Illustra tions

Payload vs. I{<inge Graph, ' .. __ . _ .... , _ ... , .... , __ , _ 8

Improvised Rocket Motor. _ , _ . , _ . , , . , __ ' . 9

Loading Technique for Improvised Rocket Motor . _ .. , . 10

Improvised Rocket Motor Missions .. _ . __ , .. , 14

Typical M LJ Iliple Round Launching Seheme .. , .... , . , _ 16

Ign it.ion Methods ..... _ , . , .. , , _ ... , ..... , . __ . , .. _ 18

"

I. Introduction

Improvised rocket motors provide a simple means for irregular forces to deliver military payloads to ranges twyond ind ividual hand weapons without complicated launch means, Improvised rocket techniques can be explo ited to increase the firepower and Eff€ctivcnc.'ls of guerrilla-type forc(~s. Having the great advantage of not requiring heavy launching equ ipment, suoh as conventional mortars and artillery pieces, rockets are aptly suited to the characteristics Dr operations <.tnd capabilities of irregular units whose weapons must be concealed between usc and whose transport and logistics means are restricted to that common to the are-a of operations.

The .... .dval1ta~es of an improvised rocket munition are:

A. R.~(:oillcss operation.

H.. Simplified launching techniques and apparatus. (A mound or dirt may suffice in the simplest ease.)

c. High degree of mobility, (Only the payload, motor anti ignition device need to ~w carricd.]

D, Munitions can he fabricated from materials available fro m lh ~.~ en viroumcnt or the- local e (A)[IO my,

E Unskilled labor can be used for manufacturing operations.

F _ The identity of the manufacturing effort can be easily concealed,

This report will investigate a system using and providing the following features:

A. Use of common materials for construction (pipe, pipe caps and nipples; saltpeter and sugar} wooden dowel, et cetera).

1

K I-t.eeo~lleb, flashless perf'orman U'_

C Adapb I ill i l.y to a wide spectrum of payloads ami ranges.

I), SuiLable for a vauety of ignition means including powder t.ruin , hot w irc , hl~j~1.i ng fuse or homemade fuse.

E Capability of being fired remotely or with a minimu m () f ~O second;>. dpi ,!y for o pe-ra Lor security_

F Cupability for i nsi.an l·anpo us l'i ring of m uh.ip I~ round salvos or single rounds {for harassm cnt or ra.n~iIlg},

C , E~L.~l bl j ~ h me JlT_, 0 f a reb ti \'E' ly "stan dard" ro c ki-t carrier design, dctprmin(~d from th~ rnat.eriuls availahle ill the part icular area, (This will simplify the ballistics and provide the forel'~ with a prcdid~j blc weapou.)

Spclion I l , "TpchnicaJ ~ iiscussion ", dcst-ri bt'~ the analysis un d design approach lO be used in providing the improvised hard wan' _ l t also outlin (~~ the problem ,m'a:-; and considerati OIl~ in providin ~ n-usonably u~(~ ru( munitions in ,l surn·pl_tiou s Fahric·al.ion situation where quality COIl trol and man.if:H:1.ul'inR rroC(~S~~~ must be <HTomrli~hed without too ls other th an co mrnon band t.ool sand· 'eye hall" inxl.ru mentation.

2

11. Technical Discu ssion

A_ BACKe RO L,'::-I D

In t.hr- pprind 1 ~).:1- -. ~.() 1 ~l fl 'l , ~J lar~l' 11· . .1 rnl n-r 0 i" :l nw I (~II r rock-t ~xperitYwn~~r; w~r~ E::L~gagpd in ,[1 c manufact.ir- and testing of rudimcntarv rockets By 1 ~~'1 'i . ilw in forlllati0~1 l'ro m the \\'orld \\'ar TI rocb~t ~E'chno:o~s ~.h'g:m to lwcnm(' dOClJ mel Ltpd ;l nd d issern inal.xl , (.~J t.ch il 19 Lht· i rnag: I .at.i: )~l :U)(j interest of muny youuz experimenters. These per-or;s, wurkinc alone or banding- into ~.'oup-~, produced many ila7,J.t1:>ms, alld ('VPll I(,th~j I, nwkct· pro pdlr~d III i~~i Ips_ L n ("orlull at (: Iy, th I~ h l:l.I.aniou~ nature of L.lH:~ propellaIL b f~lt'dl'd, vui.h :l~ HLal.ell h cad s, shotgun shell powder, and h orne-brewed III ixrurus of ~'O lal.ih- and in f'Jarnmable [tL~J t.erials , pro\'E~d flLorp d angprulif. in the basement or ~arag-e laboratory than on the fHing- range T!u- :,Irw~ 11 LIm bur 0 r injurLPS from th(~ UlH:on l.ro l h-d ('~ por im('n t·J.t ion led to many local ordinances and laws nrohibirlna L.:H' S~J I~' 0(" (·~~rb ill mat.eriuls and alfe) rust rii 'I.ill ~ the- f.rin~ nr.t.ivitics to J.1"E::a,I> where ade-quate supervision could !)~ provided. 'J hi., gt> I ie ra I aware-ness 0(" tlH~ hal.'lnk or nH"k~~L. i';"; p~'rinwr-b \.wgan about 1 ~l37. evidenced by the- American ftockd SOl'il"ty :H]opti 11 g an offieiul organ i~atio~l~J I position o ppo.;ing amau-u r experimentation outside of qualified SLI perv J~ion, r IL ~p i I.p of I.he n-sl.ri ('t,ion;>., l.h r: pxpprim(~flU'~ still found common materials which could he adapted to prod ut:t- r ot: kt-t, hard wun-:

