

Black porphyry

of

Cairo

stomach, umbilicus.
Univ. Coll.

16,

Alnwick 2, Price

St.

P.

5,

Turin

St.

2,

33,

man "=Bufo (?)

frog

is

Ahnekh

Ab-nekhekh,

for

the

swiftness

and

would appear to symbolise fecundity. A bowl with frogs


modelled all over the interior and round the edge, found at
Tell Rotab (Hf/ksos and Israelite Cities, pis. xxxii, xxxivB),
There
might well be for giving potions against sterility.
is, however, another meaning suggested by a frog-pattern
lamp, with the quotation " I am the Resurrection " (Lanzone,

Edinburgh

4,

FLY.

Group

19d, d 2, red jasper

19f, black glaze; 19f,

string

xlvi); 19j,

Period.

19k, dragon

Many

glaze 3,

porpyhry

1,

18c, Bufo, ivory,

prehistoric

18e, limestone,

colours are

much

less

Quartz crystal

common
2,

Lazuli

Serpentine

5,

Carnelian

3, Steatite 2,

7,

Lime-

3, Diorite 2, 1 each of Haematite, Chalcedony, Agate,


Amethyst, Porphyry, Calcite, Violet glaze, Red glaze.
Ivory, Shell.
See Desliaaheh, xxvi, 25.

stone

xliv); 19h, green glaze (pi.

(pi.

XII,

Kahun

See also

(xlv).

1,

Glazed steatite

Univ. Coll. P. 52, Murch

1.

Mus.

6, Brit.

Bee

2.

PAPYRUS SCEPTRE.

Uaz (MacG.

Name.

50).

Flourishing,

Meaning.

as

green

of

youth.

plants;

" The chapter


Chapter 159 of the Book of the Dead reads
of the column of green felspar put on the neck of the
:

deceased.

thou who comest out every day, in the divine


she
a big voice, who goeth round

who has

which

is

on the

Period.

bull.

She

is

mummy

takes hold of the potent formulae of her father, the

Renent."

XXVI XXX, the age when the

goddess Uazet

was most worshipped.


Figures.

20a, black

black, white

and yellow

XVIIIth dynasty
Kahun, XII 19g,

paste,

pi. Iviii.

house, she

Hawara, XII 18f,


limestone, rude scrolls, and uaz pattern on base, Hawara,
XII; 18g, Rana, bronze; 18h, Rana, bronze; 18], Rana,
bright red glazed pottery, yellow eyes, late XVIII; 18k,
Rana, green glaze, XVIII 18k 2, Rana, violet glaze, sa sign
on base, XVIII 181, Bufo, calcite, group 13, Vlth dynasty
18m, Bufo, black and yellow serpentine 18n, green felspar
18o, green glass, two latter for inlaying; 18p, four frogs on
base, blue glaze, black marks, two crocodiles, head to tail,
incised on base.
Materials. Green
Glazed pottery 38, Glazed stone 3,
Prase 8, Green felspar 4, Green jasper 2, Glass 2. Other
18d, cut on a Nerita shell

pink limestone,

Necklaces.

Collections.

others in the Old

18a, Bufo, hard grey steatite; 18b, Rana(?),

Figures.

c,

yellow glaze, late XVIII.

Serpentine

Position.

examples are known from the prehistoric

18a, b;

greenish-grey serpentine

4,

fly,

19b,

Yellow glaze 30, Blue paste 18, Gold 4, Green


Lazuli 3, Jasper 2, Pink limestone 2, Green

20.

Bronze

of

of

Kingdom, as 181;
many in the XVIIIth and XXIInd dynasties, as 18j, k and
some in the XXVIth.
as

found with

flies

in Cairo.

Materials.

four frogs.

times,

is

19e, gold,

212, blue

green glaze, Kahun, XII

Naqada,
C.

Kames

19a, green serj)entine

Figures.

131e

B. Group of three frogs.

collar of gold

Varieties.
The fly with rounded wings appears distinct
from a sharper-bodied form with pointed wings.
Prehistoric, XII and XVIIL
Period.

Varieties.

separately

in

the jewels of Aah-hotep and

the lamp.

A. Single frog.

Univ. Coll. P. 20,

1.

The great

thus decorated.

prehistoric

There appear to be two more species represented, a wide form, the toad, with the legs bidden by the
body, Bufo viridis ; and a slender form, the frog, with the legs
outstanding, and often ribbed down the back, Rana mascareniensis.
These are not however generally distinguished in

manner

the

Diz. Mit. 853), which has been accepted as indicating the


meaning of the frog. As however the frog is one of the
commonest types of lamps {Roman Ehnasya, pi. Ixiii, Ixiv),
there may be no connection between it and a text quoted on

We may note

1,

which the decoration is named


almost indicates that there was a corps of aides de camp

for 100,000.
of birth,

it

collections.

1,

Ofef (Z. A. S., 1883, 78).


Meaning. The collar of gold flies, given to a very active
(Beeasted Records, ii, 28, 585,
fighter in XVIIIth dynasty
587) suggests that the fly was an emblem of activity or

Toad.

The tadpole is the hieroglyph


emblem of Heqt, the goddess

Meaning.

The

(1)

Name.

FROG AND TOAD.

Heqt=Rana, Frog.

Names.
" spotty old

arm

right

2.

19.

18.

(7)

Petersburg 14, Murch 11, Turin 10, Alnwick 10, Price

Athens

9,

on chest

(1).

Cairo

Collections.

1.

(1)

and white glass, Tahutmes III 20b,


glass, XVIII
20c, c 2, green glaze
;

20d, d 2, d 3, green glaze faded

green-gone-brown glaze

felspar; 20f 6, 7, green glaze


dull green calcite

20e

e 10,

20f 2, haematite
;

20g,

green glaze 20f,


20f 3
5, green
;

brown limestone; 20g2,

20h, blue glaze, XVIII

sceptre, like 20c, green glaze,

(?).

yellow leaves,

stem

is

of the

inscribed

Klwnsu nefer hotep upt renpet nefer, " Khonsu-nefer-hotep


open a good year." See green felspar amulet of Khaemuas
(Maeietxb, Serapeum, iii, xx).
Materials.
Green glaze 38, Blue glaze 35, Green felspar
16, Beryl 4, Prase 2, Green diorite 2, Green calcite 1 thus
Of other colours
more than two-thirds are green or blue.
;

12

AMULETS OF SIMILARS
there are Haematite 14, Lazuli

Blue glass
Schist

1,

Steatite

Gold

2,

Brown limestone

1,

Basalt

2,

Serpentine

1,

Carnelian

8,

Black and white glass

2,

],

2,

Meaning.

1.

Valour, as in the

Name.

xxvi, 1 lazuli.

Lazuli

Materials.

am

safe

if it is

not injured, I

receives no cut, I receive

no

am

Name.

who

Period.

resides in Pu.

He

neshem.

is

(deceased)

makes

his

Tum

whilst

As these are always

Period.

XXVIth

of

Eoman.

8).

all

the previous,

386

24h,

j,

Natural claw, Shurafa, Eoman,

Eed porphyry

Materials.

Bronze

hard stone they probably

claw

fish

green serpentine;

c,

tomb

Mahasna,

sard,

24g,

Cray

Elk's claw (Bell., xiv,

2,

Green serpentine

1,

Actual claw of large bird, vulture

5,

Sard

1,

1.

(?)

Univ. Coll. P. 10.

Collection.

dynasty, before glass became

for amulets.

Figures.

21a,

green felspar, fine colour, incised

dull green felspar, in relief; 21c, dull green felspar

25.

21b,

21c

Name.

2,

Green

Matetials.

felspar

21,

Beryl

Serpentine

3,

1,

Throat

(1)

Middle of chest, and shoulders (5).


5, Turin 4, Univ. Coll. P. 4,

ache (P.

xxviii,

Cairo 10, Alnwick

Petersburg

27)

27)

of left side,

Wolf's, for dentition (P. xxviii, 28).

quartan fever (P. xxx,

JACKAL HEAD.

15

30), evil eye,

or perhaps for watchfulness.

Fossil shark's,

v. VI.

Am.

58, Fet. 35).

22b, yellow sard, group 3


group 13 22c 2, carnelian, group 7 22d, pink
steatite.
22d 2, minute carnelian, group 10 22e, bone
22e 2, carnelian, group 7
22f, carnelian
22f 2, same,
ruder, group 1
22g 2, green felspar,
22g, green felspar
group 30
22h, j, green limestone
22 k, carnelian
22 1, m, n, o, blue glaze, Zaraby, Vlth dynasty 22p, ebony,
;

XXII

Period.

xxviii,

eye teeth, for periodic

28

xxxii, 50).

Fossil shark teeth.

Glazed

set

to

Eoman.

28a, tooth of shark, fossil, one of the Lamnidae,

Figures.

in copper

28b, tooth of crocodile set in silver

tooth of crocodile set in gold

in bone;

Sard and carnelian 16, Blue glaze 8, Green


Green limestone 2, Lazuli 1, Bone 1, Wood 1.

Matenals.

Collection.

pottery figure.

xii, 5).

eye (Bell.,

Dolphin's, infant's fright (P. xxxii, 48).


and lightning, (Bell., xi, 29).

Crocodile teeth.

Varieties.

xlv.

Position.

boar's, evil eye (Bell.,

dentition

and aphrodisiac (Pliny,

fevers

xii, 9,

Deer's, repels

xii, 8).

Pig's, dentition (Bell., xii, 3). Boar's tusk, evil

Crocodile's right tooth, aphrodisiac

Figures. 22a, bone, group 8

felspar 2,

Wild

Dog's,

hydrophobia (Bell.,

Horse's, evil eye (Bell.,

xiii, 1).

serpents (P. xxviii, 42).

22c, calcite,

Hyaena, toothstomach, nightmare


animals in hunting

3.

Name. Unknown.
Meaning. To find the way in the future world, as the
jackal was " the opener of ways " {np-uatu) in the desert
Period,

pain in

of right upper, to strike

(P. xxviii, 27).


22.

of friend's

Central Africa (Leicester Museum).

(P. xxviii,
3, St.

(Pliny, xxviii, 11).

Leopard's, to gain aid

favour (P. xxviii, 25).


spirit.

Collections.

Human tooth, for toothache

Child's, first shed, for pains (P. xxviii, 9). Lion's, for gaining

1.

Position.

TOOTH.

Nazhi.

Meanings.

half as large again, dull green felspar.

pi.

Museum).

3).

24k.

pi. xiv,

his

xi,

24a, red porphyry; 24b,

bronze, Ulahun,

dwelling, his limbs will never be crushed."

belong entirely to the

CLAW.

green serpentine, probably claws

f,

prehistoric

abode in the

resides in

e,

1.

Eoman.

Prehistoric,

Figures.
24d,

1.

Leopard's claw used for protection from wild

against evil eye (Bell.,

has arrived, he found the stone at Shenemu, as

enclosure of the great god;

Turin

1,

beasts. Central Africa (Leicester

not injured

Greenglaze

1,

Og&t.

Meaning.

Said by Tahuti, arise,

cut.

in peace, lord of Heliopolis, lord

When Shu

Price

Univ. Coll. P.

24.

it is safe, I

Sard

Blue paste

1,

Wrist.

Collections.

To be as durable as neshem stone green felsChapter 160 of the Book of the Dead is as follows
par.
" Giving the column of green felspar. I am the column of
green felspar, which cannot be crushed, and which is raised
by the hand of Tahuti. Injury is an abomination to it. If

common

Mahasna, tomb 461. Deshasheh,

23, blue paste,

Figures.

Uaz.

Meaning.

name

wild

v.VI.

Period,

PAPYRUS ON A PLAQUE.

21.

its

from

protection

for

beasts.

Position.

come

ao pehti, "great and

title

if it

used

Possibly

valorous."

Forehead (1)
throat (1); top and middle
rows on chest (11) stomach (1, Dendereh), or low on
stomach (2, Nebesheh, Abydos).
Collections.
Cairo 45, Turin 34, Univ. Coll. P. 17, E. 9,
St. Petersburg 18, Price 10, Alnwick 8, Athens 4, Murch 3,
Edinburgh 2.
Position.

LEOPARD HEAD.

28.

Name. Peh.

glaze

28e, blue-green glaze,

1,

18

Shell

1,

2Sc,

Eoman;

blue-green

2Sf,
;

28h, tooth

tied to knotted cord, pi. xviii, 131f.

Materials.

Univ. Coll. P. 27.

28d, figure of a tooth carved

25g, tusk carved from shell, prehistoric

of hyaena

Wrist.

Actual teeth

Carnelian

1.

4,

Green glazed pottery

2,

Bone

AMULETS OF SIMILARS
On neck

Potition.

cord knotted.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

Meaning.

Murch

8,

Protection from locusts


Prehistoric, XVIII,

Peiiod.

1.

26a, b, grass-green

Figures.

LOCUST.

26.

Si-nehem, possibly " son of Nehemat," a goddess.

Name,

Limestone

Matenals.

CHAPTEE

and yellow

Yellow glaze

1,

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

(?).

Eoman.

Turin

2,

1,

XVIII.

glazes.

Green glaze

2,

Murch

1.

1.

IV

AMULETS OF POWERS
Dynatio Amulbtb, 27

The

upon the dead by means

idea of conferring powers

of amulets, is a logical

development

continuance of the faculties.

of the previous idea of

the

If

hand amulet could

61.

Throat (1) breast (5).


Collections.
Athens 13, Alnwick 8, Univ.
St. Petersburg 2, Murch 2.
Position.

E.

Coll. P. 4,

1,

give the power of action, so the amulet of the sceptre which

the

hand

held, could confer the

sceptre in real

When

life.

various kinds of powers


carried out by

wagtail

crown.

Name.

be conferred.

Each

Za.

Meaning.

This was

Virility.

Period.

of hieroglyphs of the ideas, as the

VI.
29a, sard, group 7;

Figures.

by emblems, as the head-rest or


or by models of objects, as the stairs or the
duckling

or

plummet

means

could

DUCKLING.

29.

power connected with the

once this idea was grasped, the

29b, bone, group 6.

of these kinds of

1.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

In this class of

Bone

1,

Necklace.

Position.

amulets gave the powers of

qualities, or of conditions, or of authority.

Sard

Materials.

amulets they act by symbolism of some kind, and not as

2.

MAN'S GIRDLE TIE.

30.

direct similars like the previous class.

Name.
27.

WAGTAIL.

Meaning.

Conferring greatness
27a, b,

bone, group 5

27b

2,

smaller,

car-

2,

Carnelian

Figures.

21

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

30a,

3,

Ba.

BIRD.

Human soul, probably derived from large-faced


A, plain.

Va/rieties.

B, double.

D, spread

C, crowned.

XXVI

Figures.

head 28a 2, violet glass


green and black glaze 28c, green

28b, double, side by side,

and black glaze; 28d, blue and black

Price

30f,

30g, dull blue glazed ball, alternate

disc,

XXV

30h,

red jasper

Gold 1, Green glaze 12, Blue glaze


Black glaze 1, Dark blue glass, C

1,

Chest (Hawara)

Collections.

to Ptolemaic.

28a, violet glass, white

8,

1,

Eed

1,

1.

Position.

wings.
Period.

Materials.

jasper

See Mahasna, xxxiv, tomb 435, gold.

Purple glaze

owl living in tombs.

Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 20

gilt,

with rams' heads bearing


(pi. xlvi).

full of face?).

Meaning.

wax,

dark blue glass, type

Ha-ran-herot (MacG. 49, for Haru-neher,

Memphis

Sams collection; 30d,blue glaze, XIX dynasty (?)

(pl.xliv); 30e,

Name.

Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group


30b 2, green glaze 30c,

blue glaze,

30b, light blue glaze,

green glaze,

HUMAN-HEADED

28.

C,

to Ptolemaic.

1.

Necklace.

Position.

may imply

B, on open-work ball bead.

A, pendant.

XIX

Period.

Bone

feet " (L. 113): the plural of life

between two uas.

nelian, group 10.

Materials.

upon the earth that

(?).

VI.

Figures.

lives (pi.)

a belief in reincarnation.
Varieties.

Period.

"Many

Life.

beneath his

is

Sign for " great," ur.

Name.

Onkh, Onkh-er-ta kher-redui-f (LkCkV, 113).

Meaning.

1, St.

Turin

8,

Petersburg

Cairo

on
8,

feet (Dendereh).

Univ. Coll. P.

6,

E.

1,

1.

81.

glaze, Ptolemaic,

Name.

group 21.

Green glaze 3, Blue glaze 8, Grey glaze 1,


Eed glass 2, Lazuli 2, White glass 1, Blue and white glass 3,
Blue glass 7, Green glass 1, Black glass 1 D, Gold inlaid
(Hor-uza, Hawara).

NEFER.

Nefer, supposed to be derived from the heart

and

windpipe, as the markings are similar to those upon the

Materials.

ab sign.

Meaning.

Period.

14

Beauty or excellence.
XVIII.

AMULETS OF POWERS
31a

31a, blue glaze;

Figures.

2,

obsidian; 31b

tinued to the Xllth, and then also painted on

XVIIIth dynasty.
Materials.
Gold 6, Haematite

gold,

2,

Obsidian

1,

Blue glaze

1.

small amulets,

Necklace.

Position.

7,

E.

Petersburg

1, St.

rough

2.

21

SISTRUM.

32.

Name.

Meaning.

Joy,

Emblem

the dance.

of

"

XXVI.

Period.

Meroe

32a 2, small, blue


glaze 32b, green glaze, Hathor head with wig.
Materials.
Green felspar 1, green glaze, 3, blue glaze, 1.
;

Univ.

Collections.

E.

1,

Price

Athens

1,

MacG.

^"

'

37).

fringe,

Joy, health.

Varieties.

A, plain.

Left breast,

Menkhet (Lacau, 441

Petersburg 11, Edinburgh

the

name shows

life

the person

Pedu-ast, son of Zed-nebt-amu-auf-red "


33c, c 2, blue glaze, plain

on the

top.

33b, light green

33d, dark green

Bast on the stem, Nehebka

(?)

on the disc, reverse " says Bast of (pa) Bast " 33e, pi. xliv,
light green glaze, group 16.
Materials. Blue glaze 13, Green glaze 11, Green felspar 2,
;

Bronze

1,

wood 1.
Back of neck

Gilt

Position.

(4

at

Nebesbeh), lower chest

the

Petersburg

and mer

HEAD-REST.

(L. 105).

Restoration of the head, after primitive prethe

" Chapter of the

The 166th chap. B.D. reads

corpse.

Awake thy sufiferings are


Thou art awaked when thy head is above the
allayed, N.
horizon.
Stand up, thou art triumphant by means of what
has been done to thee. Ptah has struck down thine
Headrest.

It

art Horus, the son of Hathor, the flame

henceforth.
Varieties.

Thy head

On

will never be carried

coffins

are

35c 17

1.

wood

(L.

110).

is

only a modern guess.

Dead reads

The 155th chapter

" Here

is

of

thy backbone thou

VI

to

Roman.

35a, sard, Vlth dynasty

35c, c

Hawara

(?)

35b, blue glaze,

2c 12, pale green, Hawara, XXVI;

35c 13, 14,

35c 15, yellow steatite 3Sc 16, white limestone


35d, pale green
35e, pale green,
22, green glaze
;

much

peg of the column

35f, green, the top

developed 35g, green and brown glaze, crowned, and with


two arms holding ums sceptres 35h, blue-green glaze, with
35k,
onkh and uas on neb sign
35j, micaceous steatite
;

named

blue glass

351, blue glass, three

yellow glass,

Anpu

holding the zad

double capitals
;

35m,

35n, green glass, zad

35o (xliv), blue glaze faded,


crowned with sma feathers
d, on pi. iv.
b.
c,
30d.
See
with
39,
XIX,
glaze
Green
191, Blue glaze 56, Lazuli 87,
Materials.
Carnelian 37, Grey glaze 6, Red glass 2, Gold 2, Obsidian
;

1,

away."

4,

Throat

Coll.

P.

Athens

copied in Ptolemaic time.

16

(2)

across stomach

Collections.

Solid block head-rests were

Yellow steatite

Blue glass
Position.

(17)

the shen head-rest

(Lacau, 105), the mer head-rest (L. 105) and the head-rest
of ash, cedar

4,

3,

has been ordered what should be done to thee.


born of a
flame, to whom his head has been restored after it had
been cut off. Thy head will never be taken from thee

Thou

red glass

Urs, of various woods, cedar (Lacau, 110), shen

paration of

E.

Murch

Figures.

XVIII
84.

Meaning.

4,

here is thy spine thou still-heart. Put it close


have given thee the water thou needest.
Here
I have brought to thee the zad, in which thy heart
it is.
Said on a zad of gold inlaid into the substance of
rejoiceth.
sycomore wood, and dipped into the juice of ankhamu. It
is put on the neck of this Khu, he arrives at the doors of the
Duat, and he comes forth by day, even though he be silent.
This zad is put in its place on the first day of the year, as
is done to the followers of Osiris."
Varieties.
A, plain.
B, crowned with feathers and horns.
double.
D,
with
two
apes (MacG. 74). E, with Hathor.
C,
still-heart

Price 11, Turin 7, Univ. Coll. P. 4, E. 2, St.

2.

Name.

Price

4,

ZAD.

85.

Stability or duration.

of the

Period.

Collections.

enemies.

Book

to thee.

(Abydos).

(L. 105),

Nilometer

of

Meaning.

was begotten at the great festival of Bubastis. Head and


arms of Hathor 33a 2, light green glaze, " Hapi born of
;

Turin

5,

Probably the four columns


Name. Zad (MacG. 43).
which supported the heaven {Meddim, 31, xiii) later mistaken by the Egyptians for the backbone of Osiris. The

name

B. inscribed.

Pedu-heb-bast eternally "

glaze, three cats

low on stomach (Den-

left foot,

1.

33a, light green glaze, " says Bastet, give

glaze, plain

Green glaze 3,
Diorite, Wood,

Cairo 34, Alnwick 15, Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.
St.

XXVI.

Figures.

6,

Meaning.
Period.

to

With a

Menat.

large and

stone."

&^^'
Name.

2,

blue glaze (xlvi)

34f,

Blue glaze

70,

COUNTERPOISE OF COLLAR.

33.

dereh), neck (Abydos).

Coll. P. 2,

(xlvi).

each of Red glaze. Dark glaze,

2, 1

Brown

haematite

c, c 2, c 3, d,

Haematite

Position.

32a, green felspar,

Figures.

apple-green glaze

Basalt

Hathor.

as

blue glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group

green glaze, Ptolemaic

2,

Ptolemaic.

(pi. iv),

Materials.

in

especially

34e

34ig,

Sesh-shet (MacG. 16).

Me

con-

coffins

XXVI

34a, b, b 2,

Figures.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

First in tombs of Ilnd dynasty, full size

Period.

(pi. xliv),

8,

23,

1.

top of chest and base of chest

(8).

Cairo 64, St. Petersburg 53, Turin 40, Univ.

E. 11, Alnwick

Murch

2.

8,

Price 10, Edinburgh 9,

AMULETS OF POWERS
SQUARE.

86.

Figures.

Name. Kheses, square, connected with Seqcq, the plummet (see next) a play of words similar to the variation of
two Arah words for glass, Qizaz and Zigag.
;

Meaning.

by kings

Eectitude

whereas this

is

not the hap sign, carried

It is

(?).

in festival, as that

acute-angled and equal-sided,

is

i-ight-angled

and unequal, and

is

always

associated with the plummet.

XXVI

Period.

36a, b, b 2,

Figures.

c, d, e,

e 2,

haematite

f,

group 21

36g

2,

36g, blue

green glaze

Haematite 46, Yellow limestone 4, Basalt 3,


Green glaze 4, Blue glaze 2, Lazuli 1.
Position.
Top row on chest, or left breast (6), with
Alaterials.

plummet; stomach.
Univ. Coll. P. 10, E.

Collections.

Alnwick

6,

Turin

4,

2,

Edinburgh 3, Athens

3,

St.

Petersburg

9,

Murch

1.

Price

1,

PLUMMET.

37.

Seqeq (see previous).


Meaning. Making equilibrium.

Qeqt, determined by a
Aswan, where the sun is in
equilibrium between north and south at midsummer.
Probably worn to impart an evenly-balanced mind, which
is held up as a great virtue of character in the Proverbs.
Penod. XXVI to Eoman.

the

is

name

37a, b, b 2,

Figures.

of

c, c 2, d, e,

e 2,

Obsidian

Green glass

Position.

4,

Black jasper

Throat (1) chest (6) stomach


Univ. Coll. P. 9, E. 1.
;

haematite

37f, blue

Univ. Coll. P. 8, E. 2, Alnwick 10, Cairo

Petersburg

Murch

Turin

9,

6,

Price 2, Athens 2,

and were probably not truly distinguished by the


The Materials and Collections stated here are
therefore restricted to tliose which can be verified.
logues,

Egyptians.

OSTRICH PLUMES.

39.

Names. Shuti, the two plumes or Shed-shed.


Meaning. The two ostrich plumes were supposed to fly
away in the wind, bearing the king's soul (Sethe in Mahasna,
19), and the pair of plumes therefore were provided as a
vehicle for the soul of the deceased.
The single plume is
probably the emblem of Maat.
Varieties.
Double plume. Single plume.

XIX

Period.

white

to Ptolemaic.

39a, b, obsidian

limestone

Edinburgh

Name.
ceremony

wax

39c, gilt

basalt

39b

different

forms descend as follows

1 :6
6500 B.C.

6000

10
B.C.

6500

3, 4,

39e

The high
;

39f,

xlvi)

(pi.

priest.

green

Materials.

Obsidian

3,

Serpentine

B,

Basalt

2, 1

each of

White limestone, Blackened limestone, Green

glaze. Gilt wax.

Murch
40.

The union

A, complete.

1:2

16

chest
5,

(6)

E.

6,

stomach (2).
Athens 4, Edinburgh

B.C,

DISC,

AND TWO HORNS.

Sma.

Varieties.

4000

B.C.

Meaning.
Period.

:2

(1)

Univ. Coll. P.

TWO PLUMES,

Name.

Throat

2.

the

"opening the mouth."


Meaning. To confer the power of speaking and feeding,
as described in Chapter 23 of the Book of the Dead, on the
opening of the mouth.

The

39a

glaze (xlvi).

of

Varieties.

serpentine

4,

King's son, Khaemuas," son of Eamessu II

Collections.

mummy in

obsidian

9,

Peseshkef, from pesesh to divide, the forked flint


of the

xliv)

(pi.

2,

39b 3, b
green glass
;

1,

FORKED LANCE.
mouth

39d

39a

slate

2,

inscribed " Osiris lord of Eestau.

Positions.

lance being used to divide the

(1).

Plumes (39) and Feathers

to the resemblance to the

Alabaster,

1.

38.

steatite 1,

(41) following, these three amulets are confused in cata-

Collections.

Black

2,

1.
;

Collection.

Figures.

and black glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21 37g, green


glaze, Ptolemaic, showing the plummet cord.
Matenals. Haematite 3, Slate 4, Blue glaze 4, Basalt 2,
" Brown marble " 1, " Dark marble " 1, Green glaze 1.
Position.
Top and middle of chest or left breast (7), low
on stomach (2).
St.

38c, black steatite; 38d,

38h, green glass.

Name.

plummet,

1,

Owing

86h, pale green glaze, fine work.

38g, bronze

Materials.

Bronze

to Ptolemaic.

glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic,

38a, b, black jasper;

obsidian

These last
two may, perhaps, be intended for a clothing amulet surmounted by feathers; or if the flint forked lance was
wrapped with cloth for a handle, it might then start this
form.
A similar form in carnelian is of prince Khaemuas
(Mariette, Serapeum, iii, xi).
e,

f,

Ptolemaic.

3000

B.C.

of different powers.

B, disc and horns only.

3,

AMULETS OF POWERS
40a, white glass plumes, red glass disc, purple-

Figures.

Upon

black glass horns.

the zad, 40b, green and black

Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21 40c, d, dark blue and


See also 35n, green glass
Abydos,
group
10
(pi.
C.
1).
Materials.
Blue glaze 3, Coloured glass 1.

glaze,

Name.

Vaneties.

A, plain.

Figure.

Coll.

E.

4, Green
"Yellow stone "4, Brown limestone 4, Haematite 3,
Black limestone 1, Beryl 1, Green slate 1, Green

felspar 4,
1,

Serpentine 17, Basalt

Top

chest (3)

of

middle row (1)

low on

(2).

Price

3,

Athens

Cairo 24,

Collections.

some

Kennard

St.

6,

Petersburg

Edinburgh

4,

Perhaps
to the previous classes 38
39.

Univ. Coll. E.

2,

of these really refer

1,

1.

RISING SUN.

42.

Name.

Khet.

Meaning. Ascent to sky.


In the Book of the Dead,
Chapter 22, the dead says " I am Osiris the lord of Restau,
the same who is at the head of the staircase," up which the
dead are shown mounting to the judgment. In Chapter 149,
" I raise my ladder
in the eleventh domain the dead says
up to the sky to see the gods," with a vignette showing a
:

This form

flight of stairs.

may have become

to

Ra

behold

at his

coming forth

in

Period.

XXVI

Figure.

46,

to Ptolemaic.

42a, red jasper 42a 2, light green serpentine.


" Red sandstone " ( ? Jasper) 9, Red jasper 7,
;

Materials.

Blue glaze 4, Red glass 2, Red granite 1, Green glaze 1,


" Green stone " (Murch), Light green serpentine 1.
Thus
all

Collections.

chest.

Petersburg
43.

Ro

Name.

Name.

Cairo 11, Turin

3, St.

3,

4,

Price 2,

Univ. Coll. P.

Murch

47c,

Ra

or

Re

see the sun.

XXVI

Period.

to Ptolemaic.

Beryl

1,

Agate

1,

Granite

1,

lime-

of chest (1)

middle

of

stomach

Collections.

Cairo 12, Turin 3, Edinburgh

left

P. 2, St. Petersburg

British

Museum

Black

6,

Univ. Coll. P. 4 (groups

WHITE CROWN.

48a, green

Figures.
;

glass

(?)

burnt

48b, 48b 2, light

2,

Green glass

1,

48c, 48c 2, 48c 3, light green glaze

48

d,

green glaze.

SUN.

Materials.

To

1,

XXVI.

Univ. Coll.

Meaning.

Blue glaze

Hezt (LilGAV,4:S6).
Royal power of Upper Egypt.

green glaze

CROWNED

9,

1.

Wrist, 2 {Deshasheh, xxvi, 8, 21).

1.

44.

blue glaze,

Meaning.
Period.

2,

47d,

9).

Name.
(4)

agate

48.

hand (2).

Name.

Sard and carnelian

White

1.

Top

Position.

1,

47b, orange sard

Mahasna, tomb 386;

Brown

Collections.

Green felspar

1,

Position.

43b, steatite.
43a, glaze faded white
Materials.
Lazuli 8, " Black stone " 3, Yellow

to XII.

blue paste,

limestone

Figures.

glaze 2, Steatite

HORNET.

47a, yellow sard, group 3

Materials.

To

Meaning.

Univ.

XII dynasty.

Greek.

2,

VI

Period.

DISC OF SUN.

steps,

Royal power of Lower Egypt.

Meaning.

2,

of 9

Bat.

Figures.

pronounced Ria XVIII dynasty,

E.

1,

1.

2.

1 of 6 steps. Price 2.

47.

Low on

Collections.

stone

E.

XXX.

Blue glaze 4, Green glaze


Turin 3 of 7 steps, 1

Materials.

Coll.

to

green glaze.

are red.

Position.

xliii, 66)
a boat in the vignette of

6 to 9 steps.

Varieties.

XXVI

Figures.

in

confused with

Z.A. S.

Chapter 110.

Power "

the horizon " (Labyrinth, 36).


Period.

shown

the stairs are

as

Adkhet.

Meaning.

Alnwick

Brit.

1,

STAIRS.

46.

Name.

that of a throne (suggested by Schafek in

nearly

Cairo

1,

Position.

Alnwick

4,

1.

Obsidian

4,

diorite 1.

stomach

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

hard brown limestone, Univ.

41,

Materials.

sun.

Necklace.

Position.

Mus.

1.

45 (and 45 2) carnelian, Hawara, XVIII.


Carnelian 4, Green glaze 1.

Mateiials.

XXVI (?).

Period.

XVIII

Period.

B, with horns.

Alnwick

Aoh (Lanzonb, Diz. Mit., xxxvii).


To voyage in the sky after the

Figures.

Elevation.

1,

1.

BARK OF THE MOON.

Meaning.

Qa.

Meaning.

Lazuli

4.

PAIR OF FEATHERS.

41.

Univ. Coll. P.

45.

Name.

Univ. Coll. P.

Steatite 1, Obsidian

Collections.

Chest.

Collection,

XXX(?).
44, Steatite.

Materials.

black glaze, Dendereh, group 26.

Position.

Period.
Figure.

Black glaze

see the sun ruling.

17

1,

Green glaze 26, Blue glaze


White glaze (faded ?) 1.

12,

AMULETS OF POWERS
Cairo 14, Univ. Coll. P.

CoUectkms.

Petersburg 5, Price 8, Alnwick

Deshert

Crown
XXVI.

Vaiieties.

Feriod.

Crown on

alone.

