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Life of Jesus in the New Testament

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The four canonical gospels of the New Testament are


the primary sources of information for the narrative of
the life of Jesus.[2][3] However, other parts of the New
Testament, such as the Pauline epistles which were
likely written decades before them, also include
references to key episodes in his life such as the Last
Supper.[2][3][4] And the Acts of the Apostles (1:1-11)
says more about the Ascension episode than the
canonical gospels.[5][6]
The genealogy and Nativity of Jesus are described in
two of the four canonical gospels: Matthew and Luke.
Luke and Matthew describe Jesus being born in
Bethlehem, in Judea, to a virgin mother. In Matthew,
wise men follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to
Jesus, born the King of the Jews. King Herod orders the
massacre of all male children under two years old in
Bethlehem to kill Jesus, but the holy family flees to

The Maest by Duccio, (1310) depicting the Life


of Christ, with 26 central scenes devoted to the
Passion and Resurrection.[1]

Egypt and later settles in Nazareth.[7][8]


In the gospels, the ministry of Jesus starts with his Baptism by John the Baptist, when he is about thirty
years old. Jesus then begins preaching in Galilee and gathers disciples.[9][10] After the proclamation of
Jesus as Christ, three of the disciples witness his Transfiguration.[11][12] After the death of John the
Baptist and the Transfiguration, Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem, having predicted his own
death there.[13] Jesus makes a triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and once there friction with the Pharisees
increases and one of his disciples agrees to betray him for thirty pieces of silver.[14][15][16]
In the gospel accounts, towards the end of the final week in Jerusalem, Jesus has the Last Supper with
his disciples, and the next day is betrayed, arrested and tried.[17] The trial ends in his crucifixion and
death. Three days after his burial, he is resurrected and appears to his disciples over a 40 day period,
after which he ascends to Heaven.[18] [19]

Contents
1 Genealogy and Nativity
2 Ministry
2.1 Locations of Ministry
2.2 Baptism and temptation
2.3 Calling the disciples and early Ministry
2.4 Ministry and miracles in Galilee
2.5 Proclamation as Christ
2.6 Transfiguration

2.6 Transfiguration
2.7 Final journey to Jerusalem
2.8 Final week in Jerusalem
3 Passion
3.1 Betrayal and arrest
3.2 Trials
3.3 Crucifixion and burial
4 Resurrection and Ascension
4.1 Resurrection appearances
4.2 Ascension
5 See also
6 Notes
7 References
8 Further reading

Genealogy and Nativity


Two of the four canonical gospels provide accounts of the
genealogy and birth of Jesus.[20] While Luke traces the
genealogy upwards towards Adam and God, Matthew traces it
downwards towards Jesus.[21] Both gospels state that Jesus
was begotten not by Joseph, but by God.[22] Both accounts
trace Joseph back to King David and from there to Abraham.
These lists are identical between Abraham and David (except
for one), but they differ almost completely between David and
Joseph.[23][24] Matthew gives Jacob as Josephs father and
Luke says Joseph was the son of Heli. Attempts at explaining
the differences between the genealogies have varied in nature,
e.g. that Luke traces the genealogy through Mary while
Matthew traces it through Joseph; or that Jacob and Heli were

"Adoration of the Shepherds" by Gerard


van Honthorst, 1622

both fathers of Joseph, one being the legal father, after the death of Joseph's actual father.[25][26][27]
Many modern scholars see them simply as literarly inventions.[28]
The Luke and Matthew accounts of the birth of Jesus have a number of points in common; both have
Jesus being born in Bethlehem, in Judea, to a virgin mother. In the Luke account Joseph and Mary travel
from their home in Nazareth for the census to Bethlehem, where Jesus is born and laid in a manger.[29]
Angels proclaim him a savior for all people, and shepherds come to adore him; the family then returns to
Nazareth. In Matthew, astrologers follow a star to Bethlehem, where the family are living, to bring gifts
to Jesus, born the King of the Jews. King Herod massacres all males under two years old in Bethlehem in
order to kill Jesus, but Jesus's family flees to Egypt and later settles in Nazareth. Scholars debate
whether the contradictions in these accounts can be reconciled, and modern scholarship mostly views
them as legendary.[30][31][32][33][34] Some scholars view the discussion of historicity as secondary, given

that gospels were primarily written as theological documents rather than chronological
timelines.[35][36][37][38] Other traditional Christian scholars maintain that the two accounts do not
contradict each other, pointing to the similarities between them.[39]

Ministry
The five major milestones in the gospel narrative of
the life of Jesus are his Baptism, Transfiguration,
Crucifixion, Resurrection and Ascension.[40][41][42]
In the gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his
baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and
Transjordan, near the river Jordan, and ends in
Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his
disciples.[10] The Gospel of Luke (3:23) states that
Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his
ministry.[43][44] A chronology of Jesus typically has
the date of the start of his ministry estimated at
around 27-29 AD/CE and the end in the range 30-36

Jesus commissioning the Twelve Apostles depicted


by Ghirlandaio, 1481.

AD/CE.[43][43][44][44][45][46]
Jesus' Early Galilean ministry begins when after his Baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in
the Judean desert.[47] In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who
begin to travel with him and eventually form the core of the early Church[9][10] as it is believed that the
Apostles dispersed from Jerusalem to found the Apostolic Sees. The Major Galilean ministry which
begins in Matthew 8 includes the commissioning of the Twelve Apostles, and covers most of the
ministry of Jesus in Galilee.[48][49] The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist
as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem.[50][51]
In the Later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea.[11][12][52][53] As
Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the
Sea of Galilee (actually a fresh water lake) along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was
baptized.[54][55][56] The Final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins
with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem.[57] The gospels provide more details about the final ministry
than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in
Jerusalem.[58]

Locations of Ministry
In the New Testament accounts, the principle locations for the ministry of Jesus were Galilee and Judea,
with activities also taking place in surrounding areas such as Perea and Samaria.[9][10]
The gospel narrative of the ministry of Jesus is traditionally separated into sections that have a
geographical nature.
Galilean ministry: Jesus' ministry begins when after his baptism, he returns to Galilee, and

preaches in the synagogue of Capernaum.[47][59] The first disciples of Jesus encounter him
near the Sea of Galilee and his later Galilean ministry includes key episodes such as Sermon
on the Mount (with the Beatitudes) which form the core of his moral teachings.[60][61] Jesus'
ministry in the Galilee area draws to an end with the death of John the Baptist.[50][51]
Journey to Jerusalem: After the death of the
Baptist, about half way through the gospels
(approximately Matthew 17 and Mark 9) two
key events take place that change the nature of
the narrative by beginning the gradual
revelation of his identity to his disciples: his
proclamation as Christ by Peter and his
transfiguration.[11][12] After these events, a
good portion of the gospel narratives deal with
Jesus' final journey to Jerusalem through Perea
and Judea.[11][12][52][53] As Jesus travels
towards Jerusalem through Perea he returns to
the area where he was baptized.[54][55][56]
Final week in Jerusalem: The final part of Jesus'
ministry begins (Matthew 21 and Mark 11) with
his triumphal entry into Jerusalem after the

Galilee, Perea and Judea at the time of


Jesus

raising of Lazarus episode which takes place in


Bethany. The gospels provide more details about the final portion than the other periods,
devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem which
ends in his crucifixion.[58] The New Testament accounts of the resurrection appearances of
Jesus and his ascension are also in the Judea area.

