You are on page 1of 27

CHE4162

Particle Technology

Lecture 8

Chemical Reactions
in Fluidized Beds
Rhodes: Chapter 7

Learning objectives
Chemical reaction in fluidized beds
Reactions in fluidised beds worked example
Fluidised beds example
Processing in fluidized beds

Chemical reaction in fluidized beds


In general, models for the fluidized bed reactor consider:
the division of gas between the bubble phase and particulate
phase
the degree of mixing in the particulate phase
the transfer of gas between the phases

A simple reactor model:


gas phase catalytic
CH

Schematic of the Orcutt


fluidized bed reactor model

CBH

Cp
Particulate phase

gas crossflow

C=C
p

Bubble phase

N
Reaction rate = kCp

C = C at height h
B

C0

C0
UmfA

(U - Umf)A

Gas flow = UA

Chemical reaction in fluidized beds


Assumptions:
Original two-phase theory applies
Perfect mixing in the particulate phase
No reaction in the bubble phase

The overall mass balance on the reactant is:


Molar flow of Molar flow out Molar flow out in Rate of

=
+
+

phase
e
particulat
reactant
in
in
bubble
phase
conversion

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Chemical reaction in fluidized beds


Term (1) (Molar flow of reactant in) = UAC0

Term (2) (Molar flow out in bubble phase) :


Reactant concentration in bubble phase changes with height
above distributor as gas is exchanged with the particulate
phase
Consider an element of bed of thickness dL at a height L above the distributor.
rate of increase of
rate of transfer of reactant
reactant in bubble phase = from particulate phase

U U mf AdCB = K C ( B AdL)(CB Cp )
(Assumes no reaction in bubble phase since no particles)

Chemical reaction in fluidized beds


In the limit as dL tends to zero

K C B (CB Cp )
dCB
=
dL
(U U mf )

Where KC is the mass transfer coefficient per unit bubble volume and
B is the bubble fraction.
Integrating with the boundary condition that CB = C0 at L = 0:
Variation of reactant
concentration in bubbles
with height

KC L
CB = Cp + (C0 Cp ) exp

U
B

U
mf
Since =
B
UB

Chemical reaction in fluidized beds


At the surface of the bed, L = H
So: reactant concentration in the bubble phase at the bed surface is:

CBH
So: Term (2) =

KC H
= Cp + (C0 Cp ) exp

U
B

CBH (U U mf ) A

Term (3) (molar flow out in particulate phase) = UmfACp


(Well-mixed particulate phase)

Chemical reaction in fluidized beds


Term (4) (Rate of reactant conversion in the bed)

Molar rate of

j
=
kC
p (1 p )(1 B ) AH
conversion in bed

Molar rate of
conversion

per unit
volume of solids

volume of solids
per unit volume of
particulate phase

ofvolume
bed

volume of particulate
phase
per unit
volume of bed

For a jth order reaction

Chemical reaction in fluidized beds


The overall mass balance on the reactant is:
Molar flow of Molar flow out Molar flow out in
Rate of

=
+
+

reactant in in bubble phase the particulate phase conversion


1
(2)
(3)
(4)

The overall reactant mass balance becomes:

K CH

UAC 0 = Cp + (C0 Cp ) exp


(U Umf )A +

UB

+ Umf ACp + kC pj (1 p )(1 B )AH


From which Cp is found.

Chemical reaction in fluidized beds


Then CH, reactant concentration leaving the reactor,
is then calculated :

CH =

U mf Cp + (U U mf )CBH
U

CH
CH

Cp

CBH
CBH

Cp
Particulate phase

gas crossflow

C=C
p

Bubble phase

N
Reaction rate = kCp

C = C at height h
B

C0

U mf

C0
UmfA

(U - Umf)A

U U mf
U

Gas flow = UA

Chemical reaction in fluidized beds


For a first order reaction (i.e: j = 1):

C0 U (U U mf )e
Cp =

kH mf (1 p ) + U (U U mf )e
Where:

KC H
=
UB

equivalent to a number of mass transfer units for


gas exchange between the phases

Generally decreases as bubble size increases and so


small bubbles are preferred.

Chemical reaction in fluidized beds


Conversion in the reactor:

Chemical reaction in fluidized beds

Conversion as a function of reaction rate and interphase mass transfer


for b = 0.75 for a first order gas phase catalytic reaction.

Reactions in fluidised beds - example


Worked example 7.3 (in Rhodes)
A gas phase catalytic reaction is performed in a fluidized bed
operating at a superficial gas velocity of 0.3 m/s. For this reaction
under these conditions it is known that the reaction is first order in
reactant A. The following information is given:

Bed height at incipient fluidization = 1.5 m


Operating mean bed height = 1.65 m
Voidage at incipient fluidization = 0.47
Reaction rate constant = 75.47 (per unit volume of solids)
Umf = 0:033m/s
mean bubble rise velocity = 0.111 m/s
mass transfer coefficient between bubbles and emulsion = 0.1009
(based on unit bubble volume)

Reactions in fluidised beds - example


Worked example 7.3 (in Rhodes)
Use the reactor model of Orcutt et al. to determine:

(a) The conversion of reactant A.


(b) The effect on the conversion found in (a) of reducing
the inventory of catalyst by one half.
(c) The effect on the conversion found in (a) of halving
the bubble size (assuming the interphase mass
transfer coefficient is inversely proportional to the
square root of the bubble diameter).
(d) Discuss your answers to (b) and (c) and state which
mechanism is controlling conversion in the reactor.

Reactions in fluidised beds - example


Solution
a) Determine the conversion of reactant A
For a 1st order reaction (from Rhodes):

Substituting known variables (assuming p = mf) :

Reactions in fluidised beds - example


b) Determine the effect on the conversion found in (a) of
reducing the inventory of catalyst by one half

Halving the mass of solids will halve the operating bed height (H)
and the height at incipient fluidization (Hmf). Assuming all other
variables stay the same, substitute into previous equations:

Reactions in fluidised beds - example


c) Determine the effect on the conversion found in (a) of halving
the bubble size (assuming the interphase mass transfer
coefficient is inversely proportional to the square root of the
bubble diameter).

KC

1
Bubble Diameter

new K C = 2 old K C
K C = 0.1427

Reactions in fluidised beds - example


d) Discuss your answers to (b) and (c) and state which
mechanism is controlling conversion in the reactor.

Increasing the bubble size in part (c) had a significant effect on


conversion. However, increasing the reaction rate would result in
only a small increase in conversion.

Therefore, in this case mass transfer between the bubble phase


and emulsion phase is dominant in this conversion.

Example - fluidized bed coating

Hot metalware

Thermosetting
plastic powder

air

Example - fluidized bed coating

Hot metalware

Thermosetting
plastic powder

air

Example - fluidized bed coating

Hot metalware

Thermosetting
plastic powder

air

Example - Fluidized bed solids cooler

Kelloggs Model A Orthoflow FCC unit

Processing in fluidized beds


Advantages

Disadvantages

gas bypassing
gas backmixing
entrainment - loss of fines

good gas-solids contacting


good solids mixing
good heat transfer
large solids surface area
isothermal conditions
ease of control
ease of solids removal

Private study
Review Chapter 7 Fluidization
Try test yourself questions after reading

Review Worked examples


Recommended exercises are:
7.1, 7.2, 7.5, 7.8, 7.9, 7.11, 7.12