Memphis 49b
;

ware, group 28

2,

c,

c 2,

2,

green

49d, blue glazed stone-

8, pi. xliv,

green glaze, crown on

Green glaze 80, Blue glaze


Univ. Coll. P. 14, E.

Collections.

burg

6,

Turin

5,

Price 4,

Murch

8,

Univ. Coll. P.

1,

9.

Men (MacG.

in

Penod.

Prehistoric.

Figure.

55a,

prehistoric

Cairo 12, St. Peters-

white limestone with black spots,

plain limestone {Tarkhan 11).

2,

Painted limestone.

Material.

1.

27).

pi. xliv,

55a

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hez (MacG.

Name.

Meaning.

Mahasna, xxxiv,

5.

PEAR MACE.

tomb

87.

27).

Fighting power.

Period.

Prehistoric, IV, XII.

Gold.

Figure.

No

Position.

Necklace.

Material.

xliii,

Collection.

Smauti.

Mahasna, xxxiv,

xliii,

tomb

Ames (MacG.

Name.

VI.
87.

Necklace.

Position.

58.

ROYAL CROOK.

52.

Name.

Heqt (MacG. 54)

Heqt

Names.

Out, " Crook of the

XXVI

Figure.

Not here.
Grey glaze

Material.

Collection.

63.

1.

1.

ROYAL SCOURGE.

Mehen, uraeus on the crown.


Meanings. Goddesses above named
Going among men Royal power
life
youth, and being.
;

Nekhekh (MacG. 54).


Rule in Heliopolis.
Figure.
MacG. papyrus 54. Found broken up in tombs
of the Xllth dynasty, full-sized, in limestone (Riqqeh).
Meaning.

E, double.
J,

Uas

H, human head.

G, cat head.

to

Roman.

58a, green glass, crowned uraeus

58b, carnelian, with silver suspension loop

red coral, with silver uraeus twisted upon

(Lacau, 814),

with wavy stem.

coiled behind

Meaning.

Guidance of the flock. Such a form is


by the eastern Bedawy at present.
Secondary sense. Rule at Thebes.

regularly

F, lion head.

XXVI

Penod.

54.

Knowledge Divine
judgment Giving

of

crowned.
Figures.

Name.

8).

A, royal form. B, wavy. C, coiled. D, winged.

Vaiieties.

Portions in Univ. Coll. P.

SHEPHERD'S STICK.
(MacG. 28; Lacau, 315). Zom

Merseger,

Onkh-neter (MacG.

cxxviii).

Name.

Collection.

Aorot, any goddess (MacG. 6, 30).

goddess (Lanz., Diz. Mit.,

Lacau, 94). U')-t hekat, goddess (MacG. 10). Zet (Lacau, 94).
Also conferring qualities, " giving youth " (Lacau, 90)
and with coiled body, " giving being " (?) (Lacau, 91).

(?).

Turin

URAEUS SERPENT.

Rannut, goddess (Lanz., D. M., clxxxix). Sat (Lacau, 94).


Seqer (MacG. 7
Lacau, 34, 91). Shem-remtu (MacG. 9

used by shepherds (Lacau, 317).


Meaning. Rule in Heliopolis.

flocks,"

Penod.

27).

Ruling power.
amulets
known.
No

Meaning.

Gold.

Material.

FEATHERS AND SCOURGE.

67.

Royal power in Upper and Lower Egypt.

Figures.

models, only actual maces buried.


White limestone. Red granite in XII {Riqqeh).
Univ. Coll. P. many.

VULTURE AND URAEUS.

51.

Period.

1.

Fighting power.

Meaiiing.

VI.

Meaning.

DISC MACE.

Material.

Name.

54c to c 8,

Blue glass 1, Blue-green glaze


2, and 8 of type B.

Gold

Collection.

56.

Name. Sekhemti.
Meanimg. Royal power
Figures.

See 35h with

DOUBLE CROWN ON NEB.

50.

Period.

54b, blue glass, burnt

Materials.

Name.

neh.

Materials.

84a, gold

blue glaze, faded, with 30d, 35o.

neb.

49b,

green glaze

49e to e

Figures.

to

65.

49a, a 2, green glaze

Figures.

XXVI

Zad and Onkh.

(L. 488).

Royal power in Lower Egypt.

Meaning.

Zad and Onkh.

XXX (?).

Periods.

xliv,

B, with

A, alone.

Varieties.

6, St.

pi.

name

confused with the double crown of that

glaze,

Turin

(Lacau, 481), probably

or Sekhemti

3,

1.

RED CROWN.

49.

Name.

8,

E.

6,

Murch

inlaid

used

Memphis
18

58e, bronze, double

58f, bronze,

incised

crowned with

58k, green glaze,

on column

68c, branch of

58d, bronze,

crowned with sun

discs

58 h, green glaze, Memphis


;

it

tail

discs

58g, pewter plate,

58j, light blue glaze,

Memphis

58k, 2, 3, 4,

5,

AMULETS OF POWERS
green glaze, Nebesheh

881, faded

S8m, green glaze SSn, grey glaze


;

Memphis
;

See gold

Eed

1,

stomach

(8)

8,

1,

Edinburgh

(2;

necklace

(1)

chest

(10)

1,

Turin

8,

Cairo 15, St. Peters-

4,

Alnwick 7,Murch

6,

Athens

60e

XXVI

60f,

ii,

60c

60e,

similar figure found

2,

xl); 60d, lead, male,

(pi. xlv),

XXVI

wrapped in

wax, two figures standing, hands

wax, perhaps a figure

see also figures on soles


E) of Eoman mummies, Hawara,
5), and mud figure of Hyksos age
;

of sandals (Univ. Coll.

Portraits, x,

{Hyksos and

Israelite Cities, vi, 8).

Lead

Materials.

Blue glaze

1,

Wax

1,

2,

Eed limestone

Cartonnage

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

59.

60b, light blue glaze, female,

Defenneh (Tanis,

sheet lead

2,

1.

white limestone, male,

{Roman

Univ. Coll. P. 15, E.

60a, red limestone, quartz crystal eyes inlaid,

male, prehistoric

joined

1.

feet (1).

Collections.

burg

glass

Forehead

Position.

Eoman.

Prehistoric to

Figures.

at

C, painted

of sandals.

Period.

68s,

from Serapeum (Mariettb, Sfr., iii, xi).


Materials.
Green glaze 35, Blue glaze 26, Lazuli 4,
Bronze 3, Gold 2, Yellow glaze 1, Grey glaze 1, Green glass
1, White agate 1, Pink limestone 1, Carnelian 2, Silver on
red coral

on soles

B, kneeling.

A, figure standing.

Varieties.

XVIII

58r, electrum

blue glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic.

88t, u,

green glaze,

58o, green glaze,

PI. xliv, 88q, gold

58p, blue glass.


silver

6,

1,

White limestone

2,

1.

E.

2,

Price

1.

MAN KNEELING WITH PALM BRANCHES.

Name.

Heh.

Meaning.

59a, gold

Figures.

apple-green

glaze,

Gold

59c, lead

2, Silver 1,

Lead

Green glaze

1,

1.

From

Meaning.

to

accept

shapep,

rich

the stoutness, adornment, and easy

posture, this seems intended to represent wealth.

Compare

the Chinese embodiment of wealth.

5.

Kheft.

Power over a

See shap,

shapt, to adorn.

BOUND CAPTIVE.

60.

Meaning.

FIGURE WITH NECKLACES.

Shap (?).

Name.

69d,

S9e,
Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21
xliii, tombs 87, 435.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

Name.

59b, gold, group 4

And see Mahasna, xxxiv,

silver (pi. xlvi).

Materials.

61.

Eoman.

XII,

Period.

Duration.

Millions of Years.

slave.

Period.

Eoman.

Figure.

61, black steatite, Quft.

Mateiial.

Black

Collection.

Univ. Coll. P.

steatite.
1.

CHAPTEE V

AMULETS OF PROPERTY
Ktematic Amulets, 62

These amulets, representing the funeral offerings of food


and drink, and the furniture of objects for the use of the
dead, are peculiarly Egyptian.

From

provision for the continued

the deceased was placed

in the

life of

grave, sometimes on

belief in substitutes

scale.

is

objects used.

As the

stituted for the models.

might seem doubtful where to


and the last. The mace heads

It

divide between this class

amulets of power, as the mace is used


symbolically by the king in all periods but the spear head
are classed as

is

plummet and square

as the dead

is

never used symbolically.


are probably

emblems

An actual head is often


found in graves, from the prehistoric down to the Xllth
dynasty.

but the

writing tablet and seal are classed as property, as in the


future
orders.

life

the deceased would require to write and seal

These are the means

of writing rather

Prehistoric to XVIII.

Period.

Again,

of qualities,

never represented as building

Unknown.
Food offering.

Name.

Meaning.

included as property,

OX HEAD.

62.

grew, so gradually models came to

replace the real objects, and then small amulets were sub-

the

power of writing. The border line of the two classes


seldom really in question.
The order followed here is, food, drink, clothing and

of the

very early times

an immense

82.

Figures.

carneHan

62b, quartz, green-glazed; 62c,

62a, calcite;

62c, 2, 8, 4, 5, 6, 7, carnelian

serpentine, prehistoric; 62e, blue glaze,


glass,

XVIII (?) 62g (pi


;

xliv),

62d, clear green

VI

(?);

62f, red

quartz, green-blue glaze

62h,

carnelian.

than symbols

Materials.

19

Carnelian

9,

Quartz, green-glazed 2, Noble

D a

AMULETS OF PROPERTY
serpentine

Blue glaze. Bed

glass.

Name.

Univ. Coll. P. 18,

Collections.

Murch

4.

Theti?).

Food

Meaning.

XXVI

Period.

cakes

four

Name.

liehen

(?).

the 162nd chapter of

seems rather

to refer to

The image of a cow," for which


the Book of the Dead is recited,
a free cow, and not to a sacrifice.

A, round.

Vaneties.

Penod.

XXVI

V,

63c, flat, red glass

"

Materials.

'

B,

Alnwick

Turin

4,

of chest

Cairo

Collections.

wax

Name.

" (? jasper) 9,

Bed jasper 9,
"Yellow stone"

1,

1,

5,

Athens

1,

E.

2,

Price

Murch

offering

(?),

Food

Figure.

69, green glaze, black calyx.

Name,

Meaning.

Drink

Varieties.

A, heart form, two-handled.

XXVI

offerings of various kinds.

to

and

side of

amphora,

Eoman

Quartz crystal.

C, one-

F,

70b,

70f,

c, d,

blue glaze, situla

70e,

green glaze, pilgrim bottle


;

70g, red jasper

70h, bronze,

green glaze, yellow spots, amphora,


70k, black and white glass 701, brown pottery
;

70j,

glaze,

Bes head on it

70n, bronze

70o, pottery,

70p, green glaze (xlvii) 70q, black and green


glass (xlvii) ; 70r, green glaze, Illahun, XXIII (xlv).
xlvi)

(pi.

Green glaze

Materials.

GOOSE OR DUCK.
2,

Sa.

Glass

Wood

A, whole figure.

XVIII Riqqeh

Roman

70m, green
1.

Vaneties.

B, situla.

Roman.

70a, diorite

70f 2, red glaze,

Food

VASE.

45 different names are known, but the forms are

green glaze, measure

Meaning.

1.

handled measure. D, pilgrim bottle. E, heart shape.


amphora. G, handled jug. H, dipper.

ox, exquisitely finished.

Univ. Coll. P.

Univ. Coll. P.

not yet distinguished.

Figures.

68, quartz crystal, part of the ribs

66.

5.

DATE.

70.

JOINT OF MEAT.

Period.

Collection.

Gilt

1,

offering.

1.

but see under sacred animals.

Figure.

Material.

Blue glaze

6,

GAZELLE.

Food offering.
VI or XII (?).

an

Cairo

5,

XIX(?).

Collection.

Ao, Auo.

Meaning.

1,

Period.

Period.

Name.

Green glaze

2,

Univ. Coll. P.

Meaning.

Nos. 21416,

65.

68e,

Benr.

Names.

Food

Bronze

69.

63e, red glass.

Univ. Coll. P.

11,

64.

Meaning

(pi. xliv);

1.

Collections.

and lower.

Edinburgh

8,

bronze,

(pi. xlvi).

Materials.

63b, red steatite, both round;

Bed sandstone

Base

green glaze

flat.

Bed glass 11, Blue glaze 8, Green glaze


1, Brown limestone 1, Alabaster 1.
Position.

68b,

'

63d, red glass

cake;

68d, gilt wax, three

to Ptolemaic.

63a, red jasper

Figures.

glaze, square

bronze, one cako

68c,

vases and three cakes, Dendereh, group 20

Food offering.

Meaning.

offering.

to Ptolemaic.

68a, blue

Figures.

COW, LEGS TIED.

68.

ALTAR WITH CAKES.

68.

each of Blackened limestone, Agate, Calcite,

2, 1

1,

Brown

Diorite

7,
1,

Bronze

Gold

2,

Bed

jasper

1,

Throat.

Position.

Univ.

Collections.

Not here.
Materials.
Blue glass 2, Bed jasper 1, Bed glaze 1,
Green glaze 3, Black and white glass 1, Bronze 1.
Position.
Mid line, Hawara.
Turin 2, B 1, Alnwick 1, Price 1, Murch 1.
Collections.

Blue glaze
2,

1.

offering.

B, head.

8,

pottery

Coll. P. 14,

E.

2, Price 7,

Cairo

1.

Figures.

67.

71.

Name.

COLLAR.

hawk heads (MacG.

2); Usekh of
deep rows of beads (MacG. 32)
hawk, with spread hawk on middle (MacG. 33)

Usekh, with

lord of Eternity, with

Usekh of the
Usekh of the vulture and uraeus, with the emblems (MacG.
Usekh of Mut, with the vulture with curved wings
86)

DISH OF FLOUR ON MAT.

Name.

(Lacau, 436).

Hoteji.

Meaning.

Flour offering

a dish of flour on a reed

mat

Meaning.

Dress of the

living, in conti-ast to the dead.

The Chapter 158 of the Book of the Dead is as follows


" The chapter of the collar of gold, put on the neck of
my father my brother my mother
the deceased.

(Medum, xi).
Penod. XXVI.
Figure.
Not here.
Material.
Green glaze.
Position.
Lower row, Hawara.

Isis

am

unveiled and I

unveiled ones,

20

who

see Geb."

am

seen.

am

one of the

AMULETS OF PROPERTY
deep and

(MacG.

Figure.

hawk heads (MacG. 2).


D, with hawk
E, with vulture of Mut (Lacau, 436).

(MacG.

Osiris

C,

Naqada, Iviii.
Material.
Green serpentine.

A, plain rows of beads "of the lord of Eternity,"

Varieties.

33).

with

B,

32).

rows (Fig. 70b).

short

F, with vulture and uraeus (MacG. 36).

XXVI

Penod.

xiii

71a, type B, green

Figures.

and black

glaze, Dendereh,

71b, type C, blue

to

oper.

and white porphyry

72c, c 2,

Diorite 14, Serpentine 2, Granite


glass 1, White glass 1, " Grey stone " 1,

Red

Wood

Chest

burg

1,

Turin

1,

Se-at or Seurat (Lacau, 444

1.

Alnwick

4,

E.

1.

into it
for the four snakes
" (B. of D., 149).
.

XIL

B, flatted prism.

A, long bead.
A,

B, XIX.

77a, carnelian, as

Figures.

worn on neck, see Khnumu-

Carnelian.

Cairo.

The beard was Khebsat (MacG.

20).

3 of carnelian of Hapi, Pasar and Khaemuas (Maeirtte,


Serapeum, iii, xi).
Carnelian 5, Amethyst 1, Gold 1 (and Lacau,
Materials.
449), Green felspar (Lacau, 453
5), Silver 1.

8).

Neither of these are

found as amulets.

74.

On neck

Position.

COMB.

{Gizeh and Rifeh,

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

5,

xi).

Cairo type

2,

type

Meaning.

Hair dressing.
and XVIII.

Actual combs are

common

in

74a, b, bone, Tell el

Figures.

Amarna, Roman

74c, d,

name

previous

All of bone.

Period.

Univ. Coll. P. 5 (group 24).

Collection.

badge,

No

A, plain.

Varieties.

Material.

CARTOUCHE.

78.

Ran.
Meaning. To preserve the name;

bone.

later substitute for

77.

B, with feathers on top.

XXVI.

Figures.

78a, diorite

78a

2, lazuli

78b, basalt.

Lazuli 10, Green glaze 1, " White stone "


"Black stone," Cairo, 1, Yellow limestone 1, Diorite
Mateiials.

75.

SPEAR HEAD.

Basalt

Defence.

Collections.

Prehistoric.

2,

21

E.

1,
1,

1.

Position.

(?).

Meaning.
Period.

8.

Name.

Roman.

Peiiod.

Name.

(?).

prehistoric

e,

51).

hotep (Gizeh and Rifeh, xi) 77b, amethyst with name of


King Senusert 77c, carnelian with name of Bakmut 77d,
See
77e, gold, Qurneh.
silver, Vlth dynasty, group 13

Another head-dress was Ondet (MacG.

Name.

No god goes down

Penod.

Not here.

Collection.

"

Varieties.

MacG.

Royal clothing.

Material.

(MacG.

5).

of the

would destroy their names

Name. Seden (XXV stele), or Nema (Lacau, 487


4), or Khat (Lacau, 489).
Figure.

Book

the

read

Meaning.

"

The 25th chapter


To preserve the name.
Dead is, " Whereby a person remembereth
Even the gods might lose
his name in the underworld."
their names, for of the fiery region of the 12th domain we
of

Peters-

1, St.

ROYAL HEAD-DRESS.

73.

makes known

Meaning.

(3).

Cairo 16, Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

Serekh, " that which

Name.

Porphyry

2,

NAME BADGE.

77.

Materials.

Position.

76b, blue glass, with incised

"

72d, white glass.

later.

76a, green diorite

Green felspar 8, Beryl 8, " Black-grey stone


Lazuli
Obsidian
4,
3,
1, Green glaze 1, Green jasper 1, Green
glass 1, Haematite 1, Diorite 1, Blue glass 1.
Position.
Throat (1) chest (6) stomach (1).
Collections.
Cairo 23, Price 3, Univ. Coll. P. 2, Alnwick
Some of these may have been No. 20,
1, Edinburgh 1.
with the papyrus drawn but not engraved.

Roman.

72a, b, black

Figures.

3,

of the

Materials.

2,

Clothing.

XXVI

Period.

diorite

Murch

Coll. P. 2,

CLOTHING.

Monkhet (Lacau, 442)

Name.

Book

the 94th chapter of the

figure of Tahuti.

1.

Meaning.

for in

XXVI and

Period.

Position.

72.

Tlie writing materials

Provision for writing.

Figures.

Neck and upper chest.


Collections.
Cairo, Horuza 2, Univ.

Medum,

ii.

Dead.

2.

Alnwick

Saqq. Mast.,

were prayed

jasper

Meaning.

and black glaze,


group 21 71c, wax gilt, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 20.
Material.
Gold inlaid 2, Gold foil 2, Blue glaze 3, Red
Ptolemaic, group 21

Themes, or Kher-o, " under the arm."

Name.

Roman.

to

WRITING TABLET.

76.

1,

Neck

top of chest

top of stomach.

Cairo 10, Brit. Mus.

Alnwick

1,

Edinburgh

1.

5,

4,

Univ. Coll. P.

AMULETS OF PROPERTY
SEAL.

79.

XXVI

79c

green felspar

2,

Blue glaze

7,

Agate

4,

Collections.

E.

3,

4, lazuli

Limestone

79b

5,

basalt

4,

9,

Green glaze

7,

Cairo 18, St.

Alnwick

hand 5 (on 2nd finger,


low on stomach.
Petersburg 12, Univ. Coll., P.

Position.

hand;

Lazuli 2, Green glaze 1 (Hor-uza,

1,

Between 2nd and 3rd, between 3rd and 4th


hand on 3rd finger of left hand in left
;

chest.

Price

Univ. Coll. P.

SLAVE FIGURE.

Varieties.

dynasty are really figures of the dead.)


Figures.
82, One example of the XXIInd dynasty marks
the place of this subject as an amulet; this ushabti

Horuza

2,

Univ. Coll. P.

1.

Bronze,

Glaze, Pottery,

CIRCLE OF CORD.
life,"

means "fulness,

as shen

of

all

available stones, all

colours of

Wood.
boxful of 200 was placed on each side of the

mummy.

Shen, explained as Onkh-shau (Lacau, 112).

"Benefits of

is

Zed-tehuti-as-onkh.

Position.

Meaning.

3,

1.

Ushabti.

Materials.
Cairo,

81.

Name.

Green felspar

To work for the deceased in the future life.


Too extensive to state here. A breast-piece
of pendant ushabtis occurs in the XlXth dynasty.
Period. XVIII to XXX. (The stone figures of the Xllth

V'

to Ptolemaic.

Gold

Collections.

1,

Name.

Hawara).
fingers right

E.

1,

SEAL RING.

80, Lazuli.

Materials.

1,

2,

1.

Position.

82.

Power over property.

Figures.

Lazuli

Green glaze

Meaning.

XXVI

Period.

5, Steatite 2,

Limestone 1,
Top row, by cartouche.
Collections.
St Petersburg 7, Alnwick
Quartz

2,

Slate 2, Quartz 2, Prase

Zehot.

Meaning.

Basalt

5.

80.

Name.

broken away at sides of base, same both

81,

green glaze.

Materials.

left

XXVI.

sides, light

1.

Position.
Eight hand 5
between 2nd and 3rd finger)

3,

brown limestone

79b,

Lazuli 17, Green felspar

Materials.

1,

3,

gains and

life.

Figures.

blue glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21.

(pi. xliv),

Basalt

79b

of

Peiiod.

to Ptolemaic.

79a, white limestone

Figures.

79b

rewards

Power over property.

Meaning.
Period.

completion," this implies the fulness of the

Collections.

All.

This subject is as extensive as all other

amulets together.

CHAPTER

VI

AMULETS FOR PROTECTION


Phylactic Amulets, 83
In this class the amulets or charms for protection are
what are more popularly regarded as amulets. The purpose of these

which

means

is

is to call

into account

not as definite as a divinity.

some
The most primitive

external agency

are preferred, such as wearing shells, bones, animals,

cords, stones, etc.

Doubtless a great

and animal objects were

number

137.

Period.

Ptolemaic, as an amulet.

Figures.

group

83a, black steatite; 83b, gilt wax, Dendereh,

20.

Matetials.

Black steatite

Collection

Univ.

1,

Gilt

wax

1.

Coll. P. 2.

of vegetable

also included in this class,

though

the great majority of such have naturally disappeared in

the course of ages.

The

great popularity and literary

importance of the inscribed charms, especially inscribed


gem stones, has fixed more attention on this kind of amulet,
almost to the exclusion of the various other classes.
88.

Meaning.

Ra

SUN AND WINGS.

as protector.

Seldom on the
Varieties.
and entrances to temples.

mummy,

but usual over figures

84.

Meaning.

Ra

SUN AND URAEI.

as ruler.

Seldom on the mummy, but used as previous.


Period. Ptolemaic, as an amulet.
Figures.
84a, wood with traces of stucco and gilding
84b, green glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21
Green glaze 1, Wood 1.
Materials.
Varieties.

Collection.

Univ. Coll. P.

2.

AMULETS FOR PROTECTION


CRESCENT.

85.

Name.

This chapter

The

Meaning.

protection of the

eye and witchery (Bell., xv, 26

Rome

patricians at

moon

Against evil

god.

The emblem

xvi, 25).

of

(Boni, Nuov. AntoL, 1 Oct., 1912).

B, with disc.

A, alone.

Varieties.

C, with cross.

sycomore
wood, and put on the neck of the deceased. Whoever has
this chapter read to him, the virtue of Isis protects him

is

85n, bronze, Shurafeh, Coptic period.

See also plain bronze crescent, Roman


Hyksos and Israelite Cities, xxxvii a.

Gold

Materials.

Glass

5,

1,

Blue glaze

1,

Saft,

in

Electrum 1, Silver
Black glaze 1.

Bronze

4,

2,

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Figures.

88c

stone

88j 5, slate

Sak (MacG.

Meaning.

881,

Green glaze

Collections.

1,

Brown

Position.

mummy

form (?).

Price

Blue glass

MUMMY ON

87c, blue glaze with

Period.

Blue glaze

Glass (burnt)

1,

Collections.

4,

1,

Green glaze

Red

1,

glass

Name.

paste

2.

women's

girdle, fuller

89w,

of Isis, the

cli).

This

Also the

Isis.
is

the primitive

than the onkh, the men's

of the tie of red jasper

power

Mit.,

of the Book of the

The blood

See Nos.

89b,

89c, lazuli veneer

on

lazuli,

slate base,

Ramesseum 89d 2, volcanic ash


Ramesseum; 89f, malachite; 89g, slate;

89g

3, steatite;

XXII dynasty

891,

89h, peridot; 89j, k, indigo

blue-green glaze

891 2, red glass

which

is

89o, red glass

s,

Dead reads

girdle.

" Chapter

put on the neck of the

the magic
magic power of the Eye, are protecting
of Isis, the virtue of Isis

89p, violet glass

deep blue clear glass

89q, violet glass

same, burnt

89t,

89u, deep

89uu (pi. xliv), same 89v, yellow glass


amber 89x, 2, 3, durite 89y, green glaze with
yellow points, Roman.
Materials (apart from Cairo catalogue which is uncerBasalt 17, Serpentine 15, Steatite 8, Green jasper 6,
tain).
Porphyry 4, Green quartz 4, Schist 1, Blue glaze 5, Blue
glass 4, Green glaze 4, Lazuli 3, Violet glass 2, Blue paste 2,
Amber 2, Durite 1, Green felspar 1, Limestone 1, Malachite
1, Peridot 1, Red glass 1, Yellow glass 1.

ISIS.

Protection by the blood of

Nut (Lanz., Diz.

deceased.

89d, basalt,

blue clear glass

GIRDLE OF

girdle of

The 156th chapter

given to the deceased.

Isis

Thet.

Meaning.

1,

89m, blue paste, Saqqareh, pierced for stitching on mummy


wrapping or network, as also the next; 89n, deep blue
89r,

88.

2, slate;

glaze,

1.

stomach (2) knees (1).


(2)
Univ. Coll. P. 4, Athens 2, Edinburgh
;

Edinburgh

7,

Book of the Dead.


XVIII to XXX.
89a, grey steatite, Ramesseum

89e, limestone,

Dendereh, Ptolemaic,

Painted pottery

Chest

Position.

Heart of

Ramesseum

Type B,

89g

Materials.

Turin 12,

for the

Figures.

group 21.

B 1,

and 90

(?).

87b, glass, burnt.

black paint,

7,

SCARAB, FLAT BASE.

formerly set on a pectoral

87a, green glaze

Petersburg

St.

Kheper.

Meaning.

Ptolemaic.

Figures.

Also see 2 carnelian of

Cairo 47, Univ. Coll. P. 16, E.

89.

B, with Anpu.

A, alone.

88n, jasper, of the chief

2.

BIER.

Preservation of the body

Varieties.

88m,

1.

2.

Period.

xlvii,

1,

Alnwick 11,

12,

Murch

Meaning.

pi.

toes (1).

Name.
Name.

See

1, Gold 1, Silver 1, Pewter plate


Green glass 1, Wax gilt 1.
Neck (2); chest usual (11); stomach (2);

paste

xvii).

Univ. Coll. P. 2, Turin

87.

88k, pewter, possibly a clothing sign 72

Dendereh, group 20.

gilt,

Collections.

2,

88c, green

e2,

red glaze, XVIII (Ed).

double,

86a, b, dark blue glass.

Materials.

e,

Nekht-a-min; 88o, jasper of Roi; 88p, blue and


glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 26.
Type B,

black

Graeco-Roman.

Figures.

88b, green glass

88d,

glaze 1, Lazuli 2, Obsidian

Preservation of the body in

Period.

wax,

carnelian of the royal scribe Paari

Sokar khent oper, " Sokar in

64).

blue glaze

3, green glaze, group 28,


XXV dynasty (?); 88f, faded green glaze ; 88g, dark blue glaze,
XVIII or XIX; 88h, h2, j, j2, j 3, red glass; 88j 4, redlime-

2,

Khaemuas and 1 of Hapi (Mariettb, Serapeum, iii, xi, xx).


Materials. Red jasper 21, Carnelian 8, Red glass 18,
Brown jasper 18, Blue glaze 27, Green glaze 18, Red

8.

clothing" (Lanz., Diz., Mit.,

B, double. C, double with zad sign.

88a, red glass

MUMMY.

86.

him, and no way

XIX to Roman.

glaze

archer

Necklace.

Position.

Name.

age,

A, alone.

Varieties.

of Isis rejoices in seeing

barred to him, unfailingly."


Period.

Roman

him

said on a tie of red jasper, dipped in the

juice of ankhamti, inlaid into the substance of the

they prevent any wrong being done to

is

Horus the son

XVIII to Roman. Specially worn in early part


of 2nd cent. a.d. (Roman Portraits, 12, 11).
Figures.
86a, b, pale blue glass, XVIII
88c, black
glaze, XII or XVIII
85d, e, silver, Memphis, Eoman,
group 27; 85f, gold, Memphis, group 27; 8Sg, silver; 85h,
base silver; 85j,j2, white glass on blue, with red spots
around, Gurob, Eoman.
Type B, 85k, electrum, XII
dynasty (?) 851, blue glaze, XVIII 85m, black and yellow
Period.

serpentine,

one

this great

Aoh.

X,

Position.

23

Inside the body.

AMULETS FOR PROTECTION


Univ. Coll. P. 27, E.

Collections.

Alnwick 28,

5,

St.

Petersburg 66, Price 10.

SCARAB, INSCRIBED BASE.

90.

Name.

Kheper.

Heart

Meaning.

The 80th

of Isis given to the deceased.

chapter of the Book of the Dead appears in a slightly

form (version B) upon the heart scarab, reading


heart of my Mother, my heart of my Mother, my

different

"My

my

heart of

becoming

May

(in future life).


;

be there good for us, be there good to the hearer, be there


joy of heart, by the "Weighing of words. May not lies be
uttered in the presence of the God, before the great

God lord

Behold thy uplifting is in the acquittal."


Varieties.
A, various forms of this chapter are used,
sometimes only omitting half a dozen words, as on 901,
sometimes leaving only the opening invocation to the heart,
as on 90c.
B, a suten da liotep formula is rarely used, as in
Amenti.

XXIIIrd dynasties.
Figures.
The backs on pi. viii, the inscriptions on pi. ix
90a, black steatite, name Huy
90b, brown limestone, of
Huria 90c, glazed steatite, of Set-mesu 90d, black steatite,
of Tuaa
90e, black steatite, of Ma-nehes, " the alert lion "
90f, hard light brown limestone in silver mount, of Min-emhat 90g, a metamorphic mud, similar in material to slate,
XVIIIth

to

usually mis-called

"

green basalt," here called durite, of

"nursing shepherd "(?) 90h, durite, of Dudut;


90j, durite, of Repen(?); 90k, jade, called by the Egyptians
nenmchen, as stated on the Keniiard tablet (now in Berlin),
Tet-bet,

Thentamen

of the singer,

Pamoy

On

Position.

the chest (?).

Univ. Coll. P. 26, Alnwick 17, Price

Collections.

Unknown.

Name.

Meaning.

Heart

Varieties.

A, in one piece.

(see

901, durite

(volcanic ash) of

90m, durite of Anefer


90o, green glaze in copper mount,

(secondary use)

Tetames
Nashuy 90p,
of

Amen-mes

durite, of

90n, durite,

of the scribe

90q, limestone stained

MacG.

of Isis.

B, with

separate

scarab

68, 69, 70).

Period.

XVIII

Figures.

91a, durite, filled in with yellow paste; upper side,

to Ptolemaic.

scarab with akhet bird on back, Isis and Nebhat standing on a

boat adoring

it;

under

side, the scarab

outline with the

invocations of the beginning of the chapter, and figure of

Unnefer

adoring

black steatite,

91b,

Osiris;

Isis

and

Nebhat, winged, adoring, but the middle blank, probably a


scarab has been attached back, Osiris " lord of eternity,
;

lord of Ta-zeser," adored by the deceased and Isis


top edge the name " Set-ha-em-tepy " 91c, gold, a

Nefert-her adoring " Isis the great mother "


Tahuti, lord of
the

son

Khemenu,

The speech

of

health, and strength to

life,

high priest

the

of

give

91d, electrum,

altar of offerings. "

on the

woman

of

Amen,

Uasakauasa,

acquitted, son of the high priest of Amen, Fu-ua-merth,


acquitted " ; 91e, green glaze, zad between two thet girdles,

back, jackal couchant on shrine, with right uzat eye above


91f, blue-green glaze, jackal couchant on shrine " Anpu in

his bandages lord of the desert "

91g, shrine of black

and

yellow serpentine, apparently an inserted figure has been

See green-glazed

lost.

Serapeum,

pectoral

of

Pasar

(Mariettb,

iii, xii).

13,

Blue glaze 3, Glazed stone


2, Blue frit 2, Steatite
Serpentine 1, Red-brown glaze 1, Gold 1, Electrum 1.
Position.
On breast (2); on stomach (1).

8,

Schist

1,

Petersburg

6,

Green glaze

Materials.

