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BSI PROPRIETARY INFORMATION

December 2013

FB-MultiPier Soil Parameter Table


(US Customary Unit)
The Bridge software Institute disclaims any warranty, expressed or implied, including but not
limited to, any implied warranty of accuracy for a particular purpose or accuracy of the Florida
Pier software. The BSI shall not be liable for any damages incurred through the use of the
provided information. Thus, All parameters for soil models available in the FB-MultiPier
program must be used for preliminary design purpose only.

Bridge Software Institute


Department of Civil & Coastal Engineering
College of Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station

Cohesionless Soil
Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Cohesionless Soil Properties
Total Unit Weight

Symbol Units

pcf

Loose

Medium

Dense

References :

90

115

110

130

110

140

Ref.[1]

10

10

30

30

50

Ref.[2]

Corrected SPT Blow Count

N 60

Relative Density

Dr

15

35

35

65

65

85

Ref.[3]

Angle of Internal Friction

deg

29

30

30

36

36

41

Ref.[4]

Coefficient of Lateral Earth Pressure


(From Eqn. (1) using )

K0

0.51

0.5

0.5

0.41

0.41

0.34

K 0 = 1 sin ( )

Subgrade Modulus (Below Water Table)

kbw

pci

20

30

30

100

100

160

Ref.[6]

Subgrade Modulus (Above Water Table)

kaw

pci

20

50

50

165

165

275

Ref.[6]

Poisson's Ratio

0.20 - 0.40

0.25 - 0.40

0.30 - 0.45

(1) Ref.[5]

Ref.[7]

Young's Modulus
(From Eqn. (2) using =5, pa =2000psf

Eem

psf

40000 100000 100000 300000 300000 500000

Eem

psf

80000 200000 200000 600000 600000 1000000

psf

66360

psf

66360 165890 162000 534600 518920 864860

Eem = pa * * N 60

(2) Ref.[8]

E = k * B *(1 2 )

(3) Ref.[9]

and N 60 )
Young's Modulus
(From Eqn. (2) using =10, pa =2000psf
and N 60 )
Young's Modulus
( From Eqn. (3) using B = 24in,

99530

97200 324000 314500 503190

=the minimum of the range, and kbw )


Young's Modulus
( From Eqn. (3) using B = 24in,

=the minimum of the range, and kaw )


Notation:

Eem = Elastic Modulus based on empirical equation.

Cohesionless Soil (Contd.)


Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Cohesionless Soil Properties

Symbol Units

Loose

Medium

Dense

References :

Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (4) with Eem of =5, and

Gem

ksi

0.12

0.29

0.28

0.83

0.80

1.33

Gem

ksi

0.23

0.58

0.55

1.67

1.6

2.67

ksi

0.19

0.29

0.27

0.9

0.84

1.34

ksi

0.19

0.48

0.45

1.48

1.38

2.31

Gmax

ksi

0.62

1.16

1.16

2.45

2.45

3.47

G = E ( 2 (1 + ) )

(4) Ref.[10]

=the minimum of the range)


Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (4) with Eem of =10, and

=the minimum of the range)


Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (4) with E of kbw , and

=the minimum of the range)


Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (4) with E of kaw , and

=the minimum of the range)


Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (5) using N 60 )
Ultimate Unit End Bearing

ksi

See Fig.2 (For Driven Piles) on pp. 8

Axial Bearing Failure

kips

Ultimate Unit End Bearing x Tip Area

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction

psf

See Fig.3 (For Driven Piles) on pp. 9 and


Fig.4 (For Drilled Shafts) on pp. 10

Gmax (ksf ) = 35* ( N 60 )

0.68

(5) Ref.[11]

Cohesive Soil
Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Cohesive Soil Properties
Total Unit Weight

Symbol Units

pcf

Soft

Medium
110
130

100

120

Stiff
120

140

References :
Ref.[12]

15

Ref. [13]

Corrected SPT Blow Count

N 60

Unconfined Compressive Strength

qu

tsf

0.25

0.5

0.5

Ref. [13]

Undrained Shear Strength

Cu

psf

250

500

500

1000

1000

2000

Ref. [14]

Average Undrained Shear Strength


Major Principal Strain @ 50%
Major Principal Strain @ 100%

psf

375

750

1500

0.02

0.01

0.005

Ref. [15]

0.06

0.03

0.015

Ref. [16]

pci

NA

NA

500

Ref. [17]

pci

NA

NA

200

Ref. [17]

0.4

0.45

0.5

Ref. [18]

50
100

Subgrade Modulus (Cycling Loading)

k
k

Poisson's Ratio

Elastic Modulus

psi

415

1735

1735

4860

4860

>13890

ksi

0.15

0.62

0.60

1.68

1.62

4.63

Subgrade Modulus (Static Loading)

Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (4) using E , and )
Ultimate Unit End Bearing

ksi

See Fig.2 (For Driven Piles) on pp. 8

Axial Bearing Failure

kips

Ultimate Unit End Bearing x Tip Area

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction

psf

See Fig. 3 (For Driven Piles) on pp. 9

Ref. [19]

G = E ( 2 (1 + ) )

(4) Ref.[10]

Note: For the input values of vertical failure shear stress and torsional shear stress, the ultimate unit skin friction for a pile or drilled shaft can be
used.

