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A. Tremaine and J. Rosenzweig

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90095

P. Schoessow

Division of High Energy Physics, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439

~Received 28 March 1997!

Several promising schemes for high-gradient acceleration of charged particles in slab-symmetric electro-

magnetic structures have been recently proposed. In this paper we investigate, by both computer simulation and

theoretical analysis, the longitudinal and transverse wake fields experienced by a relativistic charged particle

beam in a planar structure. We show that in the limit of an infinitely wide beam the net deflecting wake fields

vanishes. This result is verified in the limit of a large aspect ratio ~sheet! beam by finite beam analysis based

on a Fourier decomposition of the current profile, as well as a paraxial wave analysis of the wake fields driven

by Gaussian profile beams. The Fourier analysis forms the basis of an examination of flute instability in the

sheet beam system. Practical implications of this result for beam stability and enhanced current loading in

short-wavelength advanced accelerators are discussed. @S1063-651X~97!01611-5#

again employing analytical and computational tools. These

The use of planar structures for advanced accelerator ap- results are then compared in Sec. V to those obtained from

plications has been discussed recently in the context of both assumption of a beam current which is Gaussian in x, an

metallic, disk-loaded millimeter wave structures for linear analysis which is similar in methodology to that used on

collider applications @1# and high gradient dielectric loaded- paraxial photon beam modes. In Sec. VI, the transverse BBU

structures excited by lasers @2#. It has been noted that this instability of these beams arising from the dipole modelike

type of electromagnetic structure may have advantages over wake fields is analyzed in two limits: a single bunch ‘‘flute’’

the usual axisymmetry, in ease of external power coupling instability, in which ripples in the beam transverse distribu-

and lowered space-charge forces @2#. More importantly, it tion self-amplify, and the multibunch instability due to long-

has also been speculated @1,2# that the transverse wake fields range wakes. We conclude in Sec. VII with a discussion of

associated with this class of structure are mitigated, thus di- the practical implications of our results for short-wavelength

minishing the beam breakup ~BBU! instability which typi- accelerators, comparing the performance of slab-symmetric

cally limits the beam current in short-wavelength accelera- and cylindrically symmetric systems from the points of view

tors. This instability arises from off-axis beam current of beam loading and transverse stability.

excitation of dipole mode wake fields which in turn steer

trailing particles; a measure of the strength of this problem is II. WAKE FIELDS: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

the amplitude of the transverse wake fields. In this paper we

show, by both theoretical and computational analysis, that Before we begin an analysis of wake fields which can be

the transverse wake-field amplitude is in fact diminished for excited in slab-symmetric dielectric-loaded structures, we in-

asymmetric ~s x @l 0 /2p . s y , where s indicates the rms troduce some general considerations concerning the possible

beam size, and l 0 52 pv /c is the vacuum wavelength of the forms of these fields. The first of these considerations con-

electromagnetic wave! relativistic bunched beams. Indeed, in cerns the relationship between the longitudinal and trans-

the limit of a structure and beam which is much larger in x verse components of the fields, while the second concerns

than in y, the transverse wake fields vanish, in analogy to the the constraints on functional form of the field components

monopole modes of axisymmetric structures. given by the Maxwell wave equations.

The organization of this paper is as follows. We begin in The possible forms of the wake fields left behind a rela-

Sec. II with some general results which constrain the pos- tivistic charged particle, and the net forces imparted by these

sible forms of the wake fields, including the relationship of wake fields on trailing charged particles, are constrained by

the longitudinal to the transverse wake fields, and the addi- the Maxwell equations, in ways that were initially described

tional implications on the form of the wake fields arising by Panofsky and Wenzel @3#. The original theorem given in

from the vacuum dispersion relation. Wake fields due to Ref. @3# gives a relationship between the integrated longitu-

beams in the infinitely wide limit are analyzed in Sec. III, dinal and transverse momentum kicks a particle receives as it

with a frequency domain analytical theory compared to com- traverses, in the constant-velocity, paraxial limit, an isolated

putational modeling in the time domain. In Sec. IV, as a first medium or device with an electromagnetic excitation. We

step in the analysis of finite beam effects, we will then pro- generalize this theorem in two ways: ~1! we include fields

56 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAKE FIELDS AND BEAM . . . 7205

arising possibly from free charges, assuming that fields and in the region R, AW 50, when evaluated at the end points of

potentials vanish at infinity; and ~2! we give an alternate integration. This condition makes the first term inside the

form of the theorem applicable in the infinite medium or integrand in Eq. ~2.6! vanish, and we obtain

structure limit, which is of use when describing a very long

F E G

interaction between charged particles and their environment.

The assumptions leading to these generalized forms of the q

Y

DpY 5¹ ~ b b A z 2 f ! dz . ~2.7!

Panofsky-Wenzel deflection theorem still include, explicitly, b bc R

that the particle receiving the kick travels parallel to the z

axis, with a velocity which is constant.

The net Lorentz force on a charged particle consists of the Since the integrated momentum kick field DpY can be derived

sum of electric and magnetic components. In general, the from a potential, its curl must vanish,

electric field EY may be derived from a scalar potential ~f!

and a vector potential (AY ), Y 3 ~ DpY ! 50.

¹ ~2.8!

1 ] AY

Y 52

E Y f.

2¹ ~2.1! tionship between the longitudinal and transverse kicks,

c ]t

] ~ DpY ' !

Inserting Eq. ~2.1! into the Lorentz force equation, with the Y ~ Dp ! 5

¹ . ~2.9!

'

W c and charge q, we have

z

]z

beam particle velocity nW b [ b b

Y 5q ~ FY 1 b̄ 3BY ! [qW

F W, ~2.2! much more general than that due to Panofsky and Wenzel, in

b

that can be applied to interactions in which free charges and

currents come in contact with the beam, such as plasma wake

where, for a particle traveling parallel to the z axis, we may fields @4# and the beam-beam interaction @5#. It states that, for

write a deflection kick to occur, there must be transverse variation

of the longitudinal kick imparted by the fields in the isolated

S D

system under consideration.

] AY

b b 3BY 5 b b ẑ3 ~ ¹

Y 3AY ! 5 b ¹Y ~ A !2 The equivalent expression of the deflection theorem in the

. ~2.3!

b z

]z case of continuously applied wave fields can also be derived.