Slate 6, Durite 1,

Price

2,

Wood

8,

Cairo 85, Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

brown-black (XVIIIth dynasty, as kohl pots) of the overseer of the serfs of Min, Kanure, from Ekhmim
90r, durite,

5.

PECTORAL.

91.

figure of Tahuti, with

90u, V, aa.

Penod.

the other collec-

on basalt). Basalt (?)


18, Durite 9, Porphyry (?) 6, Limestone 5, Steatite 5,
Serpentine 6, Green jasper (?) 4, Schist 4, Jade 2, Lazuli 2,
Green felspar 1, Glazed steatite 1, Green glaze 1, Blue
glaze 1, Blue paste 1, Violet glass 1.

nothing rise

up against me in evidence may no hindrance be made


me by the divine chiefs may there be no enemy
of thee against me in the presence of the Guardian of the
Balance. Thou art my ka in my body, the creator making
sound my limbs. Come forth to the bliss towards which
we are bound. May our name not be in bad odour with the
Ministrants, those who deal to men their course in life and
against

of

Materials (omitting Cairo as uncertain


tions as stated, but probably in error

Edinburgh

1,

Alnwick

7, St.

1.

of the singer of

Amen, Shab-mer-ast

name

ptah-a-onkh; 90t, jade,


Hor-se-ast

90w

plates

crystal back in

gold

foil,

92.

Zed-

Name.

lost; 90u, black steatite of

for

90x,
which

(pi.

xlvi) lazuli,

XVIIIth dynasty.

of the cattle Tahutimes,

in

90s, durite of

glass

violet
is

plate,

of

the

keeper

30).

The following
with

hollow

nesut

du hotep

27).

Horns

Agate scarab against


of

evil

eye

scarab for children (Pliny,

Actual beetles were buried in jars in preAn alabaster case in the form of a scarab,
historic graves.
to hang round the neck, hollow as a reliquary, of 1st dynasty,
Cairo (Tarkhan, xiv).

formula without a

bite (Africa).

Vaneties.

Auf-neren-neheh, Gurob, XVIIIth dynasty

lazuli,

xiii,

61).

Protection against quartan fever (Pliny, xxx,

xxx, 47).

painted the heron, backed with

90y, limestone, coloured brown, of the singer of Isis,


Hatsheps, XVIIIth dynasty
90z, limestone, of Huy

90aa,

Snake

(Bell.,

SCARAB WITH LEGS.

Kheper (MacG.

Meaning.

90v, blue paste, very illegibly cut, apparently

of Peh-ne-kha-user

not

name,

headed.

human headed

group 81.

24

B, hawkheads (Lanz., Diz. Mit., 490). D,

A, with legs, natural head.

C, with four rams'

(L., Diz. Mit., ccl).

AMULETS FOR PROTECTION


Period.

XXXth

1st to

92a,

Figures.

work

detailed

exquisitely

of

(Horuza), St. Petersburg

wing cases being also delicately ribbed), and probably of the Xllth dynasty, when obsidian was a favourite

7, Turin
Alnwick 1.

Univ. Coll- P.

Collections.

dynasties.

obsidian,

1,

Murch

8,

2,

Cairo 2

(the

material for the best inscribed scarabs

Hawara, porphyry, hard

4,

XXVI;
92d
d

green

92c,

2,

3,

green glaze

6, 7,

XXVI

92e,

92d,

glaze;

white limestone

f, f

92b, diorite

2, 8,

glaze;

greenish-blue

4, steatite

haematite

5,

green glaze faded, Hawara,

3,

brown basalt 92g (pi. xliv), green glaze,


Dendereh, Ptolemaic 92h (pi. xlvi), green glaze 92j, blue
and black glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 26 (pi. xxxii).
Basalt (durite ?) 22, Porphyry 14, Lazuli 18,
Materials.
Green glaze 34, Blue glaze 8, Serpentine 8, Haematite 6,
Carnelian 6, Brown steatite 7, Limestone 4, Prase 8, Black
syenite 4, Green syenite 2, Green glass 3, Green felspar 2,
Beryl 2, Obsidian 2, White glass 1, Bronze 1, Diorite 1.
left
stomach (5)
chest (23)
Throat (4)
Position.
92e

2,

hand

Name. Nert-hent-pet-er-remtu (?), " The Vulture mistress


of heaven over mankind."
Nert-her-ne-pot, " The Vulture
"
who is over men (MacG. 34, 48).
Meaning. Protection.
The 157th chapter of the Book
" Chapter of the vulture of gold,
of the Dead is as follows
put on the neck of the deceased. Isis has arrived; she
hovers over the dwellings, and she searches all the hidden
abodes of Horus when he comes out of the northern marshes
knocking down him whose face is evil. She causes him
(the deceased) to join the bark (of the sun), and grants him

brown limestone,

steatite,

VULTURE WITH WINGS SPREAD.

95.

fight.

He

He

Collections.

St.

causes fear of

to arise,

and He creates

His

terror.

chapter

If this

is

written on

protects the deceased, the

it, it

powerful one, on the day of the funeral, and undeviatingly for

times infinite."

SCARAB WINGED.

Protective power of the Creator

Varieties.

A,

Dendereh

on

winged,

B,

winged.

legs

walking

XXX.

XXII

Figures.

93a, flame-coloured sard, XVIII (?); 93b, pewter,

group 18

on

stitching

human

to a

head, crowned with

mummy

network

93e,

hawk

other figures of the genii see

f,

blue glaze, with

93g, green glaze

heads, and four genii.


182. Type

Green glaze

Blue glass

2,

Black glaze

Collar-bone (3)

Position.

Univ.

Collections.

Sard

3,

1,

Athens

stomach

3, St.

Gold

Neck

98b, gold

4,
;

Pewter
chest

98c, pewter, group 18

1,

Bronze

iii,

1.

4, Cairo,

Horuza

1, St.

SERPENT

(Not Uraeus,

Peters-

57).

Name. Zet (MacG. 5).


Preservation from serpents (?).
Meaning.

1,

xx.

1.

Univ. Coll. P.

96.

Teeth

for

dentition (Pliny, xxx, 47).

B, in tube.

A, long.

Varieties.
(1).

Petersburg

1.

For

Pewter

Roman.

also C, gold inlaid, in Mar., Ser.,

1.

breast (3)

Coll. P. 8,

1,

xii

Collections.

burg

C, 93h, blue glaze

Blue paste

iii,

Position.

(xlvii).

Materials.

C, curved

head.

See type B, gold inlaid, in Mariette, Sera-

Materials.

93d, blue paste, with holes for

four genii, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21

with violet inlay in the

peum,

to

95a, gold

9Sd, bronze.

93c, bronze with

horns, and uraeus

VI

Period.
Figures.

Period.

to

ram

wings.

(?).

winged in boat.

C,

15, pi. li).

B,

A, vulture head.

Varieties.

Meaning.

1,

him

mother, the Great One, uses her protective power, which she
Said on the vulture of gold.

Petersburg 65, Univ. Coll. P. 35, E. 15,

93.

Gold

he has fought a great

(Horus) decrees what must be done in his honour

has handed over to Horus.

(2).

Price 22.

disc,

When

the sovreinty over the worlds.

C, wavy.

D,

coiled,

(screw). E, spiral (volute).


1.

Period.

Prehistoric to

XXVI

(?).

A, 96a, dark wood, serpent of Mertseger (Lanz.,


Diz. Mit, cxxvii) 96 b, flint, from Koptos, 1st dynasty (?).
B, 96c, red glass. C, two early dynastic house amulets in
Figures.

VULTURE STANDING.

94.

Names. Nert, Demzedet, Anient, Themt, Urtheka, Sebkhet


Kherert (MacG. 12, 13, 14, 15, 29, 45, 47, 66).
Meaning. Five different vultures confer Being, Divinity,
Living with gods. Going among men, and Youth (Lacau,

pottery.
D, 96d, yellow-brown limestone, prehistoric,
apparently to be placed round a finger or staff, two and a
96f (pi. xlvii),
E, 96e, lazuli, prehistoric
half turns.
;

amulet to hang

limestone, prehistoric, large

in house,

99).

Period.
Figures.

VI

scale 2

Roman.

94a,

group 7
94a
bone, group 6
;

to

3,

bone,
4,

VI,

group 5

94a

2,

carnelian,

blue glaze, rude, VI, Zaraby

stone

94b,

bone,

94c,

xi

Position.
A.

Neck

(2)

5.

1,

Limestone

1,

2,

Lazuli

Red

1,

glass 1,

Univ. Coll. P.

Flint 1, Yellow

Wood

lime-

1.

7.

base of chest

Pottery

Collection.

(See
group 8
94d, gold.
Iviii,
Naqadu,
Xllth
dynasty.)
Mariette, Serapeum, iii,
Lazuli 4, Gold 2, Blue glaze 3, Bone 3,
Materials.
Carnelian 1, Syenite 1, Yellow glaze 1, Red glaze 1.
;

Materials.

97.

SERPENT HEAD, OR FOREPART.

Menqaryt, Menqahet (Lacau, 82 MacG. 1).


Meaning. To avoid snake bite. Chapter 33 of the Book

Name.

(8).

25

AMULETS FOR PROTECTION


of the Dead reads " Chapter whereby all serpents are kept
back " Chapter 84 " Chapter whereby a person is not
devoured by the dweller in the shrine"; Chapter 35:
" Chapter whereby the person is not devoured by a serpent
in the underworld."
There is nothing in these chapters to
explain the amulets further.
:

M. and C,

of the horses "


,

97c, d, carnelian

green glaze

f 2,

97e, sard; 97e 2, yellow

97g, carnelian

Hapi (Maeibtte, Serapeum,


Blue glass

3,

Brown

glass 1,

Throat

Position.

Bed

Petersburg

LIZARD ON CASE.

1,

1,

28,

3,

A, lizard.

Varieties.

XXV

Yellow jasper
base of chest

(1);

Univ. Coll.

14,

Alnwick

2,

1.

Turin

(1).

Ptolemaic

to

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

P. 9, E. 3,

20).

xiii,

names

to

be as early as

being mentioned by Pliny

it

Period.

XXV to

Figure.

102.

is

probably extended to Ptolemaic

Type A,

98a, bronze

nzat eye on front.


of

(This

Atmu, by the

Atmu

Hapy, son

to

life

is

inscription (Cairo

98e, bronze.

Eg. Eeptilia, Supplem.


Matenal. Bronze.

For shape

Type B, 98d, d
of

2,

Period.

XXV to
103.

E.

Petersburg

1.

AMPHISBAENA ON CASE.

Meaning. Worn alive for pregnancy


Worn dead for rheumatism (P. xxx, 36).
Period.

XXV to

Figures.

Period.

Figure.

104, gazelle horn

Meaning.
(P.
St.

1.

HORN.

tip,

xii,

12).

Shurafeh, 1912.

Horn.
Univ. Coll. P.

1.

Human, for

BONE.

ulcer (Pliny, xxviii, 11)

skull, epilepsy (Bell., xiv, 12)

2,

Univ. Coll. P.

2,

For evil eye (Bell.,


Roman.

105.

Ptolemaic.

Univ. Coll. P.

Petersburg

(Pliny, xxx, 43).

Bronze.

Collection.

(?).

Ob.

Collection.

99a, b, bronze.

Matenal.

Ptolemaic

104.

Name.

Material.
99.

boils (Pliny,

is

head see Descrip.

2, St.

St.

d 3,
Meaning.

6,

CASE.

Bronze.

Collections.

3.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

1.

SHREW MOUSE ON

Figure.
Material.

Cat. 38,704), but as

never appears elsewhere as a serpent, the god

(?).

xxx, 34).

Shab-pa-hor "
right
classed by Daressy as a figure
of

probably only invoked for the fever.)

bronze

Ptolemaic

Dead shrew mouse passed round

Meaning.

98b, bronze, cornice to

box ; 98c, bronze, upper part of hood broken away,


inscribed " Atmu give life to Un-nefer, son of Khonsu.

CASE.

103.

ardus,

C, 1 Old, bronze.

4.

TAURT ON

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

times.

Figures.

of

bronze

Bronze.

Material.

shown by the
the XXVth dynasty and

This class of reptiles on cases

inscribed

E.

3,

b, c,

For pregnancy, as amphisbaena in Pliny,

Meaning.

A, reared up. B, lying twisted on case.

Varieties.

Period.

Type A, 101a,

xxx, 43.

Snake's skin eases delivery (Pliny, xxx, 44).

For malaria (Bell.,

and

1.

Unknown.

Meaning.

C, lizard

(?).

101a 2, b 2, bronze. B, 101, bronze.


Matenal. Bronze.

102.

Name.

B, two lizards.

Gecko are not distinguishable.

COBRA ON CASE.

98.

lizard in case for tertian fever

These vary somewhat, but different types

Figures.

1,

1,

Green

cobra.

Period.

Agate
base of neck

Murch

3,

jasper

Gold

(2);

Cairo

Collections.
St,

2,

glass 1,

See Wilkinson,

2.

(Pliny, xxx, 30).

97h, haematite

Bed limestone 1,
Green glaze 5, Green

E.

1,

Spotted lizard worn in case for quartan fever.

Meaning.

(Pliny, xxx, 30).

iii, xi).

Carnelian 50, Haematite

Materials.

Also see 2 carnelian of

97j, red limestone, prehistoric.

Ivory

Univ. Coll. P.
842.

iii,

101.

97a, red glass, of " the lady of the house Nefer97b, carnelian,of " the royal scribe Ptah-mes, keeper

(?).

bronze.

Bronze.

Collection.

XXVI.

Prehistoric to

jasper ; 97f

Ptolemaic
c,

Material.

Figures.
;

XXV to
100a, b,

A, half length. B, head only.

Varieties.

Peiiod.

renpit"

Period.
Figure.

Petersburg

2.

81);

xxviii,

56)

frog,

pig's pastern

human

hare's pastern, bowel pains

promotes discord (P.

fevers and aphrodisiac

(P., xxxii,

xxxviii,

18); perch

vertebra, tertian fever (P., xxxii, 88).


100.

Meaning.

PHAGRUS EEL ON

Tooth

of

CASE.

Varieties.

phagrus worn for malaria (Pliny,

Period.
Figures.

xxxii, 38).

26

A, mammalian
Roman.

bone.

B, crocodile plate.

A, 105a, Shurafeh, 1912.

B, 106b, crocodile

AMULETS FOR PROTECTION


plate: 150c, crocodile plate v?ith iron rings,

and

Meaning.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection,

3.

Period.

Worn

Meaning.

evil eye (Bell.,

Fif/ure.

upon

In Italy worn against

xxviii, 7).

it.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Ilia, prehistoric, Ballas 225

Materials.

at

Carnelian

Position.

(Bell., Am., 61

Ascolano {Botii,N iiov. Antol.,

lllf, g, h, carnelian,

many

8,

MELEAGRINA MARGARITIFERA SHELL


(Red Sea Pearl).

XIItoXVIIL
112a

Fet., 38).

a 5

xliv),

(pi.

Senusert I; 112c, electrum, with

In tombs

engraved with name of

name

of

Amenemhat

1 Oct., 1912).

Roman.

Roman, Gheyta
same both sides

107c, d, same,

107h,

2,

Materials.

of

Shell

5,

Gold

1,

Electrum

4.

Pectoral pendants.

Position.

107e, Cyp. caiuica, Ballas

107f, silver gilt,

carnelian

Naqadeh

107b, Cyp. annulus, prehistoric, 1625

III

Xllth dynasty; 112d, gold,


pectoral of King Rasekenen 112e, carnelian
with glass
beads, XVIIIth dynasty.
112c, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, plain,

107a, Cyp. pantherina, prehistoric, south town,

Figures.

Naqadeh

group

shells.

Prehistoric to

Period.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Figures.

same (?)
Hie,

Pectoral pendants.

CYPRAEA SHELL.

Protection from evil eye and witchery, from

resemblance to vulva

111b,

carnelian, group 1

111], carnelian,

Periad.

Meaning.

xi,

1.

Unknown.

Name.

Hid,

Mahasna, tomb 461


group 3.

carnelian,

112.
107.

eye and witchery (Bell.,

111c, carnelian, group 14;

ix^r."

Graeco-Roman.
106, branch of coral with silver uraeus twisted
(See figure 58c, and Coral dog, 233c.)

Period.

evil

Prehistoric to Vlth dynasty.

Figures.

in India for dangers (Pliny, xxxii, 11).

AVorn by infants (Pliny,

Against

Fet. 47).

CORAL.

lOG.

CARDIUM EDULE SHELL.

111.

silvered

mirror stuck on by resin.

Univ. Coll. P. 12.

Collection.

107g, silver sheet; 107h,

dark blue glaze

107j, green

glaze,

CLEOPATRA BULIMOIDES SHELL.

113.

Mahasna 418, Vlth dynasty; 107k, green glaze; 1071, pi.


107m,
xliv, black and white porphyry, XVlIIth dynasty

Late prehistoric to Vlth dynasty.

Period.

llSi,

Figures.

green glaze
Materials.

Green glaze

Shell,

Silver

Blue glaze

3,

gilt

1,

Silver

1,

Carnelian

group 5
group 3

1,

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

113c, green

113d, sard, group

Materials.

6,

E.

1,

and many

Shells,

shells.

NERITA CRASSILABRUM SHELL.

108a, b, Sinai, Serabit temple

114.

Necklace.

Collection.

Univ. Coll.

and many

string,

Worn by

(Stkabo, XVI,

Nuov. Antol.,

MITRA MACULOSA SHELL.

Late prehistoric
109a,

2.

to

prehistoric,

Xllth dynasty.
Ballas

2,

Green

felspar 1,

Bone

iv,

4,

and

109b,

Troglodyte

shells.

for wearing,

women

against witchery

1 Oct., 1912).

Prehistoric.

Figure.

114, Ballas 519,

blue paste,

Naqadeh 1684.

Univ. Coll. P.

Ballas 355, Xllth dynasty.

Necklace.

Collection.

Univ.

POLINICES MAMILLA SHELL.

115.

Coll. P.,

string of

beads, and

many
Period.

Prehistoric.

Figure.

115, Ballas 572, Koptos.

shells.

110.

Period.
Figures.
of top,

CONUS SHELL.

Late prehistoric, XXIlIth dynasty.


110b, c llOd
110a, Zowaydeh
;

Collection.

Necklace.

Position.
Collection.
(pi.

Univ.

Coll. P.

xv), slice

lie.

Hawara, XXIIIrd dynasty.

Position.

but

17); pierced, for evil eye and witchery


Worn in Rome, tombs in Forum (Boni,

Period.

Collection.

Position.

1.

PECTUNCULUS VIOLACESCENS SHELL.

(Bell., Fet., 41).

Figures.

Sard

Univ. Coll. P.

Meaning.
carnelian

P.,

shells.

109.

bone,

108c, carnelian,

threaded with blue-glazed ball beads, Xllth dynasty.


Position.

113b,

113c, c 2, sard,

(The following shells are found pierced


no imitations are known.)

Xllth dynasty.

Figures.

Period.

Ballas

group 30

Necklace.

Position.
Collection.

108.

felspar,

1.

Necklace, and bracelets.

Position.

Period.

string oE shells,

(pi. xlvi).

Necklaces.

Univ. Coll. P.

27

CASSIS

NODULOSA SHELL.

Period.

Late prehistoric.

Figure.

116, Ballas 207.

E 2

AMULETS FOR PROTECTION


Black jasper 2, Green glaze 2, Alabaster 1,
Green serpentine 1, Yellow steatite 1, Honey sard 1, Silver 1,
Materials.

Necklace.

Position.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Iron

MUREX TERNISPINA SHELL.

117.

124.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

HELIX DESERTORUM SHELL.

118.

118a, b,

Figures.

Xllth

f,

Univ. Coll. P. 12.

117.

Figure.

e,

1.

Collection.

c,

dynasty,

prehistoric,

Hawara

Naqadeh 698

llSg,

118d,

124c,

Necklaces.

Collection.

Period.

XXVth

Figure.

119.

Collection.

(?) to

Roman.

iron, Illahun

124a,

bronze, with head of

124d, bronze

Univ. Coll. P.

CLANCULUS PHARAONIS SHELL.

119.

XXVI

Period.
Figures.

Naqadeh 1615.
Position.

Meaning. Worn by children against the evil eye (Bell.,


In Egypt probably worn by children, as it has a
XV, 10).
head of Bes on the earlier examples.

prehistoric,

h,

124b, bronze,

Bes on each

Bronze and Iron.

All

Position.

Bracelet.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

5.

DOOR

125.

Name.

TURBO, OPERCULUM

BOLT.

Sest.

Security

(?).

Period.

Vlth dynasty.

Period.

Early.

Figure.

125a, b, green glaze, Mahasna,

Figure.

120, Koptos.

Collection.

Univ. Coll. P.

OLIVA SHELL.

121.

Name.

121a, b,

Collection.

13.

1.

SEATED PRINCE.

Repoti-liat,

Meaning.

Early.

Figures.

tomb

Univ. Coll. P.
126.

Period.

xliv)

(pi. xlvi).

Material.

Meaning.

Collection.

Gurob;

side (pi.

dynasty.

Univ. Coll. P.

120.

BELL.

Protector

XVIIIth

Period.

Koptos, Naqadeh 1567.

126a, blue glaze faded white

Figures.

Univ. Coll. P.

(?).

XlXth dynasty.

to

126a

2,

red glaze,
j

Rifeh.

TEREBRA CONSOBRINA SHELL.

122.

Period.

Prehistoric.

Figure.

122,

Collection.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

127.

Naqadeh 1567, Koptos.


Name.

Univ. Coll. P.

Period.

STONE IMPLEMENT.

Names. Peseshkef, and others.


Meaning. To open the mouth of the mummy (see 37).
Black round stones like axes are called baetuli, and longer
ones kerauniac ; they are sacred, and potent in taking cities

and

fleets

(Pliny, xxxvii, 51).

Collection.

Meaning.

Period.

Also regarded as thunderstones in China.


Figures.

123b,

Prehistoric to

XXVIth

123a, yellow steatite, Vlth dynasty, group 13

honey sard, Hawara

123e

(pi.

green glaze,

xliii),

basalt

123f

black glaze

(xliii),

e, f, g,

XXIInd

Univ.

Coll. P. 3.

129.

BULLA.

all

Meaning.
Period.

Illahun,

onlookers.

128a, b, green glaze; 128c, green, yellow, andj

(xliii),

from 1st dynasty


glaze, Vlth dynasty,

123g
town Abydos; 123h (xliv), green
Zaraby
123j (xv), green serpentine, prehistoric, Naqadeh
1567; 123k, silver; 1231, iron; 123m (pi. xlv), alabaster,
slate

MEDUSA HEAD.

(xliii).

Collection.

123d,

2.

To protect by repeUing
Roman.

Figures.

dynasty.

black jasper, the baetuli described by Pliny

c,

Univ. Coll. P.
128.

and Northern Europe; worn as charms against


lightning and evil actions (Bell., I III Fet., 43 Am., 14).
;

(?).

Figures.
127a, bronze Tell el Amarna, perhaps a badgaj
worn by the household of a princess 127b, blue glaze.
Bronze 1, Blue glaze 1.
Material.

Italy

Period.

Protector

XVIIIth dynasty.

Called " thunderstones " in

PRINCESS.

Hent.

Meaning.
128.

2.

Figures.

dynasty.

(xliii),

28

Protection.
I to

Roman.

129a, b, b 2

(pi. xliii),

carnelian, group 14

129ol

green opaque serpentine, 1st dynasty town, Abydos

AMULETS FOR PROTECTION


129d, alabaster

seum

XXHIrd

129e, agate,

(?)

dynasty, Rames-

end

129f, ivory; 129g, jade, gilt resin attached to

129j, green
for the suspension hole ; 129h, black steatite
body ;
gold
over
a
white
paste
129k,
glass in silver frame
;

nodule set in bronze frame

flint

1291,

Naqada,

See

xlvi).

2,

Emery, Jade,

1 each of

Flint,

On

Position.

Univ. Coll. P. 12.

Meaning.

To

Vaneties.

A, plain.

distract

and avert the evil eye.


G, figures.
B, matwork.

D,

Meaning.

gilt

Modern.

Prehistoric,

inside at lower end to hold

130a, shell, hook

Naqadeh
899 130d, shell, Naqadeh 1848; 130e, shell, Naqadeh 1007
130f, shell 130g, shell, Naqadeh 1848 130h, shell, Naqadeh
130h 2, shell, Naqadeh 144 ISOj, shell, Naqadeh, B.
[1884
K23 130k, 1, shell 130m, shell, Naqadeh 399 130n, black
130o, p, black and white hmestone
130q, clear
iBteatite
TypeB,
porphyry.
black
and
white
Igreen serpentine 130r,
Naqadeh, T. 16;

veil; 130b, shell,

130c, shell,

Figure.

132,

COHC0E AWPE,
name

philosopher of this

Univ.

Collection.

"

May

is

thou be saved,
lUahun. (An Arab
!

mentioned by Suidas.)

Coll. P.

llSOs, shell carved in basket pattern, with hook at lower end

up a

Type

veil.

To hold a written charm.

Varieties.

A, vertical.

Period.

C, 130t, u, shell, carved as female

A,

Figures.

133a,

C, square.

D,

limestone model inscribed " Bast

lady of the city," early

and white limestone 2, Black


fsteatite, 1, Black and white porphyry 1, Clear green serpenjtine 1, Copper 1.
Position.
On forehead, as found in burials, and curved
Shell 16, Black

133b, gold

foil

over resin body,

Xllth dynasty (?) 133c, bronze case, in form of obelisk,


with doors engraved on one side, inscribed, Asar men f
neb ta : " For Seka may Osiris establish
Seka du as
;

may

him, and

the position.

Collection.

B, horizontal.

E, crescent-shaped.
Xllth dynasty to Modern.

heart-shaped.

Sgures.

Materials.

CASE.

Meaning.

CHARM

133.

fit

Coptic.

Doros," in white on a purple band.

Jto

Protection.

Period.

[to hold

7.

WOVEN CHARM.

182.

tube, modern.

Figures.

xxv.

FOREHEAD PENDANT.

130.

up

xxiii

the neck and chest.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Period.

open-work,

blue glaze and bronze

papyrus charm pendant 131f, knotted cords with baboon


of Tahuti seated, uzat eyes open-work, Taurt, tooth of
hyaena, cowry shell, papyrus charm pendant 131g, cord
with cowry shells, uzat eyes. Bast, and papyrus charm. All

from Kafr Ammar,

Agate, Black steatite. Alabaster, Gold, Ivory, Green glass.


Collcctim.

uzat eyes of

shells,

Carnelian

Materials.

(pi.

97.

iviii, Ixiv,

cowries; 131d, knotted card with papyrus charm pendants,


uzat eyes, and Isis seated of blue glaze 131e, with cowry

XXVth

the lord of the land give his tomb,"

dynasty; 133d, iron case, Balyzeh, Coptic; 133e, durite,


with cross lines, imitating binding (see next) 133f, roll of
For imitation
leather, elaborately bound with thread.
dynasty
Dahchour,
xvii, xviii,
Xllth
see
in
the
charm cases
of
papyrus
on the cords,
and later rough rolls
xix, xxiv

Univ. Coll. P. 21.

KNOTTED CORD.

131.

Meaning.

No statement

of

the meaning remains in

rEgypt, but in Europe we find according to Pliny


r

(xxviii,

against witchcraft in Central Africa (Leicester Museum).

seven knots in the girdle effective for catching hyaenas; in

Ixxviii,

with the names of widows

12, a thread knotted

See also imitation charm

is

f,

g.

133k, dark violet opaque glass; 1331, green glaze

on each

which have been

tied

"

Among

is

Xllth

The

a,

C.

Jiqi

essential idea

" There

in a

seems to be

XXVth

133 n, bronze,

La

illaha

ilia

is of

Arab

origin.

133o, cast lead,

Allah wa kkadumii

is

dynasty.

of paper, 12

131a,

\uzat eye; 131c, cords with bronze Nefertum, uzat eyes

age

certain, or controlling others.


to

probably of

The square package

inscribed,

knot of cord, of hollow gold, Dahshur


!XIIth dynasty; 131b, cords with sard pendant, blue-glazed
fXizat open work, papyrus charm pendants, cowry shells and
Figures.

all

133m,

la sawyd
no god but Allah, and his servant shall not be
put to shame" probably intended for a Copt to wear, with
133p,
a colourable imitation of the Muslim formula
leather case, containing Arabic charms written on a sheet

recited, are pro-

charm

Wushim,

Roman

Arab.

the Hadendoa, knots

by a holy man, or even hy

leather case (Seligmann).

Period.

bronze,

of three coloured threads in order to

the ordinary hegab," or written

making anything

and three times three knots

a text of the Koran

(teacher), while

B.

In modern times we read of un-

check a man's movements.

jtective, just as
,

d,

Man, Finland and Germany


[cast, three

131b,

tying knots in cord to liberate a sailing wind, in the Isle of

for conception (xxx, 49).

rolls in

The horizontal charm case is later. 133g, pottery


model, Memphis, Roman 133h, black glass rod, gold ends
133j (pi. xliii), wood. Tell el Amarna, Roman, group 24

used for inguinal hernia; and knotted hairs of a she-mule

Imitated also by small cylinders of wood worn

131 above.

27)

17 inches, folded in 8 folds each

bears 57 lines with one magic square of 6

way

and
and a pentacle; modern, brought by
Martyn Kennard from Nubia, 1854.
it

another of 5

and
29

6,

8,

AMULETS FOR PROTECTION


galloping lion; wreath and leaf, FAikairian, " good fortune "

D. 133q (pi. x'.iv), silver, pea.cock-blue enamel, loose


plug at the top with slip inside to hold a written charm or
relic
183r, bronze imitation of previous, not opening.
E. 133s, gold hollow, with imitation Runic inscription

1351, black limestone, figure standing with uraeus

Atherne Mino Pisidaos Thibrim, Ps'insilOi

cartouches,

133s

small copy in lead, Coptic; 133t, gold, probably a

2,

The charm

copy of an amulet case.

number value

name

of the

of

Baduh

of writing 2468, the

the spirit of carrying,

13 1.

Book

the 162nd chapter of the

of the

account of some fine examples see Abi/dus,

XXXth

Penod.

For an

Dead.

I.,

p. 50, pi. Ixxix.

dynasty.

reverse of

a,

Amen, adored by two

the four-ramheaded form of

baboons, two

around, a ram, a lion.


Phre (the sun) tJibain

unknown

Anubis and four signs lost


and three lines of

Set,
.

doi

men and two women

above, the bark of the

letters; 135o, Prussian blue glass, heart of Osiris

and heart

of Isis facing

lie Kharia, " favour."

belong to the followers of Marcus,

mummy

on the back of the


cow, with the winged disc and uraeus over it, fragments of
formula around cartonuage coloured red and black 131b,
134a, the deceased

Figures.

II,

and that of Merneptah. Tell el Yehudiyeh 138m, blue


glass, Horus radiated in a bark, between Isis and Nephthys
winged SabaOth Adonai, " Lord of Hosts " 133n, blue glass,
Horus on the lotus in a bark, above him three khepers

him three goats (evil jiersons), before


him probably were three hawks (justified persons), as on 135y

cow, which was placed under the head of the dead according
to

blundered

Ramessu

(triune Creator), behind

HYPOCEPHALUS.

Derived from the papyrus with the figure of a

Meaning.

ioni-

the two cartouches of

written on letters in Egypt.

is still

among them

on head,

of the Kharis in the

who taught

wine (Iken., adv.

This

the partaking

TIaer., I, xiii, 1

Khnumu,

135p, black steatite, lion-headed uraeus of

may
3)

over

the sun's disc in an enclosure, traces of inscription around

Bennu

bird (soul of Osiris) with triple plant on a stand,

(compare the

plant on stand behind Min),

triple

/a(7

135q.

Sun below, reversed, the cow, with the winged disc and uraeus
over it
fragments of inscription black on yellow ground.
135b 2, a larger disc with more figures (like Abyd. Ixxix),

black

and on reverse the baboons adoring the shining disc, and


Isis and Nebhat mourning with the crowned zed sign
between being black with fine yellow lines it will not photograph 134c, eight crocodile heads around a disc, with eight
baboons above, and below Paunhatef offering Maat to the
hawk of Ea; yellow and rod with black drawing on cartonnage.

serpents across staff; bennu bird as on 13Sp (seelSSv, w,

serpents across a staff below

black

13Sr,

steatite,

next plate).