General Rock Properties


Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Rock Type
Symbol Units

pcf

Rock Quality Designation

RQD

Modulus Ratio

Em Ei

Elastic Modulus

Ei

ksi

Em

ksi

Unit Weight

Mass Modulus
(From Eqn. (6) using Em Ei and Ei )
Poisson's Ratio
Shear Modulus

Limestone

Sandstone

130 - 175

145- 170

References :
Ref. [20], Ref.[21]

20

50

100

20

50

100

Ref. [22]

0.05

0.15

0.05

0.15

Ref. [22]

5700
285

855

2130
5700

106.5

0.23

319.5

Ref. [22]
2130

0.2

Em = ( Em Ei ) * Ei
Ref. [22]

G = E ( 2 (1 + ) )

ksi

Angle of Internal Friction

deg

34 40

27 34

Ref. [22]

Unconfined Compressive Strength

qu

psf

500000 6000000

1400000 3600000

Ref. [23]

Split Tensile Strength

qt

psf

50000 600000

140000 360000

Ref. [24]

Granite

Quartzite

160 - 190

130 - 170

(From Eqn. (4) using Em , and )

Rock Type

Symbol Units

Rock Quality Designation

RQD

Modulus Ratio

Em Ei

Elastic Modulus

Ei

ksi

Em

ksi

Unit Weight

Mass Modulus
(From Eqn. (6) using Em Ei and Ei )
Poisson's Ratio

115.85

pcf
%

347.56 2317.07

44.37

133.12

887.5

50

100

20

50

100

Ref. [22]

0.05

0.15

0.02

0.15

Ref. [22]

382

1146

9590
7640

191.8

0.2

1438.5

9590

0.14

Em = ( Em Ei ) * Ei

G = E ( 2 (1 + ) )

ksi

Angle of Internal Friction

deg

34 40

NA

Ref. [22]

Unconfined Compressive Strength

qu

psf

300000 7000000

1300000 8000000

Ref. [23]

Split Tensile Strength

qt

psf

30000 700000

130000 800000

Ref. [24]

477.5

3183.33

84.12

630.92

(6)

Ref. [22]

159.17

Ref. [10]

Ref. [22]

Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (4) using Em , and )

(4)

Ref. [20], Ref.[21]

20

7640

(6)

4206.14

(4)

Ref. [10]

General Rock Properties


Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Geotechnical Description

Symbol Units

Low
Strength

Medium
Strength

High Strength

Very High
Strength

References :

Unconfined Compressive Strength

qu

psf

<209000 209000417500 4175001252500 >1252500 Ref. [24], Ref. [25]

Split Tensile Strength

qt

psf

<20900

2090041750

41750125250

>125250

fs

psf

<19800

1980028000

2800048500

>48500

f s ( MPa ) = 0.3* qu (7) Ref. [25]

qb

ksf

<317100 317100448100 448100776200 >776200

qb ( MPa ) = 4.8* qu (8) Ref. [25]

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction (Driven Piles)

fs

psf

f s = 20.877* ( 2.8*  + 10 )

Ref. [25]

Ultimate Unit End Bearing (Driven Piles)

qb

ksf

qb = 0.0209*180* 

Ref. [25]

kips

Unit End Bearing x Tip Area

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction (Drilled shaft)


(From Eqn. (7) using qu )
Ultimate Unit End Bearing (Drilled shaft)
(From Eqn. (8) using qu )

Axial Bearing Failure

Ref. [24]

Florida Limestone
Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Average
Bridges (See the map
for locations)

Test RQD
Shaft ( % )

Units
Reference:

qu

fs
Ei

qt

Em Ei

Em

(From Eqn.(9)

using qu and qt )

(From Eqn.(4) (From Eqn.(4)


using Ei and
using Ei and
= 0.33)

= 0.12)