During the decade of more or less widespread amateur (~X peri m(~nl~tt..i{)ll in rock ctry , many combinations of propellant form ulut ious we rt: rnado and u~stPd, III ~pp.iou.s oxpcrimentors devised wavs of extracting nitrates from the cheap and n~;l(j i Iy available fcrti li 7.Prs 11 avinc this compound. Jo'Lxing th i~ source of oxygen Wilh various ru(~I~ provid cd v(~ry ad nquate roc ket propellants One of the materials found 1.0

3

~) I' 1"(:: l( ii 1\,:; c l 'e;-;s: b le wa;:; su g-ar. A ~ u cro sc - pot a 88 i u m 11 it r(l te ["(Jrn) LL~a 1 iun fll'Ovicki> a srH'~··ific impu I~{~ r ,lS derived l'rom bJ.~j~;:.i~.' born h ~hlta) 0 I al ~~)U I. l;W - l:J n ~econds, 1 n actual ru r.k r< mo Lor pPtTumWIll'f> OL' i.he order of 10;:] seconds is n,~j(Lly al.ca;nahl€- _ This compares wi t ·n an If; () r 200 l'or \'1-7 propellant, currently in wd (' 11 Sf.' ill rni I i t.ary ro{'k~L.S,

III pfPparill ~ L.n is lHlOk S,~h'i'a~ pipe r.x-kets were assernh lpd and ~~,~iHl against wooden t argf.'L at suort range, de-mcnstratinu thr- rc,l~i h i lit.y ~) r l·h,> pn )Pl~ lla ru. and hody st.ru--t u!,p,

'['jli,~ stu ely proposes sucro~('-p()tl.~si Lllll r,itr'Jl·(~ for the impro v ;s(~d rockPl. prope lla: L~ _ KOl.~l I.llt'~~· materials can be o brained in rno st of the- world _ part itu !~I r ly ~n tho~(~ an-as wh(~n' in ~t Irgen(;v oIwl'aL(JJls art' must nrohahle. These dE":i.~-ns for :m im provisr-d r01·kd. wi.: (:nn(·(~llLraW on tb i1;. fJ ropell~iI ~i [t) ixture a~ the 'A~LI ulard ."

In pruvid ing an irnprnv is{,d In LI ni I. io I LOr t.h i;-.:. I ype, tb i~ sl.ud Y w ill ~ivt" al~,~ntion l.o d~", [olknvlng area-:

_;\ Propellari I !0'ain form ulation and «onfiauration.

f~. Grain i118t.,! llat ion ill rod,H. hody ro1' iruegrity in rough hu II d I iug , ~L.ord~e jfe expectancy and relial J ility ill handling.

C, .. \SH~S,~rnent of en vi roument.al effects such as operati I\~ temperatu re rang~'s For vurions po;_.;sibh~ ~iL'{)graphical areas. h UrI) id it)! and fungus.

D_ Safety

E Training.

l'" Em~cb of variat.ons ill materials of construction on sa i"l'ty aurl perf ormance.

G _ Securit.y ,'\~pec1.~

Means should be provided to conceal l.he true nature or til (~ itcm~ ht>ing fabricated.

II. Launching preparat.ion should be simple allowine, rarid ~dljp and firing.

L Sil":"nat.lJf(~ dfpClS at the lmuuh site should he min imum

4

J. High reliability of operation should be obtained to avo id pro blems 0 f disposal 0 f d u rl s.

Our effort will provide:

A. Specific hardware de:;igns and sample prototype units of rocket motors of simple design constru cted from common materials such as would be readily available to guerrilla-type forces.