Here we make the wave ansatz, that the fields’ longitudinal

and temporal dependence can be expressed solely in terms of

Y,

We can obtain from Eqs. ~2.1!–~2.3! an expression for W z 5z2 n f t. In this case we ignore all transients in the prob-

the net force per unit charge q, as lem, which are in any event covered well by the form of the

theorem given in Eq. ~2.8!. Explicitly examining the curl of

F G

the net force on a particle traveling parallel to the z axis with

1 ] AY ] AY speed n b , we have

Y 52

W Y f1b ¹

2¹ Y ~ A !2 . ~2.4!

c ]t b z

]z

Y 3W

¹ Y 3 ~ EY 1 bW 3BY ! 5¹

W 5¹ Y 3EY 2 ~ bW •¹

Y ! BY 5¹

Y 3EY

b b

Using the assumed condition that b b is constant ~an excellent

approximation for relativistic beams, b b >1! we can express b b ] BY

the partial derivatives in Eq. ~2.4! in terms of the ~convec- 1 . ~2.10!

nf ]t

tive! full derivative in z,

Thus, for n b 5 n f , which is always assumed true for wake

1

c

S ] AY

]t

1nb

]z

D

] AY

5

1 dAY

c dt

5bb

dAY

dz

. ~2.5!

fields in the relativistic beam limit ~a wake field satisfying

the wave ansatz must satisfy this condition!, we have that the

wake field is conservative,

1 ]B ] WW !

net Lorentz force, can now be rewritten as Y 3W

¹ Y 3EY 1

W 5¹ Y W 5 ~ ' .

50W , or ¹' z

c ]t ]z

~2.11!

D pY 5

q

b bc

EFR

2bb

dAY

dz

1¹ b z G

Y ~ b A 2 f ! dz. ~2.6! This form of the theorem basically states that when the wave

phase velocity is equal to the beam velocity, a transformation

to the rest frame gives a purely electrostatic net force, which

For an isolated system where EW and BW are nonvanishing only is always conservative. Since we are concerned here with a

7206 A. TREMAINE, J. ROSENZWEIG, AND P. SCHOESSOW 56

translationally invariant ~in z! structure, we will be more wide charge distribution, means that a horizontally oriented

interested in the form of the deflection theorem given by Eq. uniform line charge ~the simplest equivalent to a point

~2.11!. It should also be noted that neither form of the de- charge with slab symmetry! has the equivalent field structure

flection theorem restricts the fields to those arising from the of an infinite, uniform sheet of charge. Thus, like the fields

wake of a charged particle beam. In fact, Eq. ~2.9! is valid arising from an infinite sheet, those arising from an ultrarela-

for all localized electromagnetic and electrostatic fields, tivistic line charge are independent of how far away from the

while Eq. ~2.11! applies to any interaction where the beam line charge the two sides of the structure are; the line charge

and wave phase velocity is ultrarelativistic, including wake does not couple asymmetrically to the structure, and no net

fields, as well as applied resonant accelerating fields such as transverse force is possible.

those found in most electon linear accelerators. From the point of view of the Maxwell equations, the

Equations ~2.9! and ~2.11! imply that any transverse following argument also illuminates the physics of the fully

variation of the longitudinal wake field W z must produce a slab-symmetric case. With this symmetry, it is clear that

transverse wake field W W ' with a nonvanishing longitudinal there must be no force in the x-direction. This implies that

derivative. Since our analysis below will be concerned with the fields are purely transverse magnetic ~TM!, because the

electromagnetic modes separable in Cartesian coordinates, at existence of nonvanishing B z implies a nonvanishing B y , as

this point it is useful to recall the dispersion relation govern- the condition ¹ W •BW 50 in slab symmetry gives ] B / ] y5

y

ing the variation of the field components, 2 ] B z / ] z52ik z B z . To balance the nonvanishing B y , and

give a vanishing horizontal force, we must have a nonvan-

SD

ishing E x , which is forbidden by symmetry. Thus we have

v 2

rigorously shown that, as in the case of azimuthal symmetry,

k 2x 1k 2y 1k 2z 5 me . ~2.12!

c a pure TM field, for which it is straightforward to show also

implies that B x 52E y . For an ultrarelativistic beam, this is

the condition for which the net vertical force vanishes. It

We will examine below the fields acting on charged particles

should be noted that for the isolated systems governed by Eq.

which are ~1! located in vacuum, so m 5 e 51; and ~2! with

~2.9!, that the condition imposed on the vertical force is a bit

ultrarelativistic particle and wake-field phase velocities ( n b

weaker—it must be a constant, not necessarily zero. This,

> v /k z >c). Under these conditions, Eq. ~2.12! yields that

however, clearly represents the case of a static field ~the k z

k 2x 52k 2y ; if one of the wave numbers is real, the other must 50 limit in the wave case!, and thus is not of interest for

be imaginary and of equal amplitude. It should be noted that wake-excited systems.

a more general statement, applicable independent of an as- It should be emphasized again that the strict vanishing of

sumed symmetry, is that ultrarelativistic wake fields gener- the transverse electromagnetic force is obtained only in the

ally obey the two-dimensional Laplace equation ¹ W 2 W >0. limit of relativistic beam and phase velocities, and for infi-

' i

The most interesting limit, from the point of view of the nitely wide in x slab-symmetric systems. The assumption of

present investigations, in discussing wake fields from ul- relativistic velocities is quite good for nearly all situations of

trarelativistic beams in structures with Cartesian symmetry is interest; deviations from force cancellation due to finite

the case where W z has no dependence on one of the trans- beam width are studied in detail below.

verse coordinates. This corresponds to the physical situation

where the structure and beam, and thus electromagnetic III. WAKE FIELDS IN THE INFINITE BEAM CASE

wake fields, are infinite and invariant in this coordinate,

which we now designate as x. Then we have k x 50, which in The structure considered here, shown in Fig. 1, is a slab-

turn implies that k y 50, and there is no transverse depen- symmetric dielectric-loaded geometry, with a dielectric ma-

dence on the longitudinal wake field W z . Equation ~2.11! terial of permittivity e .1 ( m 51) in the regions a< u y u

then implies that the transverse wake field in this case has no <b, a vacuum gap ( e 51), and conducting boundaries at

longitudinal derivative. Since all components of the wake u y u 5b. This structure is chosen both for ease of calculation

field are by assumption harmonic in z with a nonvanishing and because of the recent interest displayed in this, as well as

wave number k z 5 v /c, we deduce that the transverse wake similar, dielectric-loaded devices @2,6–8#. In the usual fash-

field indeed must vanish in this limit. This vanishing of the ion, we initially assume that Cerenkov radiation-induced

transverse wake field under the condition of slab symmetry wake fields travel in the beam propagation direction z, with

( ] / ] x50) can be seen as the analog of the vanishing of the a phase velocity equal to the beam velocity, and with both

transverse wake-field under the more familiar condition of ultrarelativistic, n f 5 n b >c. Instead of the common Green-

azimuthal symmetry—] / ] u 50, for azimuthal mode number function approach to calculation of the wake-field response,

m50 ~monopole! fields. however, we will analytically calculate the wake fields by