Baptism and temptation


The Baptism of Jesus marks the beginning of his public ministry. This event is recorded in the Canonical
Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. In John 1:29-33, rather than a direct narrative, John the Baptist
bears witness to the episode.[63][64]
In the New Testament, John the Baptist preached a "baptism with water", not of forgiveness but of
penance or repentance for the remission of sins (Luke 3:3), and declared himself a forerunner to one who
would baptize 'with the Holy Spirit and with fire' (Luke 3:16). In so doing he was preparing the way for
Jesus.[65] Jesus came to the Jordan River where he was baptized by John.[65][66][67][68] The baptismal
scene includes the Heavens opening, a dove-like descent of the Holy Spirit, and a voice from Heaven
saying, "This is my beloved Son with whom I am well pleased."[65][69]

Most modern scholars view the fact that Jesus was baptized by John as an historical event to which a
high degree of certainty can be assigned.[70][71][72][73] James Dunn states that the historicity of the
Baptism and crucifixion of Jesus "command almost universal assent".[74] Along with the crucifixion of
Jesus most scholars view it as one of the two historically certain facts about him, and often use it as the
starting points for the study of the historical Jesus.[74]
The temptation of Jesus is detailed in the gospels of Matthew,[75] Mark,[76] and Luke.[77] In these
narratives, after being baptized, Jesus fasted for forty days and nights in the Judaean Desert. During this
time, the devil appeared to Jesus and tempted him. Jesus having refused each temptation, the devil
departed and angels came and brought nourishment to Jesus.

Calling the disciples and early Ministry


The calling of the first disciples is a key episode in the gospels
which begins the active ministry of Jesus, and builds the foundation
for the group of people who follow him, and later form the early
Church.[78][79] It takes place in Matthew 4:18-22
(http://tools.wmflabs.org/bibleversefinder/?
book=Matthew&verse=4:18-22&src=NIV), Mark 1:16-20
(http://tools.wmflabs.org/bibleversefinder/?
book=Mark&verse=1:16-20&src=NIV) and Luke 5:1-11
(http://tools.wmflabs.org/bibleversefinder/?book=Luke&verse=5:111&src=NIV) on the Sea of Galilee. John 1:35-51
(http://tools.wmflabs.org/bibleversefinder/?book=John&verse=1:3551&src=NIV) reports the first encounter with two of the disciples a
little earlier in the presence of John the Baptist. Particularly in the
Gospel of Mark the beginning of the ministry of Jesus and the call
of the first disciples are inseparable.[80]
In the Gospel of Luke (5:111
(http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke%205:1

Francesco Albani's 17th century


Baptism of Christ is a typical
depiction with the sky opening
and the Holy Spirit descending as
a dove.[62]

11;&version=31;)),[81] the event is part of the first miraculous catch


of fish and results in Peter as well as James and John, the sons of
Zebedee, joining Jesus vocationally as disciples.[82][83][84] The
gathering of the disciples in John 1:35-51
(http://tools.wmflabs.org/bibleversefinder/?book=John&verse=1:3551&src=NIV) follows the many patterns of discipleship that
continue in the New Testament, in that who have received someone
else's witness become witnesses to Jesus themselves. Andrew
follows Jesus because of the testimony of John the Baptist, Philip
brings Nathanael and the pattern continues in John 4:4-26
(http://tools.wmflabs.org/bibleversefinder/?book=John&verse=4:426&src=NIV) where the Samaritan Woman at the Well testifies to

Calling of the disciples and the


miraculous catch of fish, by
Raphael, 1515

the town people about Jesus.[85]


This early period also includes the first miracle of Jesus in the Marriage at Cana, in the Gospel of John
where Jesus and his disciples are invited to a wedding and when the wine runs out Jesus turns water into
wine by performing a miracle.[86][87]

Ministry and miracles in Galilee


Jesus' activities in Galillee include a number of miracles and teachings. The beginnings of this period
include The Centurion's Servant (8:5-13) and Calming the storm (Matthew 8:23-27) both dealing with
the theme of faith overcoming fear.[88][89][90] In this period, Jesus also gathers disciples, e.g. calls
Matthew.[91] The Commissioning the twelve Apostles relates the initial selection of the twelve Apostles
among the disciples of Jesus.[92][93][94]
In the Mission Discourse, Jesus instructs the twelve apostles who are named in Matthew 10:2-3 to carry
no belongings as they travel from city to city and preach.[48][49] Separately in Luke 10:1-24 relates the
Seventy Disciples, where Jesus appoints a larger number of disciples and sent them out in pairs with the
Missionary's Mandate to go into villages before Jesus' arrival there.[95]
After hearing of the Baptist's death, Jesus withdraws
by boat privately to a solitary place near Bethsaida,
where he addresses the crowds who had followed
him on foot from the towns, and feeds them all by

Walking on water, by Veneziano, 1370

"five loaves and two fish" supplied by a boy.[96]


Following this, the gospels present the Walking on
water episode in Matthew 14:22-23, Mark 6:45-52
and John 6:16-21 as an important step in developing
the relationship between Jesus and his disciples, at

this stage of his ministry.[97] The episode emphasizes the importance of faith by stating that when he
attempted to walk on water, Peter began to sink when he lost faith and became afraid, and at the end of
the episode, the disciples increase their faith in Jesus and in Matthew 14:33 they say: "Of a truth thou art
the Son of God".[98]
Major teachings in this period include the Discourse on Defilement in Matthew 15:120 and Mark 7:1
23 where in response to a complaint from the Pharisees Jesus states: "What goes into a man's mouth
does not make him 'unclean,' but what comes out of his mouth, that is what makes him 'unclean.'".[99]
Following this episode Jesus withdraws into the "parts of Tyre and Sidon" near the Mediterranean Sea
where the Canaanite woman's daughter episode takes place in Matthew 15:2128 and Mark 7:24-30.[100]
This episode is an example of how Jesus emphasizes the value of faith, telling the woman: "Woman, you
have great faith! Your request is granted."[100] The importance of faith is also emphasized in the
Cleansing ten lepers episode in Luke 17:11-19.[101][102]
In the Gospel of Mark, after passing through Sidon Jesus enters the region of the Decapolis, a group of
ten cities south east of Galilee, where the Healing the deaf mute miracle is reported in Mark 7:31-37,
where after the healing, the disciples say: "He even makes the deaf hear and the mute speak." The
episode is the last in a series of narrated miracles which builds up to Peter's proclamation of Jesus as
Christ in Mark 8:29.[103]

