Resistivity and Saturation in Shales considerations

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Resistivity and Saturation in Shales considerations

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Over the years, a large number of models relating resistivity and fluid saturations have been

proposed. Many have been developed assuming the shale exists in one of the three specific

geometric forms. All these models are composed of a clean sand term, described by the Archie

water saturation equation, plus a shale term. The shale term may be fairly simple or quite complex;

the shale term may be relatively independent of, or it may interact with, the clean sand term. All the

models reduce to the Archie water saturation equation when the fraction of shale is zero; for

relatively small amounts of shaliness, most models and methods yield quite similar results.

Only a very few of these models will be reviewed here to provide some flavor and understanding for

the evolution of shaly-sand interpretation logic.

In this laminar shale model, Rt, the resistivity in the direction of the bedding planes, is related

to Rsh (the resistivity of the shale laminae) and to Rsd (the resistivity of the clean sand laminae) by a

parallel resistivity relationship,

....................(1)

where Vlam is the bulk-volume fraction of the shale, distributed in laminae, each of more-or-less

uniform thickness.

For clean-sand laminae,

sand. Because

(where sd is the sand-streak porosity) and f =

(1 Vlam )sd (where is the bulk-formation porosity), then

....................(2)

To evaluate Sw by the laminated model, Rt, Rw, , Vlam, and Rsh must be determined.

For the determination of Rt, the problem is the same as for clean formations. If Rw is not known, its

determination usually involves looking at a nearby clean sand and solving for Rw using the SP

measurement. If the formation is water-bearing, the resistivity and porosity measurements can be

used.

For the determination of and Vlam, a combination of porosity logs can be used. For example, as

illustrated in Fig. 1, a crossplot of N and B from a density log is effective. The triangle of the figure

is defined by the matrix point, water point, and shale point. In this example, the matrix point is

at N = 0 (the neutron log was scaled in apparent sandstone porosity) and ma = 2.65 g/cm3(quartz

matrix). The shale point is at N = 50 p.u. and sh = 2.45 g/cm3. These values were taken in a nearby

thick shale bed; it is assumed that shale laminae in the shaly sand under investigation are similar to

the nearby massive shale beds. The water point is, of course, located at N = 100 p.u. and B = 1

g/cm3. The matrix-water line and shale-water line are linearly divided into porosity; the matrix-shale

line and water-shale line are linearly divided into shale percentages.

Fig. 1 Neutron-density crossplot showing matrix, water, and shake points, scaled for determination

of Vshale and porosity.

Point A, plotted as an example, corresponds to log readings of B = 2.2 g/cm3 and N = 33 p.u.

Interpretation by the lines on the plot yields 23% and Vsh (or Vlam) = 16 %.

Direct use of this crossplot assumes 100% water saturation in the zone investigated by the tools.

Because oil has a density and hydrogen content normally not greatly different from water, this

crossplot technique can be used with acceptable accuracy in oil-bearing formations. The presence

of gas or light hydrocarbon, however, decreases N and decreases B. This would cause the point to

shift in a northwesterly direction. When gas or light hydrocarbons are present, an additional

shaliness indicator, such as GR or SP data, is needed to evaluate the amount of the shift.

Using the laminated model, an equation for Rxo analogous to Eq. 2 could be written. Sxo would

replace Sw, and Rmf would replaceRw. The other terms (, Vlam, and Rsh) remain the same in the two

equations. Assuming S xo = S w 1/5 (as in the flushed-zone ratio method) and the ratio of the PSP

(SP deflection in the shaly sand) to the SSP (SP deflection in a nearby clean sand of similar

formation water) is a measure of shaliness, Vlam, water saturation could be calculated from Rxo/Rt and

PSP in the shaly sand and SSP (or Rmf/Rw) in a nearby clean sand.

Dispersed clay

In this model, the formation conducts electrical current through a network composed of the pore

water and dispersed clay. As suggested by de Witte,[1] it seems acceptable to consider that the

water and the dispersed shale conduct an electrical current like a mixture of electrolytes.

Development of this assumption yields

....................(3)

where im = intermatrix porosity, which includes all the space occupied by fluids and dispersed

shale; Sim = the fraction of the intermatrix porosity occupied by the formation-water, dispersed-shale

mixture; q = the fraction of the intermatrix porosity occupied by the dispersed shale; and Rshd = the

resistivity of the dispersed shale. Also, it can be shown that Sw = (Sim q)/(1 q), whereSw is the

water saturation in the fraction of true effective formation porosity.

Combining these relations and solving for Sw yields

....................(4)

Usually, im can be obtained directly from a sonic log because dispersed clay in the rock pores is

seen as water by the sonic measurement. The value of q can be obtained from a comparison of a

sonic and density log. Indeed, if shd ma, then qsv (SV D)/ SV, where SV and D are the sonic

and density derived porosities, respectively. In this case, D approximates , the effective porosity

available for fluid saturation.

The value of Rsh is more difficult to evaluate. It is usually taken as equal to Rsh in nearby shale beds.