[26]
0.127

ksi
[26]
59.23

psf
[26]
10240.54

pcf
[26] [22]
[22]
NA 34-40 0.12-0.33

ksi
[10]
175.33

ksi
[10]
208.2

Acosta

LTSO 4 41.9 277200 29000 626.53


Test 1 34.2 170600 36800 579.04
46-11A 78 24300 2000 98.61

0.123
0.1
0.535

77.06
57.90
52.75

26195.37
19112.59
2692.55

NA 34-40 0.12-0.33
NA 34-40 0.12-0.33
130 34-40 0.12-0.33

235.54
217.68
37.07

279.7
258.5
44.02

Apalachicola

62-5

43.01

0.37

15.91

1471.38

130 34-40 0.12-0.33

16.17

19.20

17th Street Causeway

Fuller Warren
Gandy
Victory

LTSO 3

psf
psf
ksi
[26] [26]
[26]
[26]
43 61400 19200 466.38

58.2 10600 1600

69-7
LT-3a

54
31

10200 800
41.39
86000 19200 258.78

0.26
0.09

10.76
23.29

985.97
8752.16

130 34-40 0.12-0.33


130 34-40 0.12-0.33

15.56
97.29

18.48
115.53

LT4
52-6

33
78

177000 22800 456.62


73200 27800 322.86

0.096 43.83
0.78 251.83

14729.79
17423.04

130 34-40 0.12-0.33


110 34-40 0.12-0.33

171.66
121.37

203.85
144.13

52
8600 2200 274.14
29.8 314000 50200 2880.5

0.21 57.57
0.083 239.08

1471.77
25729.76

120 34-40 0.12-0.33


110 34-40 0.12-0.33

103.06
1082.9

122.38
1285.9

91-4
10-2

Properties

Symbol Units

Florida Limestone

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction

fs

psf

See Fig. 3(Driven Piles) on pp.9

Ultimate Unit End Bearing

qb

psf

See Fig. 2(Driven Piles) on pp.8

kips

Unit End Bearing x Tip Area

Axial Bearing Failure

f s = 1 * qu * qt * ( Adjusted % RQD )
2
E
G=
2* (1 + )

(9)

Ref. [26]

(4)

Ref. [10]

Figure 1 Geographic Location of Load Test Sites

For Driven Piles - The Ultimate End bearing of any pile can be calculated from
the below graph if the SPT blow count are available
n := 60

i := 1 .. n + 1

N := ( i 1)
i

Sand(Conc/Steel/HPile) := 3.2 N

Clay(Conc/Steel/HPile) := 0.7 N

Limestone(Conc/HPile) := 3.6 N

Ultimate End Bearing for Concrete, Steel and H piles in Clay

i 144

Limestone(Steel) :=

Ultimate End Bearing for Concrete, Steel and H piles in Sand

i 144

Ultimate End Bearing for Concrete and H piles in Florida Limestone

i 144

3.6 N 2 if N 30

i 144
i

(N 30) 23 otherwise
36 + 7 i
30 144

Ultimate End Bearing for Steel piles in Florida


Limestone

Ultimate End Bearing (Driven Piles)


3

Ultimate End Bearing (ksi)

2.5

Sand(Conc/Steel/HPile)

Clay(Conc/Steel/HPile)
Limestone(Conc/HPile) 1.5
Limestone(Steel)
1

0.5

10

20

30
N

SPT Blow-count (N)

Figure 2

40

50

60

For Driven Piles - The Ultimate Skin Friction of any pile can be calculated
from the below graph if the SPT blow count are available
n := 60

i := 1 .. n + 1

N := ( i 1)
i

Ultimate Skin Friction for Concrete Piles in Sand...


Sand(Conc) := 0.019 N 2000
i

Ultimate Skin Friction for Steel Piles in Sand...


Sand(Steel) := 0.026 + 0.023 N 1.435 10
i

( i)

6.527 10

( i) 2000

Ultimate Skin Friction for Concrete Piles in Clay...


Clay(Conc) :=
i

2 Ni ( 110 Ni)

2000
4006.6

Ultimate Skin Friction for Steel Piles in Clay...


Clay(Steel) := 8.081 10
i

+ 0.058 N 1.202 10
i

( i)

+ 8.785 10

( i) 2000

Ultimate Skin Friction for Concrete and Steel Piles in Florida Limestone...

Limestone(Conc/Steel) := 0.01 N 2000


i

Ultimate Skin Friction (Driven Piles)


3500

Ultimate Skin Friction (psf)

3000

Sand(Conc)

2500

Sand(Steel)
2000
Clay(Conc)
Clay(Steel)

1500

Limestone(Conc/Steel)
1000

500

10

20

30
N

SPT Blow-count (N)

Figure 3

40

50

60

For Drilled shafts - The Ultimate Unit Skin Friction for Sand with respect to
the depth can be found out from the graph below
start := 0
n :=

:=
i

( end start )
h

end := 180

h := 5

i := 1 .. ( n )

Depth := start + ( i 1 ) h

Depth from 0 to 175 ft

1.2 if Depth 5
i

0.25 if Depth > 86


i

(1.5 0.135

Depth

otherwise

Assumed Density of Sand...

:= 110 pcf

Density of Water...

water := 62.4 pcf

Vertical effective stress...