Proclamation as Christ
The Confession of Peter refers to an episode in the New Testament in which in response to Jesus'
question to his disciples: "Who do you say that I am?" Apostle Peter proclaims Jesus to be Christ - the
expected Messiah. The proclamation is described in the three Synoptic Gospels: Matthew 16:13-20,

Mark 8:2730 and Luke 9:1820.[104][105]


Peter's Confession begins as a dialogue between Jesus and his
disciples in which Jesus begins to ask about the current
opinions about himself among "the multitudes", asking: "Who
do the multitudes say that I am?"[104] The disciples provide a
variety of the common hypotheses at the time. Jesus then asks
his disciples about their own opinion: But who do you say that
I am? Only Simon Peter answers him: You are the Christ, the
Son of the living God.[105][106]
In Matthew 16:17 Jesus blesses Peter for his answer, and later
indicates him as the rock of the Church, and states that he will
give Peter "the keys of the kingdom of heaven".[107]

Pietro Perugino's depiction of the


"Giving of the Keys to Saint Peter" by
Jesus, 1492

In blessing Peter, Jesus not only accepts the titles Christ and Son of God which Peter attributes to him,
but declares the proclamation a divine revelation by stating that his Father in Heaven had revealed it to
Peter.[108] In this assertion, by endorsing both titles as divine revelation, Jesus unequivocally declares
himself to be both Christ and the Son of God.[108] The proclamation of Jesus as Christ is fundamental to
Christology and the Confession of Peter, and Jesus' acceptance of the title is a definitive statement for it
in the New Testament narrative.[109] While some of this passage may well be authentic, the reference to
Jesus as Christ and Son of God is likely to be an addition by Matthew.[110]

Transfiguration
The Transfiguration of Jesus is an episode in the New
Testament narrative in which Jesus is transfigured (or
metamorphosed) and becomes radiant upon a
mountain.[111][112] The Synoptic Gospels (Matthew 17:19,
Mark 9:2-8, Luke 9:2836) describe it, and 2 Peter 1:1618
refers to it.[111] In these accounts, Jesus and three of his
apostles go to a mountain (the Mount of Transfiguration). On
the mountain, Jesus begins to shine with bright rays of light.
Then the prophets Moses and Elijah appear next to him and he
speaks with them. Jesus is then called "Son" by a voice in the
sky, assumed to be God the Father, as in the Baptism of

Transfiguration by Alexandr Ivanov,


1824

Jesus.[111]
The Transfiguration is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels.[112][113][114] This miracle is unique
among others that appear in the Canonical gospels, in that the miracle happens to Jesus himself.[115]
Thomas Aquinas considered the Transfiguration "the greatest miracle" in that it complemented baptism
and showed the perfection of life in Heaven.[116] The Transfiguration is one of the five major milestones
in the gospel narrative of the life of Jesus, the others being Baptism, Crucifixion, Resurrection, and
Ascension.[40][41] In the New Testament, Transfiguration is a pivotal moment, and the setting on the
mountain is presented as the point where human nature meets God: the meeting place for the temporal
and the eternal, with Jesus himself as the connecting point, acting as the bridge between heaven and
earth.[117]

Final journey to Jerusalem


After the death of John the baptist and the Transfiguration, Jesus starts his
final journey to Jerusalem, having predicted his own death
there.[13][118][119] The Gospel of John states that during the final journey
Jesus returned to the area where he was baptized, and John 10:40-42 states
that "many people believed in him beyond the Jordan", saying "all things
whatsoever John spake of this man were true".[54][55][56] The area where
Jesus was baptised is inferred as the vicinity of the Perea area, given the
activities of the Baptist in Bethabara and non in John 1:28 and
3:23.[120][121] Scholars generally assume that the route Jesus followed from
Galilee to Jerusalem passed through Perea.[56]
Sixth century mosaic of
the Raising of Lazarus,
church of Sant'Apollinare
Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy.

This period of ministry includes the Discourse on the Church in which Jesus
anticipates a future community of followers, and explains the role of his
apostles in leading it.[122][123] It includes the parables of The Lost Sheep
and The Unforgiving Servant in Matthew 18 which also refer to the
Kingdom of Heaven. The general theme of the discourse is the anticipation

of a future community of followers, and the role of his apostles in leading it.[123][124] Addressing his
apostles in 18:18, Jesus states: "what things soever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and
what things soever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven". The discourse emphasizes the
importance of humility and self-sacrifice as the high virtues within the anticipated community. It teaches
that in the Kingdom of God, it is childlike humility that matters, not social prominence and
clout.[123][124]
At the end of this period, the Gospel of John includes the Raising of Lazarus episode in John 11:1-46 in
which Jesus brings Lazarus of Bethany back to life four days after his burial.[57] In the Gospel of John,
the raising of Lazarus is the climax of the "seven signs" which gradually confirm the identity of Jesus as
the Son of God and the expected Messiah.[125] It is also a pivotal episode which starts the chain of
events that leads to the crowds seeking Jesus on his Triumphal entry into Jerusalem - leading to the
decision of Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin to plan to kill Jesus.[126]

Final week in Jerusalem


The description of the last week of the life of Jesus (often
called the Passion week) occupies about one third of the
narrative in the canonical gospels.[58] The narrative for that
week starts by a description of the final entry into Jerusalem,
and ends with his crucifixion.[57][128]
The last week in Jerusalem is the conclusion of the journey
which Jesus had started in Galilee through Perea and
The Last Supper has been depicted by
Judea.[57] Just before the account of the final entry of Jesus
many artistic masters.[127]
into Jerusalem, the Gospel of John includes the Raising of
Lazarus episode, which builds the tension between Jesus and
the authorities. At the beginning of the week as Jesus enters Jerusalem, he is greeted by the cheering

crowds, adding to that tension.[57]

The week begins with the Triumphal entry into Jerusalem. During the week of his "final ministry in
Jerusalem", Jesus visits the Temple, and has a conflict with the money changers about their use of the
Temple for commercial purposes. This is followed by a debate with the priests and the elder in which his
authority is questioned. One of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, decides to betray Jesus for thirty pieces of
silver.[129]
Towards the end of the week, Jesus has the Last Supper with his disciples, during which he institutes the
Eucharist, and prepares them for his departure in the Farewell Discourse. After the supper, Jesus is
betrayed with a kiss while he is in agony in the garden, and is arrested. After his arrest, Jesus is
abandoned by most of his disciples, and Peter denies him three times, as Jesus had predicted during the
Last Supper.[130][131] The final week that begins with his entry into Jerusalem, concludes with his
crucifixion and burial on that Friday.