Fortunately, its value is not too critical if it is at least several times greater than Rw. In fact,

when Rw is small compared to Rsh and the sand is not too shaly,Eq. 4 can be simplified to a form

independent of Rsh:

....................(5)

Based upon the previously described ideas, laboratory investigations, and field experience, it has

been found that a simple relationship of the following form works well for many shaly formations

independent of the distribution of the shale and over the range of Sw values encountered in practice:

....................(6)

In using this equation, Rsh is taken equal to the resistivity of the adjacent shale beds, and Vsh is the

shale fraction as determined from a total shale indicator.

Before the Waxman-Smits formulation, equations of the form of Eq. 3 and 6 gained wide

acceptance in the evaluation of shaly sands. These equations have a general form of

....................(7)

where denotes a predominant sand term that is dependent on the amount of sand, its porosity,

and the resistivity of the saturating water. The sand term always reduces to Archies water

saturation equation when the shale fraction is zero. denotes a predominant shale term that

depends on the amount and resistivity of the shale.

In 1968, Waxman and Smits proposed, based on extensive laboratory work and theoretical study, a

saturation-resistivity relationship for shaly formations that related the resistivity contribution of the

shale (to the overall resistivity of the formation) to the CEC of the shale. [2] The Waxman-Smits

relationship is

....................(8)

where F* is the formation factor of the interconnected porosity, Sw also relates to the interconnected

pores, B is the equivalent conductance of the sodium clay-exchange cations as a function of the

formation water conductivity, and Qv is the CEC of the rock per unit pore volume.

Unfortunately, a continuous in-situ measurement of rock CEC was not available when this study

was presented. As a result, the dual water model was developed as a practical solution. [3] The dual

water method is based on three premises:

The CEC of pure clays is proportional to the specific surface area of the clay.

In saline solutions, the anions are excluded from a layer of water around the surface of the

grain. The thickness of this layer expands as the salinity of the solution (below a certain limit)

decreases, and the thickness is a function of salinity and temperature.

Therefore, because CEC is proportional to specific area (area per unit weight) and to the volume of

water in the counter-ion exclusion layer per unit weight of clay. Consequently, the conductivity of

clay is proportional to the volume of the counter-ion exclusion layer, this layer being "bound" to the

surface of the clay grains. For clays, this very thin sheet of bound water is important because of the

large surface areas of clays relative to sand grains (several magnitudes greater). Therefore, in the

dual water model, a clay is modeled as consisting of two components: bound water and clay

minerals.

The clay minerals are modeled as being electrically inert; the clay electrical conductivity is modeled

as being derived from the conductivity of the bound water, Cwb. Cwb is assumed to be independent of

clay type (from the second postulate described previously). The amount of bound water varies

according to clay type, being higher for the finer clays (with higher surface areas), such as

montmorillonite, and lower for coarser clays, such as kaolinite. Salinity also has an effect; in lowsalinity waters (roughly < 20,000 ppm NaCl), the diffuse layer expands.

The bound water is immovable under normal conditions; therefore, the volume it occupies cannot

be displaced by hydrocarbons. Because the clay minerals (dry colloids) are considered electrically

inert, they may be treated just as other minerals. Schematically, shaly formations are modeled with

the dual water model, as illustrated in Table 1.

Table 1

For most rocks (except for conductive minerals such as pyrite, which cannot be treated in this way)

only the porous part needs to be considered when discussing electrical properties, and it is treated

according to the Archie water-saturation equation. The equation becomes

....................(9)

where a, m, and n have the usual Archie connotations. t is the conductivity of the noninvaded,

virgin formation (1/Rt), and we is the equivalent conductivity of the waters in the pore space.

Note that t and Swt refer to total pore volume; this includes the pore volumes saturated with the

bound water and the formation connate water (sometimes called the "free" water). The equivalent

water conductivity, we, is

....................(10)

where Vw and Vwb are the bulk volumes of formation water and bound water, respectively,

and w and wb are their conductivities.

In terms of saturation, Eq. 10 becomes

....................(11)

or

....................(12)

or

....................(13)

where Swb is the bound water saturation (i.e., the fraction of the total pore volume occupied by the

bound water).

Eq. 13 describes the equivalent-water conductivity as a function of the formation water conductivity

plus the bound-water conductivity. The saturation equation (Eq. 9) becomes

....................(14)

The porosity and water saturation of the sand (clean formation) phase (that is, the nonclay phase)

of the formation is obtained by subtracting the bulk-volume fraction of bound water (t Swb).

Therefore, the effective porosity is

....................(15)

and the water saturation is

....................(16)

To evaluate a shaly formation using the dual water model, four parameters must be determined.

They are w (or Rw), wb (or Rwb),t, and Swb. A neutron-density crossplot provides a good value

of t. Swb is obtainable from a variety of shale-sensitive measurements (SP,

GR, N, Rt, N B, t B, etc.). Rwb and Rw are usually determined by the log analyst and entered as

input parameters.

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