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Muscles

Action
SCALPULOHUMERAL (INTRINSIC SHOULDER MUSCLES)
Supraspinatus
Initially abducts arm up to 15o; acts with
rotator cuff muscles chief elevator

Nerve Innervation

Blood Supply

Suprascapular

Suprascapular

Infraspinatus

Laterally rotates arm; acts with rotator


cuff muscles chief lateral rotator

Suprascapular

Suprascapular

Teres Minor

Laterally rotates arm; acts with rotator


cuff muscles

Axillary

Circumflex scapular

Subscapularis

Adducts and medially rotates arm at the


shoulder; helps stabilize the joint during
all movements chief medial rotator
Clavicular: flexes and medially rotates
arm
Acromial: abducts arm beyond initial 15o
Spinal: extends and laterally rotates arm
Adducts and medially rotates arm;
stabilizes humeral head in glenoid cavity

Upper and Lower


subscapular

Subscapular

Axillary

Posterior circumflex humeral,


thoracoacromial

Lower subscapular

Subscapular, circumflex scapular

Deltoid

Teres Major

Muscles
Action
ANTERIOR AXIOAPPENDICULAR MUSCLES
Pectoralis Major
Flexes, adducts, and medially rotates arm; draws
scapula anteriorly and inferiorly chief flexor and
adductor (with latissimus dorsi)
Pectoralis Minor
Stabilizes scapula, lowers lateral angle and protracts
scapula
Subclavius
Anchors and depresses clavicle
Serratus Anterior (boxers
Protracts and rotates scapula; holds it against
muscle)
thoracic wall chief protractor
POSTERIOR AXIOAPPENDICULAR MUSCLES - SUPERFICIAL
Trapezius
Superior fibers elevates, medial fibers retract, and
inferior fibers depress scapula; rotates scapula
chief protractor
Latissimus Dorsi
Extends, adducts, and medially rotates arm at
shoulder; raises body toward arms during climbing
chief extensor and adductor (with pectoralis)

Origin/Insertion
O: Supraspinous fossa of scapula
I: Superior facet of greater tubercle of
humerus
O: Infraspinous fossa of scapula
I: Middle facet of greater tubercle of
humerus
O: Middle part of lateral border of scapula
I: Inferior facet of greater tubercle of
humerus
O: Subscapular fossa (most of anterior
surface of scapula)
I: Lesser tubercle of humerus
O: Lateral third of clavicle; acromion and
spine of scapula
I: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
O: Posterior surface of inferior angle of
scapula
I: Medial lip of intertubercular sulcus of
humerus

Nerve Innervation

Blood supply

Lateral and medial pectoral

Thoracoacromial

Medial pectoral

Thoracoacromial

Nerve to subclavius
Long thoracic

Thoracoacromial
Lateral Thoracic

Spinal Accessory Nerve (CN11)

Cervical

Thoracodorsal

Thoracodorsal

POSTERIOR AXIOAPPENDICULAR MUSCLES - DEEP


Levator Scapulae
Elevates scapula medially and rotates glenoid cavity
inferiorly by rotating scapula
Acting Unilaterally: contribute to lateral flexion of
the neck
Acting Bilaterally (w trapezius): extend the neck
Rhomboid Major
Retracts and rotates scapula to depress glenoid
cavity; fix scapula to thoracic wall
Rhomboid Minor
Retracts and rotates scapula to depress glenoid
cavity; fix scapula to thoracic wall
MUSCLES OF ARM
Biceps brachii
Supinates forearm at elbow and flexes forearm when
supinated; short head resists shoulder dislocation
Brachialis
Flexes forearm in all positions main flexor of
forearm
Coracobrachialis
Flexes and adducts arm at shoulder; resists shoulder
dislocation
Triceps brachii
Extends forearm at elbow; long head stabilizes head
resists humerus dislocation; extend and adduct arm
at shoulder chief extensor of forearm
Anconeus
Assists triceps in extending forearm; stabilizes elbow
joint; may abduct ulna during pronation
MUSCLES OF THE BACK RELATED TO RESPIRATION
Serratus posterior superior
Elevates ribs (inspiration)
Serratus posterior inferior
Depresses ribs (expiration)
INTRINSIC BACK MUSCLES SUPERFICIAL LAYER
Splenius
Acting together: extend head and neck
Splenius capitis
Acting alone: laterally flex neck and rotate head to
Splenius cervitis
side of active muscles
INTRINSIC BACK MUSCLES INTERMEDIATE LAYER
Erector spinae
Bilaterally: extend vertebral column and head; as
Iliocostalis
back is flexed, control movement via eccentric
Longissimus
contraction
Spinalis
Unilaterally: laterally flex vertebral column
INTRINSIC BACK MUSCLES DEEP LAYER
Transversospinalis
Extension
Semispinalis
Semispinalis: extends head and thoracic and cervical
Multifidus
regions of vertebral column and rotates them
Rotatores
contralaterally

