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Yuan Shikai

This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yuan.

of the peninsula. Under the unequal Treaty of Ganghwa,
which the Koreans signed with reluctance in 1876, Japan
was allowed to send diplomatic missions to Hanseong,
and opened trading posts in Incheon and Wonsan. Amidst
an internal power struggle which resulted in the queen's
exile, the Viceroy of Zhili, Li Hongzhang, sent the 3,000
strong Qing Brigade into Korea. The Korean king proposed training 500 troops in the art of modern warfare,
and Yuan Shikai was appointed to lead this task in Korea. Li Hongzhang also recommended Yuan's promotion,
with Yuan given the rank of sub-prefect.

Yuan Shikai (Chinese: 袁世凱; pinyin: Yuán Shìkǎi; 16
September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese general,
politician and Emperor, famous for his influence during
the late Qing Dynasty, his role in the events leading up
to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic
rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China,
and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China,
with himself as the Hongxian Emperor (Chinese: 洪憲


In 1885, Yuan was appointed Imperial Resident of
Seoul.* [4] On the surface the position equalled that of
ambassador but in practice, as head official from the
suzerain, Yuan had become the supreme adviser on all
Korean government policies. Seeing China's increasing
control of the Korean government, Japan sought more
influence through co-suzerainty with China. A series
of documents were released to Yuan Shikai, claiming
the Korean government had changed its stance towards
Chinese protection and was interested in Russian protection. Yuan was outraged yet skeptical, and asked Li
Hongzhang for advice.

Early life

Yuan Shikai was born in the village of Zhangying (張營
村), Xiangcheng County, Chenzhou Prefecture, Henan,
though the clan later moved 16 kilometers southeast of
Xiangcheng to a hilly area that was easier to defend.
There the Yuans had built a fortified village, Yuanzhaicun (Chinese: 袁寨村; literally: “the fortified village of
In a treaty signed between Japan and Qing, the two parties
the Yuan family”).
agreed only to send troops into Korea after notifying the
Yuan's family was affluent enough to provide Yuan with a other. Although the Korean government was now stable,
traditional Confucian education.* [1] As a young man he it was still a protectorate of Qing. Koreans emerged advoenjoyed riding, boxing, and entertainment with friends. cating modernization. Another more radicalised group,
Though hoping to pursue a career in the civil service, he the Donghak Society, promoting an early nationalist docfailed the Imperial examinations twice, leading him to de- trine based partly upon Confucian principles, rose in recide on an entry into politics through the Huai Army, bellion against the government. Yuan and Li Hongzhang
where many of his relatives served. His career began sent troops into Korea to protect Seoul and Qing's interwith the purchase of a minor official title in 1880, which ests, and Japan did the same under the pretext of prowas a common method of official promotion in the late tecting Japanese trading posts. Tensions boiled over beQing.* [2] Using his father's connections, Yuan travelled tween Japan and China when Japan refused to withdraw
to Tengzhou, Shandong, and sought a post in the Qing its forces and placed a blockade at the 38th Parallel. Li
Brigade. Yuan's first marriage was in 1876 to a woman of Hongzhang wanted at all costs to avoid a war with Japan,
the Yu family who bore him a first son, Keding, in 1878. and attempted this by asking for international pressure for
Yuan Shikai married nine further concubines throughout a Japanese withdrawal. Japan refused, and war broke out.
the course of his life.* [3]
Yuan, having been put in an ineffective position, was recalled to Tianjin in July 1894, before the official outbreak
of the First Sino-Japanese War (甲午戰爭).


Years in Joseon Dynasty Korea

1.3 Late Qing Dynasty

Joseon Dynasty Korea in the early 1870s was in the midst
of a struggle between isolationists under King Gojong's
father (Heungseon Daewongun), and progressives, led by
the queen (Empress Myeongseong), who wanted to open
trade. After the Meiji Restoration, Japan had adopted an
aggressive foreign policy, contesting Chinese domination

Yuan's rise to fame began with his nominal participation
in the First Sino-Japanese War as commander of the Chinese garrison forces in Korea. Unlike other officers, however, he avoided the humiliation of Chinese defeat by

