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Die Design

Handbook
Third Edition

David A. Smith
Editor
Ramon Bakerjian
Staff Editor

Edited from

Die Design Handbook


Second Edition

Frank W. Wilson
Editor-in-Chief
Philip D. Harvey
Editor

Charles U. Gump
Assistant Editor

Copyright 1990 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.

Die Design Handbook


ISBN No. WX726.3-375-6
Library (IF Congres\ C:ltcrlog No. 89-063763
S o c ~ c t )~~ )MiinuI':~ct~~ring
i
Engineers (SME)
Copyright 0 I900 by Society ~ ) fManufacturing Engineers,
One SME Drive. P.O. 8 o \ 930. Dearhtrrr~.Michigan 48121
All rights reserved including those of translation. This book. or part\ thereof. may not he
reproduced in any form without written permi\\im of the copyright owner. The Society docs
nut. by puhllcation of data in !hi\ book. ensure to anyone thc u\e of such data against liability
of any kind including infringc~nentof any patent. Publication of any data in this hook dues
not constitute ;I recommendation of any patent or proprietary right that may he involved. The
Socicty t r l Manufacturing Enginccrs. a\ n ~ l as
l all contributors and revie\\cr\ of information
in this b ~ x ~ disclai~n
k.
any and all responsibility for usc of the infcmnation containcd herein by
reader\ and users of this Handbook
First edition puhli\hcd in 1955 by McGI-aw-Hill Book Co. in coopel-atlnn uith SME ~ ~ n d e r
c;i~-lierSociety name. American Society of Tool Engineer\ (ASTE). and under title Die
D u s i p ~H(o~i//x~ok.
Sccot~Jedition publi\hed in 1965 again b! McGraw-Hill Book Co. in
cooperation with SME under earlier Society liarnc, American Society oE Tool and
Manufacturing Engineers (ASTME). and undcl- title Die De.\i,q~l H ( ~ r ~ d l ~ o o k .
Printcd in the Llnitc~lStates of A~nc~-lc.i

Copyright 1990 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.

PREFACE
The first edition of Die Design Hundhook appeared in 1955, with the second edition
being published in 1965. Both editions were edited by Frank W . Wilson, who imparted
a unique practical touch to the work.
The wealth of practical design and troubleshooting information that is responsible for
the work's popularity has been retained in this third edition. Nearly all sections have been
updated. Major changes and additions include:
New information on the control of snap-thru energy.
A new section on product development for deep drawing.
A new section on progressive die design.
A new section on fineblanking.
A new section on multislide tooling.
Examples of maintenance planning systems.
Completely revised information on die setting.
Root causes of stamping process variability.
Completely revised information on metalworking lubricants.
Up-to-date information on die sensors.
Correct installation and applications of tonnage meters.
Revised welding, heat treating, and surface treatment information.
The individuals and firms who contributed to this edition recognize that there are many
benefits beyond any financial recompense to be gained from cooperation and from the
mutual assistance. It is recognized, however. that by donating time, talent, and design
examples, the contributors and reviewers have indirectly provided incalculable amounts
of financial assistance to the development of this project.
This third edition is truly a group effort.

David Alkire Smith


Editor

Copyright 1990 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.

ABOUT THE EDITOR


David A . Smith is the president and founder of Smith and Associates, a stamping
consulting firm in Monroe. Michigan. Mr. Smith has over 30 years of hands-on
experience, most notably his 23 years a s a diemaker and die tryout group leader for Ford
Motor Company. Mr. Smith was also employed with Western Electric.
Mr. Smith is an active member in S M E as well as several other societies. including the
American Society for Metals International and the Society for Experimental Mechanics.
His published S M E technical papers include "How to Improve Hit-To-Hit Time With a
Tonnage Monitor," "How to Solve Die Inipact and Noise Problems With Automotive
Pull Rod Shock Absorbers," "Why Press Slide Out of Parallel Problems Affect Part
Quality and Available Tonnage," "Reducing Die Maintenance Costs Through Product
Design," and "Adjusting Dies to a Common Shut Height."
A frequent speaker at S M E clinics. Mr. Smith has taught courses for Understundirlg
Presses and Press Operutions, Die utld PI-essworkitlg Tooling. Quick Die Chatlge. Sheet
Metul Frrhricution. PI-ess Muintrt~unce. TI-crtlsfiv Press crnd Die Techrlology, and
Diesetter Trninirlg jbr Cotlsisterrr setup.^.