'Water := water Depth


i
i

Water Table at the surface

'NoWater := ( ) Depth
i
i

No Water Table

Ultimate Skin Friction with water table at surface

SFwWT := 'Water
i

SFw/oWT := 'NoWater

Ultimate Skin Friction with no water table

Ultimate Skin Friction of Sand (Drilled Shaft)


0
20
40

Depth (ft)

60
Depth(Water Table at Surface) 80
Depth(No Water Table)
100
120
140
160

1000

2000

3000

SFwWT, SFw/oWT

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction (psf)

Figure 4

4000

5000

References:
1. "Foundation Analysis and Design", 5th Edition, Joseph E. Bowles, Table 3-4, pp 163.
2. "Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice", 3rd Editon, Karl Terzaghi , Ralph Peck, Gholamreza Mesri , 1996, Table
12.1, pp. 60.
3. FB MultiPier Help Manual -> 11.3.8 Subgrade Modulus -> Figure B7 (Source: "Research on Determining the
Density of Sands by Spoon Penetration Testing", H.J.Gibbs, W.G.Holtz, 1957, Proc. 4th International Conference
on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 1, pp. 35-39).
4. FB MultiPier Help Manual -> 11.3.8 Subgrade Modulus -> Figure B7 (Source: American Petroleum Institute (API),
1987, Recommended practice for planning, designing and constructing xed offshore platforms, API
Recommended practice 2A (RP 2A), 17th Ed, Figure 6.8.7-1, pp.70).
5. "Foundation Analysis and Design", 5th Edition, Joseph E. Bowles, Equation 2-18a, pp.41.
6. FB MultiPier Help Manual ->11.3.8 Subgrade Modulus -> Figure B8 (Source: American Petroleum Institute (API),
1987, Recommended practice for planning, designing and constructing xed offshore platforms, API
Recommended practice 2A (RP 2A), 17th Ed, Figure 6.8.7-1, pp.70).
7. "Principles of Foundation Engineering", 6th Edition, Braja Das, Table 5.8, pp. 240.
8. "Principles of Foundation Engineering", 6th Edition, Braja Das, Equation 5.43, pp. 240.
9. "Principles of Foundation Engineering", 6th Edition, Braja Das, Equation 6.5, pp. 294.
10. "Foundation Analysis and Design, 5th Edition, Joseph E. Bowles, Equation (a), pp. 121.
11. Seismic Response Analysis of a Highway Overcrossing Equipped with Elastomeric Bearings and Fluid
Dampers, Nicos Makris & Jian Zhang, Equation (1), Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 6, June 2004,
pp. 830-845 (Source: Correlations among seismic motion, ground conditions, and damage: Data on the
Miyagiken-oki earthquake of 1978, Imai T. and Tonouchi K., 1982, Proc. 3rd Int. Earthquake Miscorzonation Conf.,
Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Vol. 2, pp. 649660.).
12. "Foundation Analysis and Design", 2nd Edition, Joseph E. Bowles, Table 3-4, pp. 86.
13. "Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice", 3rd Editon, Karl Terzaghi , Ralph Peck, Gholamreza Mesri, 1996,
Table 12.2, pp. 63.
14. Soil Mechanics, 1st Edition, T. W. Lambe, R. V. Whitman, 1969, Section 29.8, pp.451.
15. Correlations for design of laterally loaded piles in soft clay, Matlock, H., 1970, Proceedings, Offshore
Technology Conference, Vol. I, Paper No. 1204, Houston, Texas, pp. 577-594.
16. Single Piles and Pile Groups under Lateral Loading, Lymon C. Reese, William F. Van Impe, Figure 3.11, pp.
71.
17. Laterally Loaded Piles and Computer Program COM624G, Reese L.C., Cooley L.A., Radhakrishnan N., 1984,
Technical Report K-84-2, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Table 4, pp. 60.
18. "Foundation Analysis and Design", 5th Edition, Joseph E. Bowles, Table 2-7, pp. 123.
19. Engineering and Design Settlement Analysis, EM1110-1-1904, Appendix D, Table D-3, pp. D-5.

20. A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Harbour Engineering, Brysson Cunningham, pp. 86.
21. Bulletin, Issue 2, Utah Engineering Experiment Station, pp. 16.
22. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification, 5th Edition, Section 10(Foundations), pp. (10-25) (10-27).
23. AASHTO Standard Specification for Highway Bridges, 16th Edition, 1996, Table 4.4.1.2B, pp. 64.
24. Handbook of Geotechnical Investigation and Design Tables, Burt Look, pp. 65.
25. Geophysical testing for rock assessment and pile design, Lani Cheenikal, Harry Poulos, Robert Whiteley,
Coffey Geotechnics, Australia. (Internet link:
http://www.coffey.com/Uploads/Documents/Geophysical%20testing%20for%20rock%20assessment%20and%20
pile%20design_20100625141417.pdf)
26. Static and Dynamic Field Testing of Drilled Shafts: Suggested Guidelines on their use for FDOT Structures,
Michael McVay, Ralph D. Ellis Jr., Final Report, FDOT No. 99052794.