Yuan gained significant political influence and the loyalty of a nucleus of young officers: by 1901. Hebei.* [5] In addition to not fighting the Eight-Nation Alliance and suppressing the Boxers in Shandong. he successfully obtained numerous loans to expand his Beiyang Army into the most powerful army in China. Yuan refused a direct answer. Most historians suggest that Yuan had told Ronglu of all details of the Reformers' plans. Yuan Shikai's forces massacred tens of thousands of people in their anti-Boxer campaign in Zhili. and Ronglu. the forerunner of Shandong University) in Jinan. and conservatives under the Empress Dowager Cixi. Yuan's involvement in the coup remains a matter of debate among historians. leading railways and their construction to become a large source of his revenue. He further advocated ethnic equality between Manchus and Han Chinese. and asked him to take immediate action. as a result of the Boxer Protocol having forbidden troops to be staged close to Tianjin.* [7] He also founded a provincial junior college (Shandong College. Making a political alliance with the Empress Dowager. Tan Sitong reportedly spoke with Yuan several days before the coup. comprising the modern regions of Liaoning. but insisted he was loyal to the Emperor. and plotted to restore her own regency through a coup d'état. though his troops took no active part outside Shandong itself.* [8] Having gained the regard of foreigners after helping crush the Boxer Rebellion. This clique was known as the The Mutual Protection of Southeast China. and the Emperor was very aware of the plot. Yuan and his army (the Right Division) also helped the Eight-Nation Alliance suppress the Boxers after the Alliance captured Beijing in August 1900. The Qing Court at the time was divided between progressives under the leadership of the Guangxu Emperor. After the Guangxu Emperor's Hundred Days' Reform in 1898. According to sources. the lucrative Commissioner for North China Trade. Yuan Shikai arrived in Tianjin on 20 September 1898 by train. Yuan Shikai as Governor of Shandong declaration of war against the foreign powers and continued to suppress the Boxers. joining with other Chinese governors who commanded substantial modernized armies like Zhang Zhidong not participating in the Boxer Re.2 1 BIOGRAPHY having been recalled to Beijing several days before the outbreak of conflict. He created a 2. Meanwhile. the first of its kind in Chinese history. He asked reform advocates Kang Youwei. Manchu General Ronglu was planning manoeuvres for his army to stage the coup. In June 1902 he was promoted to Viceroy of Zhili. and Minister of Beiyang (北洋通商大臣). As the officer most directly responsible for training China's first modernized army. acting on Yuan's advice. Plans of the coup spread early. along with Prince Qing. Yuan left the capital in 1899 for his new appointment as Governor of Shandong. During his three-year tenure the Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901) erupted. She and ordered the Min- . Yuan was also involved in the transfer of railway control from Sheng Xuanhuai. Ronglu's troops entered the Forbidden City at dawn on 21 September. but what was revealed to him remains ambiguous. who had temporarily retreated to the Summer Palace as a place of “retirement”. Yuan's was the best trained and most effective.* [2] The Qing court relied heavily on his army due to the proximity of its garrison to the capital and their effectiveness. forcing the Emperor into seclusion in a lake palace. asking Yuan to assist the Emperor against Cixi. Yuan took the side of the pro-foreign faction in the Imperial Court.* [6] Yuan operated out of Baoding during the campaign. Yuan had talked to Ronglu. Tan Sitong and others to develop a plan to save him. five of China's seven divisional commanders and most other senior military officers in China were his protégés. Yuan was appointed the commander of the first New army in 1895. Cixi decided that the reforms were too drastic.000-strong police force to keep order in Tianjin. which adopted western ideas of education. As an ally of Li Hongzhang. Yuan played an active role in late-Qing political reforms. It was certain that by the evening. Dowager-Empress bellion. The plot being exposed. and becoming a lasting enemy of the Guangxu Emperor. Li Hongzhang. He refused to side with the Boxers and attack the EightNation Alliance forces. including the diary of Liang Qichao and contemporary Chinese news sources. which ended in 1902. He and Zhang ignored Empress Dowager Cixi's Cixi issued a decree ending the traditional Confucian examination system in 1906. including the creation of the Ministry of Education (學部) and Ministry of Police (巡警部).In 1905. however. and Shandong. Of the new armies that formed part of the Self-Strengthening Movement. Yuan ensured the suppression of Boxers in the province.