PI. xxii

Those on the
reverses of those

left

side

of

on the right

pi.

are

xxi

side in the

the

same

inscribed

order, each

to each.

limestone. Aphrodite drying her locks, S. Ps.


limestone,

Isis

nursing

Athlathamilba

Beberetc (see
Kobbli,

Bes

135t);

possibly

"

brown

13Sc,

Berberetc

black steatite,

scaring for

Tas

standing,

13Sd,

India (Pliny, xxxvii, 63)

Ilorus, Athltkaththah, blundered

connected with mormorion

rascals,"

for

Mormoron
or

to

perhaps

a transparent black stone from

reverse in an

unknown alphabet

138e, brown jasper, Anubis standing by a mummy laid


on a lion's back, Al)rasax; 13Sf, green chalcedony, lionheaded serpent radiated, three serpents across a staff
behind;
Thinouer Khnoumis, Z, M,
135g,

KH=M7

black limestone, Set standing holding serpents and onkh

jasper,

head

On

Tas

diliulhse

Serapis,

of

135v, w, as 133r.

pi. xlvi,

13Su, black

(division

uncertain)

135x, jasper, dark green blood

on the lotus

in a

papyrus bark, with a

crowned hawk on either end, star in front; 135y, haematite,


figures holding a spear, star before, crescent behind on the
back Mikhael; 133z, lazuli, crowned seated figure holding
phiale on the back Piimoii.
133aa, bronze for the details of this elaborate amulet it
will be best to examine the facsimile on an enlarged scale
(pi. xlix),with transcription and translation of the intelhgible
;

lo

parts.

alha, five letters in

Sokar) eind, Ikhankhala, EoulkhcOakli, apparently the


of genii 13Sk, haematite, body of Harpekroti u^wn a
;

the

first

face is a large central figure of Bes,

human

faces,

one on either

side.

elaborate head-dress of animal heads, the four wings,

The
and

the sei'pent at the feet enclosing various noxious animals,


all seen on a bronze figure of Bes from the Serapeum,
and on the Metternich stele (Lanzonb, Diz. Mit., Ixxx, Ixxxi).
At the proper right is Bakhakhukh ; this phrase repeated
adding a syllable each time, occurs in the Greek and
Demotic magical papyri.
The four-headed ram comes

are

next, with the

name

Kliab, a god of the north with four

rams' heads (Lanz., Diz. Mit., 1190).

is

an unknown alphabet
or; 138j, haematite, the sun's disc in an enclosure (see 135v,
pi. xxii) with ears of corn and serpents, Isis and Anubis (?)
above it, lao ord riouth ; Aphreni, Sumhel, Mekhla, PskJir
.

On

with two additional

hawk

names

figure in front, bar

bcbertc

black steatite,

138t,

two

13Ss, black haematite, sun's disc in an


it,

for

(?

uraeus, in circle,

behind;

SstlaiO; laeo ba phren cmoun (see 133aa); 13Sh, haematite,


.

lion-headed

Figures and Materials. 138a, black glass, Serapis with


" Isis conquers "
Isis and Nephthys
138b, hard black

for

before, crescent above, two


Eupepti, " good digestion "

enclosure, lion-headed serpent over

stone, Harpokrates

INSCRIBED STONE CHARMS, GREEK.

135.

bennu as

steatite, the

Next

Ea, the four-headed ram(L., D.il/,.

the

title

is

the namel^ait

clxxxii).

Following

P/j nesklierphi, probably connected with krij}kiin

the laeo formula.

This

is

followed by Plidkhus, a word found

theLeyden magical papyrus, and as Phox in the Demotic


magic papyrus. Phylax, " the guardian," is the title of the
sphinx on the opposite side of the axis. Beyond this is a
gryphon, with the words lie, gom ph. ... In the next

in

80

AMULETS FOR PROTECTION


bandaged mummy, holding scourges on each
which are two uraei by the side is Ahlanathanalba, a
word often found in magic papyri (Greek in British Museum,
Paris, and Leyden, also Demotic), and on gems.
It is a
register is a
of

is

made by

reversible phrase, the latter half

former part

ablanath

is

holding

rh

" thy

most gracious

of the letters total to 365.

ira

litho

emmm

othilari

nuome nerph ab

this

This sentence

elsewhere in completely reversible form, with

is

Paris,

kriphi here

to be divided,

and

The

B. M. G. P.

shown by 138g.

Phokhos.

is

is

Brinteti en,

L.

1.

G.

349.

Abrasax.

1625,

P. P.

in the

lesous.

P. Z. G. P.,

verso.

below, Brintat enophri, clearly enophri is un-nefer, " the


good Being," and en may be un, " the being." Behind this

G. P. M. D.,

I.,

16,

1804,

1983.

I,

1.

303,

II,
I.

Mimaut

B.

pap.,

D. A.

D. A., p
261

1.

B. M.

5.

p.

154.

1.

63

I.,

D. A., p 182.

M. G.

P., I., index,

79 (see Wessely).

p. 53.

P. P.,

1.

2132.

P. P. 1233, 3020.

P. Z. G. P.,

Arpokhnoupi,
G. P. M. D. xvi

81

184.

180,

pp.

63,478(B. M. G.P., L, 67, 80).

B. M. xlvi,

laeo ba phren emoun,

which must be compared with the phrase

1891,

See index of B. M. G. P.,

Lion treading on skeleton.

Behind

10.

Also often on gems.

P. P. 982, 3030.

p. 256.

for

D. A.

xlvi,l.

8.

Akhrammakh, etc.

is

in

3030, L. P. G., V, 4a 3, 5a 15.

Lailama.

viii.

8).

B.M.

P. P.

xlvi,

P.

verso xxii 13, xxvii

1.

G. P. M. D., v 8, vi 25,

11, 362.

1.

iv 18.

Ablanath,etc.

kriphi in

Horus seated

M. D.

G. P.

Also the sentence breaks after emoun,

In the centre

xlvi,

xxvii, 13 (see note to

substitution of on for

lotus flower in a boat, with a figure before him.

attach a

found

showing how the sentence

the figures which help to

in

is

ipliirk

and that some equivalence may be looked

in these two words.

as

Berlin.

of value, as

is

accuracy as a criterion. The main value of

literal

amulet

The following references to papyri containing these


names I owe to the kindness of Sir Herbert Thompson
Bakhakhukh, etc., W. S. V. p. 19, No. 16, 1. 50 and 70.

place of on in the first half, in magical papyri of British

Museum,

is a hawk with serpent tail, carrying a branch.


named A r 2)0 kJinoupliis, "Horus the creator," and

meaning to the phrases in the magical papyri.

the reversible inscription

on aeu (reversing) ea

oeai.

is

cannot take

laeo ba phren

(Lanz.,

their chief is

is

tail

xxiv, 7) says that the Basilidians

Under the hawks

a four-armed

is

is

Abrasax (Greek) or Abraxas


(Latin version).
It is therefore a divine name.
On the reverse of the amulet are, at the top, the Divine
[names, lao lesous. Below these are three scarabs, the selfbecoming animal, emblems of the Creative Trinity. Below
is Horus in the bark, which shows the direction to be
[facing the three hawks.
These birds are the souls of the
Just, standing before the Trinity
behind are the evil
animals going away, three goats, three serpents, and three
crocodiles.

the inscription

behind is Brintat endplni. This combination is found in


Demotic and in the Paris Greak papyrus. Below khnouphi
may possibly be Rosthi Tlmth neorlou. Below can ha
distinguished a lion, with perhaps Saba behind it, and a
baboon of Thoth with the head of the ibis of Thoth on the
back the other signs and letters can hardly be settled
without some better example of such figures.
At first sight the mixture of Egyptian, Semitic and
Greek would seem incredible to a scholar of any one of the
languages yet there can be no doubt of each of these
elements. The names and figures of the gods sliow how
largely the Egyptian enters into the mixture
the Semitic
probable
the
is shown by Saba, the lion, which makes more
readings of Akhrammakh and lao la ila ma ; and the Greek
The looseness,
is evident in Aleximandreula and Phylax.
of the equivalents is seen in the variants Ee, Eau, laeo,
lao, Khnoubis, Khnouphis, Brintat, Brinteti, so that we

[word commonest on Gnostic amulets, which has not been

declare that

wrapped in wings,

middle

only legible at the end,


noeououti, a 'prolonged iovm ot pa nuter, " the god."
In

This

i,

the

Before these

group has Saba by it, the Arabic sabd, " a lion,"


justifying our looking to an Arabic form for the phrase
\akhramakh. Above this is a lion trampling on a skeleton,
a group seen in other Gnostic objects a magical papyrus
fin Paris, and a gem.
Below is Abrasax, the mysterious

The numerical values

as he

Khnumu

Horus with the royal attributes of the


D. M., ccxxvii, 1).
In the third register is Thoth seated, with a female
figure before him, carrying a standard and other objects.

[lion in the

Irenaeus {adi: Haeres,

is

a figure

is

In

standard.

scourge and

me." This would agree with the subject of Horus, tramp|ling on crocodiles, and subduing the noxious animals.
The

[explained.

This

front is another

Possibly the Semitic kerim, gracious or noble,

and the phrase be

crowned Horus

fjnay be the source,

Khuumu,

Khnoubis Kharnous, which is a late form of

In the second register

the group to be explained. Opposite

is

explained.

a form of

and the onkh.

is called

kahran, "the horned."

reversing the

Anubis standing, with Alcximandrc-ula, " bark, guardian


of man."
Behind him is Im-la-ila-ma ; it is tempting to
see in this an early type of the formula of Islam, " la illaha
ilia Allah "
7na might be an Egyptian form of Aramaic
jimi, " with me," Egyptain iny, " witii me," Arabic vidi.
?hus the formula might be rendered, " I AM, there is
[none else with me," testifying the Unity. The phrase is
'common in the Paris and British ^luseuni Greek papyri.
In the third register is a partly defaced figure with two
[large animal legs, and a crown of seven uraei.
Compare
rith parts of Horus in Lanz., D. M., ccxvii. By this begins
[the Akrammakhamarix, which occurs with the termination
marei in the British Museum and Paris papyri. It is almost
[a reversible word, and akhramahh is the group to be

a radiated lion-headed god, holding a radiated lion-headed

serpent,

I.

etc.

67.

etc.

Mimaut

P. P.,

pap.

1.

P. Z. G. P.,

1.

398. B.

M.

xlvi, col. 5

59.
I,

237.

P.P.,

2199.

AMULETS FOR PROTECTION


The above
Greek

are

initials

Pap. vmg. demotic.

GriflSth,

M. G.

B.

D. A., Dietrich,

Papyri.

P., British

Museum

G. P. M. D.,

Abraxas.

Pap. Grk.

L. P. G., Leyden,

P. P., Paris papyrus in Wessely, GriecJiisrhe Zaitherpaptjnis

von Paris

u.

London, Wiener Denkschr. 1888.

Papyn

Parthey, Zwei griechische

W.

S. v.,

136.

d.

P. Z. G. P.,

Berliner Mus. 1866.

figure standing with four characters behind


steatite,

unknown'signs.

degraded Kufic inscriptions

five views, basalt

137.

Name.

Meaning.

Salvation and protection.

a divinity

Varieties.

A, plain cross.

holding a branch standing on the back of a couchant bull;

Period.

Figures.

four lines of

two young ones


a mountain, like Mt. Argaeus on the coins of Caesarea, two
lines of inscription.
Prom the types and characters it

to

B, Chi-rho cross.

Coptic.

A, 137a,

b, c,

c2

to 6d,

2 smaller, h, bronze

bronze; 137d2, lead;

crocodiles of usual tyjie, but with hiero-

a barbaric imitation, as also on the back;

phis;

palm

tree with

appears to belong to the Cilician region

Horus on

Stauros.

mother of pearl;
137m, black steatite, Koptos;
137n, n 2, with two balls on ends, o, o 2, bronze 137o3,
lead
137p, bronze
137q, wood, and q 2, rougher 137r, s,
bone; 137t, 1 2, iron 137u, wood; 137v, y, bronze Mem-

inscription on the base

glyphs reduced

CROSS.

steatite,

a tree, with two lines of inscription below

steatite,

lines of

Figures and Materials.


PI. xxi, 136a, black
Horus hand in hand with another figure; two

black

136c,

137e,

g, g

f,

137k, bronze;

137j,

,>

1371, lead;

137w, bronze;

137x, lead;

bronze, hollow

137z,

136d, black steatite, a figure standing with a staff in the

reliquary case M'ith aquamarine on the centre.

hands, lines of characters on the back resembling Mandaite

(xliv),

136e, limestone blackened, two bird-headed figures over a

aa

worshipper

four lines of degraded Semitic

136f, two figures

136h, onyx.

Black

four lines of degraded characters

On

Materials.

CHAPTER

xlvi.

af,

Bronze 22, Lead 8, Wood


Mother of pearl 1.

B,

3,

137aa
around,

spots

pi.

bone; 137ac, lead; 137ad, lead; 137ae,


circle.

dark blue glass, cross white, red


similar in light blue glass.

2,

with a serpent coiled on a staff


three lines of degraded
Semitic; 136g, slate, an ass-headed figure with legs ending
in serpents

with

moon

jasper, the

and Cancer, the house of the moon


the sun and Leo, the
house of the sun
barbaric imitation of inscription
this
stone has been broken, and mounted in a silver band, with

INSCRIBED STONE CHARMS, NON-GREEK.

PI. xxii, 136b,

136m, black

i36j, grey

slate tablets

1,

the suspension ring at the bottom.

Wiinsch, Sethianische Verfluchnngstafeln.

inscription.

PI. xxiii, 136k,

A, 137ab,

lead, cross in

Iron

2,

Bone

2,

steatite 1,

VII

AMULETS OF HUMAN-HEADED GODS


Theophoric Amulets, 138

When

the dim ideas of similars and of

the Eskimo

now

use

had given

charms such

as

place to a belief in gods

with intelligence and feelings akin to those of men,

it

was

quite natural that the images of such deities should take the

place of the stocks and stones which had been venerated.

The system
beliefs, and

of

amulets was at once adapted

to the theistic

became the most popular of


The very different numbers of amulets of the
various gods show clearly which were the most generally
worshipped. Horus, Isis and Osiris account for much more
than half of the human-headed figures. As the eye of Horus
was one of the earliest amulets, we begin with it here, as
introducing the Horus group.
all

figures of the gods

amulets.

179.

Horus, which are also compared to the sun and moon.


The 140th chapter of the Book of the Dead refers to the
sun as the eye, and was to be " Said on an eye of pure
Lazuli or mak stone ornamented with gold
an offering is
made before it of all things good and holy
another
is made of jasper, which a man will put on any of his limbs
that he chooses."
The 167th chapter refers to an uzat eye
;

Varieties.

The main

Uzat (MacG. 52).


The eye of Horus,

Meaning.

properly a pair, right and

left,

The

uzat

eyes

are

representing the two eyes of

88

are put

In this

under different

class, 138,

we may

discriminate A, the earliest form (Old Kingdom) with very


short appendages, imitating the pattern of feathers below the

hawk's eye

of

Name.

classes

numbei's here, from 138 to 142.

is

UZAT EYE OF HORUS.

brought by Tahuti.

B, larger appendages, with a

coloured surface
138.

D, incised surface.

flat

The order

surface

C,

in the plates

The order
numbering and description is that of the classification.
Period.
VI to Ptolemaic.
Figures.
Type A, 138a, brown limestone group 8
that of the age as nearly as can be estimated.

138b,

c, d,

sard, groups 1, 2, 7

138e, green felspar, group

AMULETS OF HUMAN-HEADED GODS


138g, sard, group 14; 138g2,
30; 138f, bone, group 13
group 7 138h, bone, group 5 138h '2, sard, group 2
138j 4, sard, group 7.
[138j, j 2, j 3, k, k2, sard, group 3
;

sard,

'

Type B,

1381,

hard white

calcite,

back similar

1381

2,

same,

139n 4

and below.

glass above
ring,

engraved with uzat.

138m, volcanic ash; 138m 2, 3, diorite; m 4,


m 5, grey porphyry m6, pink limestone; m 7,
m 9, grey marble; m 10, dark
[chlorite; m 8, haematite

burnt brown

(blue glass; 138n, porphyry

139v

back plain

[pyenite

Amarna

ll38p, steatite, XVIII, Tell

138o

138o, diorite;

138p

2,

jade;

2,

grey

por-

Iphyry; 138q, porphyry. Type C, 138r, blue glaze, black


^relief; 138s, same, Memphis, XXIII; 138t, same, faded;
Il38u, blue, black lines, Karnak, XXV; 138u2, similar;
'l38u 3, green glaze, Naukratis. Type D, 138v, jade 138v 2,
jreen glaze
138w, olive green glaze
138x, carnelian
|138x2, dark blue, three joined; 138x3, blue paste, Nauratis
138y, apple-green glaze, Gizeh
138y 2 5, blue

and black glaze

138z, diorite;

|138ab, blue and black glaze;

Memphis

I38ad2 9, green
Eglaze

138ae 2

rlanis

Naukratis

l^reen glaze,

138af

[Ptolemaic

138ab2, green glaze

138ad,

XXV

Amethyst

(pi.

xliv),

(xliv), gold,

XVIII.

Grey agate
1

and

2,

(See 131b,

many

c, d, e, f,

of

XXII

Brown

Grey marble,

limestone,

Forehead (3)
arms and hands (3).

Position.

Collection.

lin

throat (5)

chest (14)

(pi. xliv),

Lead

2,

UZAT EYE (Unusual

A, open work.
B, inlaid.
engraved on ring. E, in square form.

Varieties.

XII to Ptolemaic.
Type A, open work, 139a,

electrum ring;

XII

yellow glaze.

Univ. Coll. P. 24, E. 22.

Collection.

UZAT EYE, MULTIPLE.

140.

A, bead cylinder.

Varieties.

The

lack of detail

of these different

C,

XXIIIth to XXVth dynasty.


Type A, 140a, green glaze gone brown, two
eyes alternate with two 07ikhs 140b, green and black glaze,
three eyes; 140c, deep blue and black glaze, two eyes.
Type B, 140d, light green, inscribed Sekhmet on back,
Zuweleyn. Type C, 140e, yellow paste, with traces of blue
paste inlay, reverse below; 140f, blue glaze, black lines and
yellow rosette 140g, green and black glaze, two uaz plants
between the eyes 140g 2, 3, similar, Memphis 140g 4, 5,
fiat plate, green, yellow.
Type D, 140h, green glaze and
140h 2, green gone brown
black, rosette on back, 20 eyes
140j, green faded and black, uzat on back, 28 eyes. Another
;

silver;

139c,

modern amulet beads, copied from


1391, blue and black glaze, inlaid
and red glaze cheek 139m, green

139j, k, deep blue glaze,

and black glaze, traces of red paste, inlay 139m 2, blue


glaze, Nebesheh
139m 3 12, green glaze, Naukratis.
Type C, metal plate, 139n, silver plate, incised; 139n 2
;

had 21 eyes.
Green and blue glaze

in Price Collection

Materials.

Univ.

Coll. P. 10,

E.

13, Yellow glaze

1.

4.

2:5; 139n 3
2:5;

(xlvii),

lead plate, similar but larger, scale

(xlvii),

larger pewter plate cut to outline of eye, scale

UZAT EYE, WITH GODS.

The 163rd chapter

Meaning.

concerns the mystic eyes, and

Book of the Dead


be " Said on a serpent

of the

is to

disc.

Two

eyes

are before him, having two legs and two wings."

This

may

legs,

and bearing a two-horned

some such

figure as the type A.

A, vulture and uraeus.

B, wing and arm.

E, with apes. F, with lion.


D, with bull.
H, with Ra. J, with Sekhmet or Bastet.
Period. XXIIIrd dynasty.
Type A, 141a, the vulture's legs and wings
Figures.
below the eye, and a uraeus before it. Type B, 141b, blue
glaze, with white glaze eye and obsidian pupil, and red
glaze inlay above and below the vulture's wings, and an
arm grasping an onkh, Ramesseum, XlXth dynasty (?).
Type C, 141c, green-blue glaze, flat back, with 19 cats, and
secondary uzat above the pupil; 141d, blue and black

G, on

139f, g, deep blue glaze, curved to fit the wrist, Uzat


(?)
with nefer, XVIII; 139h, olive and black glaze, XXIII;
139h 2 5, blue glaze
139h 6, blue and black glaze, large

uzat.
Type B, inlaid,
with white glaze eye,

C, with cats.

metal plate.

F, in cartouche.

b,

C, quad-

Figures.

refer to

Types).

139d, green glaze; 139e, amethyst, Koptos,

B, double eye.

D, multiple eye.

ruple eye.

Varieties.

Figures.

Type F,

Green and blue glaze 34, Silver 3, Bronze 8,


Electrum 1, Amethyst 1, Jasper 1, Yellow glaze 1.

having two

Period.

139u, bronze.

stomach

Iclasses.

^J),

139s, green glaze

Materials.

141.

Univ. Coll. P. 39, E. 47.

most catalogues prevents the statement

139.

2,

139t, green glaze;

Collectims.

[Pink limestone, Blue glass, Blue paste.

|(8)

(xlvii);

2, Haematite 3, Lazuli 2,
each of Syenite, Volcanic ash, Ser-

jpentine, Chlorite, Steatite,

green glaze

Sard 29, Green and blue glaze 46, Porphyry


5, Green felspar 5, Gold 5, Carnelian 3,

iBone

Jade

138ac,

faded blue and blg,ck


138ae,
and black glaze, Zuweleyn and
green and black glaze, Dendereh,

[Diorite 3, Calcite 2,
2,

glaze;

examples in Deshasheh and


in Hyksos and Israelite Cities).

Materials.
15,

light blue-green glaze

talso four early

|to

Type D, on ring, 139p, jasper


Type E, square, 139q, green
139r, dull
7, green, Nebesheh

Period.

138aa, yellow green glaze

19, blue

138ag

139o,

jlaze,

139q 2

green glaze; 139r

2:5;

copper plate, eye embossed, scale

(xlvii),

bronze, eye inlaid with coloured limestone, and coloured

33

hills.

glaze, with 13 cats

Type D,

141e, blue and black glaze, with 9 cats.

141f, green glaze faded, with bull

141g, green

on platform, lotus in front, 7 uraei above. Type


green
glaze, two baboons adoring the uzat eye,
141h,
E,
with 7ivb below, plain back (compare MacG. 74). Type F,
I'llj, light blue glaze, couchant lion above, resting on three
glaze, bull

AMULETS OF HUMAN-HEADED GODS


uzat eyes, behind VFhich are 12 uraei; 141k, apple-green
glaze, couchant lion, resting on 9 uraei, behind which are

three uzat eyes.

p, 9,

XXXth

dynasty.
Protection from noxious animals.

Meaning.

decomposed,

Type G,
the uzat engraved on both sides, resting upon the triple
Type H,
hill sign, representing Horus in the horizon.
141m (pi. xliv), Ka on back, green glaze. Type J, 141n, o,
1*11, jade, partly

as also a smaller one in limestone 8 inches wide, perhaps

XXV (?)

Period.

to

Roman.

144a, white marble, ton lines of inscription on


144b, black steatite, reverse six lines, " Beloved of

Figures.

back

green glaze, with Sekhmet.

Set,

Anhur and Tahuti

Univ. Coll. P. 12.

god

Collection.

Meaning and

Varieties,

of seven goddesses,

group

hail to thee bull

black steatite, reverse four lines, "

The uzat is associated with a


whose names are found singly on

the square eyes, or altogether on one eye.


Period. XXIInd dynasty.

Amru and
below

pi. xli),

Ptah,"

etc.

Osiris,

as net, Isis standing behind,

144e (see pi. xliii), black steatite, reverse (see


144f, light green glaze,
described under No. 241
;

and Nebhat standing at the


back (similar at St. Petersburg).
Isis

on back is impressed the name of the goddess Uazet; 142b,


same with Bastet; 142c, with Aset; 142d, with Nebhat
142e, with Sekhmet; 142f, with Selket; 142g, with Neit, all
142h, blue paste, with names of Uazet,
from Zuweleyn
Bastet, Aset, Nebhat, Sekhmet, Selket, and Neit; 142j, light
blue glaze, gone white, uzat in relief with name of Aset (?)

Become Horus,

144d, cast lead, for reverse, see

hawk on standard

it,

Gurob

142a, green-glazed square with uzat in relief,

Figures.

to thee god son of a

an heir

son of a bull, born of the great cow," see Metternich stele,


101 5; 144b 2, blue glaze, small, very rough; 144c,
11.

UZAT EYE, INSCRIBED.

142.

H dl

(?).

hail to thee heir son of

sides,

winged

Cairo 27, Univ. Coll. P. 8, E.

Collections.

Price 4, St. Petersburg 5, Alnwick

on the

Isis

1,

Turin

6,

3.

142k, green glaze, reverse of 141n,

name

HORUS THE CHILD.

145.

of Uazet.

Name.

Har-pe-kroti.

In general, the various types of uzat not

Meaning.

Horus

being sufficiently distinguished in catalogues, the materials


in other collections of Nos. 138 to 142 are here stated

Varieties.

A, seated.

Mateyials.

together

the materials in University College, collection are

1,

glass 1,

Brown limestone
Green glass

1,

Beryl

1,

145e, black steatite,

ring

1451

carnelian

1.

(pi. xlv),

d,

8,

Vlth

dynasty

(see

145d2, black steatite;

bronze;

Horus seated on the ground, Xllth


group 16
145g 2, bronze
group 17 145k, silver on
;

145j, silver,

145m m 5 (pi. xlv),


Roman; 145nn (xlvi), blue glaze,

quartz crystal

145u,blue glaze,

XXII

C, standing.

145b, blue-glazed quartz crystal,

145f, g, silver,

145h, black steatite

145o, bronze
145p, p 2, q, r, r 2, bronze
145t, blue
on lion throne, blue glaze, Memphis
Type B, 145u, v, blue glaze with yellow points,
glaze.
Type C,
145v 2, coarse blue glaze.
gi'oup 22, Roman
yellow
points,
group
Roman.
glaze
with
22,
145w, X, blue
Similar figures of B and C types, of large size, in rough terra
cotta, are very common as household amulets of Roman
145z,
age
145y (xlvii), dark blue glaze, holding club
green glaze, phallic, holding baboon and vase (xxvii).
Blue glaze 13, Bronze 9, Green glaze 7,
Materials.
Silver 4, Carnelian 4, Quartz crystal 1, Black steatite 2,
Glazed quartz 2, Lazuli 2, Grey glaze 1, bone 1.
Univ. Coll. P. 20, E. 5, St. Petersburg 10,
Collections.
Illahun,

St.

1453,

Petersburg 85, Turin 84, Alnwick 75, Cairo 71, Athens 16,

Edinburgh

(?)

group

bone,
;

dynasty

B, on goose.

Roman.

Deshasheh, xxvi, 32)


Xllth dynasty; 145c,

Silver gilt 1, Black

Univ. Coll. P. 100, E. 84, Price 124,

Collections.

to

145a,

Figures.

Green glaze 178, Blue glaze 116,


Carnelian 34, Lazuli 25, Ked jasper 23, Haematite 22,
Obsidian 13, Porphyry 8, Serpentine 7, Prase 7, Limestone
6, Steatite 6, Syenite 6, Diorite 4, Granite 4, Green felspar 4,
Blue glass 4, Basalt 3, Silver 3, Red glass 3, Gold 2, Calcite
2, Grey agate 1, Brown and green limestone 1, Crystal 1,
stated above in detail.

Slate

VI

Peiiod.

as an infant.

10.

143.

Name.

Har.

The overcoming

Meaning.
Period.

XXXth

Figure.

143.

Collection.

144.

dynasty.

Univ. Coll. P.

Turin

HORUS ON THE CROCODILES.

great example of this usual household amulet

is

stele,

4,

Murch

the

6.

14C.

Perhaps
the earliest are two in limestone, which by the work may
be of the XXVth dynasty, one in Cairo, 9,403, and one
14 inches wide, 15 high to broken top, with fifteen
lines of inscription on the back, in University College, P.,

Metternich

of evil beasts.

Bronze.

Material.

The

HORUS THE HUNTER.

HORUS ON LOTUS.

published by Golenischeff, 1877.

This

is

not

known

before Greek times, and so

be an Indian idea imported

Buto

is

Egypt.
34

so ancient

may

easily

but Horus in the marshes of

an idea that the type might well

arise in

AMULETS OF HUMAN-HEADED GODS


146, gold, with traces of blue glass inlay in the

Figure.

group

lotus,

Gold

north of Abydos.

Green glaze

2,

Turin

3,

Univ. Coll. P.

150g, blue and black glaze, standing, Dendereh, 21


green and black glaze, Dendereh, 21,

1.

Collections.

group 20; 180c, (d, not in plate), e, green and black


Dendereh, group 21 180f, blue and black glaze,
Dendereh, 21, with two feathers on head, as 149g. Type B,
glaze,

Blue glaze with yellow points

Materials.
1,

From

15.

1.

Blue or green glaze

Materials.

HEAD OF HORUS.

147.

Figures.

14i7a, b,

"

The heir and Isis " (see MacG.


Meaning. The protection of Isis.
Varieties

of

XXVI

to

Type A, 148a,

b,

8.

(4).

PHARIA.

Isis Pharia, of the

Pharos at Alexandria, entirely

origin.

Protection of sailors

the goddess

is reclining

and holding a steering oar.


Period.
Ptolemaic and Roman.

in a barge

151a, green glaze faded

Figures.

Roman.
steatite, glazed,

metrical patterns below, Vlth dynasty.

Name.
Greek

Meaning.

60).

A, seated on ground, Vlth dynasty.

and Period.

B, seated on throne.
Figures.

wax

8.

ISIS

151.

2.

AND HORUS.

ISIS

148.

Name.

5, gilt

150h,

blue-green glaze.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Koman.

Period.

Shoulders and chest

Position.

with geo-

B, 148c,

d, e,

f,

blue glass; 151c

(xlvi),

brown ISlb, violeton back, Uel 181d,


;

pale blue glass,

,-

coin of Gallienus, showing the type clearly.


g,

148h, j, silver, group 16; 148k,


g 2, g 3, g 4, blue glaze
bronze 1481, blue and black glaze 148m (pi. xlvi), bronze
148m 2, bronze 148m 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, green glaze.

Green glaze

Material.

Violet

1,

glass

1,

Pale

blue

glass

1.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

3,

Green glaze

Materials.

19,

Silver 2, Steatite 2, Lazuli 1,

glaze

Blue glaze 14, Bronze 5,


1, Blue glass 2, Grey

St. Petersburg 18, Univ. Coll. P. 15, E. 6,

Turin

5,

Athens

2,

Murch

162a, b, green glaze, no inscription, loop on

back; 152b,

XVIII

Peiiod.

to

Roman.
B, outline on plaque (Hawara

A, statuette.

Varieties.

hand

ISIS.

149.

C, bust.

4, pi. 1).

Type A, 149a, bronze, fringed garment; 149b,


dark blue glass, orange glass crown
149c, d, dark blue
Figures.

glass; feet of d, green glass, another figure;

149e, bright

Ramesseum, XXth dynasty (?); 149f, gold, group


Mut, not Neit by the uraeus, see 164 Mut 149g,
149h, pewter plate, group 18 149j, glaze
silver, group 15
faded white, Hawara, group 32
149k, gold, Memphis,
group 27
1491, blue glaze with yellow points, Roman,
group 22 149m, green-black glaze, possibly Neit 149m 2,
Type C, 149n (pi. xlvi), bronze.
3, 4, 5, green glaze.
Materials.
Green glaze 20, Blue glaze 13, Grey glaze 7,
Lazuli 7, Blue glass 4, Gold 3, Silver 1, Bronze 2, Pewter 1,
blue glaze,
15, Isis or

glaze

Throat

(1)

on chest in row

of

Turin 22, St. Petersburg 17, Univ.


2, Athens 1.

Collections.

Coll. P. 3,

E.

Coll. P.

Univ.

GROUPS OF GODDESSES.

XXVth

Period.

Sekhmet

to

XXVIth

153a, green glaze,

Figures.

Protection by

Varieties.

A, kneeling with
as a pair to

2,

Nephthys.

NEBHAT.

Protection, as

Nebhat protected Horus.

Varieties.

A, statuette.

B, outline on plaque (Hawara,

XXVI.
184a, green glaze; 154b, brown glaze (burnt)
e,

blue glaze; 154f, olive glaze;

b,

2,

gilt

green

154g, g 2, green glaze faded, Hawara ; 154g, 3, 4, green


glaze 154h (pi. xliii), light green glaze, inscribed on back,
" Nebhat give life to Nes
." ; 184j (pi. xlv), light green
.

B, standing

Ptolemaic.

Type A, 180a,

Hathor, Mut, Nebhat,

Meaning.

154c, olive glaze; 154d,


raised.

Isis,

these can be better identified on a blue-glazed

pentad found at B.awa,v& (Labyrinth, xxxi); 153a


glaze Isis, Bast and Hathor (Edw.).
Univ. Coll. P. 1, E. 1, Manchester.
Collections.

Figures.

Isis.

hand

dynasties.

4, pi. xlix).

MOURNING.

ISIS

Meaning.

Both

4,

3.

153.

Period.
150.

Figures.

along with large zad, or line of

154.

Murch

Period.

breast (2)

gods (13)

(1).

winged.

On

Position.

on thighs.
zad amulets, on chest or stomach (4)
Alnwick 21, St. Petersburg 8, Price
Collections.

1.

Position.

18, E. 4,

green glaze; 182c, bronze, the right-

dressed in two horns as Isis,


between the busts is a minute bust of Horus crowned.
Green glaze 49, Blue glaze 13, Grey glaze 4,
Materials.
Yellow glaze 1, Bronze 1.

stomach

2, 3, 4,

figure has the hair

Brown

protectresses.

XXVI

Period.
Figures.

2.

NEBHAT, AND HORUS.

The goddesses as
to Roman.

Meaning.

1.

Collections.

ISIS,

152.

Agate

wax, Derdereh,

glaze.

85

F U

AMULETS OF HUMAN-HEADED GODS


Green glaze

Materials.

Grey glaze

2,

Brown

Lazuli, 4, Yellow glaze 2,

glaze

1,

7, Blue glaze
Blue glass 1.