BSI PROPRIETARY INFORMATION

December 2013

FB-MultiPier Soil Parameter Table


(SI Unit)
The Bridge software Institute disclaims any warranty, expressed or implied, including but not
limited to, any implied warranty of accuracy for a particular purpose or accuracy of the Florida
Pier software. The BSI shall not be liable for any damages incurred through the use of the
provided information. Thus, All parameters for soil models available in the FB-MultiPier
program must be used for preliminary design purpose only.

Bridge Software Institute


Department of Civil & Coastal Engineering
College of Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station

Cohesionless Soil
Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Cohesionless Soil Properties
Total Unit Weight

Symbol Units

kN m3

Loose

Medium

Dense

References :

14

18

17

20

17

22

Ref.[1]

10

10

30

30

50

Ref.[2]

Corrected SPT Blow Count

N 60

Relative Density

Dr

15

35

35

65

65

85

Ref.[3]

Angle of Internal Friction

deg

29

30

30

36

36

41

Ref.[4]

Coefficient of Lateral Earth Pressure


(From Eqn. (1) using )

K0

0.51

0.5

0.5

0.41

0.41

0.34

Subgrade Modulus (Below Water Table)

kbw

kN m3

5430

8140

8140

27145

27145

43430

Ref.[6]

Subgrade Modulus (Above Water Table)

kaw

kN m3

5430

13570

13570

44790

44790

74650

Ref.[6]

Poisson's Ratio

0.20 - 0.40

0.25 - 0.40

0.30 - 0.45

K 0 = 1 sin ( )

(1) Ref.[5]

Ref.[7]

Young's Modulus
(From Eqn. (2) using =5, pa =100kPa,

Eem

kPa

2000

5000

5000

15000

15000

25000

Eem

kPa

4000

10000

10000

30000

30000

50000

kPa

3180

4765

4655

15525

15070

24110

kPa

3180

7945

7760

25615

24865

41440

Eem = pa * * N 60

(2) Ref.[8]

E = k * B *(1 2 )

(3) Ref.[9]

and N 60 )
Young's Modulus
(From Eqn. (2) using =10, pa =100kPa,
and N 60 )
Young's Modulus
( From Eqn. (3) using B = 0.61m,

=the minimum of the range, and kbw )


Young's Modulus
( From Eqn. (3) using B = 0.61m,

=the minimum of the range, and kaw )


Notation:

Eem = Elastic Modulus based on empirical equation.

Cohesionless Soil (Contd.)


Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Cohesionless Soil Properties

Symbol Units

Loose

Medium

Dense

References :

Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (4) with Eem of =5, and

Gem

kPa

833

2083

2000

6000

5769

9615

Gem

kPa

1667

4167

4000

12000

11538

19231

kPa

1325

1986

1862

6209

5795

9272

kPa

1325

3311

3104

10246

9563

15938

Gmax

kPa

4302

8021

8021

16930

16930

23962

G = E ( 2 (1 + ) )

(4) Ref.[10]

=the minimum of the range)


Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (4) with Eem of =10, and

=the minimum of the range)


Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (4) with E of kbw , and

=the minimum of the range)


Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (4) with E of kaw , and

=the minimum of the range)


Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (5) using N 60 )
Ultimate Unit End Bearing

kPa

See Fig.2 for Driven Piles on pp. 8

Axial Bearing Failure

kN

Ultimate Unit End Bearing x Tip Area

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction

kPa

See Fig.3 (For Driven Piles) on pp. 9 and


Fig.4(For Drilled Shafts) on pp. 10

Gmax (ksf ) = 35* ( N 60 )

0.68

(5) Ref.[11]

Cohesive Soil
Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Cohesive Soil Properties
Total Unit Weight

Symbol Units

Soft

kN m3

Medium

Stiff

References

16

19

17

20

19

22

Ref.[12]

15

Ref. [13]

Corrected SPT Blow Count

N 60

Unconfined Compressive Strength

qu

kPa

23.95

47.9

47.9

95.8

95.8

191.6

Ref. [13]

Undrained Shear Strength

Cu

kPa

11.97

23.95

23.95

47.9

47.9

95.8

Ref. [14]

Avg.Undrained Shear Strength


Major Principal Strain @ 50%
Major Principal Strain @ 100%
Subgrade Modulus (Static Loading)

kPa

50
100
k

Subgrade Modulus (Cycling Loading)

Poisson's Ratio
Elastic Modulus

Shear Modulus
(From Eqn. (4) using E , and )
Ultimate Unit End Bearing

17.96

35.92

71.85

0.02

0.01

0.005

Ref. [15]

0.06

0.03

0.015

Ref. [16]

kN m

NA

NA

135725

Ref. [17]

kN m

NA

NA

54290

Ref. [17]

0.4

0.5
33510 >95770

Ref. [18]
Ref. [19]

11170

G = E ( 2 (1 + ) )

kPa

2860

11960

0.45
11960 33510

kPa

1021

4271

4124

11555

kPa

See Fig.2 (For Driven Piles) on pp. 8

Axial Bearing Failure

kN

Ultimate Unit End Bearing x Tip Area

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction

kPa

See Fig. 3 (For Driven Piles) on pp. 9

31923

(4) Ref.[10]

Note: For the input values of vertical failure shear stress and torsional shear stress, the ultimate unit skin friction for a pile or drilled shaft can be
used.