Passion
Betrayal and arrest
In Matthew 26:36-46, Mark 14:32-42, Luke 22:39-46 and John
18:1, immediately after the Last Supper, Jesus takes a walk to pray,
Matthew and Mark identifying this place of prayer as Garden of
Gethsemane.[132][133]
Jesus is accompanied by Peter, John and James the Greater, whom
he asks to "remain here and keep watch with me." He moves "a
stone's throw away" from them, where he feels overwhelming
sadness and says "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass me
by. Nevertheless, let it be as you, not I, would have it."[133] Only the
Gospel of Luke mentions the details of the sweat of blood of Jesus
and the visitation of the angel who comforts Jesus as he accepts the
will of the Father. Returning to the disciples after prayer, he finds
them asleep and in Matthew 26:40 he asks Peter: "So, could you

Kiss of Judas (130406), fresco


by Giotto, Scrovegni Chapel,
Padua, Italy

men not keep watch with me for an hour?"[133]


While in the Garden, Judas appears, accompanied by a crowd that includes the Jewish priests and elders
and people with weapons. Judas gives Jesus a kiss to identify him to the crowd who then arrests
Jesus.[133][134] One of Jesus' disciples tries to stop them and uses a sword to cut off the ear of one of the
men in the crowd.[133][134] Luke states that Jesus miraculously healed the wound and John and Matthew
state that Jesus criticized the violent act, insisting that his disciples should not resist his arrest. In
Matthew 26:52 Jesus makes the well known statement: all who live by the sword, shall die by the
sword.[133][134]

Trials
In the narrative of the four canonical gospels after the betrayal and arrest of Jesus, he is taken to the
Sanhedrin, a Jewish judicial body.[135] Jesus is tried by the Sanhedrin, mocked and beaten and is
condemned for making claims of being the Son of God.[134][136][137] He is then taken to Pontius Pilate
and the Jewish elders ask Pilate to judge and condemn Jesusaccusing him of claiming to be the King

of the Jews.[137] After questioning, with few replies provided by Jesus, Pilate publicly declares that he
finds Jesus innocent, but the crowd insists on punishment. Pilate then orders Jesus'
crucifixion.[134][136][137][138] Although the Gospel accounts vary with respect to various details, they
agree on the general character and overall structure of the trials of Jesus.[138]
After the Sanhedrin trial Jesus is taken to Pilate's court in the
praetorium. Only in the Gospel of Luke, finding that Jesus, being
from Galilee, belonged to Herod Antipas' jurisdiction, Pilate decides
to send Jesus to Herod. Herod Antipas (the same man who had
previously ordered the death of John the Baptist) had wanted to see
Jesus for a long time, because he had been hoping to observe one of
the miracles of Jesus.[139] However, Jesus says almost nothing in
response to Herod's questions, or the vehement accusations of the
chief priests and the scribes. Herod and his soldiers mock Jesus, put
a gorgeous robe on him, as the King of the Jews, and sent him back
to Pilate. And Herod and Pilate become friends with each other that
day: for before they were at enmity.[140] After questioning Jesus and
receiving very few replies, Herod sees Jesus as no threat and returns

Jesus about to be struck in front of


the High Priest Annas, as in John
18:22, depicted by Madrazo,
1803.

him to Pilate.[141]
After Jesus' return from Herod's court, Pilate publicly declares that he finds Jesus to be innocent of the
charges, but the crowd insists on capital punishment. The universal rule of the Roman Empire limited
capital punishment strictly to the tribunal of the Roman governor[142] and Pilate decided to publicly
wash his hands as not being privy to Jesus' death. Pilate thus presents himself as an advocate pleading
Jesus' case rather than as a judge in an official hearing, yet he orders the crucifixion of
Jesus.[143][144][145]

Crucifixion and burial


Jesus' crucifixion is described in all four canonical gospels, and is
attested to by other sources of that age (e.g. Josephus and Tacitus), and
is regarded as an historical event.[146][147][148]
After the trials, Jesus made his way to Calvary (the path is traditionally
called via Dolorosa) and the three synoptic gospels indicate that he was
assisted by Simon of Cyrene, the Romans compelling him to do
so.[149][150] In Luke 23:27-28 Jesus tells the women in multitude of
people following him not to cry for him but for themselves and their
children.[149] Once at Calvary (Golgotha), Jesus was offered wine
mixed with gall to drink usually offered as a form of painkiller.
Matthew's and Mark's gospels state that he refused this.[149][150]
The soldiers then crucified Jesus and cast lots for his clothes. Above
Jesus' head on the cross was the inscription King of the Jews, and the
soldiers and those passing by mocked him about the title. Jesus was
crucified between two convicted thieves, one of whom rebuked Jesus,
while the other defended him.[149][151] Each gospel has its own account
of Jesus' last words, comprising the seven last sayings on the

The Crucifixion (1622) by


Simon Vouet; Church of
Jesus, Genoa

cross.[152][153][154] In John 19:26-27 Jesus entrusts his mother to the disciple he loved and in Luke 23:34
he states: "Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do", usually interpreted as his forgiveness
of the Roman soldiers and the others involved.[152][155][156][157]
In the three synoptic gospels, various supernatural events accompany the crucifixion, including darkness
of the sky, an earthquake, and (in Matthew) the resurrection of saints.[150] The tearing of the temple veil,
upon the death of Jesus, is referenced in the synoptic.[150] The Roman soldiers did not break Jesus' legs,
as they did to the other two men crucified (breaking the legs hastened the crucifixion process), as Jesus
was dead already; this further fulfilled prophecy, as noted in John 19:36, "For these things were done,
that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken." One of the soldiers pierced the
side of Jesus with a lance and water flowed out.[151] In Mark 15:39, impressed by the events the Roman
centurion calls Jesus the Son of God.[149][150][158][159]
Following Jesus' death on Friday, Joseph of Arimathea asked the permission of Pilate to remove the
body. The body was removed from the cross, was wrapped in a clean cloth and buried in a new rockhewn tomb, with the assistance of Nicodemus.[149] In Matthew 27:62-66 the Jews go to Pilate the day
after the crucifixion and ask for guards for the tomb and also seal the tomb with a stone as well as the
guard, to be sure the body remains there.[149][160][161]

