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Chapter 1 – Introduction to C++ 1

Programming
Outline
1. History of C and C++
2. C++ Standard Library
3. Basics of a Typical C++ Environment
4. Introduction to C++ Programming
5. A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text
6. Another Simple Program: Adding Two Integers
7. Arithmetic
8. Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators
9. Introduction to Object Technology

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History of C and C++

• History of C
– Evolved from two other programming languages
• BCPL and B
– “Typeless” languages
– Dennis Ritchie (Bell Laboratories)
• Added data typing, other features
– Development language of UNIX
– Hardware independent
• Portable programs
– 1989: ANSI standard
– 1990: ANSI and ISO standard published
• ANSI/ISO 9899: 1990

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History of C and C++

• History of C++
– Extension of C
– Early 1980s: Bjarne Stroustrup (Bell Laboratories)
– “Spruces up” C
– Provides capabilities for object-oriented programming
• Objects: reusable software components
– Model items in real world
• Object-oriented programs
– Easy to understand, correct and modify
– Hybrid language
• C-like style
• Object-oriented style
• Both

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4

C++ Standard Library

• C++ programs
– Built from pieces called classes and functions
• C++ standard library
– Rich collections of existing classes and functions
• “Building block approach” to creating programs
– “Software reuse”

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5

Basics of a Typical C++ Environment

• C++ systems
– Program-development environment
– Language
– C++ Standard Library

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Basics of a Typical C++ Environment


Program is created in
Editor
Phases of C++ Programs: Disk the editor and stored
on disk.

Preprocessor Preprocessor program


1. Edit
Disk
processes the code.
Compiler creates
Compiler Disk object code and stores
2. Preprocess it on disk.
Linker links the object
Linker Disk code with the libraries,
3. Compile Primary
creates a.out and
stores it on disk
Memory
Loader
4. Link
Loader puts program
in memory.
5. Load Disk ..
..
..

6. Execute CPU
Primary
Memory

CPU takes each


instruction and
executes it, possibly
storing new data
..
.. values as the program
..
executes.
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Basics of a Typical C++ Environment

• Input/output
– cin
• Standard input stream
• Normally keyboard
– cout
• Standard output stream
• Normally computer screen
– cerr
• Standard error stream
• Display error messages

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Introduction to C++ Programming

• C++ language
– Facilitates structured and disciplined approach to computer
program design
• Following several examples
– Illustrate many important features of C++
– Each analyzed one statement at a time
• Structured programming
• Object-oriented programming

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A Simple Program:
Printing a Line of Text
• Comments
– Document programs
– Improve program readability
– Ignored by compiler
– Single-line comment
• Begin with //
• Preprocessor directives
– Processed by preprocessor before compiling
– Begin with #

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1 // Fig. 1.2: fig01_02.cpp
2 // A first program in C++.
3 #include <iostream>
4
5 // function main begins program execution
6 int main()
7 {
8 std::cout << "Welcome to C++!\n";
9 //indicate that program ended successfully
10 return 0;
11 } // end function main

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11
A Simple Program:
Printing a Line of Text
• Standard output stream object
– std::cout
– “Connected” to screen
– <<
• Stream insertion operator
• Value to right (right operand) inserted into output stream
• Escape characters
– \
– Indicates “special” character output

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1.21 A Simple Program:
Printing a Line of Text
Escape Sequence Description

\n Newline. Position the screen cursor to the


beginning of the next line.
\t Horizontal tab. Move the screen cursor to the next
tab stop.
\r Carriage return. Position the screen cursor to the
beginning of the current line; do not advance to the
next line.
\a Alert. Sound the system bell.
\\ Backslash. Used to print a backslash character.
\" Double quote. Used to print a double quote
character.

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1 // Fig. 1.5: fig01_05.cpp
2 // Printing multiple lines with a single
//statement
3 #include <iostream>
4
5 // function main begins program execution
6 int main() Using newline characters to
print on multiple lines.
7 {
8 std::cout << Welcome\nto\n\nC++!\n";
9 // indicate that program ended successfully
10 return 0;
11 } // end function main

Welcome
to

C++!
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14
Another Simple Program:
Adding Two Integers
• Variables
– Location in memory where value can be stored
– Common data types
• int - integer numbers
• char - characters
• double - floating point numbers
– Declare variables with name and data type before use
int integer1;
int integer2;
int sum;
– Can declare several variables of same type in one declaration
• Comma-separated list
int integer1, integer2, sum;

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Another Simple Program:
Adding Two Integers
• Input stream object
– >> (stream extraction operator)
• Used with std::cin
• Waits for user to input value, then press Enter (Return) key
• Stores value in variable to right of operator
– Converts value to variable data type
• = (assignment operator)
– Assigns value to variable
– Binary operator (two operands)
– Example:
sum = variable1 + variable2;