General Rock Properties


Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Rock Type
Symbol

Units

k m

Rock Quality Designation

RQD

Modulus Ratio

Em Ei

Elastic Modulus

Ei

kPa

Em

kPa

Unit Weight

Mass Modulus
(From Eqn. (6) using Em Ei and Ei )
Poisson's Ratio
Shear Modulus

Limestone

Sandstone

20.42 27.49

22.78 26.7

References :
Ref. [20], Ref.[21]

20

50

100

20

50

100

Ref. [22]

0.05

0.15

0.05

0.15

Ref. [22]

39300000

14686000

Ref. [22]

1965000 5895000 39300000 734000 2203000 14686000

0.23

0.2

Em = ( Em Ei ) * Ei (6)
Ref. [22]

G = E ( 2 (1 + ) ) (4) Ref. [10]

kPa

Angle of Internal Friction

deg

34 40

27 34

Ref. [22]

Unconfined Compressive Strength

qu

kPa

24000 290000

67000 172000

Ref. [23]

Split Tensile Strength

qt

kPa

2400 29000

6700 17200

Ref. [24]

Granite

Quartzite

25.13 29.85

20.42 26.7

(From Eqn. (4) using Em , and )

Rock Type

Units

k m

Rock Quality Designation

RQD

Modulus Ratio

Em Ei

Elastic Modulus

Ei

kPa

Em

kPa

Unit Weight

Mass Modulus
(From Eqn. (6) using Em Ei and Ei )
Poisson's Ratio

799000 2396000 15976000 306000 918000 6119000

Ref. [20], Ref.[21]

20

50

100

20

50

100

Ref. [22]

0.05

0.15

0.02

0.15

Ref. [22]

52676000

66121000

2634000 7901000 52676000 1322000 9918000 66121000


0.2

0.14

Shear Modulus

Ref. [22]

Em = ( Em Ei ) * Ei (6)
Ref. [22]

G = E ( 2 (1 + ) ) (4)Ref. [10]

kPa

Angle of Internal Friction

deg

34 40

NA

Ref. [22]

Unconfined Compressive Strength

qu

kPa

14000 335000

62000 383000

Ref. [23]

Split Tensile Strength

qt

kPa

1400 33500

6200 38300

Ref. [24]

(From Eqn. (4) using Em , and )

1097000 3292000 21948000 580000 4350000 29000000

General Rock Properties


Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Geotechnical Description

Symbol Units

Low
Strength

Medium
Strength

High Strength

Very High
Strength

References

Unconfined Compressive Strength

qu

kPa

<10000

Split Tensile Strength

qt

kPa

<1000

10002000

fs

kPa

<950

950 1340

qb

kPa

<15180

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction (Driven Piles)

fs

kPa

f s = 2.8*  + 10

Ref. [25]

Ultimate Unit End Bearing (Driven Piles)

qb

kPa

qb = 180* 

Ref. [25]

kN

Unit End Bearing x Tip Area

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction (Drilled shaft)


(From Eqn. (7) using qu )
Ultimate Unit End Bearing (Drilled shaft)
(From Eqn. (8) using qu )

Axial Bearing Failure

1000020000 2000060000

>60000

Ref. [24], Ref. [25]

20006000

>6000

Ref. [24]

1340 2320

>2320

f s ( MPa ) = 0.3* qu (7)

Ref. [25]

>37180

qb ( MPa ) = 4.8* qu (8)

Ref. [25]

15180 21470 21470 37180

Florida Limestone
Soil properties for preliminary design only.
Average
Bridges (See the map
for locations)

Test RQD
Shaft ( % )

Units
Reference

qu

fs
Ei

qt

kPa
[26]
2940

Em Ei

Em

(From Eqn.(9)

using qu and qt )

kPa
kPa
kPa
[26]
[26]
[26]
[26]
920 3215600 0.127 408400

[26]
17th Street Causeway LTSO 3 43
LTSO 4 41.9 13280 1390 4319800 0.123 531300
Acosta
Test 1 34.2 8170 1760 3992400 0.1 399200
46-11A 78 1160 95
679900 0.535 363700
Apalachicola
62-5
58.2 510
80
296600 0.37 109700

kPa
[26]
490.52

kPa
[26] [22]
[22]
NA 34-40 0.12-0.33

(From Eqn.(4)
using Ei and

(From Eqn.(4)
using Ei and

= 0.33)