By his strategic disposition Yuan Shi Kai completely controls all the approaches to the capital. and holds a force which he may utilize either to protect the Court from threatened attack or to crush the Emperor should he himself desire to assume Imperial power. due to a foot disease. Both the Qing court and Yuan were fully aware that the Beiyang Army was the only Qing force powerful enough to quell the revolutionaries.4 Retreat and return istry of Education to implement a system of primary and secondary schools and universities with state-mandated curriculum. 1908. made way for Yuan to form a new. With this Division Yuan ported to him regularly about army proceedings. Yuan knew that complete suppression of the revolution would end his usefulness to the Qing regime. The foreign legations are as much in the power of Yuan Shi Kai's troops in 1907 as they were at the mercy of the Chinese rabble in 1900. . This any day may set all China ablaze. Yuan sessed by the foreign legations in Peking. from which he can send the message that ately after that he asked the Regent to withdraw from politics. In January 1909 Yuan Shikai was relieved of all his posts by the regent. Douglas Story. 1. in the Battle of were token in nature.5 Wuchang Uprising and the Republic The Wuchang Uprising took place on 10 October 1911 in Hubei province. which commands the foreign legations and governs the Forbidden City. with only one Manchu as * [10] Minister of Suzerainty. and is the ies (like Sun Yat-sen) and the Qing court. modernized Eight Banner divisions were destroyed in the an honour only previously given to 19th century General Boxer Rebellion and the new modernized Banner forces Zeng Guofan for his raising of the Xiang Army to suppress the Taiping Rebellion. which Yuan helped to draft. Prince Chun. Yuan agreed and the various barracks of his troops. but neither the northern provinces nor the Beiyang Army had a clear stance for or against the rebellion.* [9] 3 1. Instead of attacking Wuchang. Yangxia. To further reward Yuan's loyYuan Shikai's Han-dominated New Army was primar. On August 27. Yuan's forces recaptured Hankou and Hanyang from the revolutionaries. is prefecture-level city of Anyang. which loyalty of the Beiyang Army was still undoubtedly beare the best of his artillery arm. now the In the hunting-park. modeled after the educational system of Meiji-period Japan. Contrary to treaty stipulations made at the settlement of the Boxer trouble. but this has not been done. In the threatening condition of Chinese affairs it might be assumed that this structure had been undermined by the foreign community. the Qing court promulgated“Principles for a Constitution”. three miles to the south of Peking.alty to the court. or central southern gate. first as the Viceroy of Huguang. which supplies the Guards During his three years of effective exile. and Yuan waited. Yuan kept confor the Imperial Palace. Having this strategic military support. he began to negotiate with the revolutionaries. consisting of a battalion of intact with his close allies.coming Prime Minister on 1 November 1911. Immedigraph station. as most of the Yuan the noble title Marquis of the First Rank (一等侯). The public reason for Yuan's resignation was that he was returning to his home in the village of Huanshang (洹上村). which forced Zaifeng to resign as regent. 224-226 Chinese. with a constitution to be issued by 1916 and an elected parliament by 1917. quartered the Sixth Division. But nonetheless he avoided death. In a field a couple of eventually left his village for Beijing on 30 October. The Shi Kai retains twenty-six modified Krupp guns. and excel any guns poshind him.4 Retreat and return The Empress Dowager and the Guangxu Emperor died within a day of each other in November 1908. pp. and if trouble again arise in Peking the fate of the legations will depend upon the success of the first assault which will be necessary to take it. Yuan on their side. but he repeatedly declined offers from the Qing court for his return. and then as Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet. the Chinese have been permitted to build a great tower over the Chien Men. ailment”as a pretext to his continual refusal. who refantry and a squadron of cavalry. The court requested Yuan's return on 27 October. including Duan Qirui. Meanwhile. the Empress Dowager Longyu offered ily responsible for the defense of Beijing.* [4] Sources indicate that the will of the Emperor specifically ordered Yuan's execution. using his “foot troops is locked in the breast of the Viceroy of Chihli. held the balance of power between various revolutionarThe Manchu Division moves with the Court.1. predominantly Han To-morrow in the East. Yuan Shi Kai's yamen in Tientsin is connected by telegraph and telephone with the Imperial palaces and with After further pleas by the Qing Court. This document called for a constitutional government with a strong monarchy (modeled after Meiji Japan and Bismarck's Germany). Both wanted pride of the modern army. cabinet of confidants. Time The ultimate purpose of the equipped and disciplined was on Yuan's side. behundred yards away is the long pole of a wireless tele. The southern provinces subsequently declared their independence from the Qing court.

