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Varsity Proof-Based Test

Problem #1

ID#:

In triangle ABC, point E is on AB,

2

AC = 4, CB = 5, AB = 6.

First Solution: First, we will show a quick solution using Stewarts theorem, we have

(AC)2 (EB) + (CB)2 (AE) = (AB)[(CE)2 + (AE)(EB)]

Second Solution: A more standard solution uses Herons formula. Triangles ACE and ACB share the same altitude and AE = 31 AB, the area of

triangle ACE is equal to one third the area of triangle ACB. By Herons

formula,

r

1 15 7 5 3

5

1

the area of ACB =

=

7.

3

3 2 2 2 2

4

Suppose that CE = x. Then the area of triangle ACE is equal to

r

6+x 6x x+2 x2

2

2

2

2

1p

(x2 36)(x2 4).

=

4

Setting y = x2 gives us

5

1p

7=

(y 2 40y + 144)

4

4

.

Solving

this yields y = 11 or 29, and after rejecting 29, we see that

CE = 11.

(CE)2 . Also, (AC)2 + (AB)2 2(AC)(AB) cos = (CB)2 . Here cos

=

= 11.

27/48, and solving for (CE)2 we have that (CE)2 = 11. Thus CE

Varsity Proof-Based Test

Problem #2

ID#:

defined for n 1 by (1) xn+1 = yn + 1/zn , (2) yn+1 = zn + 1/xn , and (3)

zn+1 = xn + 1/yn . Show that

(a) None of the three sequences are bounded.

(b) At least one of x200 , y200 , z200 is greater than 20.

Solution: Suppose for purposes of contradiction that one sequence is

bounded. Without loss of generality, say this is yn . So we may assume that xn

and zn are not bounded. We get a contradiction as yn is not bounded because

of the second equation. Thus, none of the three sequences are bounded.

For the second part, consider the behavior of a2n = (xn + yn + zn )2 . Since

x+1/x 2 for x > 0, we observe that a22 = (x1 +1/x1 +y1 +1/y1 +z1 +1/z1 )2

36 = 2 18. Now

a2n+1 = (xn + yn + zn + 1/xn + 1/yn + 1/zn )2

> a2n + 2(xn + yn + zn )(1/xn + 1/yn + 1/zn )

a2n + 18

By induction we get a2n > 18n for n > 2. Thus a2200 > 3600, x200 + y200 +

z200 > 60. So at least one of x200 , y200 , z200 is greater than 20.

Varsity Proof-Based Test

Problem #3

ID#:

How many subsets of S = {1, 2, . . . , 17} are there so that each subset

contains no two consecutive integers?

Solution: The solution is the 19th fibonacci number, f19 = 4181. The

idea is as follows. We can represent the ith Fibonacci number, fi where

f1 = f2 = 1, as the number of ways to tile a 1 by n 1 rectangle using

1 by 1 squares and 1 by 2 dominoes. This is easy to see by considering

the recurrence relation fn = fn1 + fn2 , where fn1 counts the number of

configurations where the last tile was a square and fn2 counts the number

of configurations where the last tile was a domino.

For our problem, the idea is that each number in the set S corresponds

to the location of a domino on a 1 by 18 rectangle. This gives a one-to-one

correspondence between the set S of all allowable subsets of S and the set of

all valid tilings of a 1 by 18 rectangle.

Reference: A. T. Benjamin, J. J. Quinn, Proofs That Really Count.

Varsity Proof-Based Test

Problem #4

ID#:

2m

that 2 5+1 is a composite integer.

Solution: Set 2k = m + 1. Then

22m + 1 = (2m + 1)2 22k = (2m + 2k + 1)(2m 2k + 1).

We now will condition on the value of k mod 4. Notice that each congruence class of k gives a unique congruence class of m mod 4, so we will only

refer to the congruence class of k. First, if k is congruent to 2 or 3 mod 4,

then 2m 2k + 1 0 mod 5. when k is congruent to 0 or 1 mod 4, then

2m + 2k + 1 0 mod 5.

We also claim that each of the two factors are strictly greater than five.

First, observe that it suffices to show that the second factor, 2m 2k + 1 is

strictly greater than five, as the first factor is always larger. When m > 3,

the first value for m to check is m = 5. In this cases, 25 23 + 1 = 25. It is

clear that as m increases, 2m 2k + 1 also increases, so this completes the

proof of the claim.

To see that we obtain a composite integer, observe from the first paragraph that at least one of the two factors is divisible by five and by the

second paragraph, both factors are strictly greater than five. Therefore,

22m +1

is composite

5

Varsity Proof-Based Test

Problem #5

ID#:

1

1

1

1

1

+

+

+

+ +

> 10

1+ 4

10 + 13

19 + 22

28 + 31

10000 + 10003

.

Solution: This solution is based on creating a telescoping sum and estimating it.

First, observe that 3( 1+1 4 + 10+1 13 + + 10000+1 10003 ) 1+1 4 +

1

1 + +

. Rationalizing the denominators of this second

4+ 7

10000+ 10003

sum gives:

1

1

4 1

7 4

10003 10000

1

+

+ +

=

+

+

.

3

3

3

1+ 4

4+ 7

10000 + 10003

The theorem holds ifthe right hand side is at least 30. We have a telescoping sum with value 100031

> 30. This proves the result.

3

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