Copyright 1990 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
TO THE THIRD EDITION
James J. Albrecht, Dayton Progress Corporation. Dayton, Ohio
Clyde Bierma, Apprentice Coordinator (retired). Western Electric Co., Columbus,
Ohio
Rollin Bondar, President. MPD Welding Inc., Troy. Michigan
John A. Borns, President. Benchmark Technologies Corporation, Toledo, Ohio
Larry Crainich, President. Design Standards Corporation, Bridgeport. Connecticut
Rod Denton. President. Sun Steel Treating Inc., South Lyon. Michigan
Lawrence R. Evans, General Manager. Forward Industries. Dearborn. Michigan
Phillip A. Gibson, District Manager. Atlas Automation Division, Automated Manufacturing Systems, Inc. Atlanta. Georgia
M. Tod Gonzales. General Manager. Product Application Center. National Steel
Corporation. Livonia, Michigan
Jeffrey Gordish, Manager. Maintenance Management Consulting, Management
Technologies Incorporated. Troy, Michigan
Paul Griglio, Stamping Special Programs Manager, Chrysler Corporation, Detroit,
Michigan
Ray Hedding. Stamping Manager. MAZDA Motor Manufacturing (USA) Corporation. Flat Rock. Michigan
Joseph Ivaska, Vice President of Engineering. Tower Oil and Technology Company.
Chicago. Illinois
Stuart P. Keeler. Manager. Metallurgy and Sheet Metal Technology, The Budd
Company Technical Center. Auburn Hills. Michigan
Karl A. Keyes, President. Feinbliinking Ltd. Fnirfield, Ohio
George Keremedjiev, Consultant. Teknow Educational Service. Bozeman, Montana
Roman J. Krygier, Stamping Operations Manager, Body and Assembly Division,
Ford Motor Company, Dearborn. Michigan
Dan Leighton, Atlas Automation Division, Automated Manufacturing Systems. Inc..
Fenton. Michigan
Cecil Lewis, Director of Mk~n~~facturing
and Engineering. Midway Products Corporation. Monroe. Michigan
Albert A. Manduzzi, Supervisor. Die Design and Standards, Ford Motor Company,
Dearborn. Michigan
Michael R. Martin, Application Specialist. Darnell and Diebolt Company. Detroit,
Michigan
John McCurdy, President. W . C. McCurdy Company. Troy. Michigan
Carl Meyer, President, Progressive Tool Company, Waterloo. Iowa
Arnold Miedema, President. Capitol Engineering Company. Wyoming. Michigan
Eugene J. Narbut, Specialist. Stamping Manufacturing. MAZDA Motor Manufacturing (USA) Corporation, Flat Rock, Michigan
Angleo Piccinini, Die Design and Die Standards Supervisor. Chrysler Corporation.
Detroit. Michigan
Robert W. Prucka, Stamping Manager, Wayne Assembly Plant. Ford Motor
Company. Wayne. Michigan
Anthony Rante, Manager. Mechanical Engineering. Danly Machine, Chicago.
Illinois
Jerry Rush, U. S. Amada Ltd.. Buena Park. California
Edwin Shoemaker, Vice President of Engineering, LA-Z-BOY Chair Company,
Monroe, Michigan

Copyright 1990 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.

Basil Senio, Manufacturing Process and Design Engineering Manager. Ford Motor
Company. Dearborn. Michigan
Jeffrey L. Smolinski, Engineering and Manufacturing Technologies Manager, LAZ-BOY Chair Company. Monroe. Michigan
Edwin A. Stouten, Vice President (retired), Capitol Engineering Company, Wyoming, Michigan
Mark R. Tharrett, General Motors Corp., Warren. Michigan
Maurice Wayne, Director. Corporate Quality Statistical Systems, Opdyke Stamping,
Oxford. Michigan
Bernard J. Wallis, Chairman of the Board. Livernoia Engineering Corporation,
Dearborn, Michigan
Donald Wilhelm, President. Helm Instrument Company. Maumee. Ohio
Lawrence L. Wilhelm, Production Engineering Manager. Advanced Manufacturing
Operations. Chrysler Corporation, Detroit. Michigan
Mike Young, President. VibroIDynaniics. Broadview. Illinois
Timothy Zemaitis, Metallurgical Engineer. Sun Steel Treating lnc.. South Lyon,
Michigan