This result can also be understood physically in a number use of energy balance arguments. This approach requires

of ways, both from the point of view of coupling of the beam only that we determine the mode characteristics of the struc-

to the structure, and the explicit restrictions of the Maxwell ture rather than evaluate rather difficult integrals in the

equations. In order for the beam to drive transverse wake Green-function analysis. The full wake-field response is then

fields, it must couple to the structure in an asymmetric way found by performing a summation of the wake-field coupling

when the beam leaves the symmetry (y50) plane. However, of each mode with a further convolution integral over the

the assumption of near speed-of-light beam velocity implies beam current profile.

that the beam self-fields collapse to a transversally oriented We begin by examining the limiting case of no x depen-

Lorentz disc. This, combined with an assumed infinitely dence of the structure, beam, and resultant electromagnetic

56 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAKE FIELDS AND BEAM . . . 7207

slab-symmetric, dielectric-loaded

structure, with a vacuum gap half-

height a, dielectric layers of per-

mittivity e, and a thickness b2a,

with metal boundaries at u y u 5b.

mode, as was done in previous analyses of this two- E z,n 5E 0 exp@ ik n z # , ~3.1!

dimensional problem @9#. By assumption, the longitudinal

and temporal dependence of the fields of the nth mode ex-

with no x or y dependence, where E 0 is an arbitrary ampli-

cited by the beam is of the form exp@iknz#, where k n

tude, while in the dielectric (a,y,b) we must have

5 v n /c. As the excited modes in this limit are purely TM,

we need only solve for E z in this analysis. We shall verify in

the following sections that this behavior is obtained in the E z,n 5A n E 0 exp@ ik n z # sin@ s y,n ~ y2b !# , ~3.2!

limit of a very wide, yet finite-sized, beam. For the TM case

we need only additionally consider the vertical dependence

of the longitudinal electric field to determine the mode fields with s y,n 5k n Ae 21. Application of the boundary conditions

completely. Inside of the gap ( u y u ,a), we have at y5a ~continuity of E z and D y , which is trivially derived

FIG. 2. ~Color! False color contour map of W z for a slab-symmetric structure with a vacuum gap half-height a52.5 m m, a dielectric ~of

permittivity e 54! in the regions a, u y u ,b between the gap and the conducting boundaries at u y u 5b55 m m, from time-domain electro-

magnetic field solver. The ultrarelativistic beam distribution is infinite in x, with a line charge density l5dq/dx5 A2/ps z , infinitesimal in

y ~at y51 m m! and Gaussian in z with standard deviation s z 50.5 m m, centered at about z527.5 m m. The color map is linear and in

spectral order, with red most negative, violet most positive, and blue-green the zero-field strength.

7208 A. TREMAINE, J. ROSENZWEIG, AND P. SCHOESSOW 56

FIG. 3. ~Color! False color contour map of W y for the structure and beam described in Fig. 1. The transverse wake field essentially

vanishes in the vacuum gap for an infinitely wide ~in x! beam.

W •D

from E z from the relation ¹ W 50! allows a determination can equate this energy loss per unit length with the field

of the eigenvalue of each mode through the transcendental energy per unit length left behind the ultrarelativistic linear

relation charge density as

cot@ k n Ae 21 ~ b2a !# 5k n a

Ae 21

e

, ~3.3!

lE dec5 E ~ ^ u em& 2 ^ S z & ! dy, ~3.5!

and the amplitude of the longitudinal electric field within the ergy density, S z 5(4 p ) 21 E y H x is the longitudinal Poynting

dielectric, flux, and H x 52 e E y . The longitudinal wake field behind the

charge obtained from this expression is thus simply

4pl

W z,n 5E z,n 5 cos@ k n z # Q ~ 2 z ! , ~3.6!

a1 e A 2n ~ b2a !

Note that, for higher wave-number modes, Eq. ~3.3! implies

that the phase variation in the dielectric must be approxi-

mately (n1 21 ) p , and thus A n becomes large, as the field is where Q is the Heaviside function which explicitly shows

concentrated in the dielectric. the causal nature of the wake fields. It should be noted from

Once the fields have been determined, the response of the this expression that the longitudinal wake field is in general

structure to the passage of an ultrarelativistic, horizontally largest for the lowest frequency mode. For the slab-

oriented line charge of constant density @ r e 5l d (y symmetric, laser-pumped accelerator proposed in Ref. @2#,

2y 0 ) d ( z ) # within the vacuum gap (y 0 ,a) can be calcu- however, the examples given have the device operating on a

lated by energy balance. It can be shown that, for a linear higher-frequency mode of the structure. This could pose a

wake field @10# the net decelerating field on a line charge beam-loading problem for this and other overmoded laser

associated with a wake amplitude of E 0 is E dec5E 0 /2. We acceleration schemes, as the beam gains energy from a mode

56 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAKE FIELDS AND BEAM . . . 7209

where l is now the peak line charge density. This profile can

which it loses energy to in the form of wake fields.

be viewed as a Fourier component of a finite beam, i.e.,

To obtain the full wake field response from a beam with

r e (x)5 ( r e,k x cos(kxx), where we implicitly assume that the

an arbitrary longitudinal current profile @ r e 5l d (y

2y 0 ) f ( z ) # , we must perform a longitudinal convolution waveguide now has conducting sidewalls with separation in

over the point response, L x ~allowed wave numbers k x 5m p /L x , m51,3,5 . . . !, and

the beam distribution in x is centered and symmetric within

these walls, as is shown in Fig. 5. Partial wake fields ob-

W z5 (n z

f ~ z 8 ! W z,n ~ z 8 2 z ! d z 8 . ~3.7! to find the complete wake fields.

The longitudinal electric field associated with the nth

mode of the wake fields that the harmonic beam can couple

to has the following form in the vacuum region:

The predictions of Eq. ~3.7! have been verified by use of

H J

numerical simulation of the wake fields in a planar structure,

performed using a custom two-dimensional finite-difference cosh~ k x y !