so they negotiated with the Qing.1 Abdication of the child emperor by authorities were either themselves assassinated or disThe revolutionaries had elected Sun Yat-Sen as the first appeared mysteriously. After arriving in Peking. while traveling to Beijing. one of his trusted subordinate Beiyang military commanders. The trail of evidence led to the secreYuan Shikai sworn in as Provisional President of the Republic of tary of the cabinet and the provisional premier of Yuan's China. who. it appeared that Song would be in a position to exercise a dominant role in selecting the premier and cabinet. Yuan arranged for the abdication of the child emperor Pu Yi in return 1. open presidential election. During Song's travels through China in 1912. One of Song's main political goals was to ensure that the See also: Empire of China (1915–16) powers and independence of China's Parliament be properly protected from the influence of the office of the President. Song Jiaoren was shot by a lone gunman in Shanghai. to provide an excuse for Yuan not to leave his sphere of influence in Zhili (present-day Hebei province). the main conspirators investigated 1. Yuan Shikai was elected Provisional President of the Republic of China by the Nanjing Provisional Senate on 14 February 1912. democratic elections were held for the National Assembly in which the Kuomintang (KMT – “Chinese Nationalist Party”) scored a significant victory. Yuan was * Provisional President of the Republic of China.* [13] On 20 March 1913. but asked that the capital be situated in Nanjing.* [11]* [12] 1. Yuan.4 1 BIOGRAPHY had openly and vehemently expressed the desire to limit the powers of the President in terms that often appeared openly critical of Yuan's ambitions.5. For lack of evidence. Because he had authorized $100 million of “reorganization loans”from a variety of foreign banks. Minister. [13] were in a weak position militarily. and sworn in on 10 March of that year. and died two days later. but they never officially implicated. to develop a permanent constitution. Song Jiaoren of the KMT zealously supported a cabinet system and was widely regarded as a candidate for Prime Yuan Shikai as the Hongxian Emperor. When the results of the 1913 elections indicated a clear victory for the KMT. Sun agreed to Yuan's presidency after some internal bickering. using Yuan as an intermediary. however. apparently under Yuan's orders. he Tensions between the KMT and Yuan continued to intensify. in Beijing.6 Becoming Emperor for being granted the position of President of the Republic of China. fabricated a coup d'état in Beijing and Tianjin. Although Yuan was considered by contemporary Chinese media sources as the man most likely behind the assassination. wanted the geographic advantage of having the nation's capital close to his base of military power. by mid1912. and to hold a legitimate. The revolutionaries compromised again. . Cao Kun. Song's goals in curtailing the office of the President conflicted with the interests of Yuan.5. the elected Parliament attempted to gain control over Yuan.2 Democratic elections In February 1913. clearly dominated the provisional cabinet and was showing signs of a desire to hold overwhelming executive power. and the capital of the new republic was established in Beijing. government. 10 March 1912. and the party could have proceeded to push for the election of a future president in a parliamentary setting.* [4] Yuan was not present when the Abdication edict was issued by Empress Dowager Longyu on 12 February 1912.