Resurrection and Ascension


The gospels state that the first day of the week after the crucifixion
(typically interpreted as a Sunday), The followers of Jesus encounter him
risen from the dead, after his tomb was discovered to be
empty.[5][6][162][163] The New Testament does not include an account of
the "moment of resurrection" and in the Eastern Church icons do not
depict that moment, but show the Myrrhbearers, and depict scenes of
salvation.[164][165]
The resurrected Jesus then appears to his followers that day and a
number of times thereafter, delivers sermons and has supper with some
of them, before ascending to Heaven. The gospels of Luke and Mark
include brief mentions of the Ascension, but the main references to it are
elsewhere in the New Testament.[5][6][163]
Resurrection by Lucas
Cranach, 1558

The four gospels have variations in their account of the resurrection of


Jesus and his appearances, but there are four points at which all gospels

converge:[166] the turning of the stone that had closed the tomb, the visit
of the women on "the first day of the week;" that the risen Jesus chose first to appear to women (or a
woman) and to told them (her) to inform the other disciples; the prominence of Mary Magdalene in the
accounts.[164][167] Variants have to do with the precise time the women visited the tomb, the number and
identity of the women; the purpose of their visit; the appearance of the messenger(s)angelic or human;
their message to the women; and the response of the women.[164]
In Matthew 28:5, Mark 16:5, Luke 24:4 and John 20:12 his resurrection is announced and explained to
the followers who arrive there early in the morning by either one or two beings (either men or angels)
dressed in bright robes who appear in or near the tomb.[5][6][163] The gospel accounts vary as to who

arrived at the tomb first, but they are women and are instructed by the risen Jesus to inform the other
disciples. All four accounts include Mary Magdalene and three include Mary the mother of Jesus. The
accounts of Mark 16:9, John 20:15 indicate that Jesus appeared to the Magdalene first, and Luke 16:9
states that she was among the Myrrhbearers who informed the disciples about the resurrection.[5][6][163]
In Matthew 28:11-15, to explain the empty tomb, the Jewish elders bribe the soldiers who had guarded
the tomb to spread the rumor that Jesus' disciples took his body.[6]

Resurrection appearances
After the discovery of the empty tomb, the gospels indicate that Jesus
made a series of appearances to the disciples.[5][6]
In John 20:15-17 Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene soon after his
resurrection. At first she does not recognize him and thinks that he is
the gardener. When he says her name, she recognizes him yet he tells
her Noli me Tangere, do not touch me, "for I am not yet ascended to
my Father."
Later that day, at evening, Jesus appears to the disciples and shows
them the wounds in his hands and his side in John 20:19-21. Thomas
the Apostle is not present at that meeting and later expresses doubt
about the resurrection of Jesus. As Thomas is expressing his doubts, in
Noli me Tangere by Antonio
the well known Doubting Thomas episode in John 20:24-29 Jesus
da Correggio, c. 1534
appears to him and invites him to put his finger into the holes made by
the wounds in Jesus' hands and side. Thomas then professes his faith in
Jesus. In Matthew 28:1620, in the Great Commission Jesus appears to his followers on a mountain in
Galilee and calls on them to baptize all nations in the name of the "Father, Son, and Holy Spirit".
Luke 24:13-32 describes the Road to Emmaus appearance in which while a disciple named Cleopas was
walking towards Emmaus with another disciple, they met Jesus, who later has supper with them.
Mark 16:12-13 has a similar account that describes the appearance of Jesus to two disciples while they
were walking in the country, at about the same time in the Gospel narrative.[168] In the Miraculous catch
of 153 fish Jesus appears to his disciples on the Sea of Galilee, and thereafter Jesus encourages Apostle
Peter to serve his followers.[5][6][163]

Ascension
The Ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the
Christian teaching found in the New Testament that the resurrected Jesus was taken up to heaven in his
resurrected body, in the presence of eleven of his apostles, occurring 40 days after the resurrection. In
the biblical narrative, an angel tells the watching disciples that Jesus' second coming will take place in
the same manner as his ascension.[169]
The canonical gospels include two brief descriptions of the Ascension of Jesus in Luke 24:50-53 and
Mark 16:19. A more detailed account of Jesus' bodily Ascension into the clouds is then given in the Acts
of the Apostles (1:9-11) where the narrative starts with the account of Jesus' appearances after his
resurrection and his Ascension forty days thereafter.[170][171]

Acts 1:9-12 specifies the location of the Ascension as the "mount called Olivet" near Jerusalem. Acts 1:3
states that Jesus: :"showed himself alive after his passion by many proofs, appearing unto them by the
space of forty days, and speaking the things concerning the kingdom of God". After giving a number of
instructions to the apostles Acts 1:9 describes the Ascension as follows:"And when he had said these
things, as they were looking, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight." Following
this two men clothed in white appear and tell the apostles that Jesus will return in the same manner as he
was taken, and the apostles return to Jerusalem.[171]
In Acts 2:30-33, Ephesians 4:8-10 and 1 Timothy 3:16 (where Jesus as taken up in glory) the Ascension
is spoken of as an accepted fact, while Hebrews 10:12 describes Jesus as seated in heaven.[172]

See also
Christ myth theory
Gospel harmony
Jesus in Christianity
New Testament places associated with Jesus

Notes
1. ^ Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia by Christopher Kleinhenz (Nov
2003) Routledge, ISBN 0415939305 page 310
2. ^ a b Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L.
Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0-8054-4482-3 pages 441-442
3. ^ a b The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch,
2005 ISBN 978-0-8028-2416-5 pages 52-56
4. ^ The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary by Craig A. Evans
2003 ISBN 0-7814-3868-3 pages 465-477
5. ^ a b c d e f g The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: MatthewLuke, Volume 1 by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0-7814-3868-3 pages
521-530
6. ^ a b c d e f g h The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament edited
by John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck 1983 ISBN 978-0-88207-812-0 page
91
7. ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey
Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 p. 556
8. ^ Jesus and the Gospels by Clive Marsh, Steve Moyise 2006 ISBN 0567-04073-9 p. 37
9. ^ a b c The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospelsy Douglas Redford
2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 117-130
10. ^ a b c d Christianity: an introduction by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN
978-1-4051-0901-7 pages 16-22