E z,n 5E 0 exp@ ik n z # 3 3cos~ k x x ! . ~4.2!

time domain electromagnetic simulation code. The beam is sinh~ k x y !

assumed to be a rigid current distribution, infinitesimally thin

in the vertical (y) direction and with a fixed offset from the The cosh(kxy) dependence indicates the monopolelike, or ac-

symmetry plane y50. The beam is also taken to be ultra- celerating, component ~independent of y in first order for

relativistic and traveling in the 1z direction, with a Gaussian small vertical offsets! and the sinh(kxy) is the dipolelike, or

longitudinal of standard deviation s z . The line charge den- deflecting component, which couples to the longitudinal field

sity of the beam in x is normalized to A2/ps z statcoul/mm, with strength approximately linear in y and produces deflect-

with s z in mm. The fields are advanced using the standard ing forces nearly independent of y for small vertical offsets.

leapfrog time integration algorithm. Figure 2 shows a false- Note that these modes have explicitly been described as

color contour map of W z for a case similar to the infrared monopolelike and dipolelike—they are exact modes which

wavelength examples given in Ref. @2#. One can clearly see display a specified multipole characteristic only in lowest

both the uniform speed-of-light phase fronts in the vacuum, order in y.

and the Cerenkov nature of the wake field in the dielectric, Since the modes under consideration are not pure TM, but

which displays the expected propagation angle. It should also are hybrid modes, we must find the longitudinal magnetic

be noted that, even though the beam current is asymmetric field to specify all the fields. In the gap region, this field has

with respect to the y50 plane, the excited longitudinal wake the form

is nearly symmetric ~after propagation away from the simu-

H J

lation boundary!, indicating symmetric coupling of the beam

fields to the dielectric and the accompanying suppression of sinh~ k x y !

B z,n 5E 0 exp@ ik n z # 3 3sin~ k x x ! . ~4.3!

the transverse variations of W z which lead to a transverse cosh~ k x y !

wake field.

Figure 3 shows the net vertical wake field W y 5E y 1B x We again have obviously taken the ultrarelativistic limit,

and in this case one must be very careful in finding the trans-

excited by the beam in this case; one can see that W y essen-

verse components of the fields in the vacuum region. They

tially vanishes inside of the vacuum gap. The lack of full

are

cancellation of E y 1B x is due mainly to the electric and mag-

netic field centers in the calculation being one-half of both a

spatial and time step apart. Figure 4 displays a comparison

between the simulation and analytical results for W z in this E x,n 52i

k nE 0

2k x

exp@ ik n z # 3 H

cosh~ k x y !

sinh~ k x y ! J

3sin~ k x x ! ,

case. The results are in good agreement, with some discrep-

H J

ancies due to the transient fields found in the time-domain

simulation which are not present in the Fourier-based ana- k nE 0 sinh~ k x y !

E y,n 52i exp@ ik n z # 3 3cos~ k x x ! ,

lytical treatment. 2k x cosh~ k x y !

FOURIER ANALYSIS B x,n 5iE 0 S kn kx

2

2k x k n D

exp@ ik n z # 3 H

sinh~ k x y !

cosh~ k x y ! J

With the method of determining the wake-field coupling

3cos~ k x x ! ,

established in Sec. III, we now turn our attention to wake

fields in finite beams. We begin by generalizing the above

analysis to a beam of finite horizontal extent by examining

the wake fields due to beams of a harmonic ~in x! charge

profile

B y,n 52iE 0 S kn

1

kx

2k x k n D

exp@ ik n z # 3 H

cosh~ k x y !

sinh~ k x y ! J

3sin~ k x x ! . ~4.4!

It should be noted that one cannot obtain the case of the

r e,k x 5l ~ k x ! cos~ k x x ! d ~ y2y 0 ! d ~ z ! , ~4.1!

uniform beam by taking the limit k x ⇒0 in Eqs. ~4.4!, be-

7210 A. TREMAINE, J. ROSENZWEIG, AND P. SCHOESSOW 56

@k n / g , where g 5(12 b 2 ) 21/2 is the Lorentz factor of the

beam. One also obtains immediately from Eqs. ~4.4! the

gratifying result that the transverse forces on a relativistic

particle of charge q, due to the modes described by Eqs.

~4.2! and ~4.3!,

kx

F x,n [qW x,n 5q ~ E x,n 2B y,n ! 5i E exp@ ik n z #

kn 0

3 H cosh~ k x y !

sinh~ k x y ! J

3sin~ k x x ! ,

F y,n [qW y,n 5q ~ E y,n 1B x,n ! 52i E exp@ ik n z # y51 m m! given by a time-domain electromagnetic field solver and

kn 0

the predictions of Eqs. ~3.6! and ~3.7!, for cases of Figs. 1 and 2.

3 H sinh~ k x y !

cosh~ k x y ! J

3cos~ k x x ! , ~4.5!

The fields in the dielectric, unlike those in the gap, can be

found by standard wave-guide analysis; for brevity their

vanish in the limit that k x ⇒0, as we had found in the uni- derivation is omitted. Following the same prescription used

form line charge (k x 50) beam case. The form of this result to obtain Eqs. ~3.1!–~3.3!, we obtain a transcendental expres-

could have been directly deduced from the generalized sion for the eigenvalues of the symmetric modes,

Panofsky-Wenzel theorem given by Eq. ~2.11!. Equation

~4.5! reinforces the primary point of the present analysis.

Simply stated, for highly asymmetric ~for rms beam sizes cot@ A~ e 21 ! k 2n 2k 2x ~ b2a !# coth~ k x a ! A~ e 21 !~ k n /k x ! 2 21

s x @ s y , with associated k x ; s 21

S D

x ! beams in slab-symmetric

structures, transverse wake fields are strongly suppressed. In ~ e 21 ! k n 2

2 1150. ~4.6!

fact, since all wake fields are proportional to the linear 2e kx

charge density l, the transverse wake fields scale ~at constant

charge per bunch! as s 22 x . This result mitigates one of the

major objections to use of high-frequency accelerating struc- The eigenvalues of the antisymmetric modes are simply ob-

tures, that the transverse wake fields scale prohibitively with tained by substitution of tanh(kxa) for coth(kxa) in Eq. ~2.11!.

frequency. This objection holds for cylindrically symmetric The longitudinal wake fields associated with the symmetric

structures, but can be greatly eased by use of slab structures. modes are

FS D G F GF S D G S D

W z,n ~ k x ! 5

sinh@ 2k x a # kx 2

e cosh2 ~ k x a ! sinh2 ~ k x a ! kx 2 b2a

11 1 1 12 1•••

2k x kn sin @ s n ~ b2a !# cos @ s n ~ b2a !# s n

2 2

2

3•••

4s n FF

sin@ 2s n ~ b2a !# sinh2 ~ k x a !

2

e cosh2 ~ k x a !

cos2 @ s n ~ b2a !# sin2 @ s n ~ b2a !# GS D

kx

sn

2

1

4 e k xs n

k 2n ~ e 21 !

cosh~ k x a ! sinh~ k x a !