a silver“dollar”(yuan in Chinese) carrying his portrait was introduced.6. This helped lay the foundations for the warlordism that crippled China over the next two decades. With his power secure.3 Revival of the monarchy To build up his own authority. and the House of Representatives and Senate were replaced by the newly formed “Council of State”.6 Becoming Emperor 5 who remained willingly submitted to Yuan.* [18] Western pressure later forced Japan to water down some of its demands. . finances. with Duan Qirui. and the rights of China's citizens. Yuan gradually took over the government. on 1 May 1914. known as the Twenty-one Demands. the Second Revolution cemented Yuan's power. Each province was now supported by a Military Governor (都督) as well as a civil authority. giving each governor control of their own army. The new legal status quo gave Yuan.of a popular consensus that the monarchy should be reary uprisings. as presitime in 1914. many of Yuan's supporters. Anti-Yuan revolutionaries also claimed Yuan orchestrated the collapse of the KMT internally and dismissed governors interpreted as being proKMT. As the main proponent of reviving Qing state religious observances. To give his government a semblance of legitimacy. although many of the requests were mere extensions of Qing treaties. Yuan had himself elected president to a five-year term. rumors were floated Yuan's troops achieved complete victory over revolution. issued for the first stitution. Japan demanded an extension of extraterritoriality. and cession of Qingdao to Japan. the sale of businesses in debt to Japan.* [14] 1. this time against Yuan Shikai.1. In late 1915. 1.1 Second Revolution Seeing the situation for his party worsen. with the suppression and bribery of KMT members in the two legislative chambers.* [14] Yuan's crackdown on the KMT began in 1913. Yuan's eventual decision to agree to nearly all of the demands led to a decline in the popularity of Yuan's government among contemporary Chinese. Yuan began to re-institute elements of state Confucianism. Japan captured the German colony at Qingdao. These “dollars”were also extensively the KMT in particular were highly critical of Yuan's han* forged. Finally. Subsequently. China's Parliament was formally dissolved. his trusted Beiyang lieutenant. Yuan convened a body of 66 men from his cabinet who.* [16] After his victory. Because those commanders not loyal to Yuan were effectively removed from power. as Prime Minister.2 Japan's Twenty-one Demands In 1914. Then in January 1915. Provincial governors with KMT loyalties vived. and called for a Second Revolution. publicly labelled the KMT a seditious organization. and evicted all its members from Parliament. When these demands were made public. This coin type was the first “dollar”coin of the central authorities of the Republic of China to be minted in significant quanThe Flag of Yuan Shikai's "Great Chinese Empire" tities. practically unlimited powers over China's military. Yuan effectively participated as emperor in rituals held at the Qing The KMT's “Second Revolution”ended in failure as Temple of Heaven. Japan sent a secret ultimatum. Sun Yat-sen fled to Japan in November 1913. using the military as the base of his power. Yuan justified these reforms by stating that representative democracy had been proven inefficient by political infighting. ordered the KMT's dissolution. 1. Yuan reorganized the provincial governments. It became a staple silver coin type during the first half of the 20th century and was struck for the last time as late as the 1950s. [17] dling of the national budget. He relied on the American educated Tsai Ting Kan for English translation and connections with western powers. He dissolved the national and provincial assemblies. to Beijing. became a dominant coin type of the Republic of dent. During Yuan's presidency.* [15] In January 1914. foreign policy. China.6.6. hostility within China was expressed in nationwide antiJapanese demonstrations and an effective national boycott of Japanese goods. produced a “constitutional compact”that effectively replaced China's provisional conThe Yuan Shikai“dollar”(yuan in Chinese).

and Yuan formally abandoned the empire on The new Empire of China was to formally begin on 1 Jan. pinyin: Hóngxiàn. and China's political situation demanded the stability that only a monarchy could ensure. Yuan“ac. traditional Chinese: 中華帝國大皇帝. the Hongxian Emperor placed an order with on 6 June 1916. Zhōnghuá Dìguó Dà Huángdì) under the era name of and Guangxi declared independence in March.4 Public and international reactions to the monarchy's revival The Hongxian Emperor expected widespread domestic and international support for his reign. This was not enough for his enuary 1916.emies. Funding Hongxian (simplified Chinese: 洪宪.aged and province after province continued to voice discepted”the invitation and proclaimed himself Emperor approval. i.* [19] Faced with widespread opposition. who had fled to Tokyo and set up a base there. the Republic had only been effective as a transitional phase to end Manchu rule.6. The emperor's sons publicly fought over the title of“Crown Prince”.4 million yuan. and trained and organized one of China's first modern armies.provinces rebelled until Yuan died from uremia at 10 a. a large jade seal. at the age of fifty-six. actively organized efforts to overthrow the Hongxian Emperor. when Yuan. Soon after becom. but his prestige was irreparably damoffer Yuan the throne.e. These were: Prince Yuan Keding.22 March after 83 days.* [20] Sun Yat-sen. ing emperor.5 Abandonment of the monarchy and death the monarchy. not giving him the recognition anticipated. including Japan. traditional Chinese: for the Hongxian Emperor's accession ceremony was cut 洪憲.000-piece porcelain set costing 1. now the Hongxian Emperor. There were open protests throughout China denouncing the Hongxian Emperor. who called for his resignation as president. He introduced far-ranging modernizations in law and social areas. Cai E. Constitutional Abundance). and two Yuan's remains were moved to his home province and placed in a large mausoleum. proved suddenly indifferent or openly hostile to him. But the loyalty Yuan had . asking Yuan to take on the title of Emperor. On 12 December 1915. the Hongxian EmOn 20 November 1915. he and his supporters had badly miscalculated. who bore him 17 sons.* [2]* [11] looted by Feng Yuxiang's Guominjun soldiers during the Northern Expedition. but only three were of any importance.m. pinyin: War. More tended to conduct the accession rites. However.000 yuan each.6 2 EVALUATION AND LEGACY notably monarchist Yang Du. and Prince Yuan Keliang. Yuan held a specially convened peror repeatedly delayed the accession rites in order to “Representative Assembly”which voted unanimously to appease his foes. Negotiators representing Japan had also offered to support Yuan's ambitions as one of the rewards for Yuan's support of the Twenty-One Demands. Many of the emperor's closest supporters abandoned him. On 25 December 1915. rebelled. International governments. 2 Evaluation and legacy 1. Prince Yuan Kewen.* [11]* [20] the former imperial potters for a 40. Yunnan's military govof the Chinese Empire (simplified Chinese: 中华帝国 ernor. Yang reasoned that the Chinese masses had long Funeral procession of Yuan Shikai in Beijing been used to autocratic rule. in.6. on 1 March. the tomb was imperial robes costing 400. launching the National Protection 大皇帝. and the solidarity of the emperor's Beiyang clique of military protégés dissolved. The villa of Yuan in Tianjin Historians in China have considered Yuan's rule mostly negatively. In 1928. Yuan had a wife and nine concubines. advocated for a revival of 1. and his former loyal subordinates like Duan Qirui and Xu Shichang left him to create their own factions. The American political scientist Frank Johnson Goodnow suggested a similar idea. The governor of Guizhou followed in January 1916.