Ascension of Christ by
Garofalo 1520

11. ^ a b c d The Christology of Mark's Gospel by Jack Dean Kingsbury


1983 ISBN 0-8006-2337-1 pages 91-95
12. ^ a b c d The Cambridge companion to the Gospels by Stephen C. Barton
ISBN 0-521-00261-3 pages 132-133
13. ^ a b St Mark's Gospel and the Christian faith by Michael Keene 2002
ISBN 0-7487-6775-4 pages 24-25
14. ^ The people's New Testament commentary by M. Eugene Boring, Fred
B. Craddock 2004 ISBN 0-664-22754-6 pages 256-258
15. ^ The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: Matthew-Luke,
Volume 1 by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0-7814-3868-3 page 381-395
16. ^ All the Apostles of the Bible by Herbert Lockyer 1988 ISBN 0-31028011-7 page 106-111
17. ^ The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch, 2005
ISBN 978-0-8028-2416-5 pages 52-56
18. ^ The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: Matthew-Luke,
Volume 1 by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0-7814-3868-3 pages 521-530
19. ^ The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament edited by John F.
Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck 1983 ISBN 978-0-88207-812-0 page 91
20. ^ Luke 3:2338 (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?
search=Luke%203:23-38;&version=31;) Matthew 1:117
(http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew%201:117;&version=31;)
21. ^ Where Christology began: essays on Philippians 2 by Ralph P.
Martin, Brian J. Dodd 1998 ISBN 0-664-25619-8 page 28
22. ^ The purpose of the Biblical genealogies by Marshall D. Johnson 1989
ISBN 0-521-35644-X pages 229-233
23. ^ Joseph A. Fitzmyer, The Gospel According to Luke IIX. Anchor
Bible. Garden City: Doubleday, 1981, pp. 499500.
24. ^ I. Howard Marshall, The Gospel of Luke (The New International
Greek Testament Commentary). Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978, p. 158.
25. ^ The Gospel of Luke by William Barclay 2001 ISBN 0-664-22487-3
pages 49-50
26. ^ Luke: an introduction and commentary by Leon Morris 1988 ISBN 08028-0419-5 page 110
27. ^ Cox (2007) pp. 285-286
28. ^ Marcus J. Borg, John Dominic Crossan, The First Christmas
(HarperCollins, 2009) page 95.
29. ^ "biblical literature." Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia
Britannica Online. Encyclopdia Britannica, 2011. Web. 22 January
2011. [1] (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/64496/biblicalliterature).
30. ^ Casey, Maurice (2010). Jesus of Nazareth: An Independent Historian's
Account of His Life and Teaching. Bloomsbury. pp. 1456.

31. ^ The Gospel of Matthew by Daniel J. Harrington 1991 ISBN 0-81465803-2 p. 47


32. ^ Vermes, Gza (2006-11-02). The Nativity: History and Legend.
Penguin Books Ltd. p. 64. ISBN 0-14-102446-1.
33. ^ Sanders, E. P. The historical figure of Jesus. Penguin, 1993. pp. 85
88.
34. ^ Jeremy Corley New Perspectives on the Nativity Continuum
International Publishing Group, 2009 p. 22.
35. ^ Interpreting Gospel Narratives: Scenes, People, and Theology by
Timothy Wiarda 2010 ISBN 0-8054-4843-8 pp. 7578
36. ^ Jesus, the Christ: Contemporary Perspectives by Brennan R. Hill
2004 ISBN 1-58595-303-2 p. 89
37. ^ The Gospel of Luke by Timothy Johnson 1992 ISBN 0-8146-5805-9 p.
72
38. ^ Recovering Jesus: the witness of the New Testament Thomas R. Yoder
Neufeld 2007 ISBN 1-58743-202-1 p. 111
39. ^ Mark D. Roberts Can We Trust the Gospels?: Investigating the
Reliability of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John Good News Publishers,
2007 p. 102
40. ^ a b Essays in New Testament interpretation by Charles Francis Digby
Moule 1982 ISBN 0-521-23783-1 page 63
41. ^ a b The Melody of Faith: Theology in an Orthodox Key by Vigen
Guroian 2010 ISBN 0-8028-6496-1 page 28
42. ^ Scripture in tradition by John Breck 2001 ISBN 0-88141-226-0 page
12
43. ^ a b c The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the
New Testament by Andreas J. Kstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN
978-0-8054-4365-3 page 114
44. ^ a b c Paul L. Maier "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus"
in Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies by Jerry
Vardaman, Edwin M. Yamauchi 1989 ISBN 0-931464-50-1 pages 113129
45. ^ Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament
Times by Paul Barnett 2002 ISBN 0-8308-2699-8 pages 19-21
46. ^ Sanders (1993). pp. 11, 249. Missing or empty |title= (help)
47. ^ a b The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon Morris ISBN 0-85111338-9 page 71
48. ^ a b A theology of the New Testament by George Eldon Ladd 1993ISBN
page 324
49. ^ a b The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford
2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 143-160
50. ^ a b Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels
ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 97-110

51. ^ a b The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford
2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 165-180
52. ^ a b Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels
ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 121-135
53. ^ a b The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford
2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 189-207
54. ^ a b c Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels
ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 page 137
55. ^ a b c The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford
2007 ISBN 0-7847-1900-4 pages 211-229
56. ^ a b c d Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger
Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 929
57. ^ a b c d e Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the
Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 155-170
58. ^ a b c Matthew by David L. Turner 2008 ISBN 0-8010-2684-9 page 613
59. ^ Jesus in the Synagogue of Capernaum: The Pericope and its
Programmatic Character for the Gospel of Mark by John Chijioke Iwe
1991 ISBN 9788876528460 page 7
60. ^ The Sermon on the mount: a theological investigation by Carl G.
Vaught 2001 ISBN 978-0-918954-76-3 pages xi-xiv
61. ^ The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke by Jn Majernk, Joseph
Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt, 2005, ISBN 1-931018-31-6, pages
6368
62. ^ Medieval art: a topical dictionary by Leslie Ross 1996 ISBN 978-0313-29329-0 page 30
63. ^ Jesus of history, Christ of faith by Thomas Zanzig 2000 ISBN 088489-530-0 page 118
64. ^ The Gospel and Epistles of John: A Concise Commentary by
Raymond Edward Brown 1988 ISBN 978-0-8146-1283-5 pages 25-27
65. ^ a b c Harrington, Daniel J., SJ. "Jesus Goes Public." America, Jan. 714, 2008, pp.38ff
66. ^ [Mt 3:13-17]
67. ^ 2 Cor. 5:21; Hebrews 4:15; 1 Peter 3:18
68. ^ Pope Benedict XVI. Jesus of Nazareth. Doubleday Religion, 2007.
ISBN 978-0-385-52341-7
69. ^ [Mt 3:17] [Mk 1:11] [Lk 3:21-22]
70. ^ The Gospel of Matthew by Daniel J. Harrington 1991 ISBN 0-81465803-2 page 63
71. ^ Christianity: A Biblical, Historical, and Theological Guide by Glenn
Jonas, Kathryn Muller Lopez 2010 ISBN pages 95-96
72. ^ Studying the historical Jesus: evaluations of the state of current
research by Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans 1998 ISBN 90-04-11142-5
page 187-198