Chest (11); stomach 1.


Turin 18, St, Petersburg 10, Univ.
Collections.

" Speech of the Osirian (an

6,

Position.

Murch

P. 8, E. 2,

2,

Athens

official) of

Amen, Pa Shedet,

and continuing with a random portion of the usual chapter


The person may be that named on
of the heart, xxx B.
a Cairo stele, quoted in Lieblein, Diet., 657.
Type A, 188b,

Coll.

XlXth dynasty;

black steatite, with female head,

1.

188c,

alabaster; 188d, black steatite; bennu bird on front; on


back Asar neb zad, " Osiris lord of Mendes " ; 188e, brown

NEBHAT MOURNING.

155.

wax, Dendereh, group 20; 188b,

185a, gilt

Figures.

With No.

Type

front.

bronze, two uraei head dress

ISO, Isis mourning.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

on

inlay, scarab

corner and disc above

2.

and

Horus always in

Protection by the Triad.

Meaning.
front,

AND HORUS.

OSIRIS, ISIS,

Isis

blue and black glaze, Dendereh, group 21

186c, dark blue

and black glaze, group 26; 186d, black steatite, the heart
of Osiris, between Isis wearing the two feathers, and Horus
crowned, with the club in his hand the back divided into
8 by 6 squares traces of Greek cursive writing scratched
on the ground between the figures.
Materials.
Blue glaze 2, Steatite 1, Gilt wax 1.
;

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

and uraei below, scarab


sides; lS8m, bronze, shrine,

disc

it,

with disc

on back a hawk displayed with two feather fans

brown pottery, scarab (?) on front, Roman 188s,


brown pottery, winged scarab and disc, shrine below.
Materials. Bronze 7, Steatite 5, Pottery 2, Alabaster 1,
White quartz 1, Chalcedony 1, Agate 1, Blue glaze 1, Green
glaze 3, Chlorite 1, Limestone 1.
Collections.
Univ. Coll. P. 18, Cairo 4, Athens 2,
188r,

Beck,

4.

A.

XXVI

Period.

i.

to

187d,

gilt

187f, green glaze,

2, c, c 2, c 3,

wax, Dendereh

was an oracle of the god, and beingcalled the "illumination "

2,

blue glass

187g, h

(pi.

xlv),

or " clearing,"

Urim.

it

may

be connected with the Semitic oracular

appears on a

It

stele,

offerings (Mariette, Ahydos,

Materials.

Wax

Bronze

Blue glaze

20,

5,

Green glaze

1,

jackals on a stele (Rosellini,

glazed pottery bust at Tell

8.

Position.
Collections.

Athens

4, St.

Stomach

(1)

The form

feet (1).

Univ. Coll. P.

Petersburg

8,

E.

5,

Turin 8 (B and C),

3.

of

it,

Period.

Meaning.

HEART OF

The heart

of the

god supplied to the deceased

XVIII

to

XIX

189a, wood,

as a bust between two

Amarna (Amarna,

xvii,

and as a
277

8).

dynasties.

XVII; 169b, limestone, XVIII

paint,

XVIIIth dynasty; 189e,

XVIII

189f, green glaze, faded,

violet glaze. Tell

XVIII

159f

Amarna,

2, blue glaze

189h, bronze,
159g, bronze, with arms on the breast
behind head, as if fitted against a surface, with bust
thickness below;

XVIII to Roman.
Figures.
Type B, 188a, black -green chlorite, XVIIIth
dynasty shrine on front, Osiris and Ra seated at the

historic

around the figure

Civ., cxxxiv, 2)

front.

Peiiod.

60)

a head and chest only, would accord with

C, with figures of gods.

sides

ii,

Mon.

woman making

(reduced about a tenth); 189c, d, blue glaze with black

OSIRIS.

branched into the idea of the heart scarab.


A, plain. B, with shrine and scarab on

Varieties.

adored by a

the idea of the power of speaking.

Figures.
158.

gods,

bronze, b from

wax.

this

medu Asar (repeated with other

Kheper, Atum, and Ra) Lepsius, Denk., iii, 224 i.


" Illumination by speech of Osiris," or of
Meaning.
Kheper, Atum, or Ra. This appears to show that the bust

lS7e, e

Dendereh, group 21

ORACULAR BUST.

C.

mummy.

4, b,

Hez

Name.

B. Double figures.

Roman.

187a, a 2, 3,

Figures.

Memphis

Standing alone.

D. Osiris and

Osiris-Min.

OSIRIS.

two figures with raised hands

uraei, scarab, at sides

188q, mottled black and white steatite, shrine, winged scarab

159.

157.
Varieties.

1881,

hawk on each

winged six figures of gods at


winged scarab, on back lotus; 188n, green glaze, shrine;
188o, bronze, on front heart amulet, shrine with two seated
figures, scarab, at sides four figures with raised hands

and

186a, a 2, gilt wax, Dendereh, group 20; 186b,

Figures.

front,
;

adoring, two seated figures below; 188p, bronze, shrine, disc

behind.

Ptolemaic and Roman.

Period.

shrine with a

156.

on

C, 188k, bronze,

shrine, disc, scarab with wings, two gods at sides

blue glaze, Dendereh, group 21.


Position.

158g,

XlXth dynasty; 188h, bronze, disc


on head, Memphis. Type B, 158j, black steatite, blue paste

Ptolemaic.

Period.

18Sf, white quartz

blue and black glaze,

Protection, as Nebhat protected Osiris.

Meaning.

shrine on front

steatite, traces of

six lines of inscription, beginning,

36

may

189j,

ivory

flat

full

with electrum loop, pre-

be an early form of the oracular bust.

Blue glaze 3, Green glaze 2, Bronze 2, Violet


glaze 1, Limestone 1, Ivory 1, Wood 1.
Collections.
Univ. Coll. P. 9, E. 1, Turin 1 (1231).
Materials.

AMULETS OF HUM AN -HEADED GODS


HORUS AND

160.

Min

Name.

named

is

Mit,

(Lanz., Diz.

MIN.

Xllth dynasty

Figure.

160, bronze.

3, 4, 5, 6,

MIN.

161.

XXVI

Period.

f,

group 21

Eoman

161k, grey

bronze

c, c 2, d,

Min and heads

eyes, etc.

Chest

4,

Turin

Wood

1.

9,

E,

2,

St, Peters-

E.

2,

162b, light blue glaze

162c,

5,

Blue glaze

2,

Bronze

4,

Turin

P. 2, E. 1,

Chest

Turin

1,

Green glaze
Turin

1,

3,

Univ. Coll.

1.

UNKNOWN

DIVINITIES.

Ptolemaic to Roman.
169a, bronze, female in Greek chiton with hands

Eoman, squatting female

169c, blue glass, female

holding breasts, Syrian influence

Blue glaze

Univ.

1,

Murch

163, dark blue glaze.

Collections.

(5).

Cairo 3 (2 B), St. Petersburg

169.

points,

XVIII.

Materials.

1.

advanced, on the back of the head the face of a bear


169b, blue glaze with yellow
possibly Artemis Brauronia

AMEN, MUT AND KHONSU.

163.

Figure.

Figures.

1.

B, 168b, light blue

two crocodiles (sea Lanz., Diz. Mit.,

Seated figure (see MacG. 75) 168c, lazuli (xlvii).


Lazuli 7, Green glaze 3, Blue glaze 3,

Period.

Cairo 4, Univ. Coll. P. 4, E.

5,

B, suckling two crocodiles.

Materials.

Gold

Silver 1, Granite 1.
Collections.

NEIT.

A, 168a, pewter plate.

glaze, Neit suckling

Position.

AMEN.

bronze

Green glaze

1.

XXX.

to

162d, light green head.

Materials.

Period.

Murch

XXVI

Collections.

162a, a

Figures.

blue plaque

5,

A, standing.

Varieties.

Period.

pewter

2.

XXVI.

Pe7iod.

6,

Cairo 33, Turin 22, St. Petersburg 14, Univ.

168.

clxxv).

(1).

162.

1,

5, Steatite 1,

Cairo 21, Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

burg

Coll. P. 6,

Figures.

Green glaze 32, Bronze

Position.

2,

yellow points, group 23,

steatite, part of a tablet,

Hathor; on back, winged disc and uraei, " Ea," two uzat
Materials.

167e

161h, green glaze, Dendereh,

161j, green glaze, with

161b,

both

camelian,

167b,

light blue glaze;

e, f,

Green glaze 65, Blue glaze 7, Grey glaze


Camelian 1, Yellow glaze 1.
Chest (2) stomach (1).

Collectims.

Memphis

green glaze

2, g,

16c, d,

2, Silver 1,

Position.

Eoman (?).

161a, bronze,

Fig7ires.

161e,

to

hollow;

silver,

(?);

green glaze.

Materials.

Bronze

of

167a,

XXVI (?).
Univ. Coll. P.

XXX.

XII,

Period.
Figures.

xvii).

Peiiod.

Collection.

SHU.

167.

" Horus, son of Isis of Koptos "

(?)

figure green glaze with yellow points,

1.

ting female, dark

Coll. P. 1.

blue glaze

(pi.

169d

(pi. xxxi),

Eoman

169f,

xlvi);

male

169e, squat-

squatting

female, blue glaze with yellow points (pi. xlvi).


164.

Period.

MUT.

Materials.

XXVIC?).

Bronze

164b 2,
pewter, b 3, 4, 5, blue glaze; 164c, silver, group 16: 164d
(pi. xlv), violet glaze, Eifeh, XlXth dynasty
164e, applegreen glaze (xlvii); 164f, head on cylinder, blue glaze
164a,

Figures.

Blue glaze with yellow points

with yellow points

blue

glaze;

164b, bronze;

1,

Dark blue glaze

Green glaze
Blue glass 1,

2,

1,

1.

Collection.

Univ. Coll. P.

6.

Name. " The habitation of Horus," apparently the


mother of one of the forms of Horus, distinct from the Isis
Especially venerated as the Mother Goddess.
tradition.

(xlvii).

Green glaze

Materials.

glaze 5, Pewter
Collections.

4,

Silver

2,

Bronze

2,

Blue

1.

Univ.

Coll. P. 4,

E.

Turin

5,

8,

Cairo

2.

Varieties.

Period.
165.

Period.

KHONSU.

Collection.

Univ. Coll. P.
166.

XXXth

dynasty.

Type A, 170a,

gold,

group 15;

170b, silver,

Vlth dynasty
Type
170d, gold, Hathor and zad, group 4, Vlth dynasty.
porphyry;
camelian,
f,
f2,
e3,
e2,
xxvii),
170e,
B (pi.
h, h2, h 3, camelian, porphyry,
170g, g2, camelian;
XVIIIth dynasty rudely cut open work. Hawara. These
figures all have long hair, and appear to be female
they have a crescent and disc on the head, probably Hathor
they appear to be engaged in forming the body of the

group 16

163a, bronze; 165b, green glaze

B, seated.

A, standing.
1st to

Figures.

XXVI.

Figures.

HATHOR.

170.

(pi. xxxi).

2.

ANHUR.

170c, c 2

(pi. xliii),

bone, group

5,

Period.

XXVI

Figure.

166, bronze.

Materials.
Collections.

(?).

Bronze
Cairo

1,
1,

Green glaze

1.

Univ. Coll. P.

deceased person for future

1.

37

life,

in

the attitude of the

AMULETS OF HUMAN-HEADED GODS


Khnumu

Mit, cccxxxvi, 3.
they are the seven Hathors who create a

175.

creative figures, as Lanz., Diz.

Perhaps, therefore,

Bone

Bronze

2,

Limestone

1,

Univ. Coll. P. 15, E.

Collections.

1,

2,

Gold

1.

Figures.

175a

Murch

2.

and with curling ends to the wig. As an amulet, it


appears on the neck of the sacred Aht cow (Lanz, Diz.

Type B,

laauli,

Green glaze

Materials.

life,

lady

Turin

1,

very rude.

B, Blue glaze

Yellow glaze

1,

A, 175g

2,

(See also 131c.)

Bronze

8,

Lazuli

5,

1.

Cairo 16 and 8 B, Univ. Coll. P. 6 and 1 B,


St. Petersburg 3 and 1 B.

Collections.
5,

Sekhmet, giving

light green glaze.

175f,

gS

Silver 4, Violet glaze

E.

no back pillar;
green glaze, on back pillar,

;
2, bronze, b 8, green glaze (xlvi); 175c,
175d, light blue glaze; 175e, silver, group 17,

light green glaze,

wig,

lion.

175b

Memphis.

Her ne pot, " human faced " (Lacau, 84).


Varieties.
The head of Hathor appears worn by King
Narmer upon his waist cloth
also later with a straight

B, standing on a

violet glaze,

175b,

of Nefertum, son of

"

bronze;

HEAD OF HATHOR.

Name.

Mit.,

glaze;

blue

2,

" Speech
of

171.

XXVI.
Type A, 175a,

Period.

Carnelian 4, Blue glass 4, Porphyry

Matfrials.
2, Silver 1,

A, standing alone.

Varieties.

170j, bronze (xlvi).

person.

NEFERTUM.

4,

1).

Period.

I to

XXX.

Apparently also prehistoric (Naqada,

Ixiv, 94).

Name and Meaning.

171a, b, gold, XVIIIth dynasty;

Figures.

green glaze,

dynasty;

XXXth

171e,

dynasty
171f,

XVIIIth dynasty

171g

glaze,

blue
(pi.

171c, grey-

171d, blue glaze, XVIIIth

(?);

apple-green

XXVIth dynasty;
XXIInd

piece

glaze;
xlv),

large

of

f2,

blue

disc,

paste,

blue glaze, lUahun,

Ptah, god of the dynastic race at


Memphis, united with Seker of Saqqareh, the primitive

god

of the dead, or of " silence "

Blue glaze 8, Yellow glaze 2,


Gold 2, Blue paste 1, Black glaze 1, Grey glaze 1, Blue
glass 1 (Naqada), Lazuli plaque 1.
Collections.
Turin 10, Univ. Coll. P. 7, Murch 2, St.

dynasty

Petersburg

XXII

8,

1.

MAOT.

176h, h

Lazuli 10, Green glaze

Throat

Position.
Collections.

(1)

chest

2,

176n,

figure;

green glaze, XVIII

176f, blue glaze, with

XXVI
1761,

1,

176m, bronze,

176j,

2,

4,

3,

burnt green

2,

5,

7,8,

6,

176p

9,

solid casting with raised

blue glaze, eating serpents (xlvi);

green glaze
A,

1,

Red

glass

l76o,

green glaze, Bast with

(xlvi),

Green glaze
2,

Blue glaze

55,

Quartz crystal

Syenite

1,

1,

15, Y'ellow

Carnelian

1,

1.

Bronze

1,

Ivory

B, Green glaze 8.

1.

C,

Blue glaze

2.

(6).

Cairo 6, St. Petersburg

2,

Univ. Coll. P.

A, Cairo 21, St. Petersburg 12, Univ. Coll.

Collections,
1,

Turin 10, Murch 4. B, Turin 5, St. Petersbacked by Bast, Illahun, Univ. Coll. E. C, St.

P. 12, E. 12,

burg 2
Petersburg;
;

triple, Cairo.

HATMEHYT.

178.

Name.

Hatmekyt the goddess of Mendes, wearing the


sacred fish of Mendes. (See No. 285.)
Penod. XXVI.
173a,

apple green glaze;

178b,

dull

177.

Collections.

Cairo 5 (glazed), Univ. Coll. P.

XXVI

Peiiod.

bright

green

2.

XXVI

to

SELKET.

glaze,

Position.

Throat

(1)

1,

Coll. P. 3,

E.

Cairo 14, Turin, 4,

chest (3).

Meaning.
Univ. Coll. E.

Period.

2.

88

St.

schist,

DWARF.

Compare the gobho


Roman,

5,

Illahun

White glaze

Petersburg

2.

178.

2,

177d,

Green glaze 15, Blue glaze


Bronze 2.

1.

Cairo 11, St. Petersburg

177b, b2, green glaze; 177c,

Memphis;

XXX.

Lazuli 14, Schist

Collections.

XXX.

Materials.

Collections.

Material.

PTAH.

(xlvii).

Gold
174.

to

177a, bronze;

Figures.

green

glaze, blundered inscriptions on the back of each.

Period.

1 76d,

176g, blue glaze, crowned, Illahun,

green glaze,

glaze 2, Porphyry

1.

Figures.

176k, green glaze;

Materials.

172, Lazuli.

Mateiials.

XXII

scarab on head,

XIX

spread wings behind, Illahun, XXIII.

B, winged.

A, seated.

Vaneties.

XVIII

176e, green glaze, side view,

(xlvii),

divinity.

Figure.

blue glaze,

1 76c,

to Ptolemaic.

burnt green glaze

Impersonation of Truth, not worshipped as a

Meaning.

necropolis.

B, backed by gods on a plaque.

176a, b, black and white porphyry, XVIIIth

Figures.

glaze;
172.

A, alone.

XVIII

Period.

Green glaze

Theban

silence," the goddess of the


Varieties.

like Mertseker, " lover of

C, double.

dynasty.

Materials.

Athens

PTAH SEKER.

176.

in Italy.

4,

1,

Univ.

AMULETS OF HUMAN-HEADED GODS


178a, lazuli, fine work; 179b, yellow glass.

Figures.
Collection.

Univ. Coll. P.

xlv),

(pi.

horseman with nimbus, and spear

lead,

striking a kneeling figure below, crescent above

2.

traces of six lines of inscription


179.

Meaning.

Protection by

long cross, another with arms raised

saints.

boethon,

Third century A.D. to Coptic.


179a, bronze; 179b, bronze; 179c, lead, figure
Figures.
with nimbus in middle, on each side a figure adoring 179d
;

glass,

hand

reverse,

reverse Eis theos ho

"In God is help"; 179f (pi. xlvi), amber-yellow


Jonah asleep under the gourd, ship in the back-

ground this class


250 A.D. by heads

of yellow glass

CHAPTER

in

179e, lead, figure holding

SAINTS.

Period.

of Philip

and

pendant

Otacilia.

is

dated to about

Univ. Coll. P.

6.

VIII

AMULETS OF ANIMAL-HEADED GODS


Theophoeic Amulets, 180

The primitive animal worships


may well have had a totemistic

Egyptian nomes

of the

basis

though

that

is

There is no doubt that they largely modified


the ideal of anthropomorphic gods which probably came
in with the Libyan race at the beginning of the prehistoric
civilisation.
The two different ideals were reconciled,
like the different races, by fusion.
The human figures
acquired the animal heads and in no point is the artistic
skill of the Egyptian shown better than in the facile
union of such incongruous svxbjects as the ibis or snake
with the man. Each stock of the mixed race clung to its
own beliefs, and down to Roman times the animal-headed
gods were as much venerated as any others.

questioned.

203.
Gi'een glaze 54, Blue glaze 9, Yellow glaze 6,

Materials.

Grey glaze
Pewter

1,

Red
Ebony

glaze

4,

1.

5, Blue glass 2, Bronze 2,


Green felspar or prase 10.

Lazuli

1,

Type

C,

Type D, blue glaze with yellow points 7 (4 at St. Petersburg).


Position. In main row of gods on chest (10); stomach (1).
Cairo 40, Turin 24, St. Petersburg 18, Univ.

Collections.

E.

Coll. P. 13,

2.

181.

Peiiod.

HORUS.

It is difficult to

XXVI

HoruB and Ra, who were so intimately blended. The only


practical course, where no inscription exists, is to class
plain hawk-headed figures as Horus, and those with the
disc of the sun upon the head as Ra.
Varieties.

A,

with

striking

inscrip.

Cairo, 38618),

crown.

C, seated,

Hor-merti

spear,

(see

B, hawk-headed, wearing double

no head-dress. D, lion-headed, Horakhti (Lanz., Diz. Mit., 625).


E, on crocodiles.
Period.
XVIII to Roman.
Figures.
180c,
(pi.

Type A,

bronze;

180d,

180d, 2,

xlv);

8,

180a,
e,

glaze,

blue

and

glaze;

f,

181a

green glaze, small, a

2,

3,

181b, bronze, having a crescent below the

with the crescent the god


it appears to be Ra-Khonsu
named as Khonsu, never as Ra but this is Ra-Khonsu,
as Khonsu strictly is human-headed with the youthful lock
;

of hair; 181c, c 2, olive-green glaze

181d

(pi. xlv),

181c 3

7,

blue glaze;

green glaze faded, Hawara; 181e

(pi.

xlv),

Ulahun, XXIInd dynasty; 181f, apple-gresn glaze


plaque, holding the nas sceptre, and called Hor-mer-tef
(Lanz., Di>. 3/if., xvii) 181g, white glass; 181h, blue glaze,
Ra in his boat adored by the baboons, XVIIIth dynasty.
Materials.
Green glaze 28, Blue glaze 12, Yellow glaze 2,
Grey glaze 6, Lazuli 1, Bronze 2, White glass 1.
shell,

Position.

St.

pewter

In the row of gods on the chest (6) throat (1).


Turin 16, Cairo 14, Univ. Coll. P. 7, E. 9,
;

Collections.

Hawara

180g,

always hawk-

XXX.

is

B, 180b, ebony

bronze.

green

light

to

181a, bronze

Figures.

disc

separate between the figures of the gods

seated

disc.

alabaster, small

180.

standing, or B,

A,

Varieties.

headed with

RA.

Petersburg

plate, group 18; 180h, green glaze; 180j, blue glaze,


Dendereh, group 21
180k, green glaze, classed as Hor-

7,

Athens

1,

Murch

1.

FOUR SONS OF

182.

llA.

behudti in Cairo catalogue

Names.

180m, blue
mummiform, perhaps Kebhsenuf, son of Horus
(see 182); 180n, lazuli, perhaps Kebhsenuf
(pi. xlv),
group 28 180o, o 2, blue glaze, probably Kebhsenuf (182);
and 180o 3, steatite, but no fellow figures are known of the
other genii.
Type D, 180p (pi. xxiii), blue glaze, yellow
;

1801, blue glass

Roman

Horus

horizons hand in hand.

of the eastern

and

of the

Type E, 180q, green

head

Hapy, baboon head

Duat

Kebhsenuf, hawk head.


Amset or Mestha, probably the " statue " or
image. Hapy, perhaps Hapy the bull god of Memphis, who
presided over the great cemetery of Memphis. Duat mutef,
;

Meanings.

points,

A mset, human

mutef, jackal head

glaze,

" the

western

underworld

his brother."

is

his mother."

Each son

Amset the stomach and

glaze.

89

Kebhsenuf, " Coolness

is

protected one part of the body


large intestines,

Hapy

the small

AMULETS OF ANIMAL -HEADED GODS


Duat mutef the lungs and heart, Kebhsenuf the
and gall. The four are often shown standing together

intestines,
liver

dynasty, but

all

Koman.

(On tops
human-headed.)
to

metals,

material,

of

wax, pottery, vegetable paste, bead-work,

XXIII

182k, blue glaze

1821, dark blue glaze, with black

heads, also with scarab and girdle tie; 182

12,

blue

182q,

with black

glaze,

Ptolemaic, group 21

Duat mutef,

182r

Usually in two pairs facing, on the chest (9) or


below the winged scarab.

(2),

Univ.

Collections.

section),

Turin 27,

1,

Yellow glass

25, Univ.

P.

Coll.

2,

1.

E.

13,

2,

St.

HATHOR COW-HEADED.

186.

Period.

XVIII

Figures.

186a,

XXVI.

to

XXVI;

green glaze,

XVIII;

dark blue glaze,


186c, d

Green glaze 2, Blue glaze


Throat (1) chest (1).

Materials.
Position.

186b,

light

green glass, burnt.

(pi. xlv),

2,

Green

glass 2.

Cairo

Collections.

2,

Univ. Coll. P.

(See also 210.)

4.

Coll.

St.

49

P.

Petersburg
183.

7,

(others

Murch

KHNUMU.

187.

Dendereh,

and see 93f, g (pi. xi.)


Mateiials.
Blue glaze 40, Green glaze 11, Wax 9, Clay 8,
Pewter 6, Green glass 6, Red glass 5, Blue glass 4, Pottery
4, Gold 2, White glass 1, Wood 1.
stomach

Murch

Lazuli

1.

182p, green

blue glaze on one

xxxiii),

(pi.

paint,

plaque, Dendereh, group 21

Position.

5,

Carnelian

4,

182m, blue glaze; 182n, black wax;

blue glazed schist;

182o, black clay, with blue paint on heads


glaze

Petersburg

from Xllth

wax; 182d, red pottery; 182e, e 2, blue glaze with red


paint, with winged scarab; 182f, green glaze, with applied
blue; 182g, wax; 182h, white and red glass; 182j, red
glass

Green glaze

4,

Amethyst

felspar 23,

etc.

of jars

182a, gold; 182b, pewter, group 18; 182c, gilt

Figures.

Bone

Collections.

on a lotus flower before Osiris.


Executed in all kinds
Varieties.
Period.

Green

Materials.

funerary

in

The

Meaning.
Khnouphis.
4, pi.

in

late

times

1).

XXVI.
Type A, 187a, bronze; 187b, dark green

Period.
Figures.

187c, coarse green glaze

glaze;

187d, red glaze (? burnt green);

Hawara, group 32, f 3, g, all green glaze.


Green glaze 46, Blue glaze 8, Yellow glaze
Grey glaze 3, Red-grey glaze 7, Red glaze 1, Carnelian
Bronze 1, Blue paste 1.
Position.
In row of gods on chest (4) stomach (1).
187e,

f, f

2,

Materials.

4.

SET.

as

B, outline on plaque (Hawara

A, statuette.

Varieties.

popular

Creator,

3,
1,

XXVI

Period.

Extremely rare as an amulet, as well

(?).

as in larger figures.

shown on

Cairo

Collections.

1,

Blue glaze

1,

Univ. Coll. P.

1,

Red wood
1,

Turin

188.

Name.

1.

XXVI.
brown limestone,

184a,

fine

work, XVIIIth

II.

lazuli, of

Ramessu

II

184a

BES OR BESA.

Besa, the native

name

of

Cynaelurus guttatus.

The god

Varieties.

Dealt with under 189, 190.

XVIII

to

of children, of

dance and games.

Roman.

XVIII 188c, red paste,


Amarna, XVIII. PI. xxxiii, 188d, schist, dark green
glaze, XVIII; 188e, dark blue glaze, XVIII; 188e2, blue
PI. xxxiv, 188a, b, gold,

Figures.

Tell

dynasty; 184b, green glaze, of Graeco-Assyrian style


Sety

1.

Meaning.
Period.

VI, XVIII,

Figures.

2,

Murch

Petersburg 11, Univ.

1.

SPHINX, MALE.

184.

184a

1,

either side.

Bronze

Materials.

Period.

E.

Coll. P. 8,

St.

183, bronze, wearing double crown, the upright

Figure.
ears

Cairo 30, Turin 20,

Collections.

3,

also

blue paste,

of

glaze; 188f, steatite,

Green felspar 4, Amethyst 2, Lazuli


Carnelian 1, Limestone 1, Green glaze 1, Blue paste 1.
Collections.
Murch 8, Univ. Coll. P. 4, Athens 1.
Materials.

very high
2,

188j,

188g, silver, XIX(?), head-dress

188h, white schist

188h

2,

blue glaze, larger

green glaze; 188k, dark blue glaze with yellow

2,

points,

XIX (?);

Roman

0, p, blue,

1881, light blue, similar

with yellow points,

Roman

188m, green,

188q, bronze

n,

188r,

bright blue, XX(?); 188s, dark green, thin, XVIII; 188t, light
185.

A, bird body,

Varieties.

Period.

SPHINX, FEMALE.

VI

Figures.

blue glaze,

B, cat body.

glaze

to Ptolemaic.

A,

185a

d,

applied,

bone,

possibly

f, f

2,

13.

Memphis

188u, light green glaze;

1 88 v,

w 2, green gone brown, blue and


Roman 188x, dark violet glass, seated

188w,

grey

yellow
;

188y,

gone grey, with yellow


points, Roman, Bes under archway with two columns
188aa, ab, blue glass impressed 188ac, violet glaze, XVIII.
Materials.
Green glaze 52, Blue glaze 46, Blue or green
with yellow points 7, Red glaze 2, Grey glaze 4, Blue glass
3, Green glass 1, Gold 4, Silver 1, Bronze 4, Carnelian 2,
light green, seated; 188z, green

intended for a

human-headed vulture of the goddess Mut, group


B, 185e,

Type

green felspar, apparently a cat body, group

30; 188g, h, carnelian, group 14 185j, green glaze faded,


Memphis, XXIIIth dynasty by the form of hair 188k, k 2,
185m, green and black
1, green glaze, black hair, XXVI
glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic
185m 2, yellow glass, small.
;

Steatite 2, Schist 1, Violet glaze

40

1.

AMULETS OF ANIMAL-HEADED GODS


Cairo 59, Univ. Coll. P. 27, E. 9, Turin 18,

Collections.

Alnwick 18, Murch


189.

3.

masculine and feminine.

J,

Roman

in household

189e, blue glaze,

Roman

(type

Type F (see
Type H, 189g,

Type G, 189f, violet glaze, XVIII.


blue glaze, Roman.
Type J, 189h, blue glaze, yellow
points, Roman.
Type K (only in household pottery
amulets).
Type L, 189j, light blue glaze, a double figure
with four heads. Type M, 189k, glaze faded white, figure
on top, and central figure missing, XXVI.
Materials.
Green glaze 14, Blue glaze 15, Blue with
Turin).

yellow points 2, Yellow glaze

Figure.

191 light blue glaze, good sharp work.


CoUectim. Univ. Coll. P. 1.

Cairo

Coll. P. 2,

Univ. Coll. P.

Turin

1.

L, Cairo

4.

F, Turin

1.

Turin

J,
1,

N, Turin

Coll. P. 1.

Cairo

1,

Univ. Coll. P.

A, alone.

3.

192.

Name.

to Ptolemaic.

192a, bronze, with dtef crown on head; 192b,

2, 3, 4, c, light

green glaze; 192d, violet glass

xxxix), light blue glaze,

Turin

1.

1.

H,

1.

K,

Collections.

E.

3,

Turin

Athens

BES HEAD.

Naukratis

Roman.

Roman

190k, green glaze

on

uzat.

1901, blue glaze,

Memphis

Type B, 190n, plaque

of a

190m, blue

of schist,

glaze,

both sides shown.

Type C, 190o, blue glaze, lotus on back


190p, green
glaze.
Type D, 190q, glaze burnt black, reverse shown
below; 190q 2, blue glaze; 190q 8, green glaze, pierced;
;

190r, light green glaze, reverse

mould, Memphis.

A, 190t

(pi.

uzat eye; 190s, pottery


xlvi)

green glaze; 190u,

blue paste with four-winged Bes straddling on the base.


Materials.

Limestone

1,

Green glaze

11,

Blue glaze

Violet glass 1, Clear glass

9,

Coll.

P. 5,

in the Louvre,

193a, b, blue glaze.

CoUectim.

Univ.

Coll. P. 2.

SEKHMET OR BASTET.

194.

figures cannot be separated between these two hon-

XVIII

XXX.

to

194a, blue glaze, faded, the dress suggests a

Figures.

1,

is

exactly like those of the goddesses

and

aegis, certainly Bastet

"Speech

of Bast

194c, blue paste, on back

."; 194d,

3,

Blue paste

1,

silver,

green glaze
11

194j, k,

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,

schist, figure of

1,

light green glaze

19411 (pi. xlvi);

blue glaze; 194m, light blue glaze

194n,

Sekhmet, probably part of a menat ; reverse,

194o, alabaster,
Nehebka and other figures, see below
tapering body and legs, Saft 194p, dark blue glaze, female
kneeling, offering to Bastet, name twice on back, see below
194q, blue glaze, Ramesseum. On pi. xlv, 194r, blue faded,
Sekhmet, Memphis; 194s, bronze, with double crown;
On xlvi, 194u, green glazed,
194t, wood, XXII, Illahun.
194v, head on a pillar, blue glaze (xlvii).
seated
Green glaze 48, Blue glaze 36, Grey glaze 8,
Materials.
Silver 1, Bronze 2, Electrum 1, Schist 1, Blue paste 1,
;

Gypgum
41

green glaze; 194e,

group 16(seepl.xxxvi); 194f, g, blue glaze, XIX (?), Sekhmet,


by disc on head 194h, blue glaze, Ulahun, XXII 194h 2,

Yellow glaze

Violet glaze 1.

A.

Univ.

(see Cairo 38,587); 194b, bronze, holding sistrum, basket,

green glaze, small,

2, 3,

Blue

XVni.

Period.
Figures.

D, on

190j, clear white glass,

190k,

6,

on a group

deities are associated

Period.
C,

glaze; 190f, green glaze, part of a figure; 190g, blue glaze,

190h, violet glass,

(?).

3,

ANHUR AND TEFNUT.

198.

Many

Bronze

or cat-headed goddesses, so they are here classed together.

figure; 190b, Hght green glaze; 190b 2, violet glaze, large


190c, d, d2, blue glaze, XXIII; 190e, yellow and brown

Roman

3,

2.

male god, but the head

faded

holding two lions

Cairo 15, St. Petersburg

2,

M, Univ.

XXIII (?) to Roman.


Type A, 190a, light green, probably part

Figures.

(?)