• Lady Lee (李氏).* [24] • Lady O (吳氏).7 fostered in the armed forces dissolved after his death. the offices • Yuan Baozhong (袁 保 中) (1823–1874). and is criticized for weakening Chinese morale and international prestige. Yuan financed his regime through large foreign loans. pseudonym Yanzhi (延之). which was installed in Anyang's Huanyuan Park soon after his death. China was left without any gener• Yuan Baoqing (袁 保 慶) (1825–1873). a model.* [21] Jonathan Spence. Henan. and China descended into a period of warlordism. courtesy of both the president and Parliament became the tools of name Shouchen (受臣) militarists. of Korean origin. traditional Chinese: 宮保. mother of Yuan In the CCTV Production Towards the Republic.* [22] 3 Pseudonyms Like many Chinese men before 1949. “Xiangcheng”(simplified Chinese: 项 城. and Yuan Fuzhen . although a very skilled manipulator of political situations. especially Yuan Kewen. mother of Yuan Keding transfers of officer personnel. pinyin: Gōngbǎo. and Yuan Sizhen A bixi (stone tortoise) with a stele in honor of Yuan Shikai. Yuan Zhongzhen. Yuan Baozhong's younger brother For this reason he is sometimes called “the Father of the Warlords”. Yuan Keliang. there was an effort by Li Yuanhong to revive the Republic by recalling the legislators who had been ejected in 1913. however. There was a short-lived ef. and the nation's army name Duchen (篤臣).”and that“even as he subverted the constitution. Wade–Giles: Hsiang4 -ch'eng2 ). paradoxically he sought to build on late-Qing attempts at reforms and to develop institutions that would bring strong and stable government to China. both for his country and for himself. undermining the authority of the central government. quickly fragmented into forces of competing warlords. Chinese: 慰亭. military education. Yuan Shuzhen. daughter of Yu Ao (於鰲). traditional Chinese: 項 城. prince Yuan Keding. Wade– Giles: Kung1 -pao3 ). or by a title for tutors of the crown prince. and he used the pseudonym “Rong'an”(Wade-Giles spelling: Jung-an. and for allowing the Japanese to gain broad concessions over China. he seemed willing Concubines to sacrifice his legacy of military reform for imperial ambitions. After Yuan's death. and instead ruled by a combination of violence • Lady Shen (沈 氏). Yuan that of his son. mother of Yuan Keduan.”To gain foreign confidence and end the hated system of extraterritoriality. After the collapse of Zhang's movement. However. all pretense of strength from the central govFather ernment collapsed. he demonstrated an unwealthy man from Shenqiu County. mother of depicted as being influenced by external forces. however. and the politicians in Peking became dependent on regional governors for their support and political survival. Yuan Kejian. since in his career as a military reformer he had attempted to forge a modern army based on the Japanese • Yu Yishang (于義上). Yuan is Bozhen. but his forces were defeated by ri• Yuan Shusan (袁澍三) val warlords later that year. notes in his influential survey that Yuan was “ambitious. Wade–Giles: Wei4 -t'ing2 ). Yuan Cizhen. previously a courtesan from and bribery that destroyed the idealism of the early ReSuzhou publican movement. His courtesy name was“Weiting”(Wade-Giles spelling: Wei-ting. pinyin: Wèitíng. it is not accurate to attribute China's subsequent age of warlordism as a personal pref. After his return to power in 1911. Over the next several decades. of Korean origin. Huanzhen. Throughout his lifetime. Yuan strengthened the court system and invited foreign advisers to reform the penal system. combining these skills to create China's first modern military organisation.Wife erence. married derstanding of staffing. pinyin: Xiàngchéng. courtesy ally recognized central authority. Yuan Keqi. and regular Yuan Shikai in 1876. Yuan used and was referred to by many different names. Li lacked any support from the military. pinyin: Róng'ān. portrayed through most of his early years as an able adand Yuan Kedu ministrator. Chinese: 容庵. His self-proclamation as Emperor is largely • Lady Kim (金 氏). Wade–Giles: Jung2 -an1 ).* [23] Uncle After Yuan's death. was (partly) restored in 1993. of Korean origin. He was sometimes referred to by the name of his birthplace. “Kung-pao”(simplified Chinese: 宫 保.Paternal grandfather fort in 1917 to revive the Qing dynasty led by the loyalist general Zhang Xun. Yuan Kequan. but this effort was confused 4 Family and ineffective in asserting central control.