G

sin@ s n ~ b2a !# cos@ s n ~ b2a !#

;

~4.7!

those of the antisymmetric modes are obtained by substitu- Fig. 6. The algorithm in the numerical simulations used in

tion of sinh(kxỹ) for cosh(kxỹ), and vice versa, where ỹ takes this case is based on discretizing the Maxwell equations after

on the values of a, y, and y 0 in Eq. ~4.7!. Fourier transforming with respect to x. The discrepancies in

A discrete sum and convolution integral similar to Eq. the two approaches due to transient effects are slightly more

~3.7! which sums over both symmetric and antisymmetric pronounced in this case, but again the agreement is quite

modes, as well as the beam charge distribution, must be per- good. Parametric studies performed with these simulations

formed to obtain the full wake fields for a beam of finite have also verified the suppression of transverse wake fields

extent in configuration space. The resultant expressions have for wide beams.

also been compared to simulations of this periodic ~in x! The Fourier analysis of the beam current is most appro-

system, with W y and W z obtained by both methods shown in priate for quantifying the behavior of the wake fields in, e.g.,

56 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAKE FIELDS AND BEAM . . . 7211

of separation in L x for Fourier beam analysis, with allowed wave

numbers k x 5m p /L x (m51,3,5 . . . ).

distant from the beam. It is also, as will be seen below, most

useful for analyzing the flute, or filamentation instability of

asymmetric beams in slab-symmetric structures. This work,

however, is motivated by the investigation of ultrashort

wavelength ~infrared to optical! accelerator structures such

as those discussed in Ref. @2# in which the sidewalls are very

distant from the beam. In order to handle this case, in which FIG. 7. ~Color! Diagram of the wake-field diffraction pattern in

the x-z plane, for Gaussian beam and wake-field model calcula-

the beam current is rather isolated horizontally, we now ex-

tions.

amine the wake fields generated by a beam with a Gaussian

profile. It should be noted that adoption of this physical V. FINITE-BEAM EFFECTS: GAUSSIAN

model has the additional motivation that the Gaussian beam BEAM ANALYSIS

is commonly encountered in practice, as it is produced in

systems in thermal equilibrium. We now turn to the analysis of the wakes produced by the

commonly encountered Gaussian horizontal beam profile as

it traverses the very wide dielectric structure shown sche-

matically in Fig. 1. The structure is assumed to be wide

enough such that the deviation in the wakes due to the finite

width effects can be ignored. In this limit, the solutions to the

wave equation can be found in the paraxial approximation by

utilizing methods developed for analysis of Gaussian photon

beams in lasers and optical transport systems.

In the present case, the beam current profile is assumed to

have the form

2 /w 2

r e,w x,n ~ j ! 5l ~ w x,n ! e 2x d ~ y2y 0 ! d ~ z ! ,

x,0 ~5.1!

@11# for photon beam analysis, the horizontal particle beam

size, which is identical to the horizontal width of the wake

field extent in x directly behind the exciting line charge ( z

502). This current will drive wake fields which are in

many ways similar to Gaussian photon beams, but with some

notable differences. In photon beam propagation, the fields

are derivable from the paraxial wave equation, and are

Gaussian in both transverse coordinates. For the structure

induced wake fields, the fields will have a Gaussian depen-

dence in only the x direction, where the paraxial approxima-

tion in its familiar form (k n w x,0.1) can still be employed.

FIG. 6. Comparison of the values of ~a! W z and ~b! W y ~as a Since the solution to the paraxial wave equation is separable

function of z at y51 m m! given by the time-domain electromag- in the x and y coordinates with similar types of solutions

netic field solver and the predictions of Eqs. ~6! and ~12!, for the ~Hermite-Gaussian! for each coordinate, one might suppose

identical structure and beam of Figs. 1–3, but with the beam charge that the vertical dependence of the fields also be Gaussian. In

distribution modulated with k x 50.4 m m21. the limit that w x @a, however, the vertical dependence of the

7212 A. TREMAINE, J. ROSENZWEIG, AND P. SCHOESSOW 56

small parameter a/w x,0! and, as in the infinite beam and B z,n 5E 0,n e 2@x x,n ~ @ n~ exp@ ik n z

w 2x,n ~ z !

structure case, the field has no significant vertical depen-

dence in the vacuum gap. 1 c n ~ z !# ,

As mentioned above, the horizontal dependence of the

longitudinal electric field directly behind the infinitesimally

short beam takes the form of the current, E z E 0,n 2 2 2

E x,n 52i ~ k n x ! e 2 @ x /w x,n ~ z !# 2ik @ x /R n ~ z ! exp@ ik n z

;exp(2x2/w2x,0). We note that this wake field can be viewed 2

as similar to the wake for the Fourier analysis, Eq. ~4.2!, in

that it has a local maximum in x. In fact, for small k x y, 1 c n ~ z !# ,

cos(kxx), and exp(2x2/w2x,n) are locally equivalent if we sub-

stitute w x,n ⇔k x /2. Once we have found this local equiva-

E 0,n 2 2 2

lency, in fact, the Gaussian wakes can be found by substitu- E y,n 52i ~ k n y ! e 2 @ x /w x,n ~ z !# 2ik @ x /R n ~ z ! exp@ ik n z

tion, exploiting the Fourier wakes as a model. The resulting 2

fields can be verified as being solutions to Maxwell equa-

1 c n ~ z !# ,

tions in the paraxial limit.

It should also be noted that the above comparison can also

F S DG

be done for the antisymmetric wake field in Eq. ~4.2!. The 2

E 0,n 2

dependence of the dipolelike Fourier wake becomes linear in B x,n 5i 12

y for small k x y. A linearly dependent wake can be seen to be 2 k n w x,n ~ z !

an acceptable solution to the paraxial wave equation if it is 2 /w 2 z !# 2ik x 2 /R z !#

noted that for small y, the first odd-symmetry Hermite- 3 ~ k ny !e 2@x x~ @ n~ exp@ ik n z 1 c n ~ z !# ,

Gaussian solution is also linear. Thus the antisymmetric

F S DG

Gaussian wake can be expressed as Ez 2

}y exp(2x2/w2x,n), which is equivalent to the dipole mode E 0,n 2

B y,n 52i 11

described in Eq. ~4.2!. 2 k n w x,n ~ z !

The wake fields created by the beam are to be initially at 2 /w 2 z !# 2ik x 2 /R z !#

a waist, then diffract out behind the beam, as is shown sche- 3~ k n x ! e 2 @ x x,n ~ @ n~ exp@ ik n z 1 c n ~ z !# .

matically in Fig. 7. The waist, as well as the entire field ~5.3!

pattern, moves forward in z at the speed of the beam n z

>c. It is again interesting to contrast this form with that of a

laser beam. A focused laser beam envelope is minimized at a The transverse forces associated with these fields,

spatially stationary waist, after which it diffracts away trans-

versely. While the electromagnetic waist of the wake fields is

F x,n [qW x,n 5q ~ E x,n 2B y,n !

stationary in the beam rest frame, not the laboratory frame,

the laser and wake fields hold in common the expected be- 2x 2 /2s 2

havior that if one travels with a phase front, diffraction of the 5iE 0 e 2x x exp@ ik n z 1 c ~ z !# ,

k n w 2x,n ~ z !

fields is observed as time advances.