73. ^ Jesus as a figure in history: how modern historians view the man from
Galilee by Mark Allan Powell 1998 ISBN 0-664-25703-8 page 47
74. ^ a b Jesus Remembered by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN 0-8028-39312 page 339
75. ^ Matthew 4:1-11 (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?
search=Matthew%204:1-11;&version=31;), New International Version
76. ^ Mark 1:12-13 (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?
search=Mark%201:12-13;&version=31;), NIV
77. ^ Luke 4:1-13 (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?
search=Luke%204:1-13;&version=31;), NIV
78. ^ The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon Morris 1992 ISBN 085111-338-9 pages 83
79. ^ Luke by Fred B. Craddock 1991 ISBN 0-8042-3123-0 page 69
80. ^ The beginning of the Gospel: introducing the Gospel according to
Mark by Eugene LaVerdiere 1999 ISBN 0-8146-2478-2 page 49
81. ^ "Luke 5:1-11, New International Version"
(http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=luke%205:111&version=NIV). Biblegateway. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
82. ^ John Clowes, The Miracles of Jesus Christ published by J. Gleave,
Manchester, UK, 1817, page 214, available on Google books
83. ^ The Gospel of Luke by Timothy Johnson, Daniel J. Harrington, 1992
ISBN 0-8146-5805-9 page 89
84. ^ The Gospel of Luke, by Joel B. Green 1997 ISBN 0-8028-2315-7 page
230
85. ^ John by Gail R. O'Day, Susan Hylen 2006 ISBN 0-664-25260-5 page
31
86. ^ H. Van der Loos, 1965 The Miracles of Jesus, E.J. Brill Press,
Netherlands page 599
87. ^ Dmitri Royster 1999 The miracles of Christ ISBN 0-88141-193-0
page 71
88. ^ The Gospel according to Matthew: an introduction and commentary
by R. T. France 1987 ISBN 0-8028-0063-7 page 154
89. ^ Michael Keene 2002 St Mark's Gospel and the Christian faith ISBN
0-7487-6775-4 page 26
90. ^ John Clowes, 1817 The Miracles of Jesus Christ published by J.
Gleave, Manchester, UK page 47
91. ^ The Gospel of Matthew by R. T. France 2007 ISBN 0-8028-2501-X
page 349
92. ^ The first gospel by Harold Riley, 1992 ISBN 0-86554-409-3 page 47
93. ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey
Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 48
94. ^ The life of Jesus by David Friedrich Strauss, 1860 published by Calvin
Blanchard, page 340
95. ^ Luke by Sharon H. Ringe 1995 ISBN 0-664-25259-1 pages 151-152

96. ^ Robert Maguire 1863 The miracles of Christ published by Weeks and
Co. London page 185
97. ^ Merrill Chapin Tenney 1997 John: Gospel of Belief ISBN 0-80284351-4 page 114
98. ^ Dwight Pentecost 2000 The words and works of Jesus Christ ISBN 0310-30940-9 page 234
99. ^ Jesus the miracle worker: a historical & theological study by Graham
H. Twelftree 1999 ISBN 0-8308-1596-1 page 79
100. ^ a b Jesus the miracle worker: a historical & theological study by
Graham H. Twelftree 1999 ISBN 0-8308-1596-1 pages 133-134
101. ^ Berard L. Marthaler 2007 The creed: the apostolic faith in
contemporary theology ISBN 0-89622-537-2 page 220
102. ^ Lockyer, Herbert, 1988 All the Miracles of the Bible ISBN 0-31028101-6 page 235
103. ^ Lamar Williamson 1983 Mark ISBN 0-8042-3121-4 pages 138-140
104. ^ a b The Collegeville Bible Commentary: New Testament by Robert J.
Karris 1992 ISBN 0-8146-2211-9 pages 885-886
105. ^ a b Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology by Jack Dean
Kingsbury, Mark Allan Powell, David R. Bauer 1999 ISBN 0-66425752-6 page xvi
106. ^ Christology and the New Testament by Christopher Mark Tuckett
2001 ISBN 0-664-22431-8 page 109
107. ^ The people's New Testament commentary by M. Eugene Boring, Fred
B. Craddock 2004 ISBN 0-664-22754-6 page 69
108. ^ a b One teacher: Jesus' teaching role in Matthew's gospel by John
Yueh-Han Yieh 2004 ISBN 3-11-018151-7 pages 240-241
109. ^ The Gospel of Matthew by Rudolf Schnackenburg 2002 ISBN 0-80284438-3 pages 7-9
110. ^ Casey, Maurice (2010). Jesus of Nazareth. Bloomsbury. pp. 188189.
111. ^ a b c Transfiguration by Dorothy A. Lee 2005 ISBN 978-0-8264-75954 pages 21-30
112. ^ a b Lockyer, Herbert, 1988 All the Miracles of the Bible ISBN 0-31028101-6 page 213
113. ^ Clowes, John, 1817, The Miracles of Jesus Christ published by J.
Gleave, Manchester, UK page 167
114. ^ Henry Rutter, Evangelical harmony Keating and Brown, London
1803. page 450
115. ^ Karl Barth Church dogmatics ISBN 0-567-05089-0 page 478
116. ^ Nicholas M. Healy, 2003 Thomas Aquinas: theologian of the
Christian life ISBN 978-0-7546-1472-2 page 100
117. ^ Transfiguration by Dorothy A. Lee 2005 ISBN 978-0-8264-7595-4
page 2