= 0.12)

kPa
[10]
1208900

kPa
[10]
1435500

1254.76
915.5
129
70.48

NA 34-40
NA 34-40
20.42 34-40
20.42 34-40

0.12-0.33
0.12-0.33
0.12-0.33
0.12-0.33

1624000
1500900
255600
111500

1928500
1782300
303500
132400

Fuller Warren

69-7
LT-3a
LT4

54
31
33

490
40
285400 0.26 74200
4100 920 1784200 0.09 160600
8480 1090 3148300 0.096 302200

47.23
419.23
705.56

20.42 34-40 0.12-0.33


20.42 34-40 0.12-0.33
20.42 34-40 0.12-0.33

107300
670800
1183600

127400
796500
1405500

Gandy

52-6

78

3510 1330 2226000

0.78 1736300

834.56

17.28 34-40 0.12-0.33

836850

993800

Victory

91-4
10-2

52
410 105 1890100 0.21 396900
29.8 15040 2400 20000000 0.083 1648400

70.5
1232.46

18.85 34-40 0.12-0.33


17.28 34-40 0.12-0.33

710600
7466300

843800
8866200

Properties

Symbol Units

Florida Limestone

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction

fs

kPa

See Fig. 3(Driven Piles) on pp.9

Ultimate Unit End Bearing

qb

kPa

See Fig. 2(Driven Piles) on pp.8

kN

Unit End Bearing x Tip Area

Axial Bearing Failure

f s = 1 * qu * qt * ( Adjusted % RQD )
2
E
G=
2* (1 + )

(9)

Ref. [26]

(4)

Ref. [10]

Figure 1 Geographic Location of Load Test Sites

For Driven Piles - The Ultimate End bearing of any pile can be calculated from
the below graph if the SPT blow count are available
n := 60

i := 1 .. n + 1

N := ( i 1)
i

Sand(Conc/Steel/HPile) := 3.2 N 95.76

Ultimate End Bearing for Concrete, Steel and H piles in Sand

Clay(Conc/Steel/HPile) := 0.7 N 95.76

Ultimate End Bearing for Concrete, Steel and H piles in Clay

Limestone(Conc/HPile) := 3.6 N 95.76

Ultimate End Bearing for Concrete and H piles in Florida Limestone

Limestone(Steel) :=
i

(3.6Ni95.76) if Ni 30

(N 30) 287.28
36 + 7 i

30

Ultimate End Bearing for Steel piles in Florida


Limestone
otherwise

Ultimate End Bearing (Driven Piles)


4

2.5 10

Ultimate End Bearing (kPa)

2 10

Sand(Conc/Steel/HPile)

1.5 10
Clay(Conc/Steel/HPile)
Limestone(Conc/HPile)
Limestone(Steel)

1 10

5 10

10

20

30
N

SPT Blow-count (N)

Figure 2

40

50

60

For Driven Piles - The Ultimate Skin Friction of any pile can be calculated
from the below graph if the SPT blow count are available
n := 60

i := 1 .. n + 1

N := ( i 1)
i

Ultimate Skin Friction for Concrete Piles in Sand...


Sand(Conc) := 0.019 N 95.8
i

Ultimate Skin Friction for Steel Piles in Sand...


Sand(Steel) := 0.026 + 0.023 N 1.435 10
i

( i)

6.527 10

( i) 95.8

Ultimate Skin Friction for Concrete Piles in Clay...


Clay(Conc) :=
i

2 Ni ( 110 Ni)

95.8
4006.6

Ultimate Skin Friction for Steel Piles in Clay...


Clay(Steel) := 8.081 10
i

+ 0.058 N 1.202 10
i

( i)

+ 8.785 10

( i) 95.8

Ultimate Skin Friction for Concrete and Steel Piles in Florida Limestone...

Limestone(Conc/Steel) := 0.01 N 95.8


i

Ultimate Skin Friction (Driven Piles)


150

Ultimate Skin Friction (kPa)

125

Sand(Conc)

100

Sand(Steel)
Clay(Conc)

75

Clay(Steel)
Limestone(Conc/Steel)
50

25

10

20

30
N

SPT Blow-count (N)

Figure 3

40

50

60

For Drilled shafts - The Ultimate Unit Skin Friction for Sand with respect to
the depth can be found out from the graph below
start := 0
n :=

:=
i

( end start )
h

end := 50

h := 0.5

i := 1 .. ( n )

Depth := start + ( i 1 ) h

Depth from 0 to 50m

1.2 if Depth 5 ( 0.3048)


i

0.25 if Depth > 86 ( 0.3048)


i

1.5 0.135 Depthi ( 0.3048) otherwise

Assumed Density of Sand...

:= 17 kN m

Density of Water...

water := 9.81 kN m

Vertical effective stress...