The full longitudinal ~symmetric! wake field in the struc-

ture can be found from paraxial wave solutions to be

2y

F y,n [qW y,n 5q ~ E y,n 1B x,n ! 52iE 0

k n w 2x,n ~ z !

2 /2s 2

E z,n 5E 0,n e 2 @ x

2 /w 2 z !# 2ik x 2 /R z !#

x,n ~ @ n~ exp@ ik n z 1 c n ~ z !# 3 e 2y x exp@ ik n z 1 c ~ z !# , ~5.4!

~5.2!

again will diminish for very wide beams. This result is in

good agreement with the analysis of the Fourier beam case,

where c n ( z )5tan21(z/zR,n) is the Guoy phase shift of a given as well as the limiting infinite beam case.

mode, z R,n 5 p w 2x,n (0)/l n 5k n s 2x is its Raleigh ~diffraction! Employing the same techniques as used to derive Eqs.

length, R n ( z )5 z @ 11(z R,n / z ) 2 # is the local radius of curva- ~3.3! and ~4.6!, we find the transcendental eigenvalue expres-

ture of the phase fronts, and w 2x,n ( z )5w 2x,0@ 11( z /z R,n ) 2 # is sion for the symmetric Gaussian mode to be

the horizontal spot size. It should be emphasized that at the

FS D GA

point of creation directly behind the beam the diffracting

wake field is at a waist. Here the beam size is a minimum, sx 1 1/2

cot ~ e 21 ! k 2n 2 2 ~ b2a ! ~ e 21 !~ k n s x ! 2 21

and the Guoy phase shift is most rapidly changing. In light of a sx

the dispersion relation Eq. ~2.12!, this phase shift can be

viewed as equivalent to a longitudinal wave-number shift in ~ e 21 !

2 ~ k n s x ! 2 1150. ~5.5!

the region of largest horizontal wave-number k x . 2e

Using the Fourier wake analysis as a guide, we found the

remaining fields in the gap: The longitudinal wake-field amplitude is similarly given by

4pl0

56

S D S DF S DGF

Wn5

a 11

1

2 2 1

a 1 3

1

n

«

2 2 1 2 1 sin2@s ~b2a !# 1 2 2

2knsx 3sx knsx

2

2k s

n x

1

~ «21 ! sin 2

@ sn

«

~ b2a !#

2

sin@

4sna

2s n~ b2a !#

1 2

cos @

s2na2

s n~ b2a !#

b2a sin@sn~b2a!#

2

2

4sn

1••• G

3 F 2s2x

a2

cos @sn~b2a!#

2

1

1

k2n~«21!

S «s2n

sin @sn~b2a!#

2 1

s2x

4sna

sin@2sn~b2a!#

1

s2x

a2

cos @sn~b2a!#

2 DGF b2a sinn@s~b2a!#

2

1

4sn

,G ~5.6!

and was found using energy balance. The wake fields coming off the beam initially have all energy flowing in the longitudinal direction. As they start to diffract, energy

flow is transferred to the transverse directions; thus it was necessary to calculate the wakes when at a waist.

As mentioned above, the Gaussian modes for an antisymmetric profile in y can also be found. The form of the longitudinal electric field is

&y 2@x2/w2 ~z!#2ik @x2/R ~z!#

Ez5E0 e x,n n n exp@iknz1cn~z!#. ~5.7!

vx,n~z!

Fx5ieE0 e x,n n n exp@iknz1cn~z!#,

knv3x,n~z!

& 2 2 2

Fy52ieE0 e2@x /wx,n~z!#2ikn@x /Rn~z!#exp@iknz1cn~z!# ~5.8!

knvx,n~z!

4pl0

S D S DF S DGF

Wn5

1 1 a

a 1 2 2 1 2

3

1

2 knsx 3sx 2knsx

2 2 11 1 2 2

«a 2

sx sin @sn~b2a!#

1 2

2kn~

1

«21 ! s 4

x sin 2

«a2

@ s n~ b2a !#

2

s 2

x sin@

4sna

2s n~ b2a !#

1

cos 2

@ sn

s2n

~ b2a !#

b2a sin@sn~b2a!#

2

2

4s

1••• G

3 F 1

2 cos @sn~b2a!#

2 1

1

k2n~«21!

S s2x

«s2na2

sin @sn~b2a!#

2 1

s2x

4sna

sin@2sn~b2a!#

1

s2x

1

cos @sn~b2a!#

2 DGF b2a sin@sn~b2a!#

2

1

4sn G

, ~5.9!

7213

7214 A. TREMAINE, J. ROSENZWEIG, AND P. SCHOESSOW 56

mode transverse wake fields are considerably reduced.

This Gaussian wake analysis can easily be extended to

F ] ]

G

g 1 g k b y j ~ z, z ! 5

]z ]z

E0

z

d z 8 W 8y ~ z 8 2 z ! j ~ z, z 8 ! ,

~6.1!

include arbitrary beam profiles by using Hermite-Gaussian

functions @11# as a basis set to represent the beam. This where W 8y [ ] y W y is the wake function produced by a har-

allows the analysis of beams which are modulated in x, as in monic beam perturbation with wave number k x and is pro-

the Fourier case, but with finite extent and no reference to portional to the ] F y,n / ] y given by Eq. ~4.5!, and k b y is the

existence of sidewalls. A useful result of this analysis is that betatron wave number associated with the applied vertical

a beam with N horizontal modulations has an effective Ray- focusing. Since we are considering beams with small phase

leigh length which is shortened by a factor of AN. Thus extent ~in the fundamental accelerating wave!, W y }sin(knz)

higher frequency-modulations on a beam create wakes which }knz. Following Whittum, the asymptotic flute amplitude for

diffract out more quickly, and the long range wake field is a coasting beam ( g 5constant) due to the nth antisymmetric

eventually dominated by the lowest spatial frequency ~simple mode is found by a saddle-point analysis of Eq. ~6.1! to be,

Gaussian! component. in the limit of strong focusing ~instability growth length L g

satisfying k b y L g .1!,

IN ASYMMETRIC BEAMS

j ~ z,t ! }exp

4 S

3) Y',n z t 2

gkby D 1/3

, ~6.2!

the wake-field-induced transverse instabilities in very asym- re N ] F y,n

metric beams can now be analyzed. These instabilities fall Y',n 5 c 2k n ; ~6.3!