E. Generalized design guidann~ for instruction of guerr illa personnel in the construction of improvised rock. ets, including safety precautions.

C_ DeSCriptions of firing procedures, including rudimentary balllsties and fire control under probable conditions of use.

D. Investigation of reliable ignition methods. Also, means for ignition of the improvised rockets for firing individual founds and salvo or ripple firings of multipIe rounds.

E. Report of effects obtainable from the improvised rounds, including: range, payload. probable dispersions under st.andard and non-standard conditions and possible type payloads.

F Prediction of degradation in performance from optimum due to fabrication variances, materials impurity, field handling, storage and environmental conditions.

H. DESIGN CONSIDFmATIONS

This study's proposed design will be based upon rockets using materials obtaim-d from normal agricultural, construction or commercial sources. Referrmg to the €arly work done by the amatuer groups in the practical application of rocket design theory to their hardware, their experience indicates that some experimental verifications and detailing is required before scale-up of their small diameter rockets (l,'2 to % inch water pipe bodies) to militarily useful diameters {minimum of 2 inches). 'l'hese Include:

5

,\ [,(~Il ~Lh I.(J I );:lITl~kr (1_.,: I) J I-l.alio

A c1~rl.ain maxim urn {I , .... Dj ratio cannot be eXl'e{~ded wit.h 0 u l. g~~ll L:m Lion of ~'xf:('.ssivp cham her prnssurcs, \0\,. h k-h 1·:lll rupi.u rt: lJH~ ch:1 ru he-r wall.

B. Prorx-llant "Waterine '

A certain conten t of water is ncu·ssary rOT rfficien t pc-rforrnunc«. Th is h~l~ I )('PI L rt: ["prrpc! i o us ~l n ; ;;l id ror compaction " by sornc an.at-ur groups, but the real m.-chnn ism a fl'cr:tin~ pf'rfo rrnau cc m n st be- dt'tr~rrn i I tE~d,

C _ Port Diarnr-tcr to \J onk D iam~.'l.E'r

'lhe usual rul«, l.hat I.tll·' r JO rt. ;l rr::l mu ~I. he- two to t.hree times Uw n,}77k ar--a dl.lE'~ 1)01. ~p~~rn 1.0 f~old ri~oro usly ror th.: ra tnr-r ~;(!ft, erodible gJam formed hy K _\10 ;:l':~Llgar. 'I'll is ~h()lA Id I)(~ invrst: ~atcd.

D, f'; rl"('f:l.i v (~ Ru r~l ill g :\ rl':l To Til rout .. \ f(~~l l Kll)

A t temp:,~ h ,l\'(: I·.lf.'r~n tr~H k- hy ih L: ~J r.-Hlt ... ·ur~ to ("orr(: laW varu )LL~ wo r~ in ~ W~ur[L~: rlt'~ hy Kn. i\ uerup h indicated that a nl'U":"Klhlt rr ass-act ion or permeable bu mill g f~ I"f{~(:t rna k.-, l h is re l(ltioll~h ip 11 o t who! iy si.rui ~h~for\\'~l1d, Ttl i~ v .. i II [)~n'(~ i.o tH: dd~[)i~.;zed t)(~ ron' mot.on; brgt"r thuu two i~ldlt .. ~ ~~aH hp d hig-ned.

1 }W·<l i.s on 11 :md lr: ~I t~ rl ~(~ rjring~ of ov(~r a t.ho usand ~o(']~d; assembled and :'il'c·d by a ~H}Up or prival« experirn r~nt~'rs (·0 rnprivi 11 e:: ~J rocket. r"~I~arch assncrnti on , now d ishal~(kd. This grou p, all h()ll~h u Sill~ rudirncntarv materials for cnnstru.u.iou, main I.ailled I he.r r~('ords of fabricaL(J11 and I.~'SI ing i 11 ~l pm r~\S8: o n <II munn er and in su tficicnt detail to ~'l"pl'ndW.'E· ~ tlci~' de~ign.~, ·[·he bulk of th~ (ruorr: thuu a :.11OlI· ~,lnd) 1111 its prt·parcd bv th is ~rou r were rockets fa.~h~o~lE::d :rOLt: ~::Lll(brd .: ~ in ch an d ~,~ irwh pi~}('_ 11 is bnlievod that <mil ar d. 'q;-m can be scaled upward W pro vid~ l'(wke1.s or I,\'f_l in l'll d :~Jt1wtcr ha v i~lg J maximum r<LnRE:: of '1,000 [I L~·I E-'h ,':~r[y ill ~ a 01 L~ pound Fly Jond , 0 r co rruspo nd ingJy -Iu 'l'~·_'r rano::c~ t',).,' urcat cr si?cd navlcads.