192e(pl.

glass 2.

1, St.

disc.

Peiiod.

Mahes

Green glaze 23, Blue glaze

Mateiials.

1.

B, on plaque.

XXVI

Period.

MAKES.

Mda-hes, " the striking lion."

Figures.

E, Univ.

Univ. Coll. P.

1,

Petersburg

6, St.

190.
Varieties.

1,

D, Cairo

G, Univ. Coll. P.

1.

(Lanz., Diz. Mit., 11).

B, Univ. Coll. P.

1.

C, Univ. Coll. P. 1.

1.

XXVII (?).

Period.

These

A, Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

Petersburg

TAHUTI OF PANEBES.

" Tahuti of Panebes in Nubia" (LiNz., Diz. Mit.,


probably known as the deity of the malachite
mines there (B. D. G. 335).

3.

Necklaces, especially of children.

Position.

Name.

K, feminine. Beset. L,

pottery amulets).

Murch

Turin 4

cccciv),

M, as sphinx. N, between two Taurts.


Period.
XVIII to Roman.
Figures.
Type A, 189a, blue glaze, holding sa before
him, the other hand holding the tail of the skin, XVIII.
Type B, 189b, blue glaze. Type C, 189c, violet glaze,
XVIII. Type D (see Cairo). Type E, 189d, faded blue

common

6,

1.

191.

quadruple.

glaze, yellow points,

Univ. Coll. P. 20, E.

Petersburg

UNUSUAL FORMS.

BES.

Varieties.
A, profile holding sa, for protection. B,
dancing in profile with tambourine. C, front face between
two in profile dancing. D, with lyre. E, armed. P, with
cylinder on head.
G, winged, holding uzats. H, with two

uraei.

Collections.
St.

1,

Alabaster 2,

Wood

1.

AMULETS OF ANIMAL-HEADED GODS


Cairo 36, Univ. Coll. P. 16, E.

Collections.
St.

Petersburg 17, Murch

8,

Turin 20,

The opener of the ways."


Guidance to the soul, as the

"

Names.
Meaning.

AEGIS OF BASTET (and mux?).

195.

show the

form of a deep collar of beadwork, usually


surmounted by a lion's head it has a menat attached to it
at right angles behind (see the socket of 193a), and it is
carried by the menat in the left hand of Bastet.
The name
and meaning of it are unknown.
This

in

is

XXII

Period.

menat

198b, b

view

glaze, side

reverse,

to

Roman; 198e

Period.

Ptolemaic

Figure,

198,

(?).

kneeling

black steatite,

figure with a
hawk's body behind, and with two jackal heads, the god
being double, of the north and of the south.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection,

blue glaze, faded white

198c,

1.

head, with Nehebka, uraeus and uzat ;


198d, green glaze with yellow lines,
193f, silver; 19Sg, g2,

(pi. xlv), silver gilt;

Mut

(?),

female head; 193j, blue glaze,

This god

is

Period,

XXII

Figure,

199, wood.

not identified.
(?).

Cairo

Collections,

XXII 198h, bronze,


head of Mut (?) 198k, 1,

Illahun,

JACKAL-HEADED ARCHER.

199.

blue

of

blue glaze, head of

jackal's tracks

in the desert.

XXVI.

2,

collar;

way

best

198a, bronze, front and back of both aegis and

Figures.

UPUATU.

198.

1.

(See Cairo Catalogue, 38,857.)


Univ. Coll. P.

1,

1.

bronze, female head with disc and horns, Isis

(?);

19Sm,

SHREWMOUSE-HEADED FIGURE.

200.

n,

bronze, lion head.


Materials, as above, Univ. Coll. P. 13, E. 2, St. Petersburg
1,

green glaze.

This appears to be a male figure

was sacred
Figures,

The heads

Cairo

as the shrew

mouse

be a form of that god.

(See Cairo Catalogue, 88,869.)

Univ. Coll. P.

1,

twin deities are often figured at the

of these

may

it

200, bronze.

Collections,

SHU AND TEFNUT.

196.

Horus,

to

201.

1.

SEBEK.

top of a menat of bronze.

XXVI.

Peiiod.

196a, bronze, inscribed "

Figures.

To Shu and Tefnut.

Period,

XVIII.

Figure,

201, light blue opaque glass (see Lanz., Diz.

Mit,

Thapa, son of Duaha, born of Kare-za " the name Thapa,


hippopotamus goddess Apit, belongs to the XlXth
dynasty (Lieb., Diet, 760)
Duaha, called after the moon

cocliv).

after the

Above
Chest

and

gold, Cairo.

(1).

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

and Kareza, " son of


the Karian," points also to the Early Greek age (L., Diet,,
2396); 196b, bronze; 196b 2, bronze. At St. Petersburg,

XXVIth dynasty

god, suggests the

Material,
Position,

1,

Cairo

1.

TEHUTI.

202.

1 of bronze with lion head.

Principally honoured as the god of writing and


ledge.

ANPU.

197.

Period.

Figures.

XXVI

to

197a,

glaze, smaller

c,
f,

d,

great god, lady

bronee;

violet glass

197a
197f 2,

2,

3, 4,

green

faded,

glaze

water (see Cairo, 38,569

see

38m)

197m

(pi. xlv),

violet

202e, e

2,

figure of Tehuti

1971, bronze, kneeling, pouring

bone,

202j,

197n (pi. xlv), ebony, seated.


Materials.
Green glaze 60, Blue glaze 19, Grey glaze 5,
Black and yellow glaze 2, Red glaze 1, Blue glass 3, Grey
glass 2, Yellow glass 2, Bronze 8, Wood 7, Bone 1,
Porphyry 1, Quartz crystal 1, Carnelian 1, Agate 1.
Position,
Chest (2).
Collections.
Cairo 44, Turin 17, St. Petersburg 14, Univ.
Coll. P. 18, E. 10, Murch 7, Athens 3.
Illahun, seated

(sic) of

heaven

2, 8, 4, 5, 6,

beak

202c

2,

."

202b, green glaze

green glaze
3,

lazuli

pewter plate, group 18

202g, green-blue glaze

Roman

XXX.

Hawara 202b,

glaze, with

3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,

green glaze; 197g, blue glaze; 197h, steatite; 197j, blue


glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21
197k, blue glaze
with yellow points,

to

202a, green glaze, Tehuti holding an uzat eye


in each hand ; on back " Speech of Tehuti, lord of Shmun
Figures.

Roman.

b,

197e,

XXVI

Period.

Anpu, Anubis, was the protector of the dead,


the cemetery frequented by the jackals.

Meaning.
the god of

know-

202c, blue

202d, green

202f

bronze

202h, steatite charm tablet, with

rosette

and

line of

Demotic on reverse

blue glaze; 202k, bronze; 2021, green glaze

2, 3,

(pi. xlvi).

Materials.

White glaze
3,

Pewter

1,

1.

Position.

stomach

Green glaze 83, Blue glaze 23, Grey glaze 6,


Red glaze 1, Lazuli 7, Blue glass 2, Bronze

In the main row of gods on the chest

Collections.

Cairo

Univ. Coll. P, 13, E.

42

(9)

(1).

Turin 36,
Athens 2,

51,
8,

St.

Petersburg 15,

AMULETS OF ANIMAL-HEADED GODS


SERPENT-HEADED GOD.

203.

Khet-ba-mutef is represented crowned with a


perhaps the same as 203b, which has disc and
crescent (Lanz., Diz. Mit, 993).

Name.

disc,

Figivres.
203a, blue-green glaze, two serpent heads, on
back a blundered inscription, beginning Ra nofer ar
203b, bronze, Khet-ba-mutef (?) 208c, bronze 203d, lead,
.

possibly a serpent head.

CHAPTEE IX

AMULETS OF ANIMAL GODS


Theophoric Amulets, 204261.
MiacELLANEOTJS, 262

The worship of sacred animals survived in Egypt for


thousands of years alongside of higher beliefs. Beginning
probably before the earliest civilisation of which we have
remains,

found to be prominent in

it is

the great centres,

all

The bulls of Memphis and Heliopolis, the ram of Thebes, the hawk of Edfu, are the remains
of older faiths, long before Ptah and Amen and Horus had
eclipsed them in those cities. The popularity of the animal
worship did not wane till Eoman times the abundance
of amulets of sacred animals shows how much was thought
of them. Though some animal figures here are not known

and most

nomes.

of the

connected with a god, that

to be

is

to

be expected, as

206.

12

to Ptolemaic.

206a, bone, group

206e, green glaze,

XIX (?)

Shmun";

204a, a

Figures.
glass

2,

Collections.
Coll. P.

lazuli 3,

E.

4,

crowned

206g, blue glaze,


" Tehuti lord of

mat;

XXIInd

(See also

dynasty.

131f.)

Green glaze

Materials.
8,

Bed

Blue glaze 9, Yellow glaze


Agate 1, Bed glaze 1, Blue

15,

jasper 1, Carnelian 1,

glass 2, Lazuli 1,

Electrum
Cairo

Bronze

2,

Bone

Onyx

2,

1,

Schist 1,

1.

Turin 19, Univ.


4, Athens 1.

Collections.

faded green glaze


glaze,

204b, b

5,

Coll. P. 12, St.

Petersburg

Murch

APIS.

Memphis

204d, green

Name. Hap. There is no connection yet known between


and Hap, the Nile, or Hapy, one of the four sons of

2, violet

woman;

this

Horus.

The sacred bull Hap was the primitive worMemphis, like the sacred bulls with other names in

Meaning.
11, Lazuli 1,

ship of

other

Murch 85 (amethyst

carnelian 4,

27,

cities.

A,

Varieties.

Cairo 17, St. Petersburg 5, Turin 4, Univ.


3,

206f, two baboons,

(?).

Green glaze 20, Blue glaze


Basalt 1, Bronze 1.

Materials,

206b, bone, group 8

206d, blue glaze, group

Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21; 206m,

green glaze, Illahun,

(pi. xlv),

green glaze.

(xlvii),

Blue glass

2,

(Cercopithecus).

brown, ape standing over kneeling

glaze, burnt

204e

Ptolemaic

faded green

204c,

to

206j, bronze; 206k, green glaze, holding

2061, blue glaze,

207.

XXVI

Period.

(Papio).

with disc and crescent, electrum, XVIII


XVIII; 206h, white schist, on back

9,

APE STANDING

BABOON

206c, green-blue glaze, group 9

204.

VI

Period.

Figures.

it

was not always that a junction with later theology could


be performed. The old independent animal worships would
not have any priesthoods or inscriptions by which we can
recognise them and it is only the making and wearing of
these figures which shows what animals were venerated.

276.

bronze figures.

B, square tablets or

pectorals.

Period.

green felspar, attitude not stated).

XXVI

Figures.

to Eoman.
Type A, 207a, bronze, on a

sled, disc

and

uraeus between the horns 207b, c, bronze, with disc and


uraeus; 207b 2, blue glaze. Type B, 207d, green glaze;
207e, silver embossed plate, bull regardant, with garland
hung over it 207f, cast lead plate, bull fed by a kneeling
priest, garland above; 207g, blue glaze, with black and
;

205.

Period.

VI

Figures.

to

APE SEATED.

XXX.

205a, bone, Vlth dynasty, group 4

glaze, burnt red

205b, green

205c, blue glaze faded white,

Memphis

yellow applied, bull regardant; 207h

208d, green glaze, faded.


Materials.

Bone

Green glaze

4,

Yellow

frit 2,

Blue glaze

1,

impressed.

1,

Bronze, 14, Yellow glaze


Green glaze 3, Yellow glass 2, Blue glass
Materials.

1.

Collections.

Univ. Coll. P.

4,

Cairo

8, St.

Petersburg

(pi.

Schist

Murch.

48

9,

xlv),

blue glass

Blue glaze 10,

3, Silver 1,

Lead

2.

a 2

1,

AMULETS OF ANIMAL GODS


Cairo 12, St. PeterBburg 10, Univ. Coll. P.

Collectiom.

E.

1,

Turin

9,

Athens

Alnwick

8,

March

2,

9,

B.

emblem

Ra, at Mendes, the souls

of

Khepera.
Period.

HATHOR COW.

208.

Prehistoric to Ptolemaic.

211a, noble serpentine


211b, dark green
both prehistoric ; 211c, lazuli, with the characterlong fleece 211d, d 2, light green glaze
211e, silver

Figures.

Erpet dht (MacG. 53) the Aht cow belonged to


Hathor, by the amulet or badge worn on the neck (Lanz.,

Name.

steatite,

istic

Memphis

211f, green glaze burnt brown,

Dix. Mit,

I).

A, couchant.

Varieties.

XVIII

Period.

to

glaze

B, standing.

211h, light green glaze

Roman.
mid XVIII

green glaze, XXVI; 208c, blue glaze, moulded,


208d, bronze, cut out of a sheet

flat

XIX;

moulded wax,

208e,

211 g, dark blue

211j, deep blue glaze with

211k, apple-green glaze,

Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21 ; 2111, schist, ram


under tree, uraeus in front
reverse, title and
Shabaka, XXV th dynasty 211m (pi. xl), bronze,
heads.
C, 21 In (pi. xlvi), lazuli.
Materials.
Blue glaze 26, Green glaze 15,

208b, light
back,

Roman

yellow points, group 22,

208a, fine blue glaze,

Figures.

Ra, Osiris, Shu, and

of

couchant

name

with two

gilt,

group 20; 208f, apple green glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic,


group 21 208g, blue glaze, couchant (xlvi).
Blue glaze 8, Green glaze 3, Carnelian 2,
Matenah.
" Black and white stone," Cairo 2, Bronze 8, Red glass 2,
Red and yellow glass 1, Yellow glass 1, Red glaze 1, Jasper 1,

of

Lazuli 5

(4of C), Steatite 2, Silver

Serpentine
.

Chest

Position.

Turin

2,

(1)

stomach

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

Alnwick

2,

6,

5,

Athens

4, St.

Ptolemaic

uzat above

the horns

and crescent above.

The

with round neck.

Period.

Prehistoric to Ptolemaic.

Figures.

Type A, 212a, black

dark

steatite; 212b, noble


212d, noble serpentine, pale

21 2d 2, green serpentine, Tarkhan;

green

21 2f, durite

serpentine;

2121,

21 2g, g

212k,
black

Type B, 21 2n, silver;


212p, green glaze faded brown 212q, blue

serpentine, ostrich eggshell eye.

212o, bronze

last is distinctly a

Dendereh, Ptolemaic

and e points to the same meaning.


Materials.
Bronze 11, Blue glaze 6, Green glaze
Steatite 8, Green frit 2, Lead 1.

blue glass eyes, ring for hanging beneath

c, d,

Athens

Cairo 28, Univ. Coll. P.

5, St.

Petersburg

XVIII

HATHOR COW HEAD,

serpentine

mouth; 212s,
Shabaka on reverse,

Prehistoric, Alabaster 3, Carnelian 8, Noble

Ivory

2,

Black steatite

(?).

opaque quartz, covered with


.,"
green glaze, inscribed on back " Hathor lady of N
broken from a figure note the two plumes above the disc
210b, bronze, human face on back, short stem below 210c,
bronze, cow head (back up)
210d, apple green glaze
210e, violet glaze, human wig at sides.
Materials.
Bronze 2, Quartz glazed 1, Apple green
.

of

dynasty.
Type C, 21 2t (two views), green glaze,
serpent on one side, winged serpent on other, on front disc
with uraei, si ra Amen mery, and blundered signs.

Grey glaze
Blue paste

210a, white

Figures.

name

XXVth

1,

Materials.

Period.

212r, hollow bronze case, with

schist scarab with ram's head,

6,

1.

210.

alabaster;

212m,

alabaster;

glaze,

Collections.

2,

212e, e2,

212j, carnelian;

cow, the previous four might be intended for a bull, but the
similarity of

B, late

on column.

212h, brown serpentine, veined;

209e, cast lead plate, disc between the horns, feeding stand
in front, star

C,

ivory, stained green;

209d, light blue glaze, disc between the horns

flat prehistoric,

without neck.

oil-green;

209c, green glaze, faded brown, disc between

1,

RAM'S HEAD.

serpentine; 212c, carnelian

(?).

209b, blue-green glaze, impressed cow, with relief of

A,

Varieties.

209a, light blue glaze, with dark green-blue

Figures.

inlay

to

Carnelian

1.

212.

regular naos, on a plain square plaque.

XXVI

2,

16 (2 of C), Turin 10, Univ. Coll.


Petersburg 6, Alnwick 5, Athens 2, Murch 4.

Peters-

1.

HATHOR COW ON SQUARE.

Varieties.

Period.

Schist

(2).

Cairo

relief,

209.

glaze

2,

Cairo

Collections.

P. 10, E. 1, St.

Waxl.

burg

Red

1,

Bronze

1,

limestone

3,
1,

1,

Green serpentine
serpentine

1,

1,

Black serpentine

Durite

1.

1,

Historic,

Green glaze 2, Green felspar 1, Blue glaze 1,


Gold 1, Silver 1, Bronze 2, Schist 1, Brown

1.

Univ. Coll. P. 21, Turin

Collections.

2,

Brown

4,

Murch 4, Athens 1.

glaze

1,

Violet glaze

Collection.

Name and Meaning. Sekhat. Used probably as the


hieroglyph for un, being, and hence probably used for

1.

Univ. Coll. P.

5.

Un-nefer, the good being, or Osiris.

Period.
211.

Name.

RAM.

Varieties.

Creator, as

white

Khnumu, Amon and Ra.

A, couchant.

B, standing.

XXVI

Figures.

Sera.

Meaning.

HARE.

218.

213b

Materials.

C, four-headed

Carnelian

44

to

XXX.

213a, light green glaze;

1.

2,

green glaze

Green glaze

213b, glaze faded

213c, light blue glaze.

22,

Blue glaze 17, Yellow glaze

1,

AMULETS OF A:NIMAL GODS


Cairo 22, St. Petersburg

Collections.

E.

Coll. P. 3,

Athens

1,

1,

Murch

Turin

8,

Univ.

5,

Milky agate

Bone

1.

Chest (6)

Position.

IBEX

214.
"

Meaning.

Ba

(Capra nubiana).

Porphyry

1,

St.

Lazuli

1,

Hard white limestone

1,

Stomach

(1).

Cairo 16, Univ. Coll. P. 14, E. 2, Turin 9,

Collections.

the divine, above the gods " (Lanz, Diz.

1,

3.

Petersburg

7,

Murch

2.

Mit., 190).

214, green glaze, onkh on base.

Figure.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

1,

E.

220.

Murch

1,

Name.

BARBARY SHEEP

215.

Figure.

Khens (MacG. 56)

gone

brown,

no horns, but a heavy long head.


1.

(see

fore-parts

joined.

two lions

B,

rampant.

KLIPSPRINGER

216.

two

A,

Varieties.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

LIONS.

two fore-parts joined.


192) of north and south
(Lanz., Diz. Mit., 269). See vignette of Chapter 17, Book of
the Dead.

The Mahes

Meaning.

{Ovis lenna).

green partly

218, serpentine,

TWO

1.

{Oreotragus)

XXVIIth dynasty.

A, Vlth to

Period.

{^).

B, Prehistoric,

Coptic.

Period.

XVIIIth dynasty.

Figure.

216, green glaze on schist, two scrolls

Type A, 220a, a 2,

Vlth dynasty, group 7


Hght green glaze,
(?)
XXVII 220c 2, blue glaze 220d, ivory. Old Kingdom (?)
(see Deshasheh, xxvi, 26).
Type B, 220e, iron disc incised,
Coptic, Illahun, indistinct signs between and above (see
two rampant lions on ivory ring, prehistoric, in Naqada,
Figures.

The small head, long neck, and marking

on

base.

of coarse hair

seem

to define this identification.

lain over to the shoulder, but are

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Short curved horns have

broken away.

1.

Green glaze 8, Blue glaze 2, Brown glaze


1, Cloudy agate 1, Ivory 2, Iron B, 1.

Materials.

Hairs from

Meaning.

tail

used for quartan fever (Pliny,

xxviii, 25).

Grey glaze

Roman

Figure.

217, bronze, flat plate.

(?).

Chest

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Cairo 2, Price

2,

6,

E.

1,

Turin

8, St.

221.

Period.

Prehistoric.

Figure.

218, hard white limestone with gold bands, no

LION'S HEAD.

Period.

XXXth

Figure.

221a, light green glaze,

dynasty.
flat

back (similar Aln-

tail.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

1.

wick, 604)

(See 244, as Mentu.)

dynasty

To guard

Varieties.

A, couchant.

or defend.

green glaze, Illahun,

221d, coarse blue glaze

Univ. Coll. P.

4,

Roman

Alnwick

XXIInd

(see 269).
1.

Prehistoric to Ptolemaic.

Period.
Figures.

Type A, 219a, hard white limestone

black and white porphyry, both prehistoric

219d, d 2, d

3,

LION AND BULL, FORE-PARTS.

222.

B, walking. C, seated. D, with

crouching man.

(pi. xlv),

Seno (couchant).

Name.

Meaning.

XII

221b, c

Collections.

LION.

219.

Peters-

1.

1.

HAWK-HEADED SPHINX.

218.

(1).

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

burg

1,

Sard

1,

Position.

Period.

220c,

Ixiv, 78).

CAMEL.

217.

sard,

220b, bone, Vlth dynasty

bone, VI, group 5

219b,

219c, amethyst,

219e, gold,

VI

Period.

XXVII.

Figure.

See Cairo catalogue.

Green glaze
Alnwick 5,

Materials.
Collections.

8.

St.

Petersburg (695),

2,

Cairo 1.

219f,

219g, light blue glaze, faded; 219h2,


21 9j, blue and black
light green glaze, XXVIIth dynasty

light blue glaze;

TWO

223.

BULLS, FORE-PARTS.

glaze,

Dendereh, Ptolemaic

11, XII,

Nagada,

Kafr

Ammar;

Iviii;

2191

219k, k

2,

blue glaze, VI, group,

(pi. xlvi),

carnelian, early (see

Deshasheh, xxvi, 15);

219m

(xlvi),

Period.

on one
Art,

green

fig.

170).

The amulets are

XXVIth dynasty.
Hawara 223b, green

of the

223a, pale green glaze,

223c, olive

green

glaze.

Position.

Green glaze, 16 (2 of B, 2 of C), Blue glaze


Grey glaze 1, Gold 1, Bronze 1, Amethyst 1, Carnelian 1,

Materials.
16,

a very ancient combination, appearing

glaze gone brown, Hawara, group 32;

man before,
points, Roman (xlvi).
ting

is

of the predynastic slate palettes (Capaet, Primitive

Figures.

Nefertum on head 219n, with squathead turned back, blue glaze with yellow

glaze, with flower of

This

Collections.

46

Chest

(1).

Univ.

Coll. P. 3, St.

Petersburg

1,

Price

1.

AMULETS OF ANIMAL GODS


CAT,

224.

dark blue glaze, perhaps Mentu as a hawk-headed lion

Man.

Name.

(see also

Meaning.

Emblem

Varietiea.

A, seated.

of the goddess Bastet.

B, couchant.

183 for

JAQKAL STANDING.

229.

Name.

Upuatu.

" Opener of ways " for the soul (see 198).

Meaning.

g).

2.

C, walking.

XVIII to Eoman. Very common on necklaces


of XXIInd and XXIIIrd dynasty.
Figures.
Type A, 224a, silver, group 16 224b, c, light
green glaze 224d, green glaze burnt brown 224d 2, blue
and black glaze 224d 8, olive glaze 224e, light blue glaze
224e 2, bronze; 224f, blue and black glaze, Dendereh,
Period.

229a, light blue glaze

Figures.

229b,

c,

bronze

229d,

Ptolemaic, group 21

Roman.

and engraved stone 135

set,

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

bronze, and d 2, green glaze, with the two


(compare the two serpents that led the way for Alexander
to the Oasis)
229e, bronze, the four Upuats (of the four

serpents in front

224g, blue glaze, with yellow points,

Type B, 224h,

lion or cat

224j, cat, green glaze,

Xlth dynasty, Kafr Ammar 224k, blue glazed schist, Ymenf


on base, XVIII 224k 2, blue-glazed pottery 2241, dark
blue paste, Amen-ra in cartouche on base, dubious. Type C,
224m, blue glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21.
Materials.
Green glaze 22, Blue glaze 13, Bronze 9,
Grey glaze 3, Carnelian 1, Yellow glaze 1, Black glaze 1,

quarters)

who open

way

the

for the

sun in the under-

Purple glaze

1,

Collections.
St.

Black limestone

1,

Silver 1, Blue paste

Coll. P. 12,

3,

Murch

E.

4,

281.

Name.

1,

E.

Petersburg

2,

1.

Cairo

1.

TWO JACKAL HEADS.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

1.

JACKAL COUCHANT.

Anpw, Anubis.

The guardian

Meaning,

glaze,

Univ. Coll. P.

Blue glaze

tip of the ears, flat base.

Cairo 11,

3.

papyrus stem and head on


each of the three sides, Memphis.
Also a rough solid
imitation, green glaze (Edw.)
Collection.

230.

5, St.

1,

Upuatu of the south and north.


Figure. 280, hard brown limestone, pierced under the

XXVI.
225, green

Green glaze

5,

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

CAT IN SHRINE.

225.

Figure.

Bronze

Materials.

Name.

1.

(1).

Turin 13, Univ.

Petersburg 10, Edinburgh

Period.

cclvi).

Feet

Position.

world (Lanz., Diz. Mit.,

of the cemetery,

dead in the judgment.


Varieties.
A, on ground.

XXVI

Period.

1.

and

of

the

B, on shrine.

Roman.

to

Type A, 231a, blue glaze, XIX; 231b, blue glass


and black glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic,
group 21. Type B, 231d, e, pewter plates with za serpent
above, group 18; 231 f, g, h, blue and black glaze, Dendereh,
Figures.

226.

TWO

CATS ON COLUMN.

Ptolemaic

Three in Cairo have only one cat on the

Varieties.

column.
Period.

Ptolemaic, group 21

XXIII.

226a, b, green glaze, octagonal column, blundered inscription on front, " Speech of Bastet lady of Pa

Bastet " ; 226c (pi.


" Speech of Bastet

Cairo
227.

XXII

to

feet of cat, inscribed

."

4,

Univ. Coll. P.

B, couchant.

227b, light green

one each side;

Figwres.

227c,

SHREW MOUSE.
Passed round

xxx, 84).

B, on box.

A, standing.

Type A, 232a,

b, c, d, e, bronze.

Type B,

232f,

bronze, as also two at St. Petersburg.

Green glaze 7, Green-glazed stone 2, Purple


glaze 1, Carnelian 1, Bronze 1.
Collections.
Cairo A, 8 (3, 6 and 9 kittens), B, 6, Univ.

Collections.

5, St.

Petersburg

2.

DOG.

Meaning.
As these dogs are all short-legged, they
probably refer to watching and guarding the person, and

SET ANIMAL.

XIX(?).
228a, light blue glaze, impressed plaque

Univ. Coll. P.
288.

Coll. P. 3.

228.

(pi. xxxviii).

2.

charm (Pliny,

Varieties.

Materials.

Figwres.

Murch

Sacred to Horus and Uazet.

Meaning.
boils as a

green glaze, one kitten.

Period.

2,

282.

XXVI.

kittens, three in front,

five

Petersburg

2,

227a, bronze, two kittens

Figures.

231j, green glazed schist

6.

CAT AND KITTENS.

A, seated.

Varieties.

glaze,

Green glaze

Collections.

Penod.

column with

xliii),

Blue glaze 8, Black glass 3, Blue glass 1,


Pewter 2, Haematite 1, Blue paste 1, Green glaze 1, Grey
glaze 1, Bronze 1, Wood 3.
Position.
Chest (3) stomach (8).
Turin 9, Univ. Coll. P. 8, Athens 4, St.
Collections.
Materials.

Figures.

Materials.

231c, blue

not to hunting.
;

Period.

228b,

46

Eoman and

Coptic.

AMULETS OF ANIMAL GODS


233a, b, bronze

Figures.

233c, red coral, dog seated

233d, dark blue glaze with yellow points,


233e, mother of pearl, Coptic

233f,

light blue glaze,

f 2,

back

Koman, group 22

dog

lying down.
" Black
Shell

Green glaze

Blue

8,

and white stone " (Cairo)

2,

glaze

Syenite

2,

Bronze

Eed

1,

2,

coral 1,

5,

XXVI

Univ. Coll. P.

crossed, 1 curled up),

Cairo 4 (2 seated, 1 lying

6,

Murch

green glaze

6,

glaze

236z,

steatite 1,

Yellow glaze

11,

Black glaze

Petersburg

St.

8, 4,

Blue glass

Mottled glass

1,

1,

Schist blue-glazed 2, Jasper 1, Black

1,

Breccia
(2)

1,

Serpentine

stomach

(1)

1.

feet (1).

Murch

5.

HIPPOPOTAMUS HEAD.

2,

Vlth

Period.

Athens

2,

2, 8,

green

Cairo 46, Univ. Coll. P. 41, E. 10, Turin 84,

Petersburg 25,
237.

Cairo 18,

Coll. P. 8, E. 2,

236y

green

234c, c 2, light green

1.

Collections.

t,

236v, w,

236aa, blue glaze, Dendereh,

1,

Diaphragm

Collections.

Green glaze 20, Blue glaze

Materials.

236r, white
236s,

C, 286ab, double Taurt, violet glaze

1,

Limestone

Positions.

All sows.

glaze.

A, 236ac, black and white serpentine

Red-grey glaze

1,

vii).

234a, b, light blue glaze

burnt

glass,

Schist green-glazed

St.

Figures.

XVIII (?)

(pi. xlvi).

XXVI.

Period.

green glaze

236x, bronze

Ptolemaic, group 21.

glaze

Names. Apeh, Rera, Sdau.


Meaning. Sacrificed to Osiris annually. Pig standard
of the sixth and seventh months, Mekhir and Phamenoth
(Lanz., Diz. Mit.,

2,

Materials.
Blue glaze 54, Green glaze 51, Yellow glaze 2,
Grey glaze 2, Lazuli 2, Violet glass 2, Bronze 2, Haematite 3,
Bone 2, Porphyry 1, Red glaze 1, White glaze 1, Violet

1.

PIG.

284.

236q

236u, red jasper for inlay

XVIIIth dynasty.

1.

Collections.

paws

glaze,
4,

Materials.

236q, bronze

glaze with yellow feathers, fine work,

Turin

7,

3,

Univ.

Xllth dynasties.

to

237a, green glaze on schist, button seal with

Figures.

Hathor and serpents 237b, sard, head and forepaws broken from a figure 237c, carnelian, group 3
287d, e, f, carnelian, group 14; 237g, deep red sard;
287h, j, k, 1, amethyst; 237m, carnelian 237n, black-green
head

2.

of

HIPPOPOTAMUS.

285.

Name.

Apt.

Meaning.
Period.

jasper

Sacred as Taurt (see 236).

Copper

Prehistoric.

XVIII

plate,

Xlth dynasty, Diospolis.


Materials.
Green felspar

(?).

236a, noble serpentine, hippopotamus feeding,

Figures.

under the base a wavy line in

perhaps a serpent

relief,

237o, p, black-green serpentine

Black serpentine

Green glaze

236b, c, brown steatite


236d, pink limestone, a frequent
ornament for attachment to legs of water skins; 236d 2,
small, round, dolomite, Tarkhan, 1292
238e, copper plate.
Materials.
Brown steatite 2, Pink limestone 1, Noble
serpentine 1, Copper 1, [Green glaze 1, " White stone " 1,
Blue glass 1, Cairo.]
;

Sard

3,

Univ. Coll. P.

5,

Cairo

Murch

Collections.

236.

"

8.

Figures.

236b,

c,

TAURT.

flat.

288, on base a fish and a crocodile.

indigo

Green glaze

glaze, Vlth dynasty,

have

agate

Blue glaze
Black glaze

7,

1,

Athens

Cairo

7,

6,

"White

8,

Agate

1,

Schist 1 (above),

1,

1.

Alnwick

2,

Univ. Coll.

1.

239.

Name.

B, 236d, greenish

8.

XXVI, group

15.

A, 236e,

Book

236k, black steatite,

XIX

of the

the Opshait
lips

TURTLE

{Trionyx Triunguis).

Opesh.

Meaning.

f,

The animal of death and darkness. The


Dead in Chapter 36 reads " Chapter whereby
:

is

kept back.

am Khnumu

the

Away from me, thou with parted


lord of Shennu, who am bringing

the words of the gods to Ra, and I announce the news to

Nebes." In late papyri

2361, green-

236m, green glaze 236n, violet glass, XVIII


236n 2 to 17, necklace of blue glaze, XVIII 236o, lazuli,
group 28 (pi. xlv); 236o 2, o 3 (pi. xlv), blue glaze, Xllth
dynasty, Kahun. B, 236p, green glaze, black hair and
;

Murch

Zaraby

Brown

Collections.

of pregnancy.

dynasty
236g, indigo blue
glaze. Tell Amarna, XVIIIth dynasty
236g 2, schist, blueglazed, Xllth dynasty, Kahun
236h, mottled glass, black,
white, blue and red, XVIII; 236j, violet glass, XVIII; 236 j 2,
glazed schist

1,

Steatite white glaze 1, Steatite green glaze

blue glaze, XVIIIth

blue glazed schist

(All

C, double.

bone, Vlth dynasty, group

limestone with gold crown,

HEDGEHOG.