4 p s zs x

2

]y

into two categories: the short-range, single-bunch beam

breakup ~BBU! instability which tends to ripple or ‘‘flute’’ r e is the classical electron radius, and N is the number of

the charge distribution in x with a fairly large wave number electrons per bunch. As an example, relevant to experimen-

(k x ;a 21 ), which couple most strongly to the structure but tation in a 10.6-mm wavelength accelerator similar in design

diffract away quickly, and the long-range, multibunch BBU to that considered in Ref. @2#, we choose a structure and

instability, in which the Gaussian wakes of the bunches as a beam with a55 m m, b56.05 m m, s x 5100 m m, k b y

whole, rather than horizontal Fourier structure of the 55 cm21 ~equilibrium beta function b y,eq5k 21 b y 52 mm!, N

bunches, are dominant. These instabilities are analyzed fol- 5105 , and g 5100. Using the mode with highest coupling to

lowing the formalisms developed for the flute instability by the dipolelike mode ~near k x 'a 21 ! we find a growth length

Whittum @12#, using our results on the Fourier components of L g 58 cm, which justifies the strong focusing approxima-

of the wakes, and for the multibunch BBU by Thompson and tion.

Ruth @13# using the Gaussian wake analysis of Sec. V. It should be possible to stabilize this instability by use of

We begin by examining the flute instability, employing horizontal focusing of sufficient strength to mix the horizon-

the physical and mathematical model of the beam dynamics tal positions of the beam particles in a time shorter that the

developed in Ref. @12# to analyze this type of instability in growth time. This is quantified by condition k b x L g .1,

the dense beam-plasma interaction. In this model, the beam which implies that the horizontal betatron wave number must

is viewed in lowest order as a uniform slab lying symmetri- scaled to the vertical by the ratio k b y L g , which in our ex-

cally about the symmetry plane of the device. A more de- ample yields k b x >k b y /40.

tailed analysis, in which the beam is not taken to be uniform This ratio may appear to be arbitrarily chosen, but it in

in x, with a harmonic perturbation, but instead is modeled as fact may be constrained by other considerations—primarily

a Gaussian with periodic perturbations may be performed by that the beam be in thermal equilibrium. Because the tran-

use of Hermite-Gaussian functions. It should be emphasized verse wakes in this case couple the x and y motion in a

that we do not mean to imply that we are discussing the nonlinear fashion, one may expect that if the temperature is

physically uninteresting case of a uniform sheet beam with a different in the two dimensions that it would soon equalize.

sharp cutoff horizontal edge, which would have significant In terms of standard beam characteristics, this proposed re-

Fourier components which would drive BBU instability. quirement T x 5T y is equivalent to e x / b eq,x 5 e y / b eq,y , or

This type of beam would not in general be found in, e.g., e x 5 e y (k b y /k b x )' e y (k b y L g ). This in turn implies a con-

high-energy linear collider beams derived from damping straint on the beam sizes, as s x / s x 5 Ak b x e y /k b y e x

rings, which are approximately thermally equilibrated in all 'k b y L g , which is approximately 40 in our case. This is a

phase planes, giving Gaussian beam profiles. Keeping the borderline problem for our example, in that s y ' s x /40

model’s applicability in mind, a vertical perturbation j (z, t ) 52.5 m m, which only one-fourth of the total vertical gap in

of a small amplitude and harmonic ~with wavenumber k x ! the structure. This potential problem, which demands rigor-

dependence in x is assumed, which can be shown @12# to be ous analysis in future work, certainly emphasizes the need to

equivalent to a harmonic charge-density perturbation. The have very strong vertical focusing in the device.

wake fields arising from this perturbation can then be calcu- The problem of instabilities due to long range wake fields

lated using the results of Sec. IV. can be studied using the multibunch BBU formalism previ-

To calculate the evolution of the flute amplitude j (z, t ), ously developed by Thompson and Ruth @13#. We employ a

we write the beam breakup equation @12# strongly damped wake approximation, the daisy-chain

56 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAKE FIELDS AND BEAM . . . 7215

model, where a bunch is only affected by the wake fields TABLE I. Comparison multibunch BBU of a cylindrical and

from the previous bunch. For optical accelerators, the hori- slab-symmetric linear accelerator with an average accelerating gra-

zontal diffraction of the wakes make this model promising; dient of 1 GeV/m, fundamental wavelength l 0 52 p /k 0

on the other hand, since each bucket will undoubtedly be 510.6 m m, a52.5 m m, and beam loading quality factor Q

filled in such a short wavelength device, the wakes must be 51000; only the lowest frequency dipolelike mode is considered,

very heavily damped or have large frequency spreads in the with s x 5100 m m in the slab case. Comparison parameters: average

relevant modes for the model to be accurate. We additionally current eNc/l 0 , transverse wake strength W'8 /eN, and BBU

assume that the high-frequency wakes responsible for the growth length L g .

single-bunch flute instability are ignorable from the multi-

Slab case Cylindrical case

bunch point of view, again because the enhanced diffraction

of these components of the wake fields quickly dampen their Average current 490 mA 16 mA

effect on the bunch train. Transverse wake 30 V/~mm2 fC! 105 V/~mm2 fC!

In order to include the effects of acceleration and adia- ~dominant dipole!

batic damping, it is convenient to define an effective distance Multibunch BBU 15 cm 1.4 cm

z eff5k21

by (0)*0kby(z8)dz8, where the betatron wave number

z

growth length

now is considered as a function a distance z down the struc-

ture. Assuming k(z)5 Ag (0)/ g (z)k(0), with the approxi-

mation that the energy is much greater at the end of the Alternatively, if we allow the beam charge to be varied,

structure than at the beginning, the effective distance be- one can see that, by spreading the beam out in one dimension

comes z eff52Ag 0 z/ g 8 , where g 8 5eE acc /m e c 2 is the nor- while keeping efficient coupling of the accelerating wave to

malized accelerating gradient. The equations of motion in the the structure in the narrow dimension, much more charge per

effective length approximation become @13# bunch can be accelerated. This comes at a price, of course,

which is that the electromagnetic stored energy is much

]2y 1

1k 2b y y 1 50, larger in the case of a slab-symmetric device as opposed to a

] z 2eff cylindrically symmetric accelerator of equivalent beam hole

dimension—the shunt impedance of the slab-symmetric ac-

]2y n Nr e 1 ] F y celerator is very low. At optical or infrared wavelengths,

2 1k b y y n 5 ~6.4!