6

C, DESIGN CO)1FrGUH.A'nO_~ !\~D PERFORMANCE

A "_62 standard" (_62" is th€ inner diameter of common 112 inch water pipe] motor has b~~en fahricatcd and test, units fired wit h p iezo -r-lectr k gauges a ttached. Hurn ill g t.i mes are much shorter and thrust levels higher than perfonnance of the propellant in amateur testing has indicated. However. the total im.pL11S(~ seems to agree quite wdL On the- basis of these tests, a set of curves was drawn to show payload delivery capabilities for the ".62 standard" and also a. ",S2" motor (% inch pipe). These curves are shown in Figure- L*

A one pound payload) as an example, can be projected to HOO feet. with a .62 motor and more than 1,500 feet wi th a .82 motor. Extrapolating to a two inch pipe motor gives a range of nearly 12,000 Ieet Ior a one pound payload.

A conceptual drawing of an improvised rocket motor embodying the concepts outlined in this proposal is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 3 shows the procedure for load jog K:'\I0::l/:::'LH:ro.~~ propellant. After compacting. the grain with the hollow tamper, the munrlrcl (dowel J is removed to leave t.he perforatcd gram.

D.DEVELOPMENTPROGRAM

In providing an improvised rocket concept, this study proposes:

A, Examination of basic design models to establish definitive criteria involved in predictable scaling of motors to meet variable diameters and characteristics of possible body construction materials.

B. Performance ~)f testing to validate and formalize the scaling laws,

;I; Although pipe sizes in a given area 01 employment may not be identical with standard U,S_ pipe dimensions, performance snould be comparable.

7

Cu rves are c:omputed from the equation gtven in Paraqraph E W rth the total impulse obtai ned r rorn actual rocket tests.

4500

4000

3500

z o ~ 3000 <r: > LU

~ 2500

:I: u Z ~ .:t ...J

o U"l ~

fo:t

;:- 1000

w w 1.1..

W 500 (!;I z <:(

0:: 0 '-----_---'-_ ._-_. L .. _ ___jL__ _ ___jL___------' __ ___. __ ~

1.0

PA Y LOAD vs. RANG E

\ I

\

\ \

\

\

\

\

\

\ \.

\

3/4 in, (,82) pipe 1/2 in, (.62) pipe

2.0

3.0

PAY LOAD WEIGHT {POUNDS)

Figure 1

3

.... ,

-' i~-;

h V .-.: -~

J c>

11(..: '0: :a.. -=r

9

LOADING TECHNlOUE For I mprovised Hccket Motor

r

i .

,-. -

r< -- -

/

/

1'I~f)I'1 . I l!.NT Lu,',l)IN(;

/. ro,.lOTO~ TIJIlr

Figure 3

10

...

c. Design and development 0 f a typical improvised rocket motor suitable for construction by unskilled personrtcl using eornmonly available materials and tools.

D_ F'ahrieation of n.') each prototype pipe-bodied rockets (all loadpd with K r\03/Kug,lr propellant). of the following pipe sizes:

1/2 :inch 3/4 inch 1-1/2 inch 2 inch

~~. Test fi ring of the above units, e-x p(~nding 2;) 0 f ~~a('h type- in ~Latic tests for characterizatf ~I !·'lIpd ,W E'aeh 111 payload V~n;U8 range t.H:-)t:-", with 1/2 I.O~ pound inert. heads. Impact pattern data wi II ~j 1:-:'0 ln- l'0 IJp~·kd for an indication of dispersion

F Preparation and submitr .. al of a final rpport dc.~('rihing the designs, fabrication proe~~dure8 f{ .r fi(~ld accomplishment, [iring and launching provr-durex, f.;afety UlP-aSH res and the program activity :jc~~omp1ished during the program. A supplemcn (. will l~~ prepared for the improvised we apo 11 s handhoo lo for each size roc ket motor tested and rangl' tables provided,

j t1 addition 1.0 the bas ic rot: kct carr i (~r. it is pro po sed that a study be made of the employment of the rocht. <If> a practical weapon, including possible payloads al Ld the implieal.ions and interface considerations between the puy loa.ds and the rocket ThE' effort. will include:

A. Study and design of ignition mearl~ for individual and mu ltiple round firings, including delay provisions,

B_ Payload interface investlgutions including recommended payloads, methods of attachment, arming an d acti vat ion, pcrfcrman e(~ characte ristics and mod ifical.ions required to adapt rocket and payload.