XXtoXXVI(?).

B, XVIII to Ptolemaic.

Type A, 236a, blue

1,

32, Univ. Coll. P. 16.

Figure.

P. 1,

B, round.

A, VI to XVIII.

Glazed schist

1,

Period.

stone"

The great one," the goddess

A,

Varieties.

Period.

13, Carnelian 9,

incised bases.)

Taurt.

Meaning.

Black jasper

2,

238.

Materials.

Name.

Amethyst

1.

Collections.

18,

237q, green glaze,

the

name shows

Period.

Figures.
3,

47

it

to

it is

be the

turned into a blackbeetle

Prehistoric to Xllth dynasty

239a, brown agate

black serpentine.

but

turtle.

(?).

239b, carnelian

2S9b

2,

AMULETS OF ANIMAL GODS


Amethyst

Materials.

Porphyry

Brown

1,

Carnelian

2,

agate

wire (see Dese. Eg., V, 59,

1, Limestone
267).

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

Black serpentine

2,

4,

Murch

and

coiled gold

5.

A, 243a, bronze, lance head

Figures and Materials.

2,

above the head of Mentu; 243b, bronze, with the lance


head and a hawk over the head of Mentu, forked base to
the staff 243c, ebtoy, the Mentu head at the base of a
243d, grey steatite, the lance head above the
harpoon
forked below B, 243e, dark blue glaze, aegis
head,
Mentu
;

CROCODILE.

240.

Name.
Emseku.

Hor am

A,

utu (Lanz., Diz. Mit, ccxvii).

Mentu on head of staff, XXI (?) 243f, bronze, head of


Mentu with disc 243g, bronze, aegis of Mentu on staff,

of

B,

Emblem

Sebek the crocodile god.


A, hawk-headed and winged, as

Meaning.
Vaiieties.

double feathers on head, uraeus at each side.


large examples from Koptos at Berlin. Koptos,

of

identified

Univ. Coll. P. 7

Collection.

B, normal. C, capturing a boy. D, double.


F, with feathers, disc and horns.
together.
seven
E,

Berlin

(See three
xxi. 4, 5, 6.)

3.

with Horus.
Peiiod.

Xllth

of

hawk

uraei,

244.

Roman.

Type A, 240a, bronze, the Sebek-Ra crocodile,

Figures.

with

to

head, and wings raised, on the head a crown

Period.

The king as Mentu.


XIX.

upon a
Type B, 240b, sard

Figure.

244, red jasper, with cartouche of

Meaning.

two horns and the papyrus crown;

corniced stand, without inscription.


240c, haematite

240e,

Ammar

dynasty, Kafr

2,

3,

240g,

xlii).

This royal bird

Type C, 240k,

and the suspension ring under the


Type D, 2401, two crocodiles, grey
throat, Memphis.
Type B, 240m (xlvi), green glaze, and m 2, 3, 4,
steatite.
Type P, 240n (xlvii), bronze.
5, Nebesheh.
Green glaze 29, Blue glaze 15, Steatite 4,
Mateiials.
Yellow glaze 1, Grey glaze 1, Bronze 3, Sard 1, Haematite
the front of the boy,

4,

Turin

Cairo 26, Univ. Coll. P. 12, E.


4,

Murch

6, St.

Peters-

982)

The

Meanings.

Hawk

c,

2,

WARAN

{Varanus

The short puffy body and narrow


from the crocodile

245j,
niloticus).
tail

distinguish this

figures.

Figure.

241, ivory, suspension hole under chest.

Edfu.

The

G.

king's soul.

C, in shrine.

D,

Prehistoric to Ptolemaic.

Type A, 245a, yellow and black serpentine;

bone; 245d, greenish limestone; 245e, bone;


245f, noble serpentine
sard, Tarkhan, 1626
;

2,

3,

245h
j

4,

(pi. xlii),

grey

steatite, all prehistoric

bone, Vlth dynasty, group 4

8,

248k, bone,

Prehistoric.

of

24, B. D.

Vlth dynasty 2451, green felspar 2451 2, blue


245m, n, o, amethyst 245p, q,
glaze, Hu, Xlth dynasty
14
h
carnelian, group
q, Vlth to XII th dynasty 245r, dark
indigo glaze, XVIII (?) 245s, green glaze, Vlth dynasty (?)
245s 2, sard, Riqqeh, XII 245t, green schist 245u (xlii),
245v (xlii),
blue glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21
green glaze, on shoulders of Isis
245w, black jasper
245x, jade, fine work 245y, y 2, y 3, y 4, green glaze 245z,
245aa, hard green limestone
245ab,
light blue glaze
green glaze 245ab 2, blue paste, Naukratis 245ac, green
245ac 2, steatite, Nebesheh
245ad ad 4,
glass burnt ;
gold, XVIIIth dynasty, ad 2, larger, silver (see pi. xlv);

group

Period.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Horus

B, with uraei.
E, mummified.

and west.

Period.

245b,

bird of

A, alone.

Varieties.

245g, ivory
241.

correctly called a falcon.

Sopd or Seker.

of

of east

245e

1.

more

Bak (MacG. 55); Silt (MacG.


the bandaged hawk (Lacau, 95).

Figures.

Collections.

is

1 (see 218, as sphinx).

Name.

Porphyry.

burg

II.

HAWK, FALCON.

245.

bronze, crocodile with boy in his mouth, the lower jaw on

1,

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

240h, blue glaze with yellow

240j, shell, Coptic (pi.

Roman

Rameses

on base.

Roman 240e, dark


rough blue glaze, Xlth

240f, black steatite,

Memphis

light green glaze,

Roman

240d, grey steatite,

blue glaee, XVIII;

points,

HAWK-HEADED SPHINX.

1.

242.

LIZARD.

Periocl.

XXVI.

Figure.

242, light green glaze, suspension ring at each

Univ. Coll. P.

1.

245ae, bronze; 245af, af

Meaning. Protection of the god of war. No. 243f, and


perhaps others, seem to be " the harpoon of Horus of
Edfu " (Mar., Dend., iii, 63 c).

A, with the lance or harpoon point.

XlXth

to

2, af 3,

green glaze; 245ag, blue

B, with

the aegis of Mentu.


Period.

and black glaze, head turned sideways, Dendereh, Ptolemaic,


group 21: 245ah, blue and black glaze, group 21; 248aj,
245ak (pi. xlv), red glass, for
light blue glaze, group 21
inlay; 245al (pi. xlv), silver on resin body, Xllth dynasty.
Type B, 245am, black steatite, Horus with the serpents of
south and north, as described in the battles of Horus and
248an,
Set at Edfu, reverse Horus in triumph (pi. xliii)
lead plate, the crowned hawk with the serpent before him,

MENTU STANDARD.

248.

Varieties.

end, Memphis.
Collection.

XXVth

dynasty.

48

AMULETS OF ANIMAL GODS


and

Type

behind him.

Isis

containing bust of

hawk

248ao, blue paste shrine,

C,

above

XXVI

Period.

on each side the hawk-headed Horus-Ea seated, crowned


with disc and crescent on back a scarab 245ap, blue paste
shrine, head of the hawk from it here put at the side of it
over the door the disc and serpents, above that the disc and
wings on the side the Horus-Ea seated, on the lotus, and
on the back the
behind that the winged hawk on the neb
245aq, light blue glaze, shrine with hawk
disc and scarab
and Isis seated before it, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21, as

(?).

249a, green-glazed pottery

Figures.

VULTURE FLYING.

249.

a cornice of seven uraei

it

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

GOAT SUCKER

250.

249b, blue-glazed.

2.

(Caprimulgus).

Period.

Prehistoric.

Figures.

253a, ivory

Type D, 245ar, hawk crowned with

also next two.

hieroglyph of the east behind

it

feathers,

ament, west, behind

Type E,

gold,

245as,

Type A, 245at

felspar 42,

Period.

(pi. xlvi),

Prehistoric.

Figures.

251a, b,

Amethyst 81, Green glaze 24,


6, Bronze 3, Steatite 4,
7, Green limestone 3,

Green

glaze, Violet glaze,

Grey

Murch

Collections.

Alnwick 16,

Green

schist.

Chest (11)

Position.

slate

glass,

Eed

glass,

Period.

Yellow

glaze.

stomach

Peiiod.

Prehistoric.

Figure.

246,

282a,

b 2,

b,

9,

Athens

brown serpentine,

5.

ostrich seated.

BIRD'S FOOT.

Period.

Coptic.

Figure.

258, wood, natural branching twigs, the

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Name.

IBIS.

whence Greek

247a, gold, a

2,

of

without feather;

wisdom.
247b,

c, d,

is

247e, blue glaze with black head and tail, inscribed


on base " Lord of Khemnu (give life to) Hor-aa-pa-khred "

247g, blue glaze

Kafr

247g

light blue-green glaze

Ammar, Xlth
2,

dynasty, group 25

green glaze, standing; 247h,h2,

247j, blue glaze, dark blue tail

green glaze, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21

Green glaze

Materials.
2,

Steatite 1, Lazuli

Murch

3,

Figures.
latter

x.

Devotion

264a, dull green glaze

Figures.

3,

254b

247k,

2,

seated,

2471, blue

3,

B,

A, serpent body.

human

body.

About XXth dynasty.


green glaze;

254d

(xlvi),

2,

254b, deep blue glaze

254c, green glaze, group 19.

B,

blue glaze, and Cairo.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collections.

11,

Blue glaze

10,

Bronze

5,

255.
St.

Petersburg

8,

Turin

5,

Cairo

1.

(Clarias anguillaris).

Nar (in name of early King Narmer).


Sacred fish of Mendes, worn on head of
Meaning.
Hamehyt, goddess of Mendes.
Figures and Materials. 255a, b, Silver, Xllth dynasty (?)

VULTURE.

to the
;

QARMUT

Name.

5,

255c, Bone, prehistoric


Collection.

248a, bronze

may

a guide to the soul.


Varieties.

Naur.

Meaning.

The

SERPENT WITH ARMS.

Nehebka, one of the 42 judges of the dead.

Period.

2.

248.

Name.

1.

1.

Univ. Coll. P. 12,

Collections.

Alnwick

one

Eoman.

glaze with yellow points,

Gold

left

Meaning. In the Xth domain of the underworld, Nehebkau points out the way to the dead (Book of the Dead,
Chapter 149), and the dead says that he " moves eternally
like Nehebkau " (Chapter 17).
As an amulet, therefore, it

ibis.

247f, green glaze,

5.

1.

The emblem of Tehuti, the god


XVIII to Eoman.

Figures.

perhaps intended

broken, Illahun.

247.

bronze

c 2, d, shell,

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

OSTRICH.

Univ. Coll. P.

Hahii,

c,

(3).

254.

Meaning.

6.

for the hoopoe.

89, Univ. Coll. P. 51, E. 8, Cairo 22,

246.

Peiiod.

Naqadeh.

Coptic.

253.

Name.

COPTIC BIRD AMULETS.

252.

Figures.

Petersburg 10, Turin

St.

Collection.

251d, slate, 1781 Naqadeh

251f, slate, 1865

each of Silver, Lead, Quartz crystal. Black

3, 1

jasper. Jade,

c,

Naqadeh

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

Blue glaze 20, Lazuli 26, BoneS, Gold


Serpentine 3, Haematite 2, Carnelian
Blue paste

BIRD HEADS.

251.

251e, slate, 146

Green

2.

disc, aht

quartz crystal.
Materials.

250b, carnelian.

Univ. Coll. P.

hawk crowned with

both light blue glaze.

it,

Horuza, Cairo.

Collection.

goddess Mut.

(see 173).

fish carved in bone

is

3.

an amulet against the

in Italy (BELL.,xii, 23), and an

248b, grey limestone (see No. 94).

perhaps be an eagle.

(?)

Univ. Coll. P.

Fet,

49

42).

emblem

evil

eye

of fecundity (Bell.,

AMULETS OF ANIMAL GODS


OXYRHYNKHOS

256.

{Mormyrus).

Mazed ; as shown by the city Oxyrhynkhos being


Pa-mazed, and Mizz or Mizdeh being the modern

Name.
called

name

SHUTTLE, OR WINDING FRAME.

262.

Emblem

Meaning.
divinities

Period.

XXVI.

Penod.

XXVI

Figures.

262a,

Figure.

256, bronze, with horned disc and uraeus on the

(?).

Onyx

1.

1,

Alabaster

257.

XII

Period.

to

Price

{Tilapia nilotica).

1,

Alnwick

Roman.

1,

an

quartz

St.

2,

Agate

Petersburg

2,

2,

1.

WOMAN WITH

263.

257a, bronze; 257a 2, green glaze, Xllth dynasty,


257b, glazed schist, inscribed below in cartouche

3, Veined
Limestone 1.

Cairo 7, Univ. Coll. P. 2,

Collections.

BULTI

carnelian, probably

262b,

Carnelian

Materials.

Univ. Coll. P.

agate

early form of this sign.

head.
Collection.

one of the four

guarding the tomb.

of this fish in that district.

local

of the goddess Neit,

OFFERINGS.

Figures.

Kahun
.

men-neh

257c, grey steatite, Koptos

257d, violet glaze,

XVIIl 257e e 6, carnelian, XVIII 257f gold with greengrey wax inlay, from Nubia (pl. xlvi).
;

XXVI.

Figure.

263, light green glaze,

garment down the back, fringed

holding the horns of a gazelle, the

ELECTRIC FISH

Period.

XVIII.

Figure.

258a a

7,

(Malopterurus

xlv)

(pl.

electricus).

hand

carrying a long jar

left

Univ. Coll. P.

green (6) and violet (1)

1.

FIGURE IN TALL HEAD-DRESS.

264.

glaze.

Period.

Prehistoric

(?).

Figure.

264, ivory,

tall

pointed head-dress, ears project-

ing as in figures of 1st dynasty, arms raised over chest.

Univ.

Collection.

259.

Name.

long flap

by a top handle.
Collection.

258.

woman wearing

at the sides, the right

Univ. Coll. P. 11.

Collection.

Period.

Coll. P. 7.

LEPIDOTOS

Penpennu

(?),

Sacred

Meaning.

modern Binny,

fish at

Period.

Prehistoric

robe to feet

Green glazed stone 5, Blue glazed


Amethyst 1 (all Cairo), Sard 1 (Athens).
Cairo 11, Athens 1.
Collections.
Materials.

4,

265b

XXII

(?).

(pl. xlv),

ebony.

Univ. Coll. P. 2.

Collection.

Green

(?),

265a, alabaster, with large collar, and round

Figures.

Thebes.

Coll. P. 1.

FIGURE IN LONG ROBE.

265.

{Barbus hynni).

See Cairo Catalogue.

Figures.

Univ.

Collection.

glass 1,

266.

Period.
260.

Name.

Vlth dynasty.
266a, b, sard, group 14.

Figures.

SCORPION.

FIGURE IN POINTED CAP.

Collection.

Univ. Coll. P.

Meaning. Emblem of the goddess Selket, one of the four


guarding the tomb.

FLOWER.

267.

divinities

Period.

Prehistoric to

Penod.

XXVI.

260a, noble serpentine

260b, sard,

XXVI

tail

white,

Univ. Coll. P.

4,

Edinburgh

1,

Univ.

Period.

GREEN BEETLE.

261a, noble

267b, glaze faded

267c, green glaze, lotus,

serpentine (see Naqada,

Period.

Ptolemaic.

Figure.

268, blue glass burnt.

Collection.
Iviii)

PALM COLUMN.

Univ. Coll. P.

1.

2, quartz crystal, Tarkhan


261b b 5, green glaze,
Kahun, Xllth dynasty.
Materials. Green glaze 6, Serpentine 1, Carnelian 1,

Period.

Roman.

blackened limestone

Figure.

269, blue glaze, frothy and bad.

261a

Collections.

269.

1.

Univ. Coll. P.

6,

Murch

XXth

blue glaze.

Prehistoric to XII.

Figures.

Coll. P. 3.

268.
261.

Memphis

(?) (pl. xlv).

Collection.

Collections.

XXX.

Memphis, a button

dynasty

scorpion.

to

267a, blue glaze,

Figures.

broken
off
260b 2, sard, Tarkhan 260c, bronze, with head of
goddess crowned with disc and horns, rising from the
Figures.

2.

Selk.

Collection.

8.

60

BUNCH OF GRAPES.

Univ. Coll. P.

1,

with 221d, similar work.

MISCELLANEOUS AMULETS
FLOWERING REED

270.

Period.

Ptolemaic.

Figure.

270, blue

{Calamus).

left

and black

glaze,

Dendereh, group

273f

brown

2,

basalt 8, Obsidian 6, Black glass 3,

1.

glaze 2, Haematite 1, Purple glass

SEED VESSEL.

271.

Period.

XVIII

Figure.

271, blue glaze.

to

XIX.

glass 1, Slate

1,

Brown

1.

basalt

Brown limestone

Usually

Position.

Common on

necklaces in

VI.

Figure.

272

Unknown

Murch

Object.

3,

Price 2,

left side of pelvis,

1,

sometimes base of

Museum

10 R,

8,

Roman.

Period.
2.

Figures.
278.

Blackened limestone

UNCERTAIN PENDANTS.

274.
a, b, sard.

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

2,

E. 3 (6 R, 2 L), St. Petersburg 4,


Alnwick 2, Turin 1.

2 L, Univ. Coll. P.
272.

Black

Brown steatite 2, Blue


2, Brown glass 1, Black

Cairo 30 R, 2 L, British

Collections.

Univ. Coll. P. many.

Period.

brown limestone

stomach, or middle of stomach, never higher.

carnelian and in glaze.


Collection.

2,

basalt (?); 273h, light

Materials (omitting those in Cairo as uncertain).

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

273f, black basalt, right

blue glaze, right, Dendereh, Ptolemaic, group 21.

21.

Chest.

Position.

273g, black basalt; 273g

TWO

FINGERS.

274a, black steatite

Univ. Coll. P.

Collection.

274b, brown haematite.

2.

Name.

Zebo ne dens rud (MacG. 58).


Meaning. " Finger of heavy stone, at the

Two

Varieties.

Period.

fingers of right or left hand.

Xllth dynasty, Ptolemaic.


273a, blue glaze, Xllth dynasty, Kahun ; 275b,
light blue glaze, Dendereh, group 21.
Position.
Throat (1) Stomach (1).
Collection.
Univ. Coll. P. 2.
Period.

XXVL

Figiires.

brown limestone, gilt ; 273b, opaque


obsidian
273c, opaque obsidian, right hand 273d, dark
purple glass, left 273d 2, black glass 273e, black glass,
Figures.

STAR.

275.

girdle."

273a,

CHAPTER X

THE POSITIONS OF AMULETS


In the preceding catalogue the positions of amulets have

lower lines of amulets come lower than their exact places

and as very few plans of sets of amulets have


yet been published, it seems well to set out now the plans
which I have long had recorded. These plans were gathered
at Abydos, 2 of the
at Hawara, 8 of the XXVIth dynasty
XXXth dynasty at Nebesheh, 4 about the same age and
at Dendereh, 10 of the Ptolemaic age.
The last of these
recorded
by
Mr.
de
Davies,
the Abydos
groups was
N.
G.
groups by my wife, and the other three groups by myself.
The twenty-four plans of amulet groups are drawn in
Each plan has the site at
position on pis. 1 to liii.
the top left, and the reference number at the top right

on which
all the rows from T to the scarabs and eyes in U, were all
within 12 inches of height, or from the clavicle to the
umbilicus. The materials are listed below No. 1, and the
initial letters of the material are placed by the amulets
All of the Dendereh
where the material is recorded.

been stated

hand.

Down

beginning of

the instances of

liv.

numbers

As on such a

are

of

blue

6,

with

glaze

black

scale

the

distinctions

of

the minute

of these letters being stated at the

certain changing fashions in the kinds and positions of

any amulet, having

of the plans in

which

it

first

the

name
occurs,

statuettes of gods

number

amulets.

all

of

of the amulet,

and the

letters

rows in the plans. These last letters serve also to


show at once, without reference to the plans, at what parts

mummies any amulet

is

found.

The

In the

XXVIth dynasty we

see a

row

of

zad

signs across the stomach, above or below them a triad of


Rather later were added the
Isis, Nebhat, and Horus.
counterpoise at the nape of the neck, and the serpent head
at the throat.

of the

of the

24,

No.

painting.

etc.,

This same plate serves to find

the amulet in the catalogue, then the

the

15

is

upon the

the side of each plan are letters, T, C, P,

pi.

amulets,

one of the closest

would not be clear, the names of the


gods are stated instead of a figure. Some of the figures
such as the scarabs are only conventional, in order to
make them as clear as might be. There are obviously

indicating the position of the lines of amulets

mummies, the meaning

mummies

on the

actual draw-

and the

lion,

between

these

The
are

mummy

Ptolemaic.

different

ages

on the

bier,

the mourners,

Many other distinctions


may be noticed in the

arrangements.

ings here are rather spread out for clearness, so that the

51

H 2

THE POSITIONS OF AMULETS


One

amulets

of the few records of the positions of


of the priests of

the usual position in this age.

given are

much

On

uzat, uraeus,

On

of lazuli.

the

mummies

a papyrus,

legs,

and two papyrus

The

sceptres.

XXth dynasties have very


Old Kingdom amulets are com-

In the
moner, usually on necklaces and wrists

Um-

left

the XVIIIth to

of

few amulets.

clavicle, a

Over incision in

big blue scarab between hands.

scarab, heart, zad,

7izat,

and vulture,

Pectoral, greenstone scarab.

of gilt bronze.

bilical,

All the groups here

so this set is important.

later,

neck was a string of amulets, an


of gold, scarab and engraved iizat

hawk

b.c.

Between the
Under the

hand, a wax
figure of Hapi.
On left ulna, a long bead of blue paste (the
name badge 77), a scarab and an iizat. On a string at the
side, probably intended to lay across the chest, a m'aeus,

probably a few years before 1000

a plate of copper.

left flank,

is

Amen

(Ann. Seir., VIII, 35). As


this bore dates on the linen of Pisebkhanu son of Pinezem
1006 952 B.C., and the 8th year of Siamen 1014 b.c, it is

from one

(see Deshaaheh,

xxvi).

PROPERTIES OF STONES.
Besides the meanings attached to various forms of amulets,
the material

Often the form

60

disregarded, so long as the special material

is

can be obtained

a mere lump

plain bead or pendant of

it,

to stop bleeding, B. v.

Black jasper,

of the required stone, or a

and

cities

These properties

is sufficient.

For

Hcliotropium, blood jasper.

on as having important influence.

also looked

is

evil,

B.

and

haetiili

fleets,

P.

Am.

invisibility, P.

51

against lightning and

iii.

attributed to the materials are only recorded in general for

Staiirolite.

by Pliny anciently, and by Bellucci in modern times.


These authors are referred to by P. or B.
Adamas, diamond. For poison or delirium, P. xxxvii,

Lyncurion, jacinth or yellow quartz.


P. xxxvii, 13.

15.

parturition, Jackson.

Italy,

Lead.

For suppuration in swine, B. viii, 16, 24.


To preserve the eyes, B. viii, 23.

Haematite, blood red.


petitions, P. xxxvii,

60

Reveals treachery
stops bleeding, B.

Siderites, black haematite, or meteorite.

in law suits, P. xxxvii, 67; for witchery


viii,

Amianthus.

xxxvi,

Am.

evil eye, B.

Against cold, P. xxxvii, 54.

?).

Am.

19, Fet.

36
:

promotes

66

evil eye, B. x,

Am.

For

parturition, P.

64.

disc,

against reptile bites, B.

cylinder, phallic, against evil eye, B.

iv.

For increase

of milk,

Preserves infants, P. xxxvii,

for evil eye, B. x.

disc.

x.

Amber.

For throat

for fevers, P. xxxvii, 12

affections, P.
;

For bleeding, especially

Coral, red.

of nose, B, vi.

11

xxxvii,

against witchery, B.

Coral, white, " milk stone."

vi.

For increase

on neck

v.

of milk, B. ix.

Evil eye and menstruation, B.

ix.

Am.

28,

Fet. 46.

To strengthen the

sight.

Jackson, "Minerals

Ammonite.

their uses."

Gives prophetic dreams, sacred in Ethiopia,

P. xxxvii, 60.

Agate, concentric, " eye stone."

Agate, Egyptian.
Jaspis, jasper.

P.
iv,

B.

Chalcedony, red, " blood stone."


Opal.

54

Alabaster.

For intoxication, P. xxxvii, 15 against spells,


hail and locusts, and for access to kings, P. xxxvii, 40.
Chalcedony, white, " milk stone." For increase of milk,
Amethyst.

and

xxxvii,

Limestone

Paeanitis, like ice, quartz crystal.

B.

17

For increase of milk, B. vi.


To get dirt from eye, B. viii, 18 with
dendrite, against venom, B. viii, 19.
Selenite,
For increase of milk, B. vi against evil eye,

contentment, B.

v. 26.

xxxvii,

11

Malachite, " peacock stone."

945.

For headache

Sapphire.

iv.

P. xxxvii, 59.

Limonite (hydrous iron oxide) concretion. For pregnancy,


P.

disease, B.

for

spells, P. xxxvi, 31.

Soapstone, white, mixed in water.

Apsyctos (haematite

P. xxxvii, 40

For widows, comfort in misfortune, B. v. 10.


Serpentine.
Against headache and serpent bites,

17.

viii.

Against

Against jaundice,

Garnet.

17.

Causes discord

and

v. 27.

As amethyst,

For kidney

Jadeite, nephrite.

for success in

viii,

Against witchery, B.

Smaragdus, emerald.

Pyrites, crystal.

Potent in taking

keraiiniae.

xxxvii,

xxxvii,

18, Fet. 88, 89.

Evil eye, B.

vi,

Madrepore.

Fet. 52.

Against scorpions, P. xxxvii, 54.

For public speaking, P.

worms

in children.

Holed

xxxvii, 37.

62

Evil eye and witchery, B.

stone.

Against witchery, B.

viii.

vii,

Am. 33;

OF GROUPS OF AMULETS

LIST

Group

Vaeious strings of beads and amulets have been bought


which obviously belong together, by their uniformity of

and material

style

and although the

they come are not known,

Ghoup

from which

localities

Group

Such are noted by the number of the


group when described in the Catalogue, and the list of
references to each group is given here.
Groups 1 to 13
belong probably to about the Vlth dynasty.
Group 1. Types 2a 12a 13 12b, 2, 3 12c 24
18e4; 22f2; Hid; 138b.
Group 2. 2b; lSa2; 15e5, 6; lllf, g, h 113d; 138c;
138h 2.
Group 3. 2c 12a, b, b 4, c 5 22b 47a lllj 113c,
c 2
237c.
138j, j 2, 3, k, k 2
Group 4. 170d 205a 245j 14.
Group 5. 2d, e; 27a, b; 94a; 113b; 138h 170c, c 2;
of their grouping.

Group
soe

12a 4; 29b
5

^f 7138g2,
I- o^^-!
138d;
]4;
'

Group

g^

15c 3

22c

2, e

22a

94c

138a

145a

29a

2
;

206b

94a 2

236b, c

2^gjj

Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
Group
b,

b2

206c.

11.
12.

2f

13.

12c; 22c; 77d

14.

138g

206d.

Vlth

to

188g,

On

Xllth dynasty.
;

pi. xl

a bronze figure of a

237d,

e, f

18f

246h q

an unnumbered

111c; 129a,

98o

149h

8a
157d

185a

156a, a 2

various Ptolemaic tombs, Dendereh.

197j

2061

36g

37f

40b

208f

211k

219j

157f

224f,

247k

ag, ah, aj, aq, ar, as

u 59d 71a, b

58t,

180c h 188b 156b

Group
Group

22.

13b

23.

16b,b2;161i.

^^^^

^4.

Tell

.
^^^ ^5.
Group 26.

rr ^

270

180j

231c,
;

f,

273h

145w, x

1491

233d.

Amarna, Roman.

Kafr

.
^rx.,
Xlth
Ammar,

Dendereh,

74a, b

7n

Ptolemaic.

133i.

l.,,/.

dynasty.

247f.
;

40c, d

88p

156c.

Memphis,

28.

49d

Group

30.

Vlth dynasty.

31.

lUahun,

88d,

jewellery.

16c,

d;

85d,

e,

f;

e.

22g2; 113c; 138e; 188e,

f2.

Group

which entered the collection

hawk with ram's head and human arms.

58

27.

f,

266a, b.

figure,

From

21.

Group
IMk.
Group

185a d.

123a; 138f;

150a, b, b 2

h 236aa 245u,

^^j

22d2; 27b 2.
Ha 219k, k 2.

10.

Note.
It is

2b 2

9.

175e.

275b.

206a.

ill
220a.

12a 6

8.

94b

145j

impressed, Dendereh, Ptolemaic.

881

182q, r

2, 3.

Groups.

71c

219d, d

Wax

20.

8b 28d 30a 34e


79c 84b 87c 93e, f

68d

Group
7p

Memphis, XXVI, necklace.

17.

148h;

33e;148f, g;

(?).

208e.

194e; 224a.

Group 18. Sheet pewter, figures stamped.


180g; 182b; 202e, e2; 231d, e.

146

a few miles north of Abydos.

XXVIth dynasty

16.

149g; 164c; 170b

desirable to keep the record

it is

From

15.

149f; 170a; 236d.

XXVth

dynasty.

after cataloguing,

See Lanz., Diz. Mit.,

cliii p.

34d 2

90aa.

has not been described.


558.

INDEX
A.

Baboon, 43
Bale, 48

Bulla, 28

Ab, 10

BaMakhuhh, 30

Bunch

Ahlanatha-nalha, 31

Barbary sheep, 45
Bark of the Moon, 17

Aakhet,

17

Ab-nekh, 12
Abrasax, 30, 31
Abraxas, 31

of grapes, 50

Bastet, 46

C.

Bat, 17

Bata, 2
Bat's head worn to prevent sleep, 2
Bear, wearing of part of, to give strength, 2
Bearing of King's soul, 16

Adamas, 52
Aegis of Bastet, 42
Agate, 52
Alabaster, 62

Beauty, emblem

Algerians, 1
Altar with cakes, 20
Amber, 52

Amber used
Amen, 37

Bulti, 50

of,

14

Beetle, green, 60

Being, conferred by vulture, 25

BeU, 28

for eyes, 3

Bellucci, Prof.,

1,

Benefit of dead, 1
Benefits of life, 22

Ament, 25
Ames, 18
Amethyst, 52
Amianthus, 52

Bennu, 30
Benr, 20
Berberete,

Ammonite, 52
Amphisbaena, 26
^Amset, 39

30

Bes, 30, 40, 41

name, 1
incient writers on amulets,
Qulet, origin of

Dhur, 37, 41
^Animal gods, amulets, 43

headed gods, amulets, 39


Anpu, 2, 42, 46
Anubis, 30
Ao, 20
Aoh, 17, 23

Binny, 50
Bird amulets, Coptic, 49
heads, 49
Bird's foot, 49
Blood of Isis, protection by, 23
Body, preservation of, 22

26
Bone, 26
Boils,

of,

32

Cairo, collection at, 6

Camel, 45
Cardium Edule shell, 27
Carthaginian source of amulets,

Cartouche, 21
Gasaio Nodulosa shell, 27
Casual connection, 2
Cat, 46

and kittens, 46
Cats on column, 46
Central Africa, use of amulets
Chalcedony, 52
Charm case, 29
Charms, 1, 2
,,

in,

Greek, stone, 30

amulet of, 9
Children and amulets,
Chief,

Chi-rho cross, 32
Circle of cord, 22

Clanculus Pharaonis shell, 28


Classes of amulets, 6
Claw, 13

Boni,

Comm.

Book

of the

Cleopatra BuUmoides sheU, 27

Dead :

Chapter 22.. 17

Aorot, 18

Caesarea, coins

23.. 16

Ape, seated, 43

Clothing, 21

Cobra on

case,

26

Collar, 20

25.. 21

Combs, 21
Concretions in stone for pregnancy, 2
Conferring greatness, 14

Apis, 43

26-29B..10
30.. 10, 24
33.. 25
36.. 47

Apsyctos, 52
Apt, 47

94.. 21

,,

standing, 43

Apeh, 47
Aphreni, 30
Aphrodite, 30

Arab use

of amulets,

Arm,

149.. 49
155.. 15

Cow, legs

156. 23
158. 20

Crescent, 23

160.. 13

Cross, 32

162.. 20, 30

Crowned sun,

163. 33

Cynaelurua guttatm, 40
Cypraea shell, 27

167.. 32

59.. 12

Ari, 9
11

Arms, two, 11
Ascending to sky, 17
Atherne Mino, 30
Athlathanalba, 30
Auk skin used, 3
Auo, 20

B.

