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The Factories Act, 1948

To protect health, safety and welfare of the workmen

To regulate hours of work, weekly offs and annual


To regulate the employment of women and young


Comprehensive law

Regarded as one of the Benevolent, Noble and a

Comprehensive Labour Legislation which is in force
in our country.
Covers significant issues relating to the persons
employed in factories.



Regulates -

Working Hours


Annual leaves with wages

Provides -

Additional protection
from hazardous processes
Additional protection to
women workmen
Prohibition of
employment of children

Any premises including precincts thereof

whereon 10 or more persons are engaged and a

manufacturing process is carried on with the aid of
power or

20 or more persons are working and a manufacturing

process is carried on without the aid of power

making, altering, repairing, ornamenting, finishing,

packing, oiling, washing, cleaning, breaking up,
demolishing, or otherwise treating or adapting any
article or substance with a view to its use, sale,
transport, delivery or disposal,

pumping oil, water, sewage or any other substance; or

generating, transforming or transmitting power; or

composing types for printing, printing by letter press,

lithography, photogravure or other similar process or
book binding

constructing, reconstructing, repairing, refitting,

finishing or breaking up ships or vessels; preserving or
storing any article in cold storage

There must be a premises

There must be a manufacturing process

which is being carried on in any part of such


10 workers with the aid of power and 20

workers without the aid of power

Who has ultimate control over the affairs of the factory




One of the partner


One of the Director

Central or State
Government owned

Persons so nominated by the

respective governments

A person responsible to the Occupier for the working of

the Factory and for the purposes of the Act

Maintenance of Registers, furnishing OT slips, Leave cards
Furnishing of returns
Submission of notice to work on Sunday
Intimation about the reportable accidents, dangerous

Worker means a person employed, directly or by or through any

agency (including a contractor) with or without the knowledge of
the principal employer, whether for remuneration or not in any
manufacturing process or in any kind of work incidental to, or
connected with, the manufacturing process

Adult means a person who has completed his

eighteenth year of age

Adolescent means a person who has completed his

fifteenth year of age but has not completed his
eighteenth year

Child means a person who has not completed his

fifteenth year of age

Young person means a person who is either a child

or an adolescent

Day means a period of twenty-four hours beginning

at midnight

"week" means a period of seven days beginning at

midnight on Saturday night

Calendar year means the period of twelve months

beginning with the first day of January in any year

Power means electrical energy, or any other form of

energy which is mechanically transmitted and is not
generated by human or animal agency;

State government may appoint Chief

Inspector, Additional Chief Inspectors, Joint
Chief Inspectors, Deputy Chief Inspectors,
and Inspectors.
Prescribe their duties and qualifications

Enter factory premises for investigation

Examine the premises
Inquire into any accident or dangerous occurrence
Require the production of any prescribed register or
Seize, or take copies of, any register, record or other
Take measurements and photographs and make such
Exercise such other powers as may be prescribed

State Government may appoint qualified medical practitioners to

be certifying surgeons
Duties of surgeons
(a) the examination and certification of young persons under this
(b) the examination of persons engaged in factories in such
dangerous occupations or processes
(c) supervising the factories where
(i) cases of illness have occurred which are due to the nature of the
manufacturing process or
(ii) due to manufacturing process there is a likelihood of injury to
the health of workers or
(iii) young persons are employed in any work which is likely to
cause injury to their health.

The occupier or the Manager has to apply to the Chief Inspector

of Factories for getting the factory registered
The Chief Inspector of Factories, if he is satisfied, will register
the factory and grant the license

In case no license is issued by him within a period of 3 months

the factory concerned shall be deemed to be duly licensed

To keep its premises in a clean state

To dispose of wastes and effluents
To maintain adequate ventilation and reasonable
To prevent accumulation of dust and fume
To avoid over-crowding
To provide sufficient lighting, drinking water,
washrooms, and spittoons

To fence certain machinery

To protect workers repairing machinery in motion
To protect young person working on dangerous
To maintain hoists and lifts in good condition
To protect workers from injury to their eyes, dangerous
dust, gas, fumes and vapours
To protect workers from fire
To employ Safety Officers in a factory employing 1000
or more workers

Facilities for washing

Facilities for sitting of workers while they are on work
Facilities for storing clothing not worn during working
hours and the drying of wet clothing
First-Aid box under the charge of a trained first-aider
(one for every 150 workers)
Ambulance Room for factory employing more than 500
Canteen more than 250 workers

Creche in factories employing more than 30 women

Welfare Officer factories ordinarily employing 500 or
more workers

A worker cannot be employed for more than 48

hours in a week
Cannot be employed for more than 9 hours in a
Interval of rest atleast hour after 5 hours work
Total period of work inclusive of rest interval
must not be spread over more than 10.5 hours in a
Holiday for a whole day in every week

Overtime work at double the rate of his wages

works more than 9 hours in day or for more than
48 hours in a week (Refer to notes for maximum
limit of OT)
A woman worker cannot be employed in night
shifts. Their work time will be 6 am -7 pm

Employment of a child below the age of 14 years is

totally prohibited
Child more than 14 years of age and less than 15, can
be employed to a maximum period of 4.5 hours in a
Cannot be employed during night time
Must have a fitness granted by a Certifying Surgeon
Child more than 15 years of age and less than 18, can
be employed as an adult if he has a certificate of fitness
for a full days work

Condition : Entitled to leave with wages, (in the

subsequent calendar year) if he has worked for 240
days or more in a calendar year
Adult worker One leave for 20 days actual working
Child One leave for 15 days actual working

Accumulation of leave
Adult - Upto 30 days
Child Upto 40 days