LIST OF REVIEWERS
FOR THE THIRD EDITION
-

Michael Barrilli, Metallurgical Laboratory Supervisor, The Budd Company, Philadelphia, Pennsyl\ania
Roscoe Rrumback, Quality Control Manager. W . C . McCurdy Company. Troy,
Michigan
Daniel B. Dallas, Editor ( 1968- 1982). Mtrill!ftrcturitlg E~~gitleet-irlg
C. R. Fait, Plant Manager. W . C . McCurdy Company. Troy. Michigan
Leo Geenens, Corporate Quality Control Manager. Midway Products Corporation,
Monroe. Michigan
Cass Gizinski, Die Design Standards, Advanced Manufacturing Operations. Chrysler
Motors Corporation. Detroit. Michigall
Joseph Hladik, Tool Designer. Western Electric C o . , Columbus. Ohio
A. L. Hall, Manager, Stamping Engineering, Ford Motor Company. Dearborn,
Michigan
David M. Holley, Chief Engineer. Dadco. Inc., Detroit. Michigan
Norbert Izworski, Product Development Engineer. Body and Assembly Division,
Ford Motor Company, Dearborn. Michigan
James Larsen, Die Engineering Standards, Chrysler Corporation, Detroit, Michigan
Gary R. Maddock, Product Metallurgist. High-speed Steels, Crucible Specialty
Metals. Syracuse, New York
Gil Novak, Manager, Capacity and Facility Planning. Body and Assembly Division,
Dearborn, Michigan
Gerald A. Pool, Senior Manufacturing Engineer, Cadillac Motor Car Div., General
Motors Corp.. Troy. Michigan
Aniese Seed, President (retired), Toledo Transducers Inc.. Toledo. Ohio
Stephen Singleton, Quality Engineer, Teledyne C A E , Toledo. Ohio
Jack L. Thompson, Managing Director. Walker Auytralia Pty. Ltd.. Division of
Tenneco Automotive. Australia
Norman L. Vesprini, Applications Engineer, Peerless Steel Supply, Troy. Michigan
Robert L. Wagner, Regional Manager. Helm Instrument Company. Maumee. Ohio
Richard Wilhelm, General Manager. Helm Instrument Company. Maumee. Ohio

Copyright 1990 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
TO THE SECOND EDITION
Howard S. Achler, Vice President. Kaufmann Tool & Engineering Corp., Chicago.
Illinois
D. H. W. Allan, Coordinator. Data Processing. American Iron and Steel Institute.
New York. New York
Bernard Anscher, President, Mercury Engineering Co., Flushing. New York
W. N. Rachman, President. Bachman Machine Co.. St. Louis. Missouri
John A. Barth, Executive Vice President. The Barth Corp., Cleveland, Ohio
E. L. H. Bastian, Senior Engineer, Manufacturing, Shell Oil Co.. Chicago, Illinois
K. Beaty, Manager, Tool and Process Engineering, The Vendo Co., Kansas City.
Missouri
Roland E. Bechtel, Staff Industrial Engineer. Rockwell Manufacturing Co., Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania
Kenneth C. Butterfield, Manager. Tool Engineering. Chrysler Corp., Detroit,
Michigan
Albert Clements, Vice President. Hamilton Div.. Clearing Machine Corp., Chicago,
Illinois
M. M. Clemons, Vice President. Engineering, Press Automation Systems. Inc..
Detroit. Michigan
Ralph Dubey, Metal Stamping Engineering Department. Ford Motor Co.. Dearborn,
Michigan
Nicholas Dudas, Western Electric Co., Inc., Kearny. New Jersey
Donald F. Eary. Senior Specirilist. Mechanical Working. General Motors Institute.
Flint. Michigan
E. Warren Feddersen, Director of Manufacturing Engineering. General Dynamics
Corp.. Snn Diego. California
Philip Finkelstein, Proprietor. Mercury Tool and Die Co.. New York. New York
Charles Girtz, Ryan Aerospace, San Diego, California
Leroy P. Gordon, Chief Tool Engineer, Ekco Containers. Inc.. Wheeling, Illinois
Clarence Hall, Die Design Cons~~ltant.
St. Louis. Missouri
John Hall, Manager of Process Engineering. Chrysler Corp., Detroit, Michigan
Dr. J. C. Hamaker, Vice President. Technology. Vanadium-Alloys Steel Co.,
Latrobe. Pennsyl\mia
A. I. Heim, Technical Consultant, Copper Development Association, Inc., New
York. New York
E. D. Hinkel, Jr., Assistant Metallurgist, The Carpenter Steel Co., Reading.
Pennsylvania
Ernest W. Horvick, Director of Technical Services. American Zinc Institute. Inc..
New York, New York
Noble Ida, Explosive Forming Section, Martin Co.. Denver, Colorado
Charles R. Isleib, Ductile Iron Section. The International Nickel Co., Inc., New
York. New York
A. R. Johnson, Manager. Research Department. Vanadiunl-Alloys Steel Co..
Latrobe, Pennsylkania
J. S. Kirkpatrick, Executive Vice President and Technical Director. The Magnesium
Association. Detroit. Michigan
Peter Lecki-Ewing, Manager of Research, Latrobe Steel C o . . Latrobe. Pennsylvania
E. E. Lockwood, Senior Research Engineer. North American Aviation, Inc.. Canoga
Park. California
P. R. Marsilius, Vice President. The Producto Machine Co., Bridgeport. Connecticut

Copyright 1990 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.