11

!.~, PER H) JtI\-IA;\C f-; Of rOT,\~SIL:-'·1 :-;!'['R.ATfi/SL:GA H.

PK()PELL\ "..IT

.. \ cornposit ion of 7l1'·'. I'otass.urn Nitrate Technical Grad~. 100 SO me ~h n y I Htf wrt h ; lO' .. 'r sucro f'.1'. co mmerc j ,11 grad e , (TY sl.allinc, plus 3-!J""( wut.or 10 a.d ill i.ompacti on for grain fabricntioi L (internn; burrier on ly) has been k5l.~d in ballisuv bom bs, providin g tht' following da~a:'~

Assu m~nJ:': (.l mo kx.ula; \yci~h I (t.IW) = 30 Ratio of spcci fi(' h v:lh (1,;:) ~ l,~'

Tern perature of l'O 1TI·f)U~I.Jm1 (Tc:~ - 2.n·,·WoR

Gives :l ~pecifjc im p', 11.~E' 1.1) = 137 ~~~{" (i'i 00 psi __,. , f) psi:~ In a p~lrl,i{'LOl81' motor, L.hE' following dcIermtnation ~ WE-rIO'

rnudr-:

Ch ar ~u.' ~e ri s he r-x h :.ms: \'1' I o e i iy (c';:) Is

= ;:lOMO fps = 1 0.') S~C = 1.1 n

= O,fl.') u.. i n 3 = 0 _2S i n/~E-'e

fat ~OO psi)

With a thrust eoefficieD t, t C i-') ,\ t a propvllnn 1. d~n;;;liy

Burll ing- rate (rh)

LO"H~r lim it , combustion eh~u[LhE'l' pre ~~lll'e (P c)

UprJ(-~l' limit. P l'

- about 1 00 psi

- more than

7 JOO psi

'" i\ Ufwugf1 commerriul purity rnalerials ma~.' no! f1{' uvait{!hrc to field forces, standord materials ore ct ted. hen' {or referrru:« and later comparison tou]: ucl uol result» obtained. TJu' degradation o] pcvformance [nnn the U~e o] ·'field grasie ,. !'urU'Y compo,~iUun,~ (vii{ be' in l'e~t igated . it i8 pos8ihle. hO!vGver, tha! maten·a[s can be 0 btain.ed in pure [orm; thereby nch idling op timum pN!ormance_

12

1 4

l t

The performance of this propellant, then, is slightly superior to black powder. The specific impulse derived from motor data was used to compute the range versus payload graph of Figure 1 as follows:

Ran ge at 45° eleva lion =

\,vh.ere :

g :::;- gravitat.ional aece1pt;t.tiun

n.2 ft/sec2

total im pulse, I b -~~'~

specific impulse x pt,}pplhtni weight weight of motor, lbs

weight of pay load, lbs

weight.. of propcllant , lbs

F, PAyr,OADS ROCKETS

A)lD MISSIONS FOH. IMPROVISED

Once the basil:" propulsion unit is available, only the ingenuity of the guerrilla. personnel limits the- possible missions for the rockets, A number of payloads are immediately suggestcd, ranging throughout the spectrum of regular munitions. Possi ble missions are shown in Figure 4,

There are some types of payloads such as incendiary mixLures and biological materials which can he put together quickly by the guerrilla fightBr, for example, t..he Molotov cocktail IDD.: ture .

It would be posslble to assemble improvised "tomato can" munitions for use with the improvised rocket, High r-xplosive charges, surrounded by available small hardware such as nails and bolts could bE' prepared for delivery with the improvised rocket.

13

(/") z o V') Vl

.a: a:: a fa ~

fw

~ U o cc

o UJ ~

:> o 0:::

Q..