married Li Shaofang (黎紹 芳. and Yuan Ruizhen • Lady Zhang (張氏). Yuan Kejiu. Yuan Keliang (袁 克 良). originally a prostitute from 15 daughters Suzhou. Retrieved 2 May 2011. pseudonym Baina (百 衲). married Chen Zheng (陳 徵. and Yuan Huzhen See also: List of people with the most children • Lady Liu (劉氏). page 94 [7] Chʼên. Yuan Fuzhen. daughter of He Zhongjing (何仲璟)) • History of the Republic of China 5. married a daughter of Zhang Baixi • Yuan's grandson. originally a maid to Yuan Shikai's fifth concubine Lady Yang.1 Citations 7. married a daughter of Toteke Duanfang (托忒克· 端方) • Sino-German cooperation until 1941 6. page 76-77 [8] Bonavia 35 [9] Tanner. mother of Yuan Kefan Famous grandsons and great-grandsons and Yuan Yizhen 17 sons 1. Yuan Kefan (袁克藩).com). courtesy name Baocen (豹岑) 3. Jonathan D. Yuan Kedu (袁 克 度). married a daughter of Lu Jianzhang (陸建章) 11. Yuan Keding (袁 克 定) (1878–1958). married firstly Zhang Shoufang (張 壽 芳. Yuan Kejiu (袁克玖). mother of Yuan Kejie. Harold Miles. Yuan Kezhen. ISBN 0393-97351-4. Yuan Ke'an. courtesy name Yuntai (雲台) 2. Yuan Keyou. married Li Baohui (李寶慧) (daughter of Li Shiming (李士銘)) 12. • Yuan's great-grandson. Yuan Jizhen. Yuan Kexiang (袁 克 相). [6] Edgerton. mother of Yuan Kehuan. Yuan Kewen (袁克文) (1889–1931). Yuan Ke'an (袁克安). died young 17. previously a prostitute in Nanjing. married Lady Wang (王氏) 15. 274. Yuan Keduan (袁克端). Yuan Kequan (袁 克 權) (1898–1941). Yuan Kejie (袁克捷). 9. (1999) The Search for Modern China. married a daughter of the wealthy Luo Yunzhang (羅雲章) 13. (2002) Communism in History and Theory. Yuan Keyou (袁克友). daughter of Chen Qitai (陳啟泰)) • Military of the Republic of China 6 References 6. originally from Henan REFERENCES 14. Warriors of the Rising Sun: A History of the Japanese Military. [4] Busky. Donald F. married Zhou Ruizhu (周 瑞珠. married He Shenji (何慎 基. 19–. Yuan Kehe. and Yuan Lingzhen • Lady Ye (葉氏). . 6 June 2008. Li-Young Lee (1957–). courtesy name Gui'an (規 庵). W. granddaughter of Na Tong (那桐)).W. Yuan Keqi (袁 克 齊). daughter of Zhou Fu (周馥)) [2] Spence. China: A History. ISBN 978-90-04-28766-2. second daughter of Li Yuanhong) in 1934 10. Yuan Kezhen (袁克軫). Hackett Publishing (2009) ISBN 0872209156 Pages 408–410. Yuan Kehuan (袁克桓). p. [5] Zhitian Luo (30 January 2015). is an Indonesian-born Chinese-American writer and poet.8 6 • Lady Yang (楊氏). Yuan Qizhen. 29 December 1906 – 15 April 1945. 5 See also • Beiyang Army 4. 网易 (163. married a daughter of Yu Yunpeng (於雲鵬) • Lady Guo (郭 氏). married secondly Chen Sixing (陳思行. BRILL. Jerome Yuan Shih-kʻai. Yuan Kehe (袁克和). Praeger/Greenwood. mother of Yuan Kexiang. Norton and Company. 网易 (in Chinese). married a daughter of Sun Baoqi [1] Bonavia 34 8. daughter of Chen Bingkun) [3] 袁世凯:一妻九妾. ISBN 0-275-97733-1. Yuan Kejian (袁克堅). married a daughter of Zhang Diaochen (張調宸) 16. pp. Luke Chia-Liu Yuan (1912–2003) was a Chinese-American physicist. Inheritance within Rupture: Culture and Scholarship in Early Twentieth Century China.