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1 // Fig. 1.6: fig01_06.cpp
2 // Addition program.
3 #include <iostream>
5 // function main begins program execution
6 int main()
7 {
8 int integer1; // first number to be input by user
9 int integer2; // second number to be input by user
10 int sum; // variable in which sum will be stored
11 std::cout << "Enter first integer\n"; // prompt
12 std::cin >> integer1; // read an integer
13 std::cout << "Enter second integer\n"; // prompt
14 std::cin >> integer2; // read an integer
15 sum = integer1 + integer2; // assign result to sum
16 std::cout << "Sum is " << sum << std::endl; // print sum
17 return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully
18 } // end function main

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Arithmetic

• Arithmetic calculations
– *
• Multiplication
– /
• Division
• Integer division truncates remainder
– 7 / 5 evaluates to 1
– %
• Modulus operator returns remainder
– 7 % 5 evaluates to 2

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Arithmetic
• Rules of operator precedence
– Operators in parentheses evaluated first
• Nested/embedded parentheses
– Operators in innermost pair first
– Multiplication, division, modulus applied next
• Operators applied from left to right
– Addition, subtraction applied last
• Operators applied from left to right
Operator(s) Operation(s) Order of evaluation (precedence)

() Parentheses Evaluated first. If the parentheses are nested, the


expression in the innermost pair is evaluated first. If
there are several pairs of parentheses “on the same level”
(i.e., not nested), they are evaluated left to right.
*, /, or % Multiplication Division Evaluated second. If there are several, they re
Modulus evaluated left to right.
+ or - Addition Evaluated last. If there are several, they are
Subtraction evaluated left to right.

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Decision Making: Equality and Relational
Operators
• if structure
– Make decision based on truth or falsity of condition
• If condition met, body executed
• Else, body not executed
• Equality and relational operators
– Equality operators
• Same level of precedence
– Relational operators
• Same level of precedence
– Associate left to right

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Decision Making: Equality and Relational
Operators

Sta nd a rd a lg eb ra ic C++ e q ua lity Exa m p le Me a ning of


eq ua lity op era tor or o r re la tio na l of C++ C++ c o nd ition
re la tiona l op era tor o p e ra to r c o nd ition

Relational operators
> > x > y x is greater than y
< < x < y x is less than y

≥ >= x >= y x is greater than or equal to y

≤ <= x <= y x is less than or equal to y

Equality operators
= == x == y x is equal to y

≠ != x != y x is not equal to y

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Decision Making: Equality and Relational
Operators
• using statements
– Eliminate use of std:: prefix
– Write cout instead of std::cout

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1 #include <iostream>
2 using std::cout; // program uses cout
3 using std::cin; // program uses cin
4 using std::endl; // program uses endl
5 // function main begins program execution
6 int main()
7 {
8 int num1; // first number to be read from user
9 int num2; // second number to be read from user
10 cout << "Enter two integers, and I will tell you\n"
11 << "the relationships they satisfy: ";
12 cin >> num1 >> num2; // read two integers
13 if ( num1 == num2 )
14 cout << num1 << " is equal to " << num2 << endl;
15 if ( num1 != num2 )
16 cout << num1 << " is not equal to " << num2 << endl;

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17 if ( num1 < num2 )
18 cout << num1 << " is less than " << num2 << endl;
19 if ( num1 > num2 )
20 cout << num1 << " is greater than " << num2 << endl;
21 if ( num1 <= num2 )
22 cout << num1 << " is less than or equal to "
23 << num2 << endl;
24 if ( num1 >= num2 )
25 cout << num1 << " is greater than or equal to "
26 << num2 << endl;
27 return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully
28 } // end function main

Enter two integers, and I will tell you


the relationships they satisfy: 22 12
22 is not equal to 12
22 is greater than 12
22 is greater than or equal to 12
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24

Introduction to Object Technology

• Object oriented programming (OOP)


– Model real-world objects with software counterparts
– Attributes (state) - properties of objects
• Size, shape, color, weight, etc.
– Behaviors (operations) - actions
• A ball rolls, bounces, inflates and deflates
• Objects can perform actions as well
– Inheritance
• New classes of objects absorb characteristics from existing classes
– Objects
• Encapsulate data and functions
• Information hiding
– Communicate across well-defined interfaces

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Introduction to Object Technology

• User-defined types (classes, components)


– Data members
• Data components of class
– Member functions
• Function components of class
– Association
– Reuse classes

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Introduction to Object Technology

• Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD)


process
– Analysis of project’s requirements
– Design for satisfying requirements
– Pseudocode
• Informal means of expressing program
• Outline to guide code

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