Dorsal scapular and ventral rami of C3-C4

Dorsal scapular

Dorsal scapular

Dorsal scapular

Dorsal Scapular

Dorsal Scapular

Musculocutaneous

Brachial

Musculocutaneous and radial

Brachial

Musculocutaneous

Brachial

Radial

Brachial

Radial

Brachial

Anterior rami of upper thoracic


Anterior rami of upper thoracic

Posterior intercostal
Posterior intercostal

Posterior rami of spinal nerves

Descending branch of occipital


Deep cervical

Posterior rami of spinal nerves

Deep cervical, posterior intercostal,


subcostal, lumbar

Posterior rami of spinal nerves

Deep cervical, posterior intercostal,


subcostal, lumbar

Multifidus: stabilizes vertebrae during local


movements of vertebral column
Rotatores: stabilize vertebrae and assist with local
extension and rotatory movements of vertebral
column; may function as organs of proprioception
Minor deep back muscles
Interspinales: Aid in extension and rotation of
Interspinales: posterior rami of spinal nerves
Interspinales
vertebral column
Intertransversarii: posterior and anterior rami
Intertransversarii
Intertransversarii: Aid in lateral flexion of vertebral
of spinal nerves
Levatorus costarum
column; acting bilaterally, stabilize vertebral column
Levatores Costarum: Posterior rami of C8-T11
Levatores Costarum: Elevate ribs, assisting
spinal nerves
respiration; assist with lateral flexion of vertebral
column
MUSCLES OF ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF FOREARM SUPERFICIAL LAYER
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexes and adducts hand at wrist
Ulnar
Flexor carpi radialis
Flexes and abducts hand at wrist
Median
Pronator teres
Pronates and flexes forearm at elbow
Median
Palmaris longus may be absent
Flexes hand at wrist and tenses palmar aponeurosis
Median
MUSCLES OF THE ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF FOREARM INTERMEDIATE LAYER
Flexor digitorum superficialis
Flexes middle phalanges at proximal IP joints; flexes
Median
proximal phalanges at MP joints, flexes hand at wrist
MUSCLES OF THE ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF FOREARM DEEP LAYER
Flexor digitorum profundus
Medial: flexes distal phalanges 4 and 5 at distal IP
Medial: Ulnar
joints
Lateral: Anterior interosseous (median)
Lateral: flexes distal phalanges 2 and 3 at distal IP
joints
Assists with flexion of hand at wrist
Flexor pollicis longus
Flexes thumb
Anterior interosseous (from median)
Pronator quadratus
Deep fibers bind radius and ulna together; pronates
Anterior interosseous (from median)
forearm chief pronator
MUSCLES OF THE POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF FOREARM - SUPERFICIAL
Extensor carpi radialis longus
Extends and abducts hand at wrist joint,
Radial
indispensable in fist clenching
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Extends and abducts hand at wrist joint; aids in
Deep branch of radial
steadying the wrist during fist clenching
Brachioradialis
Relatively weak flexion of forearm; maximal when
Radial
*incapable of acting at the wrist
forearm is mid-pronated
Extensor carpi ulnaris
Extends and adducts hand at wrist joint,
Deep branch of radial
indispensible in fist clenching
Extensor digitorum
Extends medial four digits primarily at MCP and
Deep branch of radial
secondary at IP, assists in wrist extension principal
extensor of medial four digits
Extensor digiti minimi
Extends 5th digit primarily at MCP and secondary at IP Deep branch of radial