2

y ,

] z eff g 2 ps x ] y n21 however, the stored energy is not a problem, as laser powers

large enough to drive ultrahigh accelerating fields in slab-

where the first bunch is explicitly unaffected by transverse symmetric structure are easily obtainable, and the useful field

wake fields. Assuming solutions of the form g n 5A n e ikz , it is amplitudes are limited by structure breakdown consider-

found the deflecting amplitude A n grows with effec- ations @15#. In the slab-symmetric case the low shunt imped-

tive growth length is approximately L geff ance can be understood as being due to a large number of

54psx(g/Nre)k(]Fy /]y)21. We again use the parameters s x equivalent cylindrically symmetric accelerators operating in

5100 m m, N5105 , and g (0)5100, which assuming every parallel, yielding a small impedance.

optical accelerating ‘‘bucket’’ is filled, and that the acceler- This multiple-channel, parallel accelerator is a useful

ating gradient is eE acc51 GeV/m, implies we have a beam analogy for helping understand the transverse wake fields as

loaded Q5103 , similar to the expected unloaded Q of the well. It is true that the transverse impedance that the beam

optical structure itself @2#. For k b y 55 cm21, the growth ‘‘sees’’ at the highest transverse coupling to the structure

length of the multibunch BBU instability is 15 cm. This is (k x 'a 21 ) is very close to that of the cylindrical structure of

relatively gentle growth, which can be controlled by a vari- the same vacuum radius a, and so the beam breakup is

ety of methods @13#, including detuning of the dipole mode similar—the flute instability is nearly identical for the por-

frequencies, and tuning the strongest frequencies near half- tion of the beam within Dx;2a as for single-bunch BBU for

integer harmonics of the accelerating frequency, thus placing the same charge beam in the equivalent cylindrically sym-

the bunches near zero crossings of the dipole-mode wakes. metric structure. The advantage of the slab-symmetric struc-

ture is twofold, however; it allows much more beam charge

VII. DISCUSSION to be accelerated for the equivalent BBU problem, and the

flute BBU can be stabilized by a mechanism, horizontal mix-

The results we have obtained above allow much greater ing, that is unavailable in the cylindrically symmetric struc-

freedom in imagining linear accelerator designs at much ture. In addition, if the flute instability is stabilized, then the

shorter wavelengths, as they mitigate the scaling @14# of the multibunch BBU is much more stable, for equivalent beam

transverse wake coupling strength which limits the current in loading, than the cylindrically symmetric accelerator.

these devices, from W'8 }k'3 }k 30 ~k' is the transverse wave To illustrate this point, we give a list of parameters de-

number of the mode, analogous to our present k x ! in the scribing two equivalent designs with slab and cylindrical ge-

cylindrical case, to W'8 }k 3x } s 23 x ~at a constant beam ometry, respectively, in Table I. In both designs, we obtain a

charge!, independent of accelerating wavelength in the slab linear accelerator with an average accelerating gradient of 1

geometry for the case of multibunch BBU. The scaling of the GeV/m, wavelength l 0 52 p /k 0 510.6 m m, the beam half-

flute instability is is a bit less dramatic, W'8 }k 3x } s 22

x k 0 , and gap a55 m m, and beam loading quality factor Q51000. It

indeed we see that the growth of the flute instability is a bit can be seen that in the slab case, with a beam width of s x

stronger than for multibunch BBU. 5100 m m, much higher average current can be accelerated

7216 A. TREMAINE, J. ROSENZWEIG, AND P. SCHOESSOW 56

at this beam loading level, and it can be propagated stably The results we have presented allow more serious consid-

longer. eration of short-wavelength advanced accelerator schemes,

which have potential application to linear colliders as well as

VIII. CONCLUSIONS radiation-producing accelerators ~free-electron lasers, Comp-

ton scattering x-ray sources, etc.!. These advantages, we be-

In conclusion, we have theoretically and computationally lieve, present significant motivation for further theoretical

analyzed the transverse wake fields in a slab-symmetric and experimental work in this field; we are presently work-

dielectric-loaded structure. We have found and quantified the ing on a test of these results using asymmetric, high charge

suppression of the transverse wake fields for wide beams in beams, which produce cm wavelength wake fields, as well as

these structures, using infinite beam, harmonic beam, and an improved analysis of instabilities in slab-symmetric accel-

Gaussian beam models, and made an analysis of the beam erators.

breakup instability in this type of structure. The additional

advantages of using wide beams in a slab symmetric struc- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ture for accelerating larger beam currents was noted as a

byproduct of this analysis. While we have concentrated on The authors have benefitted from discussions with A.

laser-driven optical or infrared accelerators, as they are likely Chao, W. Gai, H. Henke, and L. Serafini. This work was

to use dielectrics, the conclusions reached are quite general, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant

and should be easily applied to submillimeter wave metallic Nos. DE-FG03-93ER40796 and W-31-109-ENG-38, and the

cavity structures as well. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation under Grant No. BR-3225.

@1# D. Yu et al., in Advanced Acceleration Concepts, edited by P. the pure slab symmetric limit are by A. Tremaine et al. and A.

Schoessow ~AIP, New York, 1995!, Vol. 335, p. 800. W. Chao et al., in Proceedings of the 1996 DPB/DPF Summer

@2# J. Rosenzweig et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2467 ~1995!. Study on New Directions for High-Energy Physics ~Stanford

@3# W. K. H. Panofsky and W. A. Wenzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 27, University Publications, Palo Alto, CA, 1997!, p. 399 and p.

967 ~1956!. 374, respectively.

@4# J. B. Rosenzweig et al., Phys. Rev. A 39, R1586 ~1989!. @10# R. Ruth et al., Part. Accel. 17, 171 ~1985!; K. Bane et al.,

@5# M. Hogan and J. B. Rosenzweig, in Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 32, 3524 ~1985!.

IEEE Particle Acceleration Conference, edited by S. T. Cor- @11# R. Siegman, in Lasers ~University Science, Mill Valley, CA,

neliussen ~IEEE, New York, 1993!, Vol. 5, p. 3494. 1986!.

@6# W. Gai et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2756 ~1988!. @12# D. Whittum, Phys. Rev. A 46, 6684 ~1992!.

@7# K. Y. Ng, Phys. Rev. D 42, 1819 ~1990!.

@13# K. A. Thompson and R. D. Ruth, Phys. Rev. D 41, 964 ~1990!.

@8# E. Chojnacki et al., in Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE Particle

@14# R. Palmer, Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 40, 529 ~1990!.

Acceleration Conference ~Ref. @5#!, Vol. 2, p. 815.

@15# D. Du et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3073 ~1994!.

@9# Two articles discussing the vanishing of transverse wakes in

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