Bound

Confidence, 2

Confusion with medicines, 2


Construction of charms, 2
Comit shell, 27
Coral, 27, 52
Counterpoise of collar, 15

140.. 32

166.. 15

tied,

20

Crocodile, 48

17

captive, 19

Breast, 10

Ba, 14

Ba

the divine, 45

Brinteti en, 31

British

Museum,

collection at, 6

55

Damaraland, wearing of amulets


Dangers, to steer through, 2, 27

in,

INDEX
Date, 20
Dead, amulets
Defence, 21

for,

Frog transfixed to ensure


Future existence, 1

15

Definitions and limitations of subject, 5


Gklactitis,

Det, 11

Diffusion of amulets, 1
Digestion, amulet for, 30
Direction of thought to disease, 2

of, 2

laS-la-ila-ma, 31
Ibis,

by vulture, 25

mad

Green beetle, 50
Groups of goddesses, 35
Growth of amulet system in
Guidance of the flock, 18

dog, 2

burials, 5

to the soul, 42

,,

Guillemot's foot for proficiency in whaling, 3

Door bolt, 28
Double crown on Neb, 18

Ikhankhala, 30
Illumination, 36

Going among men, 25

Dish of flour on mat, 20

49

Ibex, 45
Icelandic sagas,

Goose, 20

of sun, 17

Divinity, conferred

bird, 14

lao, 30

Oolho, 38

Disc mace, 18

Intent to live, 2
Isis, 30, 35
Pharia, 35
,,
Islam, 31
Italy, 1

use of amulets, 4
,,
Ivory ball worn for lactation, 2

tablet for fever, 2

of objects, 2

Dragon's head put under door


Dress of living, 20
Drink offering, 20

sill,

Halu, 49
Haematite, 62

Hand

Ditat-mut-ef, 39

Durability,

emblem

of, 13,

Electric fish, 50

emblem

of,

17

the cow
,,
Hat-mehyt, 38

Eoulkheoukli, 30
Equilibrium, 16

Hawk falcon,

Erpet aht, 44
Eskimos, 2

Eukairian, 30
Eupepti, 30

Evil eye, amulets to avert,

2, 4, 26, 27, 28,

29

9, 32, 33

Fighting power, emblem of, 18


Figure in long robe, 50
in pointed cap, 50
,,
in tall head-dress, 60
,,

of,

Joy,

of,

15

K.

Ka, 11
44

Kebhsenuf, 39
Kesea, 16

Khab, 30

,,

head, 3

,,

headed sphinx, 45, 48


9

bones of animals for headache, 2


of Horus, 35

,,

restoration of, 16

emblem

Head-rest, 15

Hearing, power of, 10


Hedgehog, 47
Heart, 10
of Isis given to deceased, 23, 24
,,
of Osiris, 36

pricked with pins, 3


,,
worn as amulet, 2
,,

Khat, 21
Khetu, 45
Khep, 11
Kheper, 23, 24
Kheret, 26

Kher-o, 21
Khet, 17
Khft-la-mutef, 43

Khnumu,

30,

40

Khonsu, 37
Kittiwake head amulet, 3
Klipspringer, 45

Knotted cord, 29
Knowledge and power emblem, 18

Heh, 18

Heimskringla account, 3
HeUotropium, 52

with necklaces, 19

Finding of way, 13
Fish amulet worn for fecundity, 2
Fist clenched,

Joint of meat, 20

48

He Kharis, 30
Head bearded,
,

Face, 9
Faith-healer, 2
Faith theory of cures due to amulets, 2
Fear, weakening due to, 2
Feathers and scourge, 18

,,

Jaspis, 52

Har, 34
Hare, 44
Harpekroti, 30, 34
Hathor, 37, 38, 40

Ear, 10

Eye,

Jadeite, 62

Haqt, 18

E.

headed archer, 42
standing, 46

,,

Hap, 34
Hapy, 39

19

Dwarf, 38

Elevation,

Jackal head, 13, 46

open, 11

Hairdressing, 21

Duckling, 14, 20

use

Garnet, 52
Gazelle, 20
Girdle of Ms, 23
Goat sucker, 49

JDeshert, 18

Dog, 46
Dog's teeth to protect wearer from

Human-headed

Hunting, skUl in, 3


HypocephaluB, 30

G.

Demzedet, 25
Dentalium shell worn for teething, 2

,,

faithfulness, 3

Lactation, milk white stone for, 2


power of, 10

Helix Desertorum, 27
Hent, 28

Her, 9

Lead, 52
amulet for swine, 3
,,

Flour offering, 20
Flower, 50
Flowering seed, 61

Her-ne-pot, 38

Leg, 11

Fly, 12

Hippopotamus, 47

Food

Holed

thumb

between

first

and

fingers, 11

offering, 19, 20

Forked lance, 16
Foxhead worn to ensure cunning, 3
Frog, 12
,,

,,

against chill of fever, 3

and toad, 12
meaning of, 12

second

Heqt, 12

Leopard claw amulet, 2

Hez, 18, 36
Hezt, 17

head, 13

Lepidotus, 50
Life amulet, 14

stone, 52
Hor-am-utu, 48

Limestone, 52
Limonite, 62
Lion, 45
Little auk skin amulet, 3

Horn, 26
Hornet, 17
Horus, 80, 34, 36, 39
Hotep, 20
Human soul, 14

Living, power
Lizard, 26, 48

66

of, 10,

26

INDEX
1

Lizard with forked tail, 2


Locust, 14
Lyncurion stone, 2, 62

M.
Maa-hes, 41

Ob, 26

Qa. 17

Objects to distract thought, 2

Qannut, 49

Ofef, 12

Qeb, 11

OZtVa shell, 2H

Quartan

fever, protection against, 24,

Onkh, 14
Opal, 52

MacGregor papyrus, 6
Madrepore, S2

Magic effect
Mahes, 41

0.

Opener of the ways, 42


Operculum for the eyes,

of objeote, 1

Opeah, 47

Malachite, 02
Malaria, 26

Ba, 39

Oqat, 13
-'
Oracular bust, 36
Osiris, Isis and Horus, 36
Ostrich, 49

Malignant spirits, 2
Man kneeling with palms, 18
Man's girdle tie, 14
Mandaite, 32
Maot, 38
Marcus, 30

as protector, 22
as ruler, 22

,,

four sons

,,

'

of,

39

Bam, 44

plumes, 16

Mau, 46

Eam's head, 44
Ban, 21
Basmussen's account of amulets, 3
Eaven's foot for contentment, 3
Eecord, confusion with medicine in,

Mazed, 50

Eectitude, 16

Mascots,

1,

,,

Ox

head, 19

Oxyrhynkhos, 50

Meaning of amulets,
Medusa head, 28

Bed

Paeanitis, 52

Pair of feathers, 17
50

Mekhtii, 30

of, 38,

sceptre, 12

,,

49

Memeptah, 30
Mes-zer, 10

Pebbles to ensure fleetness of puppies, 3

Rera, 47

Pectoral, 24

Eising sun, 17

PectunculuB violacescent shell, 27


Peh, 13

Ro, 17

Eoman

Pendant for forehead, 29

Eoyal clothing, 21

Penpennu, 50
Peseshkef, 28

Phagrus

god, protection

of,

Mximmy, 23
M

on

,,

to open

23

bier,

Murex temispina

mouth

of,

28

Pliny,

shell, 27

37, 49

N.

Name
,,

Names,

to preserve the, 21

Nar, 49
Nature and magic slowly separated,
Naur, 49

Neit, 37, 50

Nekhekh, 18

Nert-hent-pet-er-remtu, 25
10

J/e,

in Heliopolis, 18

8.

Saau, 47

Plummet, 16

Saba, 31

PoUnicea mamilla shell, 27


Power of the senses, 9

Sabaoth, 30
Sabkhet, 25

,,

over property, 22

Sagas,

,,

to behold a, 17

Sa!i,

of,

14

23

Sailors, protection of,

Pregnancy, 26, 47
amulets unchanged, 4
Primou, 30
Prince seated, 28

Salvation, 32
Sapphire, 52
Sat, 48
Scarabs, 23, 24
Scorpion, 50

Princess, 28

Seal, 22

Principle of arrangement of catalogue, 6


Properties of stones, 52

ring, 22
Seated prince, 28
Sebek, 42, 48

Primitive

35

Saints, 38

mode

Property, amulets

Nems, 21
Nephrite stone for disease of kidneys, 2

Eule

So, 20

Prase, 10

Ne/erttim, 38
Nehebka, 49

Norse Sagas,

Powers, amulets

Nazhi, 13
Nebhat, 35
Ne/er, 14

Sephthys, 30
Nerita crassilabrum shell, 27
Aeri, 25

scourge, 18
1

Plumes, disc and two horns, 16

badge, 21
of amulet, 1

1, 2,

name amulet,

head dress, 21
power of Lower Egypt,
of Upper Egypt,

case, 26

Ph-nes-khSrphi, 30
Phoenician transmission of amulet name,
Phokhos, 30
Phylax, 30
Pig, 47
Pisebkhanu, 52

23

Mormoron, 30
Moza, 11

Mut,

on

use of

crook, 18

Phallus, 11

Monkhet, 21

Moon

eel

bleeding, 2

Remen, 11
Bepoti-hat, 28

Mikhael, 30

for menstruation, 2

worn against

Pear mace, 18

Min, 37
Mitra maculosa

27

coral amulet
Crown, 18
Sea pearl, 27

stone
,,
Rehen, 20

Papyrus on a plaque, 13

Mengaryt, 25
Mentu, 48
Menz, 10

shell,

,,

Palm column,

Meleagrina margariti/era shell, 27


Mm, 18
Menat, 15

Mendes, goddess

,,

of

thought

of, 19,

22

Protection, 25, 28, 35, 42

from wild beasts, 13

Provision for writing, 21


Pakhr, 30
Ptah, 38
Seker, 38

Purpose of amulets, 1
Pyrites, 52

57

regarding

Security, 28
Seden, 21

Seed

vessel, 51

Seeing the sun, power


Sekhat, 44

of,

Sekhemti, 18

Sekhmet, 41
Self-reliance, to give, 2

17

17,

18

17, 18

26

INDEX
Petersburg, collection

Selenite, 52

St.

Selk, 50

Strength, amulet for,

Selket, 38

Sumbd, 30
Sun and uraei, 22

Semitic origin of

name

amulet,

2,

Vri, 15

Urtheka, 25

Use

of amulets, 1

Usekh, 20

Seqeq, 16

wings, 22
Superstitions, 1

Sera, 44

Sympathetic magic, 2

Seno, 45

Uraeus serpent, 18

at,

Ushabti, 22
Vzat eye, 9, 32

Serapis, 30

Serapeum, 30

V.

Serekh, 21

Serpent, 25
head, 25
,,

Varieties of amulets used in Egypt, 6

Tabu, to defy, 2
Tahuti of Panebes, 41
Tag heberU, 30
Tasmanians, 1

headed god, 43
with anns, 49

,,

Serpent's skin, 2

Serpentine, 52

Sest,

40

Tell el

animal, 46

,,

re/?,

Shap, 19
Shen, 22
Shepherd's stick, 18
Shilluks,

Voyaging

Yehudiyeh, 30

of,

in sky, 17

Vulture, 49

flying,

49

standing, 25

,,

with wings spread, 25


,,
Vulture and uraeus, 18

Themt, 25
26, 42,

46

Thet, 20, 23

W.

Thoth, 31
Thunderstones, use of in Italy, 3
Toad, 12

Shuttle, 50

52
Similars, amulets
Siderites,

doctrine

Wagtail, 14

Tongue, 10
of,

of hyena, to prevent

,,

of,

Sistrum, 15

Skin of mouth of bear, worn in child's cap, 3


Slave figure, 22
Sma, 11, 16
Smaragdus, 52

of,

Whaling, luck

Turtle, 47

Woman

,,

11

19

of written charms, 2

White crown, 17
Will, power of, 11

,,

25

Wearing

for toothache, 2, 13

of,

Truth, impersonation, 38
Turbo, operculum, 27
Turin, collection at, 6

Two

SrrMuti, 18

Walking, power
Waran, 48
Wealth, emblem

worn

,,

Siren for security, 2

bite, to avoid,

dogs barking, 3

Tooth, 13

Si-nehem, 14

Snake

theory, supposition

,,

Tertian fever, 26
Theme*, 21

Shu, 37, 42
Shuti, 16

,,

13

Vigorous action,

Terebra corudbrina shell, 28

Shrew mouse,

of,

Vicarious double, 2

Tefnut, 41
Tehuti, 42, 49

28

emblem

Veddahs,

Taurt, 26, 47

Sesh-shet, 15

Set, 30,

Valour,

Vase, 20

in,

with offerings, 50
deceased, 22
Woven charm, 29
Writing tablet, 21

Work,

fingers, 51

hands side by side, 11


plumes, disc and horns, 16

to, for

Soapstone, 52

Speaking and feeding, 16

T.

U.

Spearhead, 21
Sphinx, male, 40
female, 40
,,
Square, 16
Stability,

emblem

Uaz, 12
13
Ulcers, 26

of, 1

Stages of human mind,


Stairs, 17

Youth, emblem of, 12


conferred by vulture, 25

Uas, 18

Z.

Star, 51

Union, 11, 16
University College, collection

Staurolite, 52

Unknown

Stauros, 32
Stone implement, 28

Vort, 11

inscribed,

Greek and non-Gh-eek, 30

deities,

at, 1,

.^a,

14

Zad, 15

37

Zebot, 22

Vpuatu, 42, 46

Zeho ne

Ur, 14

za, 25

BBADBUBT, ACtKEW,

k.

CO. LD., FBIKTEBB, LOITDOK

58

AMD TONBBIDOE.

dem

rud, 51

PLATE

IttTi
ft

r^

(1

/.

SIMILARS: I'AKTS OF

HUMAN

BODY.

16e

PLATE

\%\
^^m

M%,

il
21

2\b

^l^-l^^f??
24

e
23

?
SIMILARS

ANIMAL AND VEGETABLK.

<l

<

21

II

PLATE

sT

^-^^
^^Uij^iiUuJ"**'**^

111

PLATE IV
36

AaA
rrrri^
IfV.
r r F

i^^ %

38

Till
a

h
39

41

XJk^^

59

POWERS

SYMBOLS OF ABILITY AND AUTHORITY.

690

59 b

PLATE V

'J^
6S

tf^a

<^

ll

(i

(I

7:

I'ROl'ERTV

0ff'X

FUNEREAL OFFERINGS.

PLATE

76

I
77

78

79

80

84 a
83 a

PROPERTY

\ POSSESSIONS.
PROTECTION CELESTIAL.

VJ

PLATE Vn

PROTECTION: MUMMY, GIRDLE, FLAT SCARAB.

PLATE

PROTECTION: INSCRIBED SCARAB, BACKS.

VIIl

PLATE IX

v:/^i\
tiff^rtf

^-'- Xil'STK*/

iKtft

.'^/iMi^iii^

e;5^S''[^'K;U*W'E
4LSa\

^'.liJ.^ir

PROTECTION

INSCRIBED SCARAB, FRONTS.

PLATE X

f:

V-.:

PROTECTION

PECTORALS.

PLATE Xr

PROTKCTIOX

SCARAB WITH LEGS AND WINGS.

PLATE XII

PROPERTY: VULTURE, SERPENT.

PLATE
"Tt^rr

101. h\

98.

e.

99

99 a

101.

100.

&

100.C.

PROTECTION: CASES FOR REPTILES.

c.

3,

XIII

PLATE XIV

h<-

105

-J!

i
108 a

108i?>

109

'^k*-^^-*"-

111

4444

f
llOi

109
I.

^A
1 1 0..

ii

h;
i

HOC

I12e

^V^
PROTECTION: HORN AND SHELLS.

PLATE XV

123

PROTECTION: SHELLS, IMPLEMENTS, FIGURES, BULLAE.

PLATE XVl

PROTECTION: FOREHEAD PENDANTS.

PLATE XVII

I'KIJTKCTION

KNOTTED CORDS.

PLATE XVIJ

PROTECTION

KNOTTED CORDS.

PLATE XIX

PROTECTION: CORDS, WEAVING, CHARM CASES.

PLATE XX

rUOTECTION

HVI'OCKPUALI.

PLATE XXI

I'ROTKCTIOX

IXSCKIBKl) STONKS, GREEK.

PLATE XXI
136

^mm-^

n\^^

t-^}.:'

'P^^M-^
ff

^C! Yofim:

PROTECTION: INSCRIBED STONES, NON-GREEK.

PLATE XXin

136

^H^ill&sS
Hvr

HISS
mac:;yffA<:xq

&

PROTECTION: INSCRIBED, SEMITIC, CROSS.

PLATE XXIV

*4!^4>r#-*^

*;./

^^

.HM
HUMAN GODS EVE OF HORUS.
:

PLATE XXV

HUMAN

138 Oe
(;()DS:

EYE OK MORUS.

139 k

PT.ATE XXVI

143

X
144

144 c

144

ii

M'i-io

144rf

-A

\1

145

7i

149

>

flijii
/

HUMAN GODS: HORUS,

ISIS.

\.

PLATE xxrir

HUMAN GODS

HORUS,

ISIS,

OSIRIS, NEBIIAT.

PLATE XXVIII

HUMAN GODS

OSIRIS,

HEART OK

OSIRIS.

Jra,

->

'.o

PLATE XXIX

HUMAN GOT: ORACULAR

BUSTS.

PLATE XXX

169 C

173 a

173

i-

175

175 A

HUMAN GODS: MIN TO NEFERTUM.

PLATE XXX

180

(-HUMAN GODS: DWARFS, SAINTS.

PLATE XXXII

ANIMAL-IIEADED GODS: FOUR SONS OF

KA.

PLATE XXXIII

ANLMAL-IIKADED {;ODS

SET, SPHINX, llATHOR,

KHNUMU,

BES.

ri.ATE

ANIMAL-HEADED GODS:

BES, TAHUTI, MAIIKS.

XXXIV

PLATE XXXV

ANIMAL-HEADED GODS: ANHUR WITH TEFNUT, SEKHMET, BASTET.

PLATE XXX VI

ANIMAL-HEADED GODS: SHU WITH TEFNUT, JACKAL, SEBEK, TAHUTL

PLATE XX XVII

ANIMAL GODS:

APE, BULL, COW.

PLATE XXXVni
210
VS9S,

21

^
<^

212

f f

215

214

216

^ ft
ANIMAL GODS

<^

COW, SHEEP, HARE, LION.


:

'/'J'jl'i;
j ;>
'

>

PLATE XXXIX

229 e

231

It

231 d

231

ANIMAL GODS:

LION, CAT, JACKAL.

229 c

229

<;

ri.AIE XL

233 a

233/

234 a

235 a

236a

235 e
236

236.

236

237 i

236

237rf

'

t f

t
/

fill*

237 m.

ANIMAL GODS: SHREWMOUSE, DOG,

PIG,

HIITOI'OTAMUS

"

PLATE XL!

243

245

JB

ar

^^K

in^
^V

*<7

as

ANIMAL GODS

REPTILES, BIRDS.

^^

PLATE XL/I

250 a

245 h

xVNIMAL GODS

BIRDS.

'^'t..

.J

t. .

ri.ATE XL/ /I

ANIMAL GODS, AND VARIOUS OBJECTS.

PLATE

1347*

ADDENDA.
3

> 3 J

Xl.ir

t'LA

221 h

194^

261

197l

19772

^g^
265

1956

221 C

22 p

245
267

245

a.A.

ADDENDA.

c.

-^

TE XL V

PLATE

XI.Vl

ADDENDA.

S >

'i

'i>s f'j ';

>

PLATE

139 ra

ADDENDA.

XI.VJI

LISTS

cm

^+^

41

OF AMULETS, MACGREGOR PAPYRUS, AND DENDEREH.

J^^f]^

"

^
DD

\kL

^^

39

za

45-

I3

dr

Kli^

LH

2?

20

30

1^

%^^
10

/s:"

66

71

^"

J/

ir

'^'g^
I?

tL
35

40

OL

m^

O
1

61

d^

rT
^

etrij

62

m-i

CL_

i3

73

69

57

k^

^^

67

71

T^
r

^^/^-v.

ri

74

n.

53

58

69

rl

AMULETS
^-^7

2L
c^/

0--5'

4^

OF OSlRlS. DENDE.FnEH,iv,

SI

9-

'9

?iq

3|

M 3f
T

6-

-^

PPf

,-.7'

SB

X7/vw\

ri

T
55-

87-

pa

/-;(?

60

c5

55
ji
9
1*0

/j

J6

rtfo

'7

170

.=-

F"
L

a- D

/^T?\

/^"

70

-2-

49

59

4-8

/vw\

64

70

ll
'?=

2*5

57

,11

r;

ill
174.

2.13X
1

91

16*

a?

'2.02.

3"

47

^CO

/k=7

L^

fX'.\

t3.

/^

XT\
O

46

!Z

N/

6}

^' \=^

^"

18

-/tffffll
i4

i.9

^0

y t7

^^-^
34

TT1

/^
2.3

:P

^'"

'7

as

Q_

.^

^ r^^

=^fe7^^

44

f"

ffP

^ ^x

cszn

/'/

Tff

43

i\

32

L -sT

^3

2.6

wi

/s:^q^

CZZ3 -'*-

r^Offi-

JJ

42-

zn

0^
31

^i'
Q_
O

-P.,

XLVIII

1/
J38

t)

Ztf

?i

fS

,38

I?"

'te

(?^

n
lis

17

J.

BRONZE AMULET,

'

PH

VXA

XVX BA
XAXVX-

BAXAZiXVX

FOUR- XAB
HEADED ^
Ood.
RAM

roM

'i'V^Az.

st>Ki-nx

NoTtK

of

PAY, Ra
ya-m

4.-Uta.ci-c.A

NC

4.

XHP*I

lAU

^-LJXUtC

A M a^^i
AA lAA I^A
I

uont

ABAANA0
vBAANAe

B,

N A A &A

^A

tLsc ultKme.

Ae Z M

A N APeVAA
Bark, qu^ivAiirv

LION
TF^,E:ADl^aG

ON SKELETON.

AKPAM MAX
Tkywvcsl flv^aCLOUS one.

AMAPI^

AB PACA Z

RuS

H O

HOLDING ElVILr>
STANDING ON
CR.0CODI LES

p.

t-iorv

AU

YaKveK

IHCOVC
I

HAWKS

S0U.L6

us

3SCAPvAB>5

of tkt Ju-st.

Triple

3 CoATS.j&CRPtNTb

Cf-alro\*

Sou.Ls

of

tK.

b..K.L.n^
1

LO

&A *Pe N

HORU.S ON LOTUS

YakveJv
e

MOU

IN

Nl

06

^6 A

1*1

A API

BOAT

wtt-keii.

BPIN

KHN UMU

STANDING

XNOUBIC
XAPNOVC

HM

ON

PK IPA

ktoryi-tcL.

Aieo MvyoMe
fsie

CROCODILES

3.

H0VU.S

p* AB we Ai t
HO R.U5-MI N

HOFkUS
as

ki.Ti.9

a.\.C

4>

NOtOUOVTI

TM

God.

A P no
X.N OW* IC
HotOl* tkt Cy4.a.CQT

PIN

TATH
N

puic ei

tai-L

eve
P

TO u
Lion

>

LJ<t>

PI

135aa.

XLIX

PLANS OF AMULETS

ON MUMMIES.

K3^^

WA

H A

P.

HO R UZA

ALl_ fJ

JtiMT

UPPER
*>2h

l-CFT

ARM
1^

u^PE^ AK.M

BEADS

LEFT HAND CLIMCWED


G =3 i"" TO a*."

Gour>
I

^4

ON

KlrMti

R.

TO A""

.,^*o

o<^.

.,

f^

>

:t>.

,_-5

R.D

fir

*-'',

5>

.'^J

.-O".

ON VlNGtR!, *rJO I- (ft)


Toes Colo plates. =
<f))
I

5-

1.

^A

ICHT HAMD

1-

t^o

MAMD
H

HAWAKA

Ub CI

4>^

^^ATERIALS
A/

GO LD

C A

f\NELlAN

D DIOHITE

F CiVCEN FELS PAR


G &^EE P4 CLAXE

'

.^'

UT.

H HAEMATITE
J

AS

P E

J<

RET>

LAruul
O OaslDIAN
'V
D L K TE
TSTEATIT
5 SVENITE
Y YELLOW LI InESTONE
W WHITE

ON WMbTS GOLD fcANPS


PENIS GOLD SHEATH

1-

N BlaCM LIMEiTONE

'

HAWARA

HAWAB.A4

H A WARA 6

/^^T^B^N
R C R

I\

/ill^^sa^-D- 'D'AQi^A
v^^
UNDER.
Z AD IN

A LUMP

ffl

?5

tt&'
;

STR.ONC

Together
2-NEBHAT
li
I

i.

2.

2.
I

3
1

I
I

ZAD
U

A2

ORUS
TAHUTI
H

ISIS

KHNUMU
SCAHASS

OouaLEBULLi

SHU

KA

ALL &

^Q

p
8fAD5

PLANS OF AMULETS ON MUMMIES.

NEBE&HEH

NEBESHEHD.

N
C

WHist/L

DENDEREH
DL.

II

dende:reh

Lll

PLANS OF AMULETS

ON MUMMIES.

Llll

20
JENDEREH

DEIMDEKEH
ISO

5^

h
f

DENDEREH
Too

DENDEREH

INDEX

p O3 T
I

NAPE

tvl

3P.4

T THPsOAT
C

CUAVl CLE

PECTUS

D A PH

U
V

EM TE a

^1

5 0.6

43 DISC

US

f\

U,

II

R.I

FH

HEAPsT.

14 V.

tS3

lOP

IZ

I4F.

D.

P,

13

4T. 5T,C.

IICJ2.P I3C.
)&C. 2.1D.

T.9P-I0TPU ^6 BUCK.

14 P. 16

2.3 P.

24

IS"!

2.5TR

4- P.

10

COLLAR.

72.

CLdT HING.

1,C.

PLAa,UE

MOURNIMG.

SMA,

17

10,

FROG

18

17 P,

|8D^2.0C?MV;

NEBH AT.

P,M.ZT.3P, 5C. 6
C I2.P. i3 P

10 P-ll

ID.

FT, C,P.

S'P.b

p.

lO.U.

II

3>

P.

5-C,P.

V. 13V. I4R

ll.V.

80 SEAL RING

]h

SHU

168

NEIT. IP.2.R

172.

MAOT.

yT

30

MANS

GiKDLE-Ti

2.C

I3P, U.

9P. IIT.IZT. I3N. 14

34 HEAD REST
35

E. 18 P

ZAD

ff

SCARAB WITH

LEGS.

LPU. 3C,PD.

4TP.

3CP,U.
92.E.

J^B
>6

10

14 D.U.

P.D, u.
2-1

U.

V.

93

C,P.

'2.

C. lOD.
P. Z3> P

93b
94

ZT,P. 3 P

HAWR-

EADED. IP

P.

P-

2-

C, P.

S0SI5 OF RA.
8 P

9*0. IS-P. /6P,V.

2.0

P.

KHNLIMU

4 P.

PLAC^UE:.

51

P. 14 P.

SEBfc'K. 2.0D.

2-19

ZZjO

LIONS FOREPARTS

i-Z3

BULLS

208

2.1

5
F0REPART.5.

224 CAT".

P. "Iia.

P.

15-E.

Z3I JACI<-AL COUCH/\NT,90.2.0DU,V.

JACKAL ON SHRIN

TAURT.

e.lgV. 2.3P.
)5-E./8D,V. 2.0 D

MS

D.

HAWK

Z7S"

D.

IBIS.

2-1

18 P.

FINGERS

\0,V.

9C.

REED.

SCARAB, 173 TWO

D. lOB.

15-P,V,

5"P.

TEHUTL lf^U.3PD,4P.5-R6CR8P.lJR
HATHOR COW. 18 V. IOP. V.
2-1 ON. 3P. |5-P,0.'I7D.I9D.2.0V.

2-01

P. I2-P,D.

SCARAB + WINGS.

Sau A KE
1!

IS-

2.4D.2SR

3P.

17 p.

H A\A/V\. P. 3C. 14 P. 15:PV.


5' P.
18 Cy. 2.0 P,D. 2 2.C 2-4- U.
7C,p D. &P, lOCPD. 2.4rE
MUNVASY. C. 5" D.

HAWK-HEADED

18c,

10

I^P.L. 14T;pL 147


2.0
C .2.5T,r'u. 170
2.1
V.
V.
Ig
II

6P. I4P-

S'P.

p. 2.T,P.

AN PU,

E.
2.31 B
L. I5"P. 17P. 19V 2.36

92.

6TU.

P.
15-

7P, SC.
D. J2. U.

6 P.

PECTO RA

2.0,

IT,P-2.C,i.'

rp.

91

lOT.

4P. 5"P. 6PD, U. 7c.


D.
S D. 9 C,U. 10 T.
13>

P.

9CP. 10

15 E

33 COUNTEB,-polSE

15"

2-T. 3

197

5"C,L.

igp

18Z

I37B

CIRCLE OF COKD^ l,H.


PAPVauS PLAQ^UE,
5" P.
6 P. 7T. S P. IOC, l( C.
^1 MUMMY OM Bl EB, 15-U,V.
17 P. Zl P. Z4 LECS.
H UMAN-HEADED B\R,D.
88 GlPvDLE OF ISIS Qi IT,P
ITC.
I2>p.
J4.P.

15"U.

P It P. 11 P, Z3 R 24V
1S6 HAT HO K COW- H FADED. IT. 9 p
18^ KHNU fAU. IPU.4P. (>c.S>P

81

2.D.

I3RI4P

MM Y.

A
2.T.
P 4 5"P.
RA SEATED iOP

P,

2.8

P.

P,U. 3 P,D.

4P.6U

IP.

10 p. 13

8
I8IB

IK.

IL.B,.

U,

2.pu.3D.4PS"P, 6C.8P. 9P

ILPD.

E. 5'C.6U

z.

2.

ISV.E.

167

174 SELK
)80 HO RUS

7P. )OD.

M,L.H .4R.5-C.

6 R,L.

p,

7T.

OU C

79 SEAL-.

15E.|SP.2.1U.a5-p.

2-1

P.

78 CA R,T

PAPVRUS SCEPTRE.

aO

U.

l.P. 2.

6 C,P. 8P. gP. lOP.

10

P-

5"P.

P.

WRITING TAE>LET,!P

76

U.

,I9C.2.I

I51&,NEBHAT,ANH0RUS.

8. BREAST.

4. P.

I57P OSIP.S ANI3 NNU


161
^A
M. ISP.

P.

3P.

71

6U.7T. SR
OL.

5Q.UARE.14T.

051R~1S

15-7

I,

U.IS-P

F,D,U^A,H. 2-T,C.
5-F,C,P-

l^4BNEBHAT PLAQ.UE.4P.

V.

70 VASE. T.

P.

17.9P.IIT.14T

IN

4 P.

LZ

P.

2.Z P. 2.3 P.

2.C.4P.
U, V

15 P,E. 2.0c, P.

IP.

I5IS

ISIS

J5"4
P,

CoW, LEGS TIED.

63

3U.6D. 8D.13P. \4

58D winged UfkAEUS.


Not C,PD, M. 3C

I49B

2.

ELA

P R.

2.T,RU. 3 P. 4-P. yp
6C,P. 8C,P. 9P. top. I3P. 14 P-

SC.feU.

'

UZAT

149 IS! S

P,

I4L. 16 U

IX U. 13 L.

lOC.D. ||D,V,lt53. |J-T,PD,V.


14 F- 15" C,P, V. 2-5 T,P.

I5T5

Nt

3T,P.4P.

139

ffl

11,V.

BAKK ^B^
C
5S UKAEUSl2^ l,P.
5"

ANKLE

OF S U

45"

AM D

10 D.

P.

UZAT

lOC.Iiy. \4V.

U KE

B U LL ^

2L^

IP.

foP.

LIV

Llll

SERPENT HEAD.

138

LT

V U

.97

10 C

FEATHEKS

KISIM& SUN

4.2L

95

6PU.7T.

P. 5"?.

PA1F\ OF

IP

]](/'

40c Disc + HOPvNS "^

U M E R
M
W W ST

LANCE

ZD. 3C5"P 6P.7T.

B L CU S
I

Z4 V

2.3 P

OSTMCH PLUMES

39

KAGK

6-c.yP. IOD,U

18 P

12. p.

38 1-OKKED

NECK

OF

P.

II

L-

IN POSITION, PLS.

37 PLUM/^ET

Ki

HEAD

FOf\E

TO AMULETS

STAR.

H.5"V. 6 V.
V. ILV. I4V. IS V.
IS- T.
1^ U.

l2 P. 2.0C.2.IC

2_4 D
same ,0M LEGS.

/S^V,

E.

THE AMULETS ARE SPREAD OUT


RATHE RTOoLoVs/ IM THE.

VULTURE STANDING DIAGRAMS


IT,D. 2.C. Ar

P 15T

1^ E

IN

ORDER^ TO

MORE CLEAR.

p. p.

RETURN

MAIN CIRCULATION

ALL BOOKS ARE SUBJECT TO RECALL


RENEW BOOKS BY CALLING 642-3405

DUE AS STAMPED BELOW


R^^tolVma

MAY

n 199)

CihCULATION

EPT.

SgNTONrtL

OCT
iiu^iiiL^ia

U. C.

TO

BERKELEY

JAN30ld9

JUN

YT^m

NOV 18

2Q0r

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY

FORM NO. DD6

Lp^dMk^-

^^yrrrf^'

BERKELEY,

CA 94720

YF 0065

GENERAL LIBRARY -U.C. BERKELEY

ililllllilllililii

L^j;
'.Dm^^

^^f0^-

SiJM^

^uu^-

'i!

.illilil

'

BHBBMHHiKltiHiiiBt^

HBHHWHHb* ^