'Water := water Depth


i
i

Water Table at the surface

'NoWater := ( ) Depth
i
i

No Water Table

Ultimate Skin Friction with water table at surface

SFwWT := 'Water
i

SFw/oWT := 'NoWater

Ultimate Skin Friction with no water table

Ultimate Skin Friction of Sand (Drilled Shaft)


0

Depth (m)

10

20
Depth(Water Table at Surface)
Depth(No Water Table)
30

40

50

100

150

SFwWT, SFw/oWT

Ultimate Unit Skin Friction (kPa)

Figure 4

200

250

References:
1. "Foundation Analysis and Design", 5th Edition, Joseph E. Bowles, Table 3-4, pp 163.
2. "Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice", 3rd Editon, Karl Terzaghi , Ralph Peck, Gholamreza Mesri , 1996, Table
12.1, pp. 60.
3. FB MultiPier Help Manual -> 11.3.8 Subgrade Modulus -> Figure B7 (Source: "Research on Determining the
Density of Sands by Spoon Penetration Testing", H.J.Gibbs, W.G.Holtz, 1957, Proc. 4th International Conference
on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 1, pp. 35-39).
4. FB MultiPier Help Manual -> 11.3.8 Subgrade Modulus -> Figure B7 (Source: American Petroleum Institute (API),
1987, Recommended practice for planning, designing and constructing xed offshore platforms, API
Recommended practice 2A (RP 2A), 17th Ed, Figure 6.8.7-1, pp.70).
5. "Foundation Analysis and Design", 5th Edition, Joseph E. Bowles, Equation 2-18a, pp.41.
6. FB MultiPier Help Manual ->11.3.8 Subgrade Modulus -> Figure B8 (Source: American Petroleum Institute (API),
1987, Recommended practice for planning, designing and constructing xed offshore platforms, API
Recommended practice 2A (RP 2A), 17th Ed, Figure 6.8.7-1, pp.70).
7. "Principles of Foundation Engineering", 6th Edition, Braja Das, Table 5.8, pp. 240.
8. "Principles of Foundation Engineering", 6th Edition, Braja Das, Equation 5.43, pp. 240.
9. "Principles of Foundation Engineering", 6th Edition, Braja Das, Equation 6.5, pp. 294.
10. "Foundation Analysis and Design, 5th Edition, Joseph E. Bowles, Equation (a), pp. 121.
11. Seismic Response Analysis of a Highway Overcrossing Equipped with Elastomeric Bearings and Fluid
Dampers, Nicos Makris & Jian Zhang, Equation (1), Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 6, June 2004,
pp. 830-845 (Source: Correlations among seismic motion, ground conditions, and damage: Data on the
Miyagiken-oki earthquake of 1978, Imai T. and Tonouchi K., 1982, Proc. 3rd Int. Earthquake Miscorzonation Conf.,
Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Vol. 2, pp. 649660.).
12. "Foundation Analysis and Design", 2nd Edition, Joseph E. Bowles, Table 3-4, pp. 86.
13. "Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice", 3rd Editon, Karl Terzaghi , Ralph Peck, Gholamreza Mesri, 1996,
Table 12.2, pp. 63.
14. Soil Mechanics, 1st Edition, T. W. Lambe, R. V. Whitman, 1969, Section 29.8, pp.451.
15. Correlations for design of laterally loaded piles in soft clay, Matlock, H., 1970, Proceedings, Offshore
Technology Conference, Vol. I, Paper No. 1204, Houston, Texas, pp. 577-594.
16. Single Piles and Pile Groups under Lateral Loading, Lymon C. Reese, William F. Van Impe, Figure 3.11, pp.
71.
17. Laterally Loaded Piles and Computer Program COM624G, Reese L.C., Cooley L.A., Radhakrishnan N., 1984,
Technical Report K-84-2, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Table 4, pp. 60.
18. "Foundation Analysis and Design", 5th Edition, Joseph E. Bowles, Table 2-7, pp. 123.
19. Engineering and Design Settlement Analysis, EM1110-1-1904, Appendix D, Table D-3, pp. D-5.

20. A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Harbour Engineering, Brysson Cunningham, pp. 86.
21. Bulletin, Issue 2, Utah Engineering Experiment Station, pp. 16.
22. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification, 5th Edition, Section 10(Foundations), pp. (10-25) (10-27).
23. AASHTO Standard Specification for Highway Bridges, 16th Edition, 1996, Table 4.4.1.2B, pp. 64.
24. Handbook of Geotechnical Investigation and Design Tables, Burt Look, pp. 65.
25. Geophysical testing for rock assessment and pile design, Lani Cheenikal, Harry Poulos, Robert Whiteley,
Coffey Geotechnics, Australia. (Internet link:
http://www.coffey.com/Uploads/Documents/Geophysical%20testing%20for%20rock%20assessment%20and%20
pile%20design_20100625141417.pdf)
26. Static and Dynamic Field Testing of Drilled Shafts: Suggested Guidelines on their use for FDOT Structures,
Michael McVay, Ralph D. Ellis Jr., Final Report, FDOT No. 99052794.