Deep cervical, posterior intercostal,


subcostal, lumbar

Ulnar
Radial
Ulnar
Ulnar
Ulnar, radial

Ulnar, anterior interosseous

Anterior interosseous
Anterior interosseous

Radial
Radial
Radial
Ulnar
Posterior interosseous

Recurrent interosseous

MUSCLES OF THE POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF FOREARM DEEP


Abductor pollicis longus
Abducts and extends thumb at CM joint
Extensor indicis
Extends 2nd digit (enables independent extension),
helps extend hand at wrist
Extensor pollicis longus
Extends distal phalanx of thumb at IP; extends MCP
and CM joints; adducts extended thumb, rotates it
laterally
Extensor pollicis brevis
Extends proximal phalanx of thumb at MCP joint;
extends CM joint
Supinator
Supinates forearm; rotates radius to turn palm
*incapable of acting at the wrist
anterior or superiorly if the elbow is flexed prime
mover for slow, unopposed supination
INTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE HAND THENAR MUSCLES
Abductor pollicis brevis
Abducts thumb; help oppose thumb
Flexor pollicis brevis (superficial
Flexes thumb, adducts thumb toward lateral border
and deep head)
of palm
Opponens pollicis
Draws 1st metacarpal forward and rotates it medially
Adductor pollicis
Adducts thumb toward lateral border of palm
INTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE HAND HYPOTHENAR MUSCLES
Abductor digiti minimi
Abducts little finger, assists flexion of its proximal
*produce hypothenar eminence
phalanx
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Flexes proximal phalanx of little finger

Posterior interosseous (radial)


Posterior interosseous (radial)

Posterior interosseous
Posterior interosseous

Posterior interosseous (radial)

Posterior interosseous

Posterior interosseous (radial)

Posterior interosseous

Deep branch of radial

Radial, posterior interosseous

Recurrent branch of median


Superficial: Recurrent branch of median
Deep: Deep branch of ulnar
Recurrent branch of median
Deep branch of ulnar

Superficial palmar branch of radial


Superficial palmar branch of radial

Deep branch of ulnar

Deep palmar branch of ulnar

Deep branch of ulnar

Deep palmar branch of ulnar

Superficial palmar branch of radial


Deep palmar branch

*produce hypothenar eminence

Draws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it,


Deep branch of ulnar
bringing little finger into opposition with thumb
Palmaris Brevis
Deepens hollow of hand; assists grip; covers and
Superficial branch of ulnar
protects ulnar nerve and artery
INTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE HAND SHORT MUSCLES
Lumbricals 1st and 2nd
Flexes MCP joints; extend IP joints of 2nd to 5th digits
Median
Lumbricals 3rd and 4th
Flexes MCP joints; extend IP joints of 2nd to 5th digits
Deep branch of ulnar
st
th
nd
th
rd
Dorsal interossei 1 to 4
Abduct 2 4 digits from axial line of hand (3
Deep branch of ulnar
digit); act with lumbricals in flexing MCP joints and
extending IP joints
Palmar interossei 1st to 3rd
Adduct 2nd, 4th, 5th digits toward axial line of hand (3rd Deep branch of ulnar
digit); assists lumbricals in flexing MCP joints and
extending IP joints; extensor expansions of 2nd-4th
digits
MUSCLES OF GLUTEAL REGION: ABDUCTORS AND ROTATORS OF THIGH SUPERFICIAL
Gluteus Maximus
Extends thigh from flexed position and assists in
Inferior gluteal
lateral rotation; steadies thigh and assists in rising
from steady position; abducts thigh largest,
heaviest, most coarsely fibered muscle
Opponens digiti minimi

Deep palmar branch of ulnar

*produce hypothenar eminence

Superficial palmar branch of ulnar

Median
Deep palmar arch
Deep palmar arch

Deep palmar arch

Superior gluteal (occasionally), inferior


gluteal (mainly)

Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus
Tensor fascia latae

Abducts, medially rotate thigh at hips; stabilize thigh


Abducts, medially rotate thigh at hips; stabilize thigh
Abducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh at hip;
helps to keep knee extended generally does not act
independently
MUSCLES OF GLUTEAL REGION: ABDUCTORS AND ROTATORS OF THIGH DEEP
Piriformis
Laterally rotates extended thigh, abducts flexed thigh
at hips; steadies femoral head landmark of gluteal
region
Quadratus femoris
Laterally rotates thigh at hips; steadies femoral head
strong lateral rotator of thigh
Gemelli (superior and inferior)
Laterally rotates extended thigh at the hip; help
part of triceps coxae; incapable of
abduct flexed thigh

Superior gluteal
Superior gluteal
Superior gluteal

Superior gluteal
Superior gluteal
Superior gluteal, Lateral circumflex
femoral

Ventral rami of S1-S2, L5

Superior and inferior gluteal, internal


pudendal

Nerve to quadratus femoris

Medial circumflex femoral, inferior gluteal

Superior: nerve to obturator internus


Inferior: nerve to quadratus femoris

Inferior gluteal

Nerve to obturator internus

Internal pudendal, superior and inferior


gluteal

Psoas Major: Ventral rami of lumbar (L1, L2,


L3)
Psoas Minor: Ventral rami of lumbar (L1, L2)
Iliacus: Femoral
Femoral (sometimes, obturator)

Psoas Major and Minor: Lumbar branches


of iliolumbar artery
Iliacus: Iliac branches of iliolumbar

Femoral

Femoral

Femoral

Lateral circumflex femoral, profunda


femoris

Obturator (anterior)
Obturator (anterior)

Obturator, medial circumflex femoral


Obturator, medial circumflex femoral,
profunda femoris
Obturator, medial circumflex femoral,
profunda femoris
Profunda femoris, medial circumflex
femoral
Obturator, medial circumflex femoral

independent action

Obturator internus part of triceps


coxae; incapable of independent
action

Laterally rotates extended thigh, abducts flexed thigh


at hip; steadies femoral head

MUSCLES OF ANTERIOR THIGH FLEXORS OF HIP JOINT


Iliopsoas
Flexes thigh at hip joint, stabilizes hip joint chief
Psoas Major
flexor of thigh (powerful hip flexor)
Psoas Minor
Iliascus
Pectineus
Adducts and flexes thigh at hip; assists in medial
rotation
Sartorius (tailors muscle)
Abducts, laterally rotates, and flexes thigh; flexes
knee longest muscle
MUSCLES OF ANTERIOR THIGH EXTENSORS OF KNEE
Quadriceps femoris
Extends leg at knee joint great extensor of leg;
Rectus femoris
largest, most powerful muscle
Vastus lateralis
Vatus medialis
Rectus femoris also helps steady hip joint and aid
Vastus intermedius
iliopsoas flex thigh
MUSCLES OF MEDIAL THIGH ADDUCTORS OF THIGH
Adductor longus
Adducts thigh at hip
Adductor brevis
Adducts thigh at hip, to some extend flexes it
Adductor magnus
Gracilis
Obturator externus