~

·f4

I t is assn mod that 1.I1l" ~lH'ITi Ii:: f()rn'~, \~. .Il lie· ~!nrH'd t (I soms degn~(~ wi t.h con vcn tio.ial \~ I '~II )(J II -, p.'[I-;:i ru larlv :ulld guns and grenade~. 'I'he r."_osl 1'1" 1\'<'1 :\"1' ~1ay ~~ ,:,{~ :·l) f i.h I' : m provised rocket. is th (~ arenade: 1.1)(' P fl)T"'{ !:~«< I prim urv m i,~~io II i~ as a p:enade thro wir. .. vvailahl-: ir: .1 '.:II"·.I'·.Y (~r rlliucs, LLt' gl'enad(' provid ns a reliable, ~l"Jl·-('() 11".,) i III ,d [11-, it "<I~::Y a I"fi x L,d to the improvised roc kr-t ,:a rrirr 1 '} III :,l' rr.ion in J.') open eIldt,d can r'l1;t.PllNl to the i:''lck<'l. h1'~ld l·;ln_ 'I":·I{· l·'lIL would 1.)(.' of a 8i7.~~ to allow pu 11 ill~· () r' tfw 1!;rt'J ladi' ~: I I"<'I~: p: r wh :~e restraining thE" halld safety clip <;1" 1 h~' ! 1 ~. 1 '.p'. ~t\'ILad('~, Air drag during fLgbl. run (W userl Lo ~'l'fld~·<lII' t.h i- Hn:nadp fron: the c:m, or the ~.'~nade (~~lll l ir: 'WI·'lI·:.:"I'~ l .. () ~f'l ):lra 1 r~ (and arm) at ~roL1nd impact, Other arm :.1 ~g ·,~lIll J\"l:_if)~l.~ C~J 11 be ~h~viff~d l'or friction matd1 (PU 11 lypl' 1 Iglll·. (' I"~ ~) r so me fo l'(:ig11 gre n udos.

Tlw improvised rockeis gn:aL. ,H IV,)11 :_:\' i., l i lal i t, cun bf~ made in rnod(~m lc numbers quic k l.v wi ..h ,)n I: I~ ')·'-Y hu.irl too If" 01' its parts l:an bt- prr.-fubricatcd :' I:d ~~, )t"('( I :t .... p.ir! ia lly fin i,~I)pd stod.;, presen ting L.hp ~IPf)(';j r:lIWI' I Ii' ·,()In I' UJ 1.<l.spicious commel'cial prod uct \"\1Wrl I ~t'l'lkd, I.h~' 1111 it -, (·a~1 hp loaded tap idly and asxnm bled into th- LI~·I if';iI l'oll f"i~u ration Pa.vJn'Ld~ c;m lw affixed ~UH] (~v(~n lin.il ;h~l'ml)\.' CUlL ll1' arvornp I dlt<d under cover or e() nct':un('11l· :1 t or nrar the .au n ih S:T_.E~_ Components call be bro l~gl L I. iu: () I.~l~' assembly an~~1 hy !'-cparate persons ror srcurity I d·' l.hp o[.wral.ion and pE'"r~ol)rH'I, ,"\ tvpiral launch an'a S('lup ~lH!wing a powd(~J train ~gni tion method ~s d cpicted iii Figllt"(' :'l, The circular lauiu '11 nm j'i~uratiou and th (~ ~'('m:1'JI on)!:iJ I f( H' powdc·r train s to ~'adl roc ke-r. allows ripp le firi nl!·~ wit hout (Jne rneknt, 1'X n'Hlf-.t cxtinguishin g t.h r: powder i.raio 0 I" a~ Ija~·('ll t, ro ckets 'I 'hi- lau I u.h ~11 pport she wn in FiWH'f~ -J J~ <L ~JIn ph~ C~ ir k cd ~ti~·k nil, 1.0 ~l ~~7.f.~ to allow lht: 450 lauru.h unzle Thi:; if.:. a("<'om pll ~lll.'d hy provid ing the vertical hpigh t, 0 f Uw support 1.0 j)(, i/ lOw) of the length o I" thr- rocket hody 1.0 1.t1 (' poin t, of su Pf 10 r1._

III ;lCld Jj.i n II L~) ,~I ir-k support», moulld~ of din" ('011 vonivn t ~ 'In·1 f,llili ru-nt». llr'lill f) iJ)~' () r ~1.()\'f' fl ipc, wnorh-n l.rc ~u~·h.~ ()r ,I v: I ri.: 1 \" " I" l ~ 1 hi ,t' nl;ll ~'l' "Li;-; 'I.~ avai I~I Lie in ~h~· art'.L l'.H1 l n: u;-:'l'd I" I· 1"1" ·1i,'1 1" ):;11 i( )1) i II L!; :11111 II L 11.1;11 d 11"1'1·1 i~)1 Lal I·on tfl) 1.

DLlJ z::E ::)LlJ

O::z:: a::U

C/J

~~

c..Z

I-J: ...JO ~Z ~~ ...J~ q:...J

U

Q..