.-

C. R. Maxon, Market Development Div., The New Jersey Zinc Co.. New York, New
York
Anton F. Mohrnheim, Associate Professor of Metallurgy. University of Rhode
Island. Kingston, Rhode Island
Joseph J. Naegelen, Maintenance Engineer, Pittsburgh Railways. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Henry Nida, Manager. Manufacturing Feasibility and Analysis, Metal Stamping
Engineering. Ford Motor Co., Dearborn. Michigan
Robert C. Nutting, Chief Engineer, Harig Manufacturing Corp., Chicago, Illinois
F. L. Orrell, Westinghouse Electric Corp.. Blairsville, Pennsylvania
Joseph Palsulich, Research Engineer, Western Gear Corp., Lynwood, California
J. R. Paquin, Supervisor, Tool and Die Design, Cleveland Engineering Institute.
Cleveland, Ohio
John Pearson, Head. Detonation Physics Group, U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station,
China Lake. California
David D. Pettigrew, Assistant Manager. Power Tool Engineering, Rockwell Manufacturing Co., Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania
W. J. Potthoff, Supervisor of Tooling. The Emerson Electric Manufacturing Co., St.
Louis. Missouri
Edward A. Reed, General Supervisor. Drafting, General Motors Corp.. Flint,
Michigan
Lawrence M. Rheingold, President, Templet Industries, Inc., Brooklyn, New York
Merrill Ridgway, The Minster Machine Co.. Minster, Ohio
J. Y. Riedel, Bethlehem Steel Corp.. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Thomas Riodan, Master Mechanic. Bendix Corp.. Utica, New York
E. C. Roark, Precision Forge Co., Santa Monica, California
Ernest J. Ross, Superintendent Master Mechanic, Chevrolet Motor Div., General
Motors Corp.. Flint, Michigan
David Ryffel, Jr., Sales Promotion Manager, The Producto Machine C o . , Bridgeport,
Connecticut
Alvin M. Sabroff, Assistant Chief. Metalworking Div., BattelIe Memorial Institute,
Columbus. Ohio
Robert Sergeson, Chief Metallurgical Engineer. Jones & Laughlin Corp., Warren.
Michigan
Floyd E. Smith, President. Automation Devices. Inc.. Erie. Pennsylvania
Ray B. Smith, Director, Engineering Standards, Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond,
Virginia
Charles H. Stephens, Chief Engineer. Advance Stamping Co.. Brighton, Michigan
H. J. Towell, Manufacturing Engineer, Texas Instruments. Inc., Dallas. Texas
F. G. Von Brecht, President, Quick Parts, Inc.. Crestwood. Missouri
J. K. Wingard, Chief Engineer, Presses. E. W. Bliss Co.. Salem. Ohio
Dr. Louis Zernow, President. Shock Hydrodynamics, Inc., Santa Monica, California

Copyright 1990 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.

A NOTE ON METRICATION
In some cases (particularly Figures and Tables) in this book the numerical values listed
are only in the English system. If you wish to use an appropriate metric value in its place
(or convert from metric to English), the following conversion factors are listed below.

Multiply
inches
n~illimeters
in.-lbf
newton-meter (N.m)
Ihf
newton (N)
Ibf
kilogram-force ( k g 0
ton
kilonewton ( k N )
p5 I
pascal (Pa)
ft-lb
joule (.I)
ft-lb
Btu

To get
millimeten
inches
newton-meter (N,rn)
~n.-lbt
newton (N)
Ibf
k~lograrn-force(kgf)
Ibf
kilonewton ikN)
ton
pascal (Pa)
p4i
joule (.I)
ft-lb
Btu
ft-lb

Copyright 1990 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS
Pressworking Ternlinology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 -I
Stampings Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1
Die Engineering-Planning

and Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

Shear Action in Metal Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1


Cutting Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
Bending of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1
Bending Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Metal Movement in Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Forming Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1
Displacement of Metal in Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-1
Product Development for Deep Drawing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-1

DrawDies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-1
Dies for Large and Irregular Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-1
Rubber-pad and Hydraulic-action Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-1
.
Compression Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1

Progressive Die Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1


.
.
Progressive Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1

Compound and Combination Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-1

Designing Presstools for Fineblanking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1


Tools for Multiple Slide Forming Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-1
. .1
Low-cost and Miscellaneous Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Die Sets and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1


.
Designing Dies for Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3. 1
Die Maintenance-Setting

and Tryout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1


.

Lubricants for Pressworking Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25-1


.
Die Protection Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1

PressData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77-1
.
Ferrous Die Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28-1
Nonferrous and Nonmetallic Die Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29-1
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

Copyright 1990 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.

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