Adductor: flexes thigh, adducts


Hamstring: extends thigh
Adducts thigh, flexes leg, helps rotate leg medially

Adductor: Obturator
Hamstring: Tibial (Sciatic)
Obturator

Laterally rotates thigh, steadies head of femur in


acetabulum

Obturator

Medial circumflex femoral

MUSCLES OF POSTERIOR THIGH HIP AND FLEXORS OF KNEE


Semitendinosus
Extends thigh; flexes leg, rotates leg medially; extend
trunk when thigh and leg are flexed
Semimembranosus
Extends thigh; flexes leg, rotates leg medially; extend
trunk when thigh and leg are flexed
Biceps femoris
Extends thigh at hip; flexes leg, laterally rotates leg
when knee is flexed
MUSCLES OF ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF LEG
Tibialis anterior
Dorsiflexes foot at ankle and inverts foot
Extensor digitorum longus
Extends lateral four digits and dorsiflexes foot at
ankle
Extensor hallucis longus
Extends great toe and dorisflexes foot at ankle
Fibularis tertius not always present Dorsiflexes foot at ankle; aids in foot eversion
MUSCLES OF POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF LEG SUPERFICIAL
Gastrocnemius part of triceps
Plantarflexes foot at ankle when knee is extended;
surae
flexes leg at knee, raises heel during walking
Soleus part of triceps surae
Steadies leg on foot; plantarflexes foot at ankle
independent of position of knee
Plantaris
Weakly assists gastrocnemius in plantarflexing
MUSCLES OF POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF LEG - DEEP
Flexor hallucis longus
Flexes great toe at all joints; weakly plantarflexes
foot at ankle; supports medial longitudinal arch of
foot powerful flexor of all joints of the great toe
Flexor digitorum longus
Flexes lateral four digits, supports longitudinal
arches, plantarflexes foot at ankle
Tibialis posterior
Plantarflexes foot at ankle; Inverts foot; maintain the
medial longitudinal arch during weight-bearing
Popliteus
Weakly flexes knee, unlocks it by rotating femur 5o
on fixed tibia; medially rotates tibia of unplanted
limb
MUSCLES OF LATERAL COMPARTMENT OF LEG
Fibularis longus
Everts foot and weakly plantarflexes ankle; helps
steady the leg if person stands on one foot
Fibularis brevis
Everts foot and weakly plantarflexes ankle
MUSCLES OF THE FOOT DORSAL LAYER
Extensor digitorum brevis
Aids extensor digitorum longus in extending 4 medial
digits at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) and IP joints
Extensor hallucis brevis
Aids extensor hallucis longus in extending the big toe
at the MTP
MUSCLES OF THE FOOT PLANTAR 1ST LAYER
Abductor digiti minimi
Abduct and flex little toe
Abductor hallucis
Abducts and flex great toe

Tibial (Sciatic)

Long head: tibial (sciatic nerve)


Short head: common fibular (sciatic nerve)

Profunda femoris, medial circumflex


femoral or inferior gluteal, popliteal
Profunda femoris, medial circumflex
femoral or inferior gluteal, popliteal
Profunda femoris, medial circumflex
femoral or inferior gluteal, popliteal

Deep fibular
Deep fibular

Anterior tibial
Anterior tibial

Deep fibular
Deep fibular

Anterior tibial
Anterior tibial

Tibial

Popliteal, tibial

Tibial

Popliteal, tibial, fibular

Tibial

Popliteal

Tibial

Fibular, posterior tibial

Tibial

Posterior tibial

Tibial

Fibular, posterior tibial, sural

Tibial

Inferior medial genicular (popliteal),


posterior tibial

Superficial fibular

Fibular, anterior tibial

Superficial fibular

Fibular, anterior tibial

Deep fibular

Dorsalis pedis

Deep fibular

Dorsalis pedis

Lateral plantar
Medial plantar

Lateral plantar
Medial plantar

Tibial (Sciatic)

Flexor digitorum brevis


Flexes lateral four digits (2nd 5th)
MUSCLES OF THE FOOT PLANTAR 2ND LAYER
Lumbricals
Flexes proximal phalanges at MTP, extends middle
and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
Quadratus plantae
Corrects for oblique pull of flexor digitorum longus
tendon; thus assists in flexion of toes
MUSCLES OF THE FOOT PLANTAR 3RD LAYER
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit, thus assisting in
its flexion
Adductor hallucis
Adducts great toe; maintains transverse arch of foot
by metatarsals medially
Flexor hallucis brevis
Flexes proximal phalanx of 1st digit
MUSCLES OF THE FOOT PLANTAR 4TH LAYER
Plantar interossei (3 muscles)
Adducts digits (3rd to 5th) and flexes MTP joints;
extend phalanges
Dorsal interossei (4 muscles)
Abducts digits (2nd to 4th) and flexes MTP joints;
extend phalanges

Medial plantar

Medial and lateral plantar

Medial one: Medial plantar


Lateral three: Lateral plantar
Lateral plantar

Lateral plantar

Superficial branch of lateral plantar

Lateral plantar

Deep branch of lateral plantar

Lateral plantar

Medial plantar

Medial plantar

Lateral plantar

Lateral plantar

Lateral plantar

Arcuate, dorsal and plantar metatarsal

Lateral plantar