>-

f-

16

Figure 6 shows ex umplos of ignition Hlt'an~ wh ich can h~' uwd for firings of in dividual or rnu ltiple rounds.

G_ 'fACTICAL F·l\.'lPLOY}IEKT

Although the i mpro vist:d rot'b~ l,,,- ;m~ 0 f f(~lal.jv(~ Iy sru al I size, they c an be used for p 1'"0 i eel ill g 1'('-1 ali v~ ly hea vy pay 10 ad s for short, di~l~irIe(~~, F·or nxarnpie , l.hr-y m igh I. hc used as antivehicular or even anti-lank weapons, I IL ;-;\ uh LI ~E~. Lh e rUl'kt'l. would l)(~ pre-positioned with its warhead and ignited remot.e:y _ A typical emplaeernen t rnigh I. lw H1 an PllLl HtI~ k men L. l'lan k ;ng a dPl'ilc or road traveled by vc-h ir lrs A very large warhead could be projecu-d on a relat.ivvly l'hu. l.raj(~(·1.or.y for a range of lO-JO meters,

'I 'he fuhrrcat inn of sh aped cbar~ (Ip\' i~ :P,~ is· n~~l(li Iy w·(·(H-:I~)l ish (~d in the field _ F or exam p k- _ Uw ho~1om con fit!ura LJ(J I L of many wi IH' hutlh~N ["orrns ;j n ~'X~·(: 11(·11 U y ~·on ri k'l..lrcd mo kl ~lnd linn for a shaped charp.'. l t ~., abo pnssih If' t.o impro Vi.~i' an impact. ;n i l.iator usin ~ ~od i LJ m r.h lorutc, sugar an d ,~.J I P h lJ ric ac id t car battery acid).

Til (' po~~i h!c: usc 0 f thr: impn )vi~~'d r, }(·kd~ as an tiaircraft weapons should not be discoun j t'( l ,\ L·raI1g/~d in ~j rruy s un rinr thp ap~}roa(·h or takc-o Ff pattern ~ of alrr-l)n~, or prepo sit io I Lt'd in proh~l blp l~wd i ng ,lr~'a~ (t) r ni n.raft or h eliCOPLf.'l'S, ~hc improvised roc ket. cOLL_d rlnH'e ~j n~aso nu bly (~rrcdiv1' on~~ tinw weapon _ It wo u ld also hr possible ~(J use Lh e rue ket.s fo r air def(~Tl,~(~ of an :lr(';J by ~,wr. ching salvos against pre-selected pnln is in i.he a:~·~~)a,;(' OVPf t.h C gLJ urri llu posi tion , firing tht' rockets upon the apprcach and pa~sa~~~ th rough l.h e ai rspac(~ hy the targ~~t :t ircrn n ,

An intert"~liIl.g mission for i ndiv itl uul n)c kd.s is in th e throwin ~ 0 r I inos. A large variety of uses is po.~~ibh~ here, 1 n ads (d· ~al)oLlw', eond u ctivc Vo,'LfPi; can be projected over high u-usiun lines or into uansformcr ~1.aL.iom [".0 short out ~·i rcn ' t:-. nf thr: (~I~'drical SlIPP],,' _ Sin u~ critical t,liO'dri vul LII' iii I.i(';-:' lH"E' Ii b'ly I~) l)(' unde-r do~p sp~-u rity ~~ iard or .,11 rvt- i ll.u !"". ;11. ;l hil i l Y lO rvach th,' installauou by rOL'k(,t 1"11·",1 from ;l ~,""lI!"1' pnlili. olLt,~id1' I.hp ~"~·Llril.y an'a pnlvi(k~, ;"., ".,:: wll i ,·1 L III i~h 1 (f~,h~ -rw iSI' he i m I H ,~ -, i 11 k fur i.lu- ~ah( J Ll'U rs ,

17

WZ lllO ~LL.f-

Z (!J

_j~ .;:(2 u-0:: ct:I-LL. U

W

..J

W

u ,X

'-.f.

.L

I I

18

·1 i <..

I

,/

,

Th e same WIrE' pulling technique can he used for Iriendlv support purposes - to inkn:oTllwd two position ~ w i l.h wlt'phone cab le or to place a lead lint' across an 0 bstacle L.O draw across a heavier int~n.:onIH~{:t.i~ In r~)r l'url.hor <Wl'('s~ ~wro~~ thr: obstacle.

