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Green Energy

CAPTURING AND
RELEASING ENERGY

We and most other organisms sustain ourselves by


extracting energy stored in the organic products of
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Metabolic

pathway by which photoautotrophs capture


light energy and use it to make sugars from CO2 and
water

Photosynthesis, Metabolism and Cellular Respiration

Green Energy

Autotroph
that makes its own food using carbon from
inorganic sources, such as CO2, and energy from the
environment

Capturing Rainbows

Organism

Heterotroph
Organism

that obtains energy and carbon from organic


compounds assembled by other organisms

Humans perceive different wavelengths of visible


light as different colors.

The shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy

Wavelength
Distance

between the crests of two successive waves of

light

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Capturing Rainbows

Photosynthetic species use pigments to harvest light


energy for photosynthesis

Wavelength and Electromagnetic Spectrum


shortest wavelengths range of most radiation range of heat escaping longest wavelengths
(highest energy) reaching Earths surface from Earths surface
(lowest energy)
visible light
gamma
rays

ultraviolet
radiation

near-infrared infrared microwaves radio


radiation radiation
waves

Pigment

An organic molecule that can absorb light at specific


wavelengths
400

xrays

Chlorophyll a

Main photosynthetic pigment in plants

Some Photosynthetic Pigments

500

600

700

A Wavelengths of visible light (in nanometers)


Lower
energy

B Higher
energy

Storing Energy in Carbohydrates


Photosynthesis converts the energy of light into the
energy of chemical bonds.

Photosynthesis takes place in two stages.

Light-dependent reactions
Light-independent reactions

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The First Stage of Photosynthesis

Light-dependent reactions (photo)


to chemical energy of ATP and
NADPH, releasing oxygen
Occur at the thylakoid membrane in plant chloroplasts

Chloroplasts and Thylakoid Membrane


Chloroplast

Organelle

Convert light energy

of photosynthesis in plants and some protists

Thylakoid membrane

Chloroplasts highly

Photosystem

folded inner membrane system


Forms a continuous compartment in the stroma

Cluster of pigments and proteins that converts light

energy to chemical energy in photosynthesis

The Second Stage of Photosynthesis

A Leaf: Sites of Photosynthesis

Light-independent reactions (synthesis)


ATP

and NADPH drive synthesis of glucose and other


carbohydrates from water and CO2
Occurs in the stroma

Stroma
Semifluid

matrix between the thylakoid membrane and


the two outer membranes of a chloroplast

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A Leaf: Sites of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis
light water

carbon dioxide, water

NADPH, ATP

lightdependent
reactions

lightindependent
reactions

NADP +, ADP

oxygen

Light-Dependent Reactions

glucose

Electron Transfer Phosphorylation

Electron transfer phosphorylation


Metabolic

pathway in which electron flow through


electron transfer chains sets up a hydrogen ion gradient
that drives ATP formation
light energy

light energy
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stroma

1
3
2

to light-independent
reactions

thylakoid
compartment
thylakoid membrane

The Light-Dependent Reactions of


Photosynthesis

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Light Dependent Reactions

light energy

light energy

The Light-Independent Reactions

to light-independent
reactions

4
7

stroma
3

thylakoid compartment

thylakoid membrane

Driven by the energy of ATP and electrons from


NADPH, light-independent reactions use carbon and
oxygen from CO2 to build sugars

The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis

Carbon Fixation

In the stroma of chloroplasts, the enzyme rubisco


fixes carbon from CO2 in the CalvinBenson cycle

Calvin-Benson Cycle

Calvin-Benson cycle
Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis
Cyclic

pathway that forms glucose from CO2


Uses energy from ATP and electrons from NADPH

Carbon fixation
Process by

which carbon from an inorganic source such


as CO2 becomes incorporated into an organic molecule

Rubisco
Enzyme

that fixes carbon from CO2 to RuBP in the


Calvin-Benson cycle

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Light Independent Reactions

Carbon-Fixing Adaptations

chloroplast

CO2 , H2 O

stroma

PGA

ATP
NADPH

Stomata
Gaps

that open between guard cells on plant surfaces;


allow gas exchange through the cuticle

RuBP
Calvin
Benson
Cycle

Several adaptations, such as a waterproof cuticle,


allow plants to live where water is scarce

ATP

C3 plants
Use

sugars

only the Calvin-Benson cycle to fix carbon


Conserve water by closing stomata on dry days

Photorespiration
When stomata are closed, oxygen builds up and
interferes with sugar production