[17] • Meyerhofer. 2006. [14] Spence. Cambridge University Press. [24] 洹园里的破嘴龟 (The tortoise with a broken mouth in Huanyuan Park) (Chinese) 6. 153–154. • Spence.W. ISBN 0-393-97351-4. Ernest P. Jonathan D. Douglas (1907). Retrieved 1 April 2013. London: George Allen & Unwin. Jonathan D.W. ISBN 0472089951. Stephen R. ISBN 0520040252. Jonathan D. [15] Bonavia 36 [16] Spence. (1999) The Search for Modern China. Norton and Company. ISBN 0393-97351-4. Jonathan D. Norton and Company. Barbara and Yu Changgen. 1995. Bell & Sons. pp. Munich. [11] Zhengyuan Fu. p. ISBN 0-393-97351-4. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong. p. (1977). p. W. The Presidency of Yuan Shih-K'ai: Liberalism and Dictatorship in Early Republican China. Norton and Company. W. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life.9 [10] Story.W. Jerome (1961). (1999) The Search for Modern China. [21] Bonavia 40 [22] Spence. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.2 Sources • Barnouin. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life. ISBN 0-19-586179-5 • Ch'en. 279. pp. 14 retrieved 12 March 2011. 282. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong. 277–278.W. Norton & Company. [23] Spence. ISBN 0393-97351-4. W. pp. Jonathan D. (1994) Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics. p. • Map of Yuan's mausoleum. 1901-08. (1999) The Search for Modern China. (2001) The Search for Modern China. p. W. W. • Bonavia. Adi (2013). W. ISBN 0-521-44228-1. 281. 282–283. • MacKinnon. Yuan Shi-kai Dollar: 'Fat Man Dollar' Forgeries and Remints (PDF). [12] Spence. 275–277.W. New York: Oxford University Press. Norton and Company. Barbara and Yu Changgen. W. 282. 2006. 8 External links • Early support for Yuan among overseas Chinese • [18] Spence. pp. Jonathan D. G. New York: W.W. ISBN 0-393-30780-8. W. Power and Politics in Late Imperial China: Yuan Shikai in Beijing and Tianjin. Norton & Company. Norton and Company. ISBN 0393-97351-4. (1999). The Search for Modern China. (1999) The Search for Modern China. Jonathan D. China's Warlords. [20] Spence. pp. p. ISBN 0393-97351-4. Norton and Company. To-morrow in the East. W. David. Norton and Company. Jonathan D. (1992). Jonathan D. “The New Republic” . [19] Barnouin. (1999) The Search for Modern China. 224–226. pp. p.W. 277. • The Fight for the Republic in China by Bertram Lenox Simpson at Project Gutenberg This etext first published in 1917 contains a detailed account of Yuan Shikai. Yuan Shih-K'ai. 14 retrieved 12 March 2011. Reprinted: Stanford University Press. . 袁大头. University of California Press. his rise and fall. [13] Spence.W. ISBN 0-393-97351-4. 1859-1916: Brutus Assumes the Purple. (1999) The Search for Modern China. 7 Further reading • Young. 1971. (1999) The Search for Modern China. 269-270.

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