The impro v ised roc keto wou Id ~H~ t)(~~t. (~mp loyr~d wi t.h payloads and mission s which explort c;l(: hu-tc fea1.ur~;>. 0 f 1.h~ improvised device. Th~'fC m i ~~ior~s urc:

,\ Cr(~nadE" t.h rowing for ,lr, t'p('rS()nl1E"l and limited structural dam age.

B, Line throwing for ~IC~·(':~'~ In :.0 sc·~ ·11 n'f I urras or m spunning obstacles

Th1~ ~upnilla force { 11 <lying a l~·k~'r. (·apahi~ itv will find m ission» for ii~ empiqyme n l 1.0 ~"I I L~:l~ly m ('d~ ari~ingin their environment. they Y\ .. JlI Usc 1)0111 iu dividuul WCkd~ t.o bnlv~~ spe~·jrie· access proble-m ~ srn d m 1111.ipl e round Firings for their defensive and ofien~lVf' OPH":l1 i 0 rl.~, Th t' i mpro ..... ised rot'kd will add a sh ()~·k and su rpriH' (·ap:lhi lit.y t.o insurgent operations. It Vi-ill give the agents not, ouly gn':il.er sl.ri k i11g o pportrmity hut, bi-tter security and ahiJi ty to c~cape after al.'L.ip~l~. ()Llee uspd hy the gU(~TTi Iia ror~·p, rockd,s will l'~ pand the opposition's manpower i'E-'ql1in:"d fnr L.h~ ~~l'urily of vital i n,~ I.~ III: It. i 0 n s , rna k i 11 g th (~ COl J n I.(~ r -!'I) su r~r~n <: y offo rt III 0 rc hLLrd~'1 isorne and costly ,

The improvised rocket will add <l dimension w guerrilla o!){'nn.iorL~ irnpacl ing bo1.h the t.adicaf and psychologicnl areas of the insurgency r:.i l.u~j l.io n, The todd ~·'lpabi I i t,y wil ~ strengthen tho effectiveness and morale of the guerril1a forc~> \\'11 ih: prnscn lin g thp opposing authority with a new and unexpe-t.ed problem. lt1en~a~ed suppressive ~~JTort ovnr larger areas must be applied Lo counter 1.he suddenly increased vu lnt-ruh iii t.y of h is insta llations, (~qu:pment and personnel. At a very low CoSL. Lo the gue-rrilla in t.irne and E~rforL., his h arassmcnt ,',llll(' will be enhanced significantly through add itio n of the improvised roeket Lo hi:.> ; 'arsenal".

)

19

20

{ I

A P P I'j:-ID T X

T J.hl~ I, ["0 llowin g. givp~ t.hc n~~ult8 0 f mo n~ lhan l,l)OO test l"i rings of potassium nitrut« .sucros« pfOr)(~'I;t'cI rod~(~ I;..; usm l! a pro pellan1. formulation a~ d{''':'crJwd i n P'l r:l!{l.'aph l'~, S~cl.il)n II, "'l\~chni('(li Di;;(~u~s~on ". T(~8t.8 wr-rn cun rtuct cd during the pE"r~wJ J.~l"l7 -50, Notul.ion u~l'd O!1 Tahle 1 i'ollows the con ven tions out! ined ill dw S(~l'j_~Clll fnllmv;ng I he Tu ble:

"Simpk: F.xp[(~s~ion~ For QLl;d Look ~;~ l.mat ions of Sp~;d Propellant. H.oc k.-t. \lotor PerfmrmUH~(''',

21

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23

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24

--

ct.ossn H.OM H DE'I'EJ{1\'11 1\ AriON OF SPF~CI Fa.: L\1 PC LSE;

Homb Volume V, cc

Propellant Weight - w , gui

lrnpctus

Fimp tt-lb.lb

Fimp

p

2.307 (covolurnc and dimensionless unit cOfw('rsim1 l'ac1.or)

- ... ,7 2 [uni L com'er~jon factol'}

:+:

(~ elf - K~FF· (l"imp.~ 1:''2

g

- 0_2-'10 (dimensionless factor)

-- k4 (Firnp.) 1/2

1 ,000 p~i

- 0,;17 U ~. un it conversion fad.or)

~OTE: Constants k 1, k2, k3 and k.l above fIl'"€ empirically derived fucl.ors which give- approximations L.O the quani.itles t'xpf(~f,s(~d l'o r qu i~·k look p.valua~iol1~ u r t,h~~ propo~d so I id prrlpcllant rockets as derived l'ro rn amateur group l'Xp(~nmcnt-,

25

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