Photorespiration

Reaction in which

RuBP

rubisco attaches O2 instead of CO2 to

Fig. 5-7b, p. 87

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Carbon-Fixing Adaptations

Carbon-Fixing Adaptations: C4 plants

Alternative light-independent reactions minimize


photorespiration in some types of plants
C4 plants
Plants that

minimize photorespiration by fixing carbon


twice, in two cell types

CAM plants
C4

plants that conserve water by fixing carbon twice,


at different times of day

Carbon-Fixing Adaptations: CAM plants

Summary Video

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Photosynthesis and Aerobic Respiration:


A Global Connection

Earths atmosphere was permanently altered by


the evolution of photosynthesis

Oxygen and the Atmosphere

Photoautotroph
Photosynthetic autotroph

Anaerobic
Occurring

in the absence of oxygen

Aerobic
Involving or occurring in

Extracting Energy From Carbohydrates

the presence of oxygen

Photosynthesis and Aerobic Respiration

Eukaryotic cells typically convert chemical energy of


carbohydrates to chemical energy of ATP by
oxygen-requiring aerobic respiration
Aerobic respiration
Aerobic pathway

that breaks down carbohydrates to


produce ATP
Pathway finishes in mitochondria

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An Overview of Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic respiration is divided into three steps

Aerobic Respiration Begins

1. Glycolysis
2. Acetyl CoA formation and the Krebs cycle
3. Electron transfer phosphorylation

Reactions in which glucose or another sugar is broken down


into 2 pyruvates, netting 2 ATP

In the first two stages, coenzymes pick up electrons


In the third stage, electron energy drives ATP
synthesis

Aerobic Respiration Continues

Glycolysis

Pyruvate

Three-carbon product of glycolysis

Acetyl CoA Formation and the Krebs


Cycle

Krebs cycle
Cyclic

pathway that, along with acetyl CoA formation,


breaks down pyruvate to CO2, netting 2 ATP and many
reduced coenzymes

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The Big Energy Payoff: Aerobic Respiration Ends

Aerobic Respiration

Electron transfer phosphorylation


NADH and

FADH 2 deliver electrons to the inner


mitochondrial membrane
Electron flow through chains pumps H + from inner to
outer compartment, forming gradient
O2 accepts electrons and H + , forming H 2O
H + flows back into inner compartment through ATP
synthase, forming ATP from ADP and P i

2
3

Summary: Aerobic Respiration

C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 (oxygen) + 36 ADP

Summary: Aerobic Respiration

6CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6H2O (water) + 36 ATP

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Fermentation

Summary Video

Fermentation
Anaerobic pathway

that harvests energy from


carbohydrates
Alcoholic fermentation and lactate fermentation

In fermentation, ATP is formed by glycolysis only


Net

yield of 2 ATP per glucose molecule


NAD + is regenerated, which allows
glycolysis to continue
Fermentation pathways finish in the cytoplasm
Coenzyme

Alcoholic Fermentation

Alcoholic fermentation
Anaerobic pathway

that converts pyruvate to ethanol


and produces ATP
Examples: baking, wine production

Lactate Production in Muscles


Skeletal muscles have two types of fibers: slowtwitch (aerobic) and fast-twitch (anaerobic)

Fast-twitch fibers have few mitochondria and rely on


lactate fermentation for quick energy

Good for quick,

strenuous activity such as sprinting or

weight-lifting

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Lactate Fermentation

Alternative Energy Sources in the Body


In humans and other organisms, simple sugars from
carbohydrate breakdown, glycerol and fatty acids
from fat breakdown, and carbon backbones of amino
acids from protein breakdown may enter aerobic
respiration at various reaction steps

Energy from Carbohydrates

Glucose is absorbed from the intestines into the


blood and broken down by glycolysis

Energy from Fats

Blood glucose levels are regulated by the


pancreatic enzymes insulin and glucagon

The body stores most fats as triglycerides


When blood glucose falls, enzymes break
triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids
Glycerol enters glycolysis
Fatty

Excess glucose intake stimulates storage as glycogen


and fatty acids

acids enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl-CoA

Fatty acids yield more energy (ATP) than carbs

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Food

Energy from Proteins

fatty acids

glycerol

glucose, other simple sugars


amino acids

acetylCoA intermediate
of glycolysis

Proteins enter the bloodstream as amino acids

Proteins

Complex Carbohydrates

Fats

acetylCoA

Glycolysis

NADH pyruvate

Amino acids can be used for energy by removing the


amino group (as ammonia) and converting the carbon
backbone to acetyl-CoA, pyruvate, or an
intermediate of the Krebs cycle

intermediate
of Krebs cycle
Krebs
Cycle

NADH, FADH2

Electron Transfer
Phosphorylation
Stepped Art
Fig. 5-14, p. 95

Impacts/Issues Revisited
Human activities are disrupting the global cycling of
carbon dioxide; we are adding more CO2 to the
atmosphere than photoautotrophs are removing from
it

The resulting imbalance fuels global warming

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