118. ^ The temptations of Jesus in Mark's Gospel by Susan R. Garrett 1996


ISBN 978-0-8028-4259-6 pages 74-75
119. ^ Matthew for Everyone by Tom Wright 2004 ISBN 0-664-22787-2
page 9
120. ^ Big Picture of the Bible - New Testament by Lorna Daniels Nichols
2009 ISBN 1-57921-928-4 page 12
121. ^ John by Gerard Stephen Sloyan 1987 ISBN 0-8042-3125-7 page 11
122. ^ Preaching Matthew's Gospel by Richard A. Jensen 1998 ISBN 978-07880-1221-1 pages 25 & 158
123. ^ a b c Behold the King: A Study of Matthew by Stanley D. Toussaint
2005 ISBN 0-8254-3845-4 pages 215-216
124. ^ a b Matthew by Larry Chouinard 1997 ISBN 0-89900-628-0 page 321
125. ^ The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New
Testament by Andreas J. Kstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN
978-0-8054-4365-3 pages 312-313
126. ^ Francis J. Moloney, Daniel J. Harrington, 1998 The Gospel of John
Liturgical Press ISBN 0-8146-5806-7 page 325
127. ^ Gospel figures in art by Stefano Zuffi 2003 ISBN 978-0-89236-727-6
pages 254-259
128. ^ Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L.
Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0-8054-4482-3 page 224-229
129. ^ All the Apostles of the Bible by Herbert Lockyer 1988 ISBN 0-31028011-7 page 106-111
130. ^ Cox (2007) p. 182
131. ^ Craig A. Evans 2005 The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary:
John's Gospel, Hebrews-Revelation ISBN 0-7814-4228-1 page 122
132. ^ The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke by Jn Majernk, Joseph
Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt 2005 ISBN 1-931018-31-6 page 169
133. ^ a b c d e f The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament edited by
John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck 1983 ISBN 978-0-88207-812-0 pages
83-85
134. ^ a b c d e The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: MatthewLuke, Volume 1 by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0-7814-3868-3 page 487500
135. ^ Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament Doubleday
1997 ISBN 0-385-24767-2, p. 146.
136. ^ a b Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L.
Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0-8054-4482-3 pages 396-400
137. ^ a b c Holman Concise Bible Dictionary 2011 ISBN 0-8054-9548-7
pages 608-609
138. ^ a b The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia by Geoffrey W.
Bromiley 1982 ISBN 0-8028-3782-4 pages 1050-1052

139. ^ Pontius Pilate: portraits of a Roman governor by Warren Carter 2003


ISBN 978-0-8146-5113-1 pages 120-121
140. ^ New Testament History by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 ISBN 0-31031201-9 page 172
141. ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995), International Standard Bible
Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. vol. K-P. p. 929.
142. ^ International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. by Geoffrey W. Bromiley
1982 vol. K-P, p. 979.
143. ^ Bond, Helen Katharine (1998). Pontius Pilate in History and
Interpretation (http://books.google.com/books?
id=Wx9fufbr7jcC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&c
ad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false). Cambridge University Press. p. 159.
ISBN 0-521-63114-9.
144. ^ Matthew (New Cambridge Bible Commentary) by Craig A. Evans
(Feb 6, 2012) ISBN 0521812143 page 454
145. ^ The Historical Jesus Through Catholic and Jewish Eyes by Bryan F.
Le Beau, Leonard J. Greenspoon and Dennis Hamm (Nov 1, 2000)
ISBN 1563383225 pages 105-106
146. ^ Funk, Robert W.; Jesus Seminar (1998). The acts of Jesus: the search
for the authentic deeds of Jesus. San Francisco: Harper.
147. ^ John Dominic Crossan, (1995) Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography
HarperOne ISBN 0-06-061662-8 page 145. J. D. Crossan, page 145
states: "that he was crucified is as sure as anything historical can ever
be."
148. ^ The Word in this world by Paul William Meyer, John T. Carroll 2004
ISBN 0-664-22701-5 page 112
149. ^ a b c d e f g The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: MatthewLuke, Volume 1 by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0-7814-3868-3 page 509520
150. ^ a b c d e The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the
New Testament by Andreas J. Kstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN
978-0-8054-4365-3 pages 211-214
151. ^ a b Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions by MerriamWebster, Inc. 1999 ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0 page 271
152. ^ a b Geoffrey W. Bromiley, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia,
Eerdmans Press 1995, ISBN 0-8028-3784-0 page 426
153. ^ Joseph F. Kelly, An Introduction to the New Testament 2006 ISBN
978-0-8146-5216-9 page 153
154. ^ Jesus: the complete guide by Leslie Houlden 2006 ISBN 0-82648011-X page 627
155. ^ Vernon K. Robbins in Literary studies in Luke-Acts by Richard P.
Thompson (editor) 1998 ISBN 0-86554-563-4 pages 200-201
156. ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey
Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 648

157. ^ Reading Luke-Acts: dynamics of Biblical narrative by William S.


Kurz 1993 ISBN 0-664-25441-1 page 201
158. ^ The Gospel according to Mark by George Martin 2o05 ISBN 0-82941970-5 page 440
159. ^ Mark by Allen Black 1995 ISBN 0-89900-629-9 page 280
160. ^ The Gospel of Matthew by Daniel J. Harrington 1991 ISBN 0-81465803-2 page 404
161. ^ The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon Morris ISBN 0-85111338-9 page 727
162. ^ Matthew 28:1, Mark 16:9, Luke 24:1 and John 20:1
163. ^ a b c d e Cox (2007) pp. 216-226
164. ^ a b c Stagg, Evalyn and Frank. Woman in the World of Jesus.
Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978, p. 144150.
165. ^ Vladimir Lossky, 1982 The Meaning of Icons ISBN 978-0-913836-996 page 185
166. ^ Mark 16:18, Matthew 28:18, Luke 24:112, and John 20:113
167. ^ Setzer, Claudia. "Excellent Women: Female Witness to the
Resurrection." Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 116, No. 2 (Summer,
1997), pp. 259272
168. ^ Catholic Comparative New Testament by Oxford University Press
2006 ISBN 0-19-528299-X page 589
169. ^ "Ascension, The." Macmillan Dictionary of the Bible. London:
Collins, 2002. Credo Reference. Web. 27 September 2010. ISBN
0333648056
170. ^ Luke by Fred B. Craddock 2009 ISBN 0664234356 pages 293-294
171. ^ a b New Testament Theology by Frank J. Matera 2007 ISBN
066423044X pages 53-54
172. ^ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible by D. N. Freedman, David Noel,
Allen Myers and Astrid B. Beck 2000 ISBN 9053565035 page 110

References
Cox, Steven L.; Easley, Kendell H (2007). Harmony of the Gospels. ISBN 0-8054-9444-8.

Further reading
Bruce J. Malina: Windows on the World of Jesus: Time Travel to Ancient Judea. Westminster
John Knox Press: Louisville (Kentucky) 1993
Bruce J. Malina: The New Testament World: Insights from Cultural Anthropology. 3rd edition,
Westminster John Knox Press Louisville (Kentucky) 2001
Ekkehard Stegemann and Wolfgang Stegemann: The Jesus Movement: A Social History of Its
First Century. Augsburg Fortress Publishers